WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrochemically generated ozone

  1. Application of electrochemically generated ozone to the discoloration and degradation of solutions containing the dye Reactive Orange 122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Mario H.P.; Da Silva, Leonardo M.; Freitas, Admildo C.; Boodts, Julien F.C.; Fernandes, Karla C.; De Faria, Luiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions containing the commercial azo dye Reactive Orange 122 (RO122) were ozonated in acid and alkaline conditions. Ozone was electrochemically generated using a laboratory-made electrochemical reactor and applied using semi-batch conditions and a column bubble reactor. A constant ozone application rate of 0.25 g h -1 was used throughout. Color removal and degradation efficiency were evaluated as function of ozonation time, pH and initial dye concentration by means of discoloration kinetics and COD-TOC removal. Experimental findings revealed that pH affects both discoloration kinetics and COD-TOC removal. A single pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constant, k obs , for discoloration was found for ozonation carried out in alkaline solutions, contrary to acidic solutions where k obs depends on ozonation time. COD-TOC removal supports degradation of RO122 is more pronounced for alkaline conditions. Evaluation of the oxidation feasibility by means of the COD/TOC ratio indicates that the ozonation process in both acid and alkaline conditions leads to a reduction in recalcitrance of the soluble organic matter

  2. Electrochemical energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreysa, G.; Juettner, K.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings encompass 40 conference papers belonging to the following subject areas: Baseline and review papers; electrochemical fuel cells; batteries: Primary and secondary cells; electrochemical, regenerative systems for energy conversion; electrochemical hydrogen generation; electrochemistry for nuclear power plant; electrochemistry for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; energy efficiency in electrochemical processes. There is an annex listing the authors and titles of the poster session, and compacts of the posters can be obtained from the office of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Abteilung Tagungen. (MM) [de

  3. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  4. A Comparative Electrochemical-Ozone Treatment for Removal of Phenolphthalein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. García-Orozco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of aqueous solutions containing phenolphthalein was carried out using ozone and electrochemical processes; the two different treatments were performed for 60 min at pH 3, pH 7, and pH 9. The electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes processes was carried out using three current density values: 3.11 mA·cm−2, 6.22 mA·cm−2, and 9.33 mA·cm−2, whereas the ozone dose was constantly supplied at 5±0.5 mgL−1. An optimal degradation condition for the ozonation treatment is at alkaline pH, while the electrochemical treatment works better at acidic pH. The electrochemical process is twice better compared with ozonation.

  5. OZONE GENERATORS IN INDOOR AIR SETTINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives information on home/office ozone generators. It discusses their current uses as amelioratives for environmental tobacco smoke, biocontaminants, volatile organic compounds, and odors and details the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ozone appears to work well ...

  6. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  7. Comparison of electrochemical method with ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination in drinking water disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongna, E-mail: lihongna@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu Xiuping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren, E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > Electrochemical, O{sub 3}, NaClO and NH{sub 2}Cl were compared at respective optimal condition. > Disinfection efficacy was similar for different bacteria in electrolysis. > Harsh Bacillus was inactivated more difficult in O{sub 3}, NaClO and NH{sub 2}Cl system. > Efficient disinfection of electrolysis was attributed to nonselectivity of {center_dot}OH. > Cell surface damage was more obvious in electrochemical process than the others. - Abstract: Electrochemical process in chloride-free electrolytes was proved to be powerful in disinfection due to the strong oxidants produced in the electrolysis and no formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, disinfection experiments were conducted by electrochemical treatment compared with ordinary and advanced methods (ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination), with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) A106, Bacillus subtilis (BST) and an isolated Bacillus as the representative microorganisms. Firstly, factor tests were performed on E. coli to obtain the optimal conditions of the four disinfection procedures. At their respective optimal condition, CT (concentration of disinfectant x contact time) value of a 4-log E. coli inactivation was 33.5, 1440, 1575, 1674 mg min L{sup -1} for electrochemical process, ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination, respectively. It was demonstrated that the disinfection availability was in the following order: electrochemical process > ozonation > chlorination > monochloramination, which could be attributed to the hydroxyl radical generated in the electrolysis, with strong oxidizing ability and non-selectivity compared with the other three disinfectants. Moreover, the disinfection efficacy of the four disinfection procedures was compared for four different bacteria. It was found that the disinfection efficacy was similar for the selected four bacteria in electrochemical process, while in the other three treatments

  8. Comparison of electrochemical method with ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination in drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongna; Zhu Xiuping; Ni Jinren

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrochemical, O 3 , NaClO and NH 2 Cl were compared at respective optimal condition. → Disinfection efficacy was similar for different bacteria in electrolysis. → Harsh Bacillus was inactivated more difficult in O 3 , NaClO and NH 2 Cl system. → Efficient disinfection of electrolysis was attributed to nonselectivity of ·OH. → Cell surface damage was more obvious in electrochemical process than the others. - Abstract: Electrochemical process in chloride-free electrolytes was proved to be powerful in disinfection due to the strong oxidants produced in the electrolysis and no formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, disinfection experiments were conducted by electrochemical treatment compared with ordinary and advanced methods (ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination), with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) A106, Bacillus subtilis (BST) and an isolated Bacillus as the representative microorganisms. Firstly, factor tests were performed on E. coli to obtain the optimal conditions of the four disinfection procedures. At their respective optimal condition, CT (concentration of disinfectant x contact time) value of a 4-log E. coli inactivation was 33.5, 1440, 1575, 1674 mg min L -1 for electrochemical process, ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination, respectively. It was demonstrated that the disinfection availability was in the following order: electrochemical process > ozonation > chlorination > monochloramination, which could be attributed to the hydroxyl radical generated in the electrolysis, with strong oxidizing ability and non-selectivity compared with the other three disinfectants. Moreover, the disinfection efficacy of the four disinfection procedures was compared for four different bacteria. It was found that the disinfection efficacy was similar for the selected four bacteria in electrochemical process, while in the other three treatments inactivation of the two

  9. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  10. Electroplating wastewater treatment by the combined electrochemical and ozonation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a pilot-plant study of the electroplating wastewater treatment by the processes of electroreduction with iron electrode plates, and electrocoagulation/ozonation with aluminum electrode set, followed by the process of ozonation. The initial effluent was found to be highly enriched in heavy metals and to possess the elevated levels of organic contaminants. The values of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD exceeded the upper permissible limits of 63, 220.2, 1.1, 7, 131.3, 1.7, 12.3, and 11.4 times, respectively. The heavy metal removal was forced either by the coagulation/flocculation using Fe(II), Fe(III), and Al(III) ions released into the treated solution by the electrochemical corrosion of the sacrificial iron and aluminum electrodes, or the precipitation of the metal hydroxides as well as co-precipitation with iron and aluminum hydroxides. The principle organic matter destruction mechanisms were ozone oxidation and the indirect oxidation with chlorine/hypochlorite formed by the anodic oxidation of chloride already present in the wastewater. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD were 99.94%, 100.00%, 95.86%, 98.66%, 99.97%, 96.81%, 93.24%, and 93.43%, respectively, thus complying with the regulated values.

  11. Generation of ozone and safety aspects in an accelerator facility of BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Praveen; Sawatkar, Aparna R.; Sathe, Arun P.; Soundararajan, S.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial electron beam accelerators up to 10 MeV are commonly employed for different applications. During normal operation of an accelerator, the principal hazard is the high radiation level produced. Experiments and applications in which the electron beam is used to irradiate materials outside the accelerator vacuum system are associated with problems such as radiation damage and production of considerable quantities of ozone. The possible generation of ozone during the operation of an electron beam accelerator is of special interest due to reactivity, corrosivity and the toxic characteristics of ozone. Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted to estimate the airborne concentration of ozone during operations of the electron beam accelerator (Type: ILU-6; 2 MeV; 20 KW) at varied operating parameters. The ozone concentration in the accelerator room was measured at different powers of the accelerator and the ozone decay pattern was also observed after beam shut down. Ozone in the accelerator room was measured by different methods such as colorimetry using neutral buffered potassium iodide, chemiluminescence method using ethylene and by using electrochemical sensor. An air velocity meter was used to measure the linear air velocity across the exhaust grills and the number of air changes available in the accelerator room was calculated. Necessary control measures were suggested to keep the occupational exposure of the personnel to ozone concentrations well within the Threshold Limit Values. (author)

  12. Generation and Reduction of NOx on Air-Fed Ozonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Amemiya, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    A generation and reduction of NOx on air-fed ozonizers using a ferroelectric packed bed reactor have been experimentally investigated. The reactors packed with CaTiO3, SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 pellets are examined for ozone generation. An ac voltage is applied to the reactor to generate partial discharge. Ozone concentration and the different nitrogen oxides at downstream of the packed bed reactor were measured with UV absorption ozone monitor and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope respectively. The dielectric constant of packed ferroelectric pellets influences the discharge characteristic, ozone and NOx generations are varied by the dielectric constant value. Focusing on a discharge pulse current and maximum discharge magnitude, the ferroelectric packed bed plasma reactors have been evaluated on nitrogen oxide and ozone generated concentrations.

  13. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  14. Treatment of aqueous wastes contaminated with Congo Red dye by electrochemical oxidation and ozonation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faouzi Elahmadi, Mohammed; Bensalah, Nasr; Gadri, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic aqueous wastes polluted with Congo Red (CR) have been treated by two advanced oxidation processes: electrochemical oxidation on boron doped diamond anodes (BDD-EO) and ozonation under alkaline conditions. For same concentrations, galvanostatic electrolyses have led to total COD and TOC removals but ozonation process can reach only 85% and 81% of COD and TOC removals, respectively. UV-vis qualitative analyses have shown different behaviors of CR molecules towards ozonation and electrochemical oxidation. Rapid discoloration has been observed during ozonation, whereas color persistence till the end of galvanostatic electrolyses has been seen during BDD-EO process. It seems that the oxidation mechanisms involved in the two processes are different: simultaneous destruction of azoic groups is suggested during ozonation process but consecutive destruction of these groups is proposed during BDD-EO. However, energetic study has evidenced that BDD-EO appears more efficient and more economic than ozonation in terms of TOC removals. These results have been explained by the fact that during BDD-EO, other strong oxidants electrogenerated from the electrolyte oxidation such as persulfates and direct-oxidation of CR and its byproducts on BDD anodes complement the hydroxyl radicals mediated oxidation to accomplish the total mineralization of organics.

  15. Novel methods of ozone generation by micro-plasma concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, A.; Chiper, A.; Chen, W.; Stamate, E.

    2008-02-15

    The project objective was to study the possibilities for new and cheaper methods of generating ozone by means of different types of micro-plasma generators: DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge), MHCD (Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharge) and CPED (Capillary Plasma Electrode Discharge). This project supplements another current project where plasma-based DeNOx is being studied and optimised. The results show potentials for reducing ozone generation costs by means of micro-plasmas but that further development is needed. (ln)

  16. Optimization of Industrial Ozone Generation with Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose; Guerrero, Daniel; Freilich, Alfred; Ramoino, Luca; Seton Hall University Team; Degremont Technologies-Ozonia Team

    2013-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is widely used for applications ranging from various industrial chemical synthesis processes to large-scale water treatment. The consequent surge in world-wide demand has brought about the requirement for ozone generation at the rate of several hundreds grams per kilowatt hour (g/kWh). For many years, ozone has been generated by means of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), where a high-energy electric field between two electrodes separated by a dielectric and gap containing pure oxygen or air produce various microplasmas. The resultant microplasmas provide sufficient energy to dissociate the oxygen molecules while allowing the proper energetics channels for the formation of ozone. This presentation will review the current power schemes used for large-scale ozone generation and explore the use of high-voltage nanosecond pulses with reduced electric fields. The created microplasmas in a high reduced electric field are expected to be more efficient for ozone generation. This is confirmed with the current results of this work which observed that the efficiency of ozone generation increases by over eight time when the rise time and pulse duration are shortened. Department of Physics, South Orange, NJ, USA.

  17. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in nonthermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Chang, Moo Been

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistency regarding the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a corona discharge has been found in relevant studies. Unlike in the literature to date, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is adopted in this study. In addition to clarifying whether using Ar as an additive would lead to different types of behavior in a DBD and a corona discharge, this study is also motivated to explore the possible causes leading to the inconsistency. The experimental results show that adding Ar into the O 2 plasma would lead to the same influence on ozone generation in the DBD and corona discharge. Moreover, all types of controversial behavior caused by Ar addition reported in the relevant literature are observed in this study as well, indicating that the results of this study are comprehensive enough to interpret the inconsistency. By examining the experimental results in detail, it is found that the controversial influences of Ar addition on ozone generation were found using different assumptions. At a fixed applied voltage, the ozone generation might increase as the Ar concentration is increased, which results from a higher discharge power. Nevertheless, for a certain specific input energy (the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate), the ozone concentration is lower as the Ar concentration is increased. Therefore, adding Ar is not a good way to enhance ozone generation from an economic point of view.

  18. Application of Resonant Converter in Ozone Generator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Facta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is one of the favorable oxidant to use in home appliance and industry as disinfectant for food processing, food storage, odor abatement, groundwater remediation, and drinking water purification. The common and previous technical method for generating ozone uses a high voltage and low frequency. This kind of method has disadvantage of energy efficiency, size and weight. This paper proposed the use power electronics in the inverter resonant circuit to produce alternating current with high frequency. The basic RLC resonance circuit is used for early study to determine resonance frequency for inverter. As the result, the ozone chamber terminal voltage had been achieved for initiation by using resonance frequency.

  19. Generation of ozone foam and its application for disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragaki, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Tomiya; Nakanishi, Masaru; Muraki, Ryouji; Nieda, Masanori; Yamabe, Chobei

    2015-07-01

    Generated ozone foam was applied to the disinfection of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of disinfection has been confirmed experimentally and new equipment for the disinfection of hands using this ozone foam has been put on the market for the practical use. The ozone foam was produced in the foam generator after mixing the water including surfactant (30 mL/min) and air including ozone (1000 ppm = 2.14 g/m3 ~ 1600 ppm = 3.4 g/m3, 300 mL/min). The liquid-to-gas ratio is 100 L/m3. The concentration of dissolved ozone in the thin liquid films of the bubbles was about 3 mg/L which was measured by the chemical method of the KI absorption and titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The disinfection test samples were prepared using the PET disk on which Pseudomonas fluorescens of its number of more than 108 were attached. Test sample was inserted into ozone foam set on the glass plate for one to 6 min. The survival rate log (N/N0 decreased with time and its value of about-2.6 (i.e., ~1/400) was obtained at 6 min (2 min × 3 times repeated). It was also confirmed that the ozone foam was useful for the disinfection of hands. For more effective disinfection (in case of taking a long time for foam melting), the ozone foam was broken by force and changed into ozone water by which the survival rate decreased ×4 (i.e., N/N0 = 1/10 000) at 4 ~ 6 min. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  20. Generation of ozone by Ns-width pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Naoyuki; Wakimoto, Masaya; Shinke, Yosuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2002-01-01

    The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-conscious sterilizations. The generation of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge principally. The breakdown in reactor often limits the efficient generation. Therefore, the pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. It is clear that a pulse shortening is one of effective approaches. Pulsed power voltage with ns-width applies for ozone generation. The effects, on concentration and efficiency of generation, of pulse shape, repetition rate of pulse, flow rate of oxygen gas, and dimension and configuration of reactor, are discussed. The dimension and configuration of the reactor are optimized for the pulse width

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  2. High-tension corona controlled ozone generator for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, T; Patil, Jagadish G

    2010-01-01

    Engineering details of a high voltage driven corona-plasma ozone generator are described. The plasma diode of generator has coaxial cylindrical geometry with cathode located inside anode. Cathode is made of a large number of radial gas nozzles arranged on central tubular mast which admits oxygen gas. The sharp endings of the nozzles along with a set of corona rings create the high electric field at the cathode required for formation of dense corona plume responsible for O 3 evolution. A model of coronal plasma generation and ozone production is presented. The plasma formation is strongly dependent on the electric field and temperature in side diode where a high electron density in a low temperature negative corona is suited for high ozone yields. These are established by suitable regulation of A-K gap, voltage, oxygen pressure, and cathode-nozzle population.

  3. Construction of the Cylindrical Ozone Generator by Silent Discharge Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    It has been constructed the ozone generator by silent discharge method. Anode and cathode of discharge tube were made of stainless steel (SS) in the cylinder form with diameters of 22 mm and 25 mm, the length of 100 mm and 110 mm, the equal thickness of 1 mm respectively. The dielectric was made of cylinder glass with diameter of 23 cm, the length of 105 cm and the thickness of 1 mm. The testing of apparatus was carried out by using discharge voltage of 12.5 kV and frequency of 1.5 kHz. Identification of the ozone gas formation was marked by the existing of special ozone smell and the separated of iodine molecule (yellow colour) from the potassium iodide solution which contaminated gas out put from the ozonizer. By using absorbing method can be shown that the ozone production rate was 0.196 mg/s by using oxygen gas input and 0.065 mg/s by using ordinary air input. (author)

  4. Effect of Pulse Width on Ozone Generation in Pulsed Streamer Discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaribuchi, Hiroyuki; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; タマリブチ, ヒロユキ; オウ, トエン; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 溜渕, 浩之; 王, 斗艶; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2007-01-01

    Ozone has been used in treatment of drinking water andwaste water (e.g., deodorization, decolorization, anddisinfection). Though general ozonizers based on silentdischarge or barrier discharge have been used to supplyozone at many industrial situations, there is still someproblem, such as improvements of ozone concentrationand ozone yield.In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed powerdischarge in order to improve the characteristics of ozonegeneration. High electric field with short pulse ...

  5. Ozone Generation in Dry Air Using Pulsed Discharges With and Without a Solid Dielectric Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, W.J.M.; Miyahara, Y.; Namihira, T.; Katsuki, S.; Hackam, R.; Akiyama, H.; ミヤハラ, Y.; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2001-01-01

    Energy efficient generation of ozone is very important because ozone is being used increasingly in a wide range of industrial applications. Ozonizers usually use dielectric barrier discharges and employ alternating current (ac) with consequent heat generation, which necessitates cooling. In the present study, very short duration pulsed voltage is employed resulting in reduced heating of the gas and discharge reactor. A comparison of ozone generation in dry air using a coaxial concentric elect...

  6. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  7. Theoretical analysis of ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. S.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-08-01

    The use of very short high-voltage pulses combined with a dielectric layer results in high-energy electrons that dissociate oxygen molecules into atoms, which are a prerequisite for the subsequent production of ozone by collisions with oxygen molecules and third particles. The production of ozone depends on both the electrical and the physical parameters. For ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen, a mathematical model, which describes the relation between ozone concentration and these parameters that are of importance in its design, is developed according to dimensional analysis theory. A formula considering the ozone destruction factor is derived for predicting the characteristics of the ozone generation, within the range of the corona inception voltage to the gap breakdown voltage. The trend showing the dependence of the concentration of ozone in oxygen on these parameters generally agrees with the experimental results, thus confirming the validity of the mathematical model.

  8. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure HF plasma source: generation of nitric oxide and ozone for bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S.; Bibinov, N.; Gesche, R.; Awakowicz, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new miniature high-frequency (HF) plasma source intended for bio-medical applications is studied using nitrogen/oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be used as an element of a plasma source array for applications in dermatology and surgery. Nitric oxide and ozone which are produced in this plasma source are well-known agents for proliferation of the cells, inhalation therapy for newborn infants, disinfection of wounds and blood ozonation. Using optical emission spectroscopy, microphotography and numerical simulation, the gas temperature in the active plasma region and plasma parameters (electron density and electron distribution function) are determined for varied nitrogen/oxygen flows. The influence of the gas flows on the plasma conditions is studied. Ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in the effluent of the plasma source are measured using absorption spectroscopy and electro-chemical NO-detector at variable gas flows. Correlations between plasma parameters and concentrations of the particles in the effluent of the plasma source are discussed. By varying the gas flows, the HF plasma source can be optimized for nitric oxide or ozone production. Maximum concentrations of 2750 ppm and 400 ppm of NO and O3, correspondingly, are generated.

  9. Recent developments in large-scale ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale ozone generation for industrial applications has been entirely based on the creation of microplasmas or microdischarges created using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors. Although versions of DBD generated ozone have been in continuous use for over a hundred years especially in water treatment, recent changes in environmental awareness and sustainability have lead to a surge of ozone generating facilities throughout the world. As a result of this enhanced global usage of this environmental cleaning application various new discoveries have emerged in the science and technology of ozone generation. This presentation will describe some of the most recent breakthrough developments in large-scale ozone generation while further addressing some of the current scientific and engineering challenges of this technology.

  10. Electrochemical measurements in PWR steam generators to follow crevice chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.

    1991-01-01

    In PWR steam generator crevices, the evolution of chemistry is important for the understanding of corrosion phenomena. Electrochemical measurements have been performed in high temperature simulated crevice environments in order to follow hideout processes and remedial actions (on-line addition of boric acid). Reported tests have been conducted with model boilers of AJAX facilities. Eccentric and concentric tube support plate crevices have been instrumented with platinum electrodes. Electrochemical measurements have been collected when model boiler was under nominal conditions (primary temperature: 335 deg C, secondary temperature: 280 deg C). They include Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potential measurements: with EIS, sodium and boric acid hideouts have been detected and followed. Potential measurements have been performed in an attempt to measure crevice PH evolution

  11. Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on ozone generation in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Y; Drews, J; Leipold, F; Fateev, A; Bardenshtein, A; Krebs, N

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was generated in an N 2 /O 2 gas mixture at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation to investigate ozone production. Powerful ultrasonic irradiation with the sound pressure level of approximately 150 dB into the DBD can enhance ozone production especially when the DBD was driven at a frequency of 15 kHz.

  12. Tracking polaron generation in electrochemically doped polyaniline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagi, S. S.; Patil, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Electrochemically deposited polyaniline films on ITO substrates have been studied for their optical properties. π-π*transitions inducing the formation of polarons and bipolarons have been studied from the optical spectra. The generation of these quasiparticles and the corresponding quantum of energy stored has been analysed and calculated from the experimental data. The evolution of polaron with increased levels of protonation has been identified and the necessary energy required for the transitions have been explained with the help of band structure diagram.

  13. Characterization of electrochemically and chemically generated technetium diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tc-Methylene diphosphonate, (MDP), the skeletal imaging ligand is most use in radiopharmacies, is the first metal-ligand complex prepared electrochemically in this work. A similar systematic evaluation of electrochemically reduced Tc-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) is presented. DMAD as well as MDP have been characterized by anion exchange HPLC following NaBH4 reduction. The goal is twofold. First, the effect of varying the applied potential on the resultant chromatographic distribution of complexes is investigated. Secondly, the combination(s) of applied potential and preparation pH which preferentially directs the formation of technetium diphosphonate complexes previously shown to be superior skeletal imaging agents is determined. EXAFS, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, is applied to the analysis of dilute solutions (10mM) of electrochemically and chemically reduced Tc-MDP complexes. Further characterizations of electrochemically and chemically generated complexes are performed using in-vitro and in-vivo physiological techniques of biodistribution and blood clearance studies on Sprague Dawley rats and beagle dogs respectively. Finally, in-vitro and in-vivo dilution studies were performed using water, human and dog urine, to determine the influence of the physiological environment on clinically prepared and injected radiopharmaceuticals

  14. Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-14

    We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

  15. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 1989. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals . Atlanta. p. 12.5. Boeniger, Mark F. 1995. ... Indoor Ozone Levels. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association . 41:161-170. Pierce, Mark W.; Janczewski, ...

  16. Developments of ozone generation using dielectric barrier discharge at the Universidad del Valle

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverry-Ibarra, Diego F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the research results related to ozone technology using dielectric barrier discharge DBD, obtained at the Universidad del Valle. Particular emphasis is placed on increasing efficiency, the modeling of the surface dielectric barrier discharge generator and the control technique which modifies the relation production vs. efficiency of the generators. Finally, the ozone applications worked at the university are presented. The current state of these developments is promising fo...

  17. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Belasri, A [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, des Materiaux Conducteur et Leurs Applications, Universite d' Oran (Algeria)

    2008-10-07

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  18. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A; Belasri, A

    2008-01-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage

  19. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Fernández-Rueda, A.; Castellanos, A.; Belasri, A.

    2008-10-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  20. The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kan J.; Kuchynka, Daniel J.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of work on an electrochemical technology for the simultaneous generation of oxygen and lithium from a Li2O containing molten salt (Li2O-LiCl-LiF) is discussed. The electrochemical cell utilizes an oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, to effect separation between the oxygen evolving and lithium reduction half-cell reactions. The cell, which operates at 700 to 800 C, possesses rapid electrode kinetics at the lithium-alloy electrode with exchange current density values being greater than 60 mA/sq cm, showing high reversibility for this reaction. When used in the electrolytic mode, lithium produced at the negative electrode would be continuously removed from the cell for later use (under lunar conditions) as an easily storable reducting agent (compared to H2) for the chemical refining of lunar ores via the general reaction: 2Li + MO yields Li2O + M where MO represents a lunar ore. Emphasis to this time has been on the simulated lunar ore ilmenite (FeTiO3), which we have found becomes chemically reduced by Li at 432 C. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and TiO2 have been reduced by Li to give the corresponding metal. This electrochemical approach provides a convenient route for producing metals under lunar conditions and oxygen for the continuous maintenance of human habitats on the Moon's surface. Because of the high reversibility of this electrochemical system, it has also formed the basis for the lithium-oxygen secondary battery. This secondary lithium-oxygen battery system posses the highest theoretical energy density yet investigated.

  1. Ultrasonic intensification of electrochemical destruction of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene with ozone and electrocoagulation of azo-dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, V.O.; Abramov, O.V.; Kuznetsov, V.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lab. of Ultrasonics, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kumakov Inst. of General and Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    For the detoxification of waste and sewage, oxidation of toxic components using strong and environmentally-friendly oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide or ozone in combination with additional physicochemical processes such as ultraviolet radiation, electric discharge and ultrasonic irradiation (advanced oxidation processes) is considered to be promising. The presence of the electron-withdrawing nitro group substantially reduces the reactivity of nitroaromatics in oxidation reactions. Therefore, even when using ozone, an acceptable rate of destruction of some stable compounds such as 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) or TNT, cannot be achieved. We have previously found that the oxidation of organic compounds by ozone or a combination of ozone with hydrogen peroxide in an ultrasonic field is enhanced in a low electric field. The objective of the present work is to study the possibility of the oxidation of DNB and DNT by ozone in an electrochemical cell under ultrasonic irradiation. (orig.)

  2. Development of a small-sized generator of ozonated water using an electro-conductive diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Kota; Kitaori, Noriyuki

    2008-12-01

    A small-sized generator of ozonated water was developed using an electro-conductive diamond. We studied the optimum conditions for producing ozonated water. As a result, we developed a small-sized generator of ozonated water driven by a dry-cell for use in the average household. This generator was easily able to produce ozonated water with an ozone concentration (over 4 mg/L) sufficient for disinfection. In addition, we verified the high disinfecting performance of the water produced in an actual hospital.

  3. Ozone generation in positive and negative corona discharge fed by humid oxygen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J D; Orszagh, J; MatejcIk, S; Mason, N J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of humidity on ozone generation of positive and negative corona discharges fed by O 2 and CO 2 has been studied in the humidity range of 100-20 000 ppm. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure of 100 kPa. The increase in humidity of CO 2 conspicuously suppressed the ozone generation in negative corona discharge at all values of the input energy densities into the discharge. The effect was less pronounced in oxygen. In contrast to decrease of ozone concentration observed in negative corona discharge, the presence of water both in O 2 and CO 2 acts catalytically. The ozone concentration has been found to increase remarkably (approximately 10 times) in oxygen, if the humidity was increased from 100 to 20 000 ppm. The dependence of ozone concentration on the gas humidity exhibited an extreme. The increase observed at humidity up to approximately 5000 ppm was followed by the marginal reduction in ozone concentration. Anyway, the values of this were considerably higher than those found in dry CO 2 . The effect of humidity on ozone concentration will be discussed in relation to plasma chemical processes in studied discharges and their macroscopic parameters.

  4. Automatic deodorizing system for waste water from radioisotope facilities using an ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroko; Hirata, Yasuki

    2002-01-01

    We applied an ozone generator to sterilize and to deodorize the waste water from radioisotope facilities. A small tank connected to the generator is placed outside of the drainage facility founded previously, not to oxidize the other apparatus. The waste water is drained 1 m 3 at a time from the tank of drainage facility, treated with ozone and discharged to sewer. All steps proceed automatically once the draining work is started remotely in the office. The waste water was examined after the ozone treatment for 0 (original), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h. Regarding original waste water, the sum of coliform groups varied with every examination repeated - probably depend on the colibacilli used in experiments; hydrogen sulfide, biochemical oxygen demand and the offensive odor increased with increasing coliform groups. The ozone treatment remarkably decreased hydrogen sulfide and the offensive odor, decreased coliform groups when the original water had rich coliforms. (author)

  5. Automatic deodorizing system for waste water from radioisotope facilities using an ozone generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroko; Hirata, Yasuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Radioisotope Center; Taguchi, Kenji [Riken Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We applied an ozone generator to sterilize and to deodorize the waste water from radioisotope facilities. A small tank connected to the generator is placed outside of the drainage facility founded previously, not to oxidize the other apparatus. The waste water is drained 1 m{sup 3} at a time from the tank of drainage facility, treated with ozone and discharged to sewer. All steps proceed automatically once the draining work is started remotely in the office. The waste water was examined after the ozone treatment for 0 (original), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h. Regarding original waste water, the sum of coliform groups varied with every examination repeated - probably depend on the colibacilli used in experiments; hydrogen sulfide, biochemical oxygen demand and the offensive odor increased with increasing coliform groups. The ozone treatment remarkably decreased hydrogen sulfide and the offensive odor, decreased coliform groups when the original water had rich coliforms. (author)

  6. Ozone formation by gaseous corona discharge generated above aqueous solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl. C (2004), C909-C913 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/1026 Keywords : corona discharg, ozone Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  7. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  8. Signal Processing for the Impedance Measurement on an Electrochemical Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hassane AGLZIM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving the life time of batteries or fuel cells requires the optimization of components such as membranes and electrodes and enhancement of the flow of gases [1], [2]. These goals could be reached by using a real time measurement on loaded generator. The impedance spectroscopy is a new way that was recently investigated. In this paper, we present an electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded electrochemical generator like batteries and fuel cells. Impedance measures were done according to variations of the frequency in a larger band than what is usually used. The electronic instrumentation is controlled by Hpvee® software which allows us to plot the Nyquist graph of the electrochemical generator impedance. The theoretical results obtained in simulation under Pspice® confirm the choice of the method and its advantage. For safety reasons, the experimental preliminary tests were done on a 12 V vehicle battery, having an input current of 330 A and a capacity of 40 Ah and are now extended to a fuel cell. The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7 V, 10 V, 8 V and 5 V and with two imposed currents (0.6 A and 4 A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. Different sensors (temperature, pressure were placed around the device under test (DUT. These influence parameters were permanently recorded. Results presented here concern a classic loaded 12 V vehicle battery. The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data confirms the influence of the load of the DUT on its internal impedance.

  9. Light ions and ozone - generation and interactions with living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriha, V.; Aubrecht, L.

    2005-01-01

    With directly in the living organism born ions exception, LNI coming through three phases: ionisation, attachment by the electronegative molecules and the clusters formation due to local electrostatic interactions. The quantitative analysis of physical parameters leads to conclusion that we cannot find any physical property (till known) explaining the positive affect of LNI on living organisms. Analysis of possible mechanism produces several hypotheses of LNI-organism interaction. A simplified semi-quantitative model of respiratory tract was developed for estimation of ions and ozone interaction with living organisms. A formation of oxygen radicals and products of their chain-reactions in intrinsic conditions is discussed

  10. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of an integrated ozone generator constructed by seven of reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP. DBDP a has spiral-cylindrical configuration. Silence plasma produced ozone inside the DBDP reactor was generated by AC-HV with voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. As a source of ozone, dry air was pumped into the generator and controlled by valves system and a flowmeter. We found ozone concentration increased with the applied voltage, but in contrary, the concentration decreased with the flow rate of dry air. It was also found that a maximum concentration was 20 mg/L and ozone capacity of 48 g/h with an input power of 1.4 kW. Moreover, in this generator, IP efficiency of 8.13 g/kWh was obtained at input power 0.45 kW and air flow rate of 9 L/min. Therefore, be the higher ozone capacity can be produced with higher input power; however, it provided lower IP efficiency. The effect of dry air flow rate and applied voltage on ozone concentrations have been studied. At last, spiral wire copper was very corrosive done to the interaction with ozone, and it is necessary to do a research for finding the best metals as an active electrode inside of the quartz dielectric. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 18th July 2016; Revised: 25th September 2016; Accepted: 5th October 2016 How to Cite: Nur, M., Susan, A.I., Muhlisin, Z., Arianto, F., Kinandana, A.W., Nurhasanah, I., Sumariyah, S., Wibawa, P.J., Gunawan, G., Usman, A. (2017. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 24-31 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31

  11. High-Power Short Pulsed Corona: Investigation of Electrical Parameters, Abatement of SO2 and Ozone Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryvailo, A.; Yankelevich, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Electrical performance and chemical activity of a 50 MW, 100 kV, 22ns pulsed corona was studied in simulated air-SO 2 gas mixture in a coaxial reactor. Infrared and mass spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were used for gas diagnostics; solid byproducts were identified using X-ray fluorescent spectrometry. Electrochemical methods of gas diagnostics were not sufficiently reliable in view of the cross-influence of different gases, especially in ozone presence. The removal efficiency of SO 2 decreased at lower pollutant concentration and higher frequency, while the pulse energy was kept invariant. Removal efficiency in dry mixture was 25 g/kWh; in humid air, it was several times greater, which is attributed to the influence of OH radicals. In dry SO 2 -air mixture, the removal efficiency was much higher at positive polarity. Traces of many compounds were found and identified in treated gas. The precipitation of a yellowish powder identified as sulfur was observed. This effect was not previously noted in literature. It is ascribed to direct breaking of atomic bonds of the SO 2 molecule by energetic species. PSpice-based engineering model of corona-generator system is proposed. It was found that preliminary simulation results are in fair agreement with experimental data. The simulation revealed that surprisingly small part of the energy is coupled to plasma

  12. Investigation into Generation of Micro Features by Localised Electrochemical Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Subhrajit; Laskar, Hanimur Rahaman; Bhattacharyya, B.

    2017-11-01

    With the fast advancement of technology, localised electrochemical deposition (LECD) is becoming very advantageous in generating high aspect ratio micro features to meet the steep demand in modern precision industries of the present world. Except many other advantages, this technology is highly uncomplicated and economical for fabricating metal micro-parts with in micron ranges. In the present study, copper micro-columns have been fabricated utilizing LECD process. Different process parameters such as voltage, frequency, duty ratio and electrolyte concentration, which affect the deposition performance have been identified and their effects on deposition performances such as deposition rate, height and diameter of the micro-columns have been experimentally investigated. Taguchi's methodology has been used to study the effects as well as to obtain the optimum values of process parameters so that localised deposition with best performance can be achieved. Moreover, the generated micro-columns were carefully observed under optical and scanning electron microscope from where the surface quality of the deposited micro-columns has been studied qualitatively. Also, an array of copper micro-columns has been fabricated on stainless steel (SS-304) substrate for further exploration of LECD process capability.

  13. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-03-21

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  15. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Fernández-Rueda, A; Castellanos, A

    2009-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jagadish G.; Vijayan, T.

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 102-106 m-3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  17. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T, E-mail: jagdishlove@gmail.co [Mahatma Education Society' s ' Pillai' s Institute of Information Technology, Engineering, Media Studies and Research' Dr. K M Vasudevan Pillai' s Campus, Sector 16, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai - 410 206 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over {mu}A) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10{sup 2}-10{sup 6} m{sup -3} are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  18. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T

    2010-01-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10 2 -10 6 m -3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  19. Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on ozone generation in a dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Drews, J.; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was generated in an N2/O2 gas mixture at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation to investigate ozone production. Powerful ultrasonic irradiation with the sound pressure level of approximately 150 dB into the DBD can...

  20. Source of high-voltage power supply for ozone generators at glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruev, A.A.; Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Taran, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-voltage power supply source on quasi-resonance inverter base which works at direct current regime is described. This source forms 20 kV voltage with 0 - 10 mA current regulation. It protects the source from current break-downs and feeds ozone generators at glow discharge

  1. An electrochemical pumping system for on-chip gradient generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Miao, Yunan; Shih, Jason; He, Qing; Liu, Jun; Tai, Yu-Chong; Lee, Terry D

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of microfluidic systems, it has been difficult to devise pumping systems that can deliver adequate flow rates at high pressure for applications such as HPLC. An on-chip electrochemical pumping system based on electrolysis that offers certain advantages over designs that utilize electroosmotic driven flow has been fabricated and tested. The pump was fabricated on both silicon and glass substrates using photolithography. The electrolysis electrodes were formed from either platinum or gold, and SU8, an epoxy-based photoresist, was used to form the pump chambers. A glass cover plate and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) gasket were used to seal the chambers. Filling of the chambers was accomplished by using a syringe to inject liquid via filling ports, which were later sealed using a glass cover plate. The current supplied to the electrodes controlled the rate of gas formation and, thus, the resulting fluid flow rate. At low backpressures, flow rates >1 microL/min have been demonstrated using polymer electrospray nozzle, we have confirmed the successful generation of a solvent gradient via a mass spectrometer.

  2. Influence of Duty Cycle on Ozone Generation and Discharge Using Volume Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wei, L.S.; Pongrác, Branislav; Zhang, Y.F.; Liang, X.; Prukner, Václav; Šimek, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2018), s. 355-364 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ozone generation * Volume dielectric barrier discharge * Electrical characteristics * Duty cycle * Adjustable ozone concentration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11090-017-9866-y

  3. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  4. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced electrochemical static vapor feed oxygen (O2) concentrator (SVFOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure...

  5. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  6. Deactivation of Legionella Pneumophila in municipal wastewater by ozone generated in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Li, Jun; Kim, Min-Hwan; Cho, Jinhoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Eden, J. Gary

    2018-06-01

    A greater than four log10 reduction in the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in municipal wastewater has been achieved in 1 min with ozone produced by a microchannel plasma reactor. Requiring less than 22 W of electrical power, and ambient air as the feedstock gas, the microplasma ozone generator is robust and a promising alternative to conventional corona and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies. Contrary to previous studies, the Ct model for pathogen deactivation (i.e. rate proportional to the product of the available disinfectant concentration and the exposure duration) is found to be valid for L. pneumophila. Accordingly, wastewater-specific Ct equations have been developed to predict the deactivation of L. pneumophila in the secondary wastewater environment. Inactivation of this pathogen was found to be dependent on temperature only in the absence of wastewater organic matter (WOM). In the presence of WOM, pathogen deactivation is controlled by the disinfection contact time, initial ozone concentration (varied between 15 and 281 µg l‑1), and initial WOM loading. The data reported here will assist in the implementation of plasma ozone generators for L. pneumophila deactivation in cooling towers, point-of-use systems, and wastewater reclamation facilities.

  7. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS n ) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  9. Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure for ozone generation and volatile organic compounds decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarek, S.; Khun, J.

    2006-01-01

    The non-thermal plasma technologies based on electrical discharges play an important role in ecological applications. The classical corona discharge is however relatively low power discharge. With the aim to extend its current-voltage range we studied hollow needle-to-plate DC corona discharge enhanced by the flow of a gas through the needle electrode. With this type of the discharge we performed an extensive study of ozone generation and volatile organic compounds decomposition. We found that supply of air through the needle substantially increases current-voltage range of the discharge in comparison with classical pin-to-plate corona discharge. Consequently the ozone generation as well as toluene decomposition efficiency was increased (Authors)

  10. Chemical cleaning-associated generation of dissolved organic matter and halogenated byproducts in ceramic MBR: Ozone versus hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Liu, Hang; Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2018-04-24

    This study characterized the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts generated after the exposure of activated sludge to ozone and NaClO in ceramic MBR. It was found that NaClO triggered more significant release of DOM than ozone. Proteins with the molecular weight greater than 20 kDa and humic acid like-substances were the principal components of DOM generated by NaClO, while ozone was found to effectively degrade larger biopolymers to low molecular weight substances. The results showed that more than 80% of DOM generated by NaClO and ozone could pass through the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. Furthermore, total organic chlorine (TOCl) was determined to be the principal species of halogenated byproducts in both cases, while the generation of TOCl by NaClO was much more significant than that by ozone. Only a small fraction of TOCl was removed by the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. More importantly, the toxic bioassays further revealed that the supernatant of sludge suspension and permeate in the MBR with NaClO cleaning exhibited higher developmental toxicity to the polychaete embryos than those by ozone. The results clearly showed that on-line chemical cleaning with ozone should be a more eco-friendly and safer approach for sustaining long-term membrane permeability in ceramic MBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone and its photolysis into singlet delta oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A series of measurements of O 3 yield in nuclear induced O 2 and O 2 -SF 6 discharges created by bombardment with energetic particles from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction are reported. Continuous irradiation at dose ratios of 10 15 -10 17 eV.cm -3 .s -1 and pulsed irradiation (approx.10 ms FWHM) at a peak dose rate of approx.10 20 eV.cm -3 .s -1 were conducted. At the lower dose rates, SF 6 addition generally increased the ozone yield, which at the high dose rates, SF 6 addition decreased the observed ozone concentration. A numerical model was developed and applied to experimental conditions. The steady-state ozone concentration was found to be limited by the reaction O 3 - + O 3 → 2O 2 + O 2 - . A simplified analytical model of steady-state conditions was used to predict model sensitivity to various parameters. In addition to dose rate effects, pressure and temperature effect on ozone production were discussed. The present study was extended to noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar)-O 2 and noble gas - O 2 -SF 6 mixtures. Without SF 6 , steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen at similar dose rates. Addition of SF 6 was found to significantly increase the steady-state ozone concentration (3-6 times) in noble gas-O 2 mixtures. The developed models were amended to study noble gas-O 2 discharges. A detailed computer model of ultraviolet irradiation of O 3 -O 2 -noble gas mixtures was presented. Dependence of O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) yield on various parameters was investigated. Conditions needed to create O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) concentrations sufficient for pumping an atomic iodine laser were identified. The model was tested by applying it to date on quantum yield of ozone decomposition for various mixtures and by observation of the absolute O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) concentration generated under various conditions

  12. Dependence of Ozone Generation on Gas Temperature Distribution in AC Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Go; Akashi, Haruaki

    AC atmospheric pressure multi-filament dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen has been simulated using two dimensional fluid model. In the discharge, three kinds of streamers have been obtained. They are primary streamers, small scale streamers and secondary streamers. The primary streamers are main streamers in the discharge and the small scale streamers are formed after the ceasing of the primary streamers. And the secondary streamers are formed on the trace of the primary streamers. In these streamers, the primary and the small scale streamers are very effective to generate O(3P) oxygen atoms which are precursor of ozone. And the ozone is generated mainly in the vicinity of the dielectrics. In high gas temperature region, ozone generation decreases in general. However, increase of the O(3P) oxygen atom density in high gas temperature region compensates decrease of ozone generation rate coefficient. As a result, amount of ozone generation has not changed. But if the effect of gas temperature was neglected, amount of ozone generation increases 10%.

  13. Analytical study of ozone generation in a single discharge in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The present thesis work, in the case of the equations description the generation ozone process, an atomic oxygen it was described, in the first part, the analysis of perturbative method used in [1] to solve this kind of equations, so on the solutions in the stationary and temporal cases were rensed by means of a constant flux velocity. The second part present the solutions to the sat dy state equations for constant mean flux velocity (Poiseuille form) at low pressures. Finally, the resulting equations were compared with other authors reports. [1] C. Gutierrez-Tapia, E. Camps and O. Olea-Cardoso, Perturbative method for ozone synthesis from oxygen in a single discharge. IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci. 22(5) 979-985, 1994. (Author)

  14. Dimensional analysis of detrimental ozone generation by positive wire-to-plate corona discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Z.; Chen, J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The dimensional analysis technique is used to formulate a correlation between ozone generation rate and various parameters that are important in the design and operation of positive wire-to-plate corona discharges in indoor air. The dimensionless relation is determined by linear regression analysis based on the results from 36 laboratory-scale experiments. The derived equation is validated by experimental data and a numerical model published in the literature. Applications of such derived equation are illustrated through an example selection of the appropriate set of operating conditions in the design/operation of a photocopier to follow the federal regulations of ozone emission. Finally, a new current-voltage characteristic equation is proposed for positive wire-to-plate corona discharges based on the derived dimensionless equation.

  15. Influence of an Internally-Generated QBO on Modeled Stratospheric Dynamics and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Song, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    A GEOS V2 CCM simulation with an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signal is compared to an otherwise identical simulation without a QBO. In a present-day climate, inclusion of the modeled QBO makes a significant difference to stratospheric dynamics and ozone throughout the year. The QBO enhances variability in the tropics, as expected, but also in the polar stratosphere in some seasons. The modeled QBO also affects the mean stratospheric climate. Because tropical zonal winds in the baseline simulation are generally easterly, there is a relative increase in zonal wind magnitudes in tropical lower and middle stratosphere in the QBO simulation. Extra-tropical differences between the QBO and 'no QBO' simulations thus reflect a bias toward the westerly phase of the QBO: a relative strengthening and poleward shifting the polar stratospheric jets, and a reduction in Arctic lower stratospheric ozone.

  16. Dimensional analysis of detrimental ozone generation by positive wire-to-plate corona discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo, Z; Chen, J H

    2010-01-01

    The dimensional analysis technique is used to formulate a correlation between ozone generation rate and various parameters that are important in the design and operation of positive wire-to-plate corona discharges in indoor air. The dimensionless relation is determined by linear regression analysis based on the results from 36 laboratory-scale experiments. The derived equation is validated by experimental data and a numerical model published in the literature. Applications of such derived equation are illustrated through an example selection of the appropriate set of operating conditions in the design/operation of a photocopier to follow the federal regulations of ozone emission. Finally, a new current-voltage characteristic equation is proposed for positive wire-to-plate corona discharges based on the derived dimensionless equation.

  17. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates...... sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively....

  18. Microbicidal Effects of Stored Aqueous Ozone Solution Generated by Nano-bubble Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Mineaki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Terada, Hiroshi; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Clinically used disinfectants are often irritating and cause skin problems. Ozone water is unique among disinfectants. It does not damage skin cells and readily decomposes to oxygen without generating harmful residues. On the other hand, it rapidly loses its sanitizing activity. Recently developed nano-bubble ozone water (NBOW) can keep its sanitizing activity much longer. This study aimed to examine the microbicidal effects of NBOW after long-term storage. The concentration of ozone in NBOW was examined by measuring the NBOW redox potential. Microbicidal activity was evaluated by colony formation assays, after incubating bacteria with NBOW for set time periods. NBOW lost its microbicidal activity after 1 year of storage at 4°C. Stocked frozen, NBOW retained appreciable microbicidal activity after 1 year of storage. Mycobacterium smegmatis, one of the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, was killed within 15 min. NBOW was resistant to freeze-thawing. NBOW that had been stored frozen possessed sufficient microbicidal activity to kill bacteria even after 1 year of storage. Moreover, it was shown that NBOW is freeze-thaw resistant. NBOW possesses desirable features rendering it an attractive alternative disinfectant. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Pyrolysis conditions and ozone oxidation effects on ammonia adsorption in biomass generated chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Miller, Joby; Das, K C

    2009-05-30

    Ammonia adsorbents were generated via pyrolysis of biomass (peanut hulls and palm oil shells) over a range of temperatures and compared to a commercially available activated carbon (AC) and solid biomass residuals (wood and poultry litter fly ash). Dynamic ammonia adsorption studies (i.e., breakthrough curves) were performed using these adsorbents at 23 degrees C from 6 to 17 ppmv NH(3). Of the biomass chars, palm oil char generated at 500 degrees C had the highest NH(3) adsorption capacity (0.70 mg/g, 6 ppmv, 10% relative humidity (RH)), was similar to the AC, and contrasted to the other adsorbents (including the AC), the NH(3) adsorption capacity significantly increased if the relative humidity was increased (4 mg/g, 7 ppmv, 73% RH). Room temperature ozone treatment of the chars and activated carbon significantly increased the NH(3) adsorption capacity (10% RH); resultant adsorption capacity, q (mg/g) increased by approximately 2, 6, and 10 times for palm oil char, peanut hull char (pyrolysis only), and activated carbon, respectively. However, water vapor (73% RH at 23 degrees C) significantly reduced NH(3) adsorption capacity in the steam and ozone treated biomass, yet had no effect on the palm shell char generated at 500 degrees C. These results indicate the feasibility of using a low temperature (and thus low energy input) pyrolysis and activation process for the generation of NH(3) adsorbents from biomass residuals.

  20. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.; Vezzu, Guido; Freilich, Alfred; Paolini, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The increasing usage of the feed gases of lower grade liquid oxygen (LOX) containing higher levels of trace hydrocarbon impurities in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation requires a better understanding of the kinetics of the by-product formation resulting from reactions involving these hydrocarbon impurities. As a case study of hydrocarbon impurities, the kinetics of CH4 conversion in DBDs and the subsequent HNO3 formation were investigated by means of gas-phase plasma diagnostics, supported by detailed process modeling, and extensive in-situ and ex-situ by-product analysis. The by-products formation in the plasma with the presence of CH4, were found to differ significantly in oxygen-fed generators as compared to generators fed with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The amount of HNO3 formed depends on the concentration of NOx formed in the plasma and the amount of CH4 that is converted, but not on the O3 concentration. In the present work we have investigated CH4 concentrations of up to 1.95 wt% of the feed gas. The rate of deterioration of the overall ozone generator performance was found to be affected by the concentration of nitrogen in the oxygen/nitrogen mixture.

  1. Determination of Te in soldering tin using continuous flowing electrochemical hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjuan; Gan Wuer; Han Suping; He Youzhao

    2008-01-01

    An electrochemical hydride generation system was developed for the detection of Te by coupling an electrochemical hydride generator with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Since TeH 2 is unstable and easily decomposes in solution, a reticular W filament cathode was used in the present system. The TeH 2 generated on the cathode surface was effectively driven out by sweeping gas from the cathode chamber. In addition, a low temperature electrochemical cell (10 deg. C) was applied to reduce the decomposition of TeH 2 in solution. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.2 ng ml -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.9% for nine consecutive measurements of standard solution. This method was successfully employed for determination of Te in soldering tin material

  2. Determination of antimony by using a quartz atom trap and electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlioglu, Ipek; Korkmaz, Deniz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2007-01-15

    The analytical performance of a miniature quartz trap coupled with electrochemical hydride generator for antimony determination is described. A portion of the inlet arm of the conventional quartz tube atomizer was used as an integrated trap medium for on-line preconcentration of electrochemically generated hydrides. This configuration minimizes transfer lines and connections. A thin-layer of electrochemical flow through cell was constructed. Lead and platinum foils were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. Experimental operation conditions for hydride generation as well as the collection and revolatilization conditions for the generated hydrides in the inlet arm of the quartz tube atomizer were optimized. Interferences of copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, arsenic, selenium, lead and tin were examined both with and without the trap. 3{sigma} limit of detection was estimated as 0.053 {mu}g l{sup -1} for a sample size of 6.0 ml collected in 120 s. The trap has provided 18 fold sensitivity improvement as compared to electrochemical hydride generation alone. The accuracy of the proposed technique was evaluated with two standard reference materials; Trace Metals in Drinking Water, Cat CRM-TMDW and Metals on Soil/Sediment 4, IRM-008.

  3. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  4. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma-a numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Chang, Moo Been

    2010-01-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O 2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O 2 /Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O 2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O 3 → e + O + O 2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O 2 + M → O 3 + M and an increase in that of O 3 + O → 2O 2 . The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  5. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-01-01

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  6. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P→5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  7. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranton, Steve; Belanger, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions

  8. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranton, Steve [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada); Belanger, Daniel [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: belanger.daniel@uqam.ca

    2008-10-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2} was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions.

  9. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2017-12-21

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with AECOM Corporation (formerly URS Corporation) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, has been developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system. The CEPACS system is based on electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology derived from FCE’s carbonate fuel cell products featuring internal (methane steam) reforming and carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell®. The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The development effort was carried out under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement DE-FE0007634. The overall objective of this project was to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCE’s ECM-based CEPACS system technology to separate ≥90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. In addition, a key objective was to show, through the technical and economic feasibility study and bench scale testing, that the ECM-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE’s objective related to the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture (no more than 35% increase in COE). The project was performed in three budget periods (BP). The specific objective for BP1 was to complete the Preliminary Technical and Economic Feasibility Study

  10. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, R.; Sekaran, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) generated in Tannery. • Copper coating on electrode surface and horizontal mounting of electrodes for ERSL treatment. • Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants under high saline condition. • The treated solution may be evaporated to dryness to get NaCl salt for hide/skin preservation. -- Abstract: The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (k m ) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm −2 was 0.41 kWh m −3 for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m −3 for the removal of TKN

  11. Determination of nitrous oxide and dinitrogen pentoxide concentrations in the output of air-fed ozone generators of high power density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.; Baessler, P.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy is utilized to identify and measure different nitrogen oxide species in the output of air-fed ozone generators. The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O 5 ) were determined over a wide parameter range of modern high power medium-frequency ozone generators. With a typical ozonation dose of 1 mg ozone per liter of drinking water, less than 10 μ N 2 O and about 20 μ N 2 O 5 are introduced into one liter of drinking water

  12. Ferrier rearrangement promoted by an electrochemically generated zirconium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Dragana; Pejović, Anka; Damljanović, Ivan; Minić, Aleksandra; Bogdanović, Goran A; Vukićević, Mirjana; Radulović, Niko S; Vukićević, Rastko D

    2015-04-30

    In situ generated zirconium catalyst from a sacrificial zirconium anode was successfully applied to promote Ferrier rearrangement of 3,4,5-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and 6-deoxy-3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-glucal (3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal) in the presence of three thiols and eleven thiophenols as nucleophiles. A simple constant current electrolysis (20 mA, 0.4 F mol(-1)) of an acetonitrile solution of lithium perchlorate (0.1 M) containing the corresponding glycal and S-nucleophiles, using a zirconium anode and a platinum cathode resulted in the successful synthesis of the corresponding 2,3-unsaturated peracetylated thioglycosides (with an average anomer ratio α/β=4.129 in the case of peracetylated D-glucal and 8.740 in the case of L-rhamnal). The same procedure proved to be appropriate in synthesizing dihydropyran derivatives ('C-glycosides') using allyltrimethylsilane as the nucleophile (only 'α-anomers' were obtained). All new compounds were fully characterized by spectral data, whereas single-crystal X-ray analysis was performed for two thioglycosides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, Petr [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Clupek, Martin [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Babicky, Vaclav [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Janda, Vaclav [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 160 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sunka, Pavel [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2005-02-07

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min{sup -1}), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h{sup -1} for 40% argon content.

  14. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Janda, Vaclav; Sunka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min -1 ), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O 2 mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h -1 for 40% argon content

  15. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  16. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  17. Kinetic studies of electrochemical generation of Ag(II) ion and catalytic oxidation of selected organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.; Martinez, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a method to treat mixed hazardous wastes containing selected organic compounds and heavy metals, including actinide elements. One approach is to destroy the organic via electrochemical oxidation to carbon dioxide, then recover the metal contaminants through normally accepted procedures such as ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The authors have chosen to study the electrochemical oxidation of a simple alcohol, iso-propanol. Much of the recent work reported involved the use of an electron transfer mediator, usually the silver(I)/(II) redox couple. This involved direct electrochemical generation of the mediator at the anode of a divided cell followed by homogeneous reaction of the mediator with the organic compound. In this study the authors have sought to compare the mediated reaction with direct electrochemical oxidation of the organic. In addition to silver(I)/(II) they also looked at the cobalt(II)/(III) redox coupled. In the higher oxidation state both of these metal ions readily hydrolyze in aqueous solution to ultimately form insoluble oxide. The study concluded that in a 6M nitric acid solution at room temperature iso-propanol can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Acetic acid is a stable intermediate and resists further oxidation. The presence of Co(III) enhances the rate or efficiency of the reaction

  18. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2013-09-15

    The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  20. Dynamic Characteristics of Positive Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Ozone Generation in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Linsheng; Peng Bangfa; Li Ming; Zhang Yafang; Hu Zhaoji

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model consisting of 66 reactions and 24 species is developed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of ozone generation by positive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using parallel-plate reactor in air. The electron energy conservation equation is coupled to the electron continuity equation, the heavy species continuity equation, and Poisson's equation for a better description. The reliability of the model is experimentally confirmed. The model can be used to predict the temporal and spatial evolution of species, as well as streamer propagation. The simulation results show that electron density increases nearly exponentially in the direction to the anode at the electron avalanche. Streamer propagation velocity is about 5.26 × 10 4 m/s from anode to cathode in the simulated condition. The primary positive ion, negative ion, and excited species are O 2 + , O 3 − and O 2 ( 1 Δg) in pulsed DBD in air, respectively. N 2 O has the largest density among nitrogen oxides. e and N 2 + densities in the streamer head increase gradually to maximum values with the development of the streamer. Meanwhile, the O 2 + , O, O 3 , N 2 (A 3 Σ) and N 2 O densities reach maximum values in the vicinity of the anode. (paper)

  1. Analytical solutions for ozone generation by point to plane corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    A recent mathematical model developed for ozone production is tackled analytically by asymptotic approximation. The results obtained are compared with existing numerical solutions. The comparison shows good agreement. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig

  2. Dynamic Characteristics of Positive Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Ozone Generation in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linsheng; Peng, Bangfa; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model consisting of 66 reactions and 24 species is developed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of ozone generation by positive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using parallel-plate reactor in air. The electron energy conservation equation is coupled to the electron continuity equation, the heavy species continuity equation, and Poisson's equation for a better description. The reliability of the model is experimentally confirmed. The model can be used to predict the temporal and spatial evolution of species, as well as streamer propagation. The simulation results show that electron density increases nearly exponentially in the direction to the anode at the electron avalanche. Streamer propagation velocity is about 5.26 × 104 m/s from anode to cathode in the simulated condition. The primary positive ion, negative ion, and excited species are O2+, O3- and O2(1Δg) in pulsed DBD in air, respectively. N2O has the largest density among nitrogen oxides. e and N2+ densities in the streamer head increase gradually to maximum values with the development of the streamer. Meanwhile, the O2+, O, O3, N2(A3Σ) and N2O densities reach maximum values in the vicinity of the anode. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51366012 and 11105067), Jiangxi Province Young Scientists (Jinggang Star) Cultivation Plan of China (No. 20133BCB23008), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi, China (No. 20151BAB206047) and Jiangxi Province Higher School Science and Technology Landing Plan of China (No. KJLD-14015)

  3. Evaluation of low-cost electro-chemical sensors for environmental monitoring of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Zuidema, Christopher; Sousan, Sinan; Hallett, Laura; Tatum, Marcus; Rule, Ana M; Thomas, Geb; Peters, Thomas M; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-02-01

    Development of an air quality monitoring network with high spatio-temporal resolution requires installation of a large number of air pollutant monitors. However, state-of-the-art monitors are costly and may not be compatible with wireless data logging systems. In this study, low-cost electro-chemical sensors manufactured by Alphasense Ltd. for detection of CO and oxidative gases (predominantly O 3 and NO 2 ) were evaluated. The voltages from three oxidative gas sensors and three CO sensors were recorded every 2.5 sec when exposed to controlled gas concentrations in a 0.125-m 3 acrylic glass chamber. Electro-chemical sensors for detection of oxidative gases demonstrated sensitivity to both NO 2 and O 3 with similar voltages recorded when exposed to equivalent environmental concentrations of NO 2 or O 3 gases, when evaluated separately. There was a strong linear relationship between the recorded voltages and target concentrations of oxidative gases (R 2 > 0.98) over a wide range of concentrations. Although a strong linear relationship was also observed for CO concentrations below 12 ppm, a saturation effect was observed wherein the voltage only changes minimally for higher CO concentrations (12-50 ppm). The nonlinear behavior of the CO sensors implied their unsuitability for environments where high CO concentrations are expected. Using a manufacturer-supplied shroud, sensors were tested at 2 different flow rates (0.25 and 0.5 Lpm) to mimic field calibration of the sensors with zero air and a span gas concentration (2 ppm NO2 or 15 ppm CO). As with all electrochemical sensors, the tested devices were subject to drift with a bias up to 20% after 9 months of continuous operation. Alphasense CO sensors were found to be a proper choice for occupational and environmental CO monitoring with maximum concentration of 12 ppm, especially due to the field-ready calibration capability. Alphasense oxidative gas sensors are usable only if it is valuable to know the sum of

  4. Bioelectrochemical biosensor for water toxicity detection: generation of dual signals for electrochemical assay confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Wang, Yan-Zhai; Fang, Zhen; Yu, Yang-Yang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Toxicity assessment of water is of great important to the safety of human health and to social security because of more and more toxic compounds that are spilled into the aquatic environment. Therefore, the development of fast and reliable toxicity assessment methods is of great interest and attracts much attention. In this study, by using the electrochemical activity of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells as the toxicity indicator, 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) as the model toxic compound, a new biosensor for water toxicity assessment was developed. Strikingly, the presence of DCP in the water significantly inhibited the maximum current output of the S. oneidensis MR-1 in a three-electrode system and also retarded the current evolution by the cells. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum current output of the biosensor was proportional to the concentration of DCP up to 30 mg/L. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DCP determined by this biosensor is about 14.5 mg/L. Furthermore, simultaneous monitoring of the retarded time (Δt) for current generation allowed the identification of another biosensor signal in response to DCP which could be employed to verify the electrochemical result by dual confirmation. Thus, the present study has provided a reliable and promising approach for water quality assessment and risk warning of water toxicity.

  5. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region.

  6. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    Lightning flashes, associated with vigorous convective activity, is one of the most prominent weather phenomena in the tropical atmosphere. High aerosol loading is indirectly associated with the increase in lightning flash rates via the formation of tropospheric ozone during the pre-monsoon and monsoon over the tropics. Tropospheric ozone, an important greenhouse pollutant gas have impact on Earth’s radiation budget and play a key role in changing the atmospheric circulation patterns. Lightning-induced NOx is a primary pollutant found in photochemical smog and an important precursor for the formation of tropospheric ozone. A critical analysis is done to study the indirect effects of high aerosol loading on the formation of tropospheric ozone via lightning flashes and induced NOx formation over an urban metropolitan location Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), India during the period 2001-2012. The seasonal variation of lightning flash rates (LFR), taken from TRMM-LIS 2.5o x 2.5o gridded dataset, show that the LFR was observed to be intensified in the pre-monsoon (March-May) and high in monsoon (June-September) months over the region. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 555nm, taken from MISR 0.5o x 0.5o gridded level-3 dataset, plays an indirect effect on the increase in LFR during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months and has positive correlations between them during these periods. This is also justified from the seasonal variation of the increase in LFR due to the increase in AOD over the region during 2001-2012. The calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis shows that the tropospheric ozone, formed as a result of lightning-induced NOx and due to the increased AOD at 555 nm, also increases during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months. The seasonal variation of lightning-induced tropospheric NOx, taken from SCIAMACHY observations also justified the fact that the pre-monsoon and monsoon LFR solely responsible for the generation of induced NOx over the region. The

  7. Electrochemical preconcentration and hydride generation methods for trace determination of selenium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of atomic absorption spectrometry in combination with two different preconcentration/separation techniques for the determination of trace concentrations of selenium is described. Electrochemical preconcentration onto a platinum electrode with a subsequent atomization of selenium is discussed briefly. Several parameters are considered such as the presence of depolarizers, and the temperature of the electrolyzed solutions. Special attention is payed to the efficiency of the atomization step, and a method to improve this is proposed. Applications of the technique to real samples are also reported. Secondly, the separation of the selenium as the volatile selenium hydride from the sample solution is considered. Several papers in this thesis deal with commonly occurring interferants as nickel and copper and with ways of minimizing or avoiding the interferring effects, whereas other papers relate to more theoretical aspects of the hydride generation process. New methods for the determination of selenium in technical samples with high contents of nickel and copper are also presented

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2017-07-01

    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Esther [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  10. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone and its photolysis into singlet delta oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of oxygen discharges is better-studied system. The discharges were made by irradiation with high energy helium and lithium ions created by a neutron-induced reaction in boron (10). A detailed numerical model and a simplified analytical model of oxygen radiolysis have been developed to interpret the data. A summary of the data on the ozone yield from irradiation of He-O2, Ne-O2 and Ar-O2 is presented. Dose rates are also indicated. The present work appears to be the first to measure the steady state ozone concentration in noble gas-oxygen discharges and the effect of SF6 on this steady state concentration. 106 refs

  11. High performance electrode for electrochemical oxygen generator cell based on solid electrolyte ion transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Ran, Ran; Chen, Zhihao; Zeng, Pingying; Gu, Hongxia; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009, JiangSu (China)

    2007-06-30

    A double-layer composite electrode based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} + Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (BSCF + SDC) and BSCF + SDC + Ag was investigated to be a promising cathode and also anode for the electrochemical oxygen generator based on samaria doped ceria electrolyte. The Ag particles in the second layer were not only the current collector but also the improver for the oxygen adsorption at the electrode. a.c. impedance results indicated that the electrode polarization resistance, as low as 0.0058 {omega} cm{sup 2} was reached at 800 C under air. In oxygen generator cell performance test, the electrode resistance dropped to half of the value at zero current density under an applied current density of 2.34 A cm{sup -2} at 700 C, and on the same conditions the oxygen generator cell was continual working for more than 900 min with a Faradic efficiency of {proportional_to}100%. (author)

  12. Influence of power supply on the generation of ozone and degradation of phenol in a surface discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Kefeng; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Yue; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Chunyang; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor was utilized to degrade phenol in water. Different power supplies applied to the DBD reactor affect the discharge modes, the formation of chemically active species and thus the removal efficiency of pollutants. It is thus important to select an optimized power supply for the DBD reactor. In this paper, the influence of the types of power supplies including alternate current (AC) and bipolar pulsed power supply on the ozone generation in a surface discharge reactor was measured. It was found that compared with bipolar pulsed power supply, higher energy efficiency of O 3 generation was obtained when DBD reactor was supplied with 50Hz AC power supply. The highest O 3 generation was approximate 4 mg kJ −1 ; moreover, COD removal efficiency of phenol wastewater reached 52.3% after 3 h treatment under an AC peak voltage of 2.6 kV.

  13. Influence of power supply on the generation of ozone and degradation of phenol in a surface discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Kefeng; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Yue; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Chunyang; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    A surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor was utilized to degrade phenol in water. Different power supplies applied to the DBD reactor affect the discharge modes, the formation of chemically active species and thus the removal efficiency of pollutants. It is thus important to select an optimized power supply for the DBD reactor. In this paper, the influence of the types of power supplies including alternate current (AC) and bipolar pulsed power supply on the ozone generation in a surface discharge reactor was measured. It was found that compared with bipolar pulsed power supply, higher energy efficiency of O3 generation was obtained when DBD reactor was supplied with 50Hz AC power supply. The highest O3 generation was approximate 4 mg kJ-1 moreover, COD removal efficiency of phenol wastewater reached 52.3% after 3 h treatment under an AC peak voltage of 2.6 kV.

  14. The Role of Electronegative Impurities in Ozone Generation by High Pressure Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J.

    2000-01-01

    The high pressure discharges (pulsed or D C corona, barrier, gliding and the others), have been studied both experimentally and theoretically as sources of low temperature plasma for pollution control technologies. The potential of electrical discharge methods has been demonstrated for the decomposition of many types of VOC. The air or oxygen are used as a feed gas in which pollutant is diluted. The ozone production in air or oxygen in such discharges is also discussed

  15. Sensitive detection of pyoverdine with an electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically generated graphene functionalized with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandouzi, Islem; Tertis, Mihaela; Cernat, Andreea; Bakhrouf, Amina; Coros, Maria; Pruneanu, Stela; Cristea, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    The design and development of an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and selective determination of pyoverdine, a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria involved in nosocomial infections is presented in this work. The presence of pyoverdine in water and body fluids samples can be directly linked to the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria, thus being a nontoxic and low cost marker for the detection of water pollution as well as for the biological contamination of other media. The sensor was elaborated using layer-by-layer technique for the deposition of a graphene‑gold nanoparticles composite film on the graphite-based screen printed electrode, from aqueous suspension. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical signal corresponding to the pyoverdine oxidation process was proportional to its concentration, showing a wide linear range from 1 to 100μmolL -1 and a detection limit of 0.33μmolL -1 . This sensor discriminate with satisfactory recoveries the target analyte in different real matrices and also exhibited low response to other interfering species, proving that this technique is promising for medical and environmental applications. In addition, the proposed nanocomposite platform presented good reproducibility, high and long term stability, the sensitivity for pyoverdine remain unchanged after being stored at 4°C for four weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemically Generated cis-Carboxylato-Coordinated Iron(IV) Oxo Acid-Base Congeners as Promiscuous Oxidants of Water Pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, David P; Miller, Christopher J; Chang, Yingyue

    2017-01-01

    The nonheme iron(IV) oxo complex [FeIV(O)(tpenaH)]2+ and its conjugate base [FeIV(O)(tpena)]+ [tpena- = N,N,N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine-N'-acetate] have been prepared electrochemically in water by bulk electrolysis of solutions prepared from [FeIII2(μ-O)(tpenaH)2](ClO4)4 at potentials...... of the electrochemically generated iron(IV) oxo complexes, in terms of the broad range of substrates examined, represents an important step toward the goal of cost-effective electrocatalytic water purification....

  17. Temperature-dependent electrochemical heat generation in a commercial lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Garimella, Srinivas; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer from inherent thermal limitations (i.e., capacity fade and thermal runaway); thus, it is critical to understand heat generation experienced in the batteries under normal operation. In the current study, reversible and irreversible electrochemical heat generation rates were measured experimentally on a small commercially available C/LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery designed for high-rate applications. The battery was tested over a wide range of temperatures (10-60 °C) and discharge and charge rates (∼C/4-5C) to elucidate their effects. Two samples were tested in a specially designed wind tunnel to maintain constant battery surface temperature within a maximum variation of ±0.88 °C. A data normalization technique was employed to account for the observed capacity fade, which was largest at the highest rates. The heat rate was shown to increase with both increasing rate and decreasing temperature, and the reversible heat rate was shown to be significant even at the highest rate and temperature (7.4% at 5C and 55 °C). Results from cycling the battery using a dynamic power profile also showed that constant-current data predict the dynamic performance data well. In addition, the reversible heat rate in the dynamic simulation was shown to be significant, especially for charge-depleting HEV applications.

  18. Radiation Safety in Production of Y-90 from an electrochemical generator. CENTIS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayra Pardo, Fernando Enrique

    2016-01-01

    From a project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Center installation and commissioning began operating an electrochemical generator of Sr-90 / Y-90 inside a glove box shielded. The aim was to ensure the production of Y-90 needed in the research carried out in Cuba with this radionuclide for the medical industry. Associate at the beginning of this practice, compliance with all regulatory requirements approved in the country from the radiological point of view that demonstrated the safety of this for both operators and the general public became necessary. Using the MCNPX code generator installation was simulated and the equivalent dose Hp (10) were obtained for the operator: 6.27 mSv / y Hp (0.07): 17 mSv / a for a source of 10 Ci of 90 Sr- 90 Y . Also the use of TLD dosimeters similar to those used for gamma emitting radionuclides for controlling beta exposures was evaluated. high sensitivity lithium fluoride tablets couple energy beta particles of Y-90 which ensures its use for measuring the magnitude Hp (007) was demonstrated. two possible solutions for the recovery of liquid waste 90 Sr one another by distillation and ion exchange are evaluated. To transport the Y-90 may be used the package currently used in marketing the rest of the CENTIS radiopharmaceuticals. As a final result, the practice was approved and included in the Operating License Center Isotopes. (author)

  19. Switching Transient Generation in Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy and Time-of-Flight Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2015-12-15

    In surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM), fine and accurate control of the delay time between substrate generation and tip interrogation (tdelay) is crucial because tdelay defines the decay time of the reactive intermediate. In previous applications of the SI-SECM, the resolution in the control of tdelay has been limited to several hundreds of milliseconds due to the slow switching of the bipotentiostat. In this work, we have improved the time resolution of tdelay control up to ca. 1 μs, enhancing the SI-SECM to be competitive in the time domain with the decay of many reactive intermediates. The rapid switching SI-SECM has been implemented in a substrate generation-tip collection time-of-flight (SG-TC TOF) experiment of a solution redox mediator, and the results obtained from the experiment exhibited good agreement with that obtained from digital simulation. The reaction rate constant of surface Co(IV) on oxygen-evolving catalyst film, which was inaccessible thus far due to the lack of tdelay control, has been measured by the rapid switching SI-SECM.

  20. Electrochemical generation of mercury cold vapor and its in-situ trapping in gold-covered graphite tube atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerveny, Vaclav; Rychlovsky, Petr; Netolicka, Jarmila; Sima, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of more efficient flow-through electrochemical mercury cold vapor generation with its in-situ trapping in a graphite tube atomizer is described. This coupled technique has been optimized to attain the maximum sensitivity for Hg determination and to minimize the limits of detection and determination. A laboratory constructed thin-layer flow-through cell with a platinum cathode served as the cold vapor generator. Various cathode arrangements with different active surface areas were tested. Automated sampling equipment for the graphite atomizer with an untreated fused silica capillary was used for the introduction of the mercury vapor. The inner surface of the graphite tube was covered with a gold foil placed against the sampling hole. The results attained for the electrochemical mercury cold vapor generation (an absolute limit of detection of 80 pg; peak absorbance, 3σ criterion) were compared with the traditional vapor generation using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent (an absolute limit of detection of 124 pg; peak absorbance, 3σ criterion). The repeatability at the 5 ng ml -1 level was better than 4.1% (RSD) for electrochemical mercury vapor generation and better than 5.6% for the chemical cold vapor generation. The proposed method was applied to the determination the of Hg contents in a certified reference material and in spiked river water samples

  1. Ozone generation by nuclear irradiation of oxygen and oxygen-sulfur hexafluoride mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experimental measurements of 0/sub 3/ yield in nuclear induced 0/sub 2/ and 0/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ discharges has been accomplished. The discharges were formed by irradiation with high-energy (MeV) He and Li ions created by neutron-induced nuclear reactions in Boron-10. Two experimental apparatus were utilized for this study; a flowing gas and a static in-core apparatus. In the former, 0/sub 2/ and 0/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures were allowed to flow inside the irradiation cell for a known period of time. The irradiated mixture was then transported outside the reactor shielding where ozone concentrations were determined by measuring its absorption at 253.7nm. This set-up was used to study continuous irradiation with irradiation times varying from 0.1 to 0.7 seconds at dose rates of 10/sup 18/ - 10/sup 20/ eV g/sup -1/s/sup -1/. An in-core static system was utilized to monitor ozone buildup for continuous irradiation and to study yields when the reactor was pulsed giving a peak dose rate of 10/sup 24/ eV g/sup -1/s/sup -1/

  2. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  3. Improved in vivo performance of amperometric oxygen (PO2) sensing catheters via electrochemical nitric oxide generation/release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hang; Coughlin, Megan A; Major, Terry C; Aiello, Salvatore; Rojas Pena, Alvaro; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-08-18

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of -2 ± 11% and good correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of -31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R(2) = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors.

  4. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-08

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone.

  5. Ferrate(VI) as a greener oxidant: Electrochemical generation and treatment of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhui; Zhang, Qi; Liang, He; Ying, Li; Xiangxu, Meng; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-12-05

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) is a greener oxidant in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The electrochemical synthesis of Fe(VI) may be considered environmentally friendly because it involves one-step process to convert Fe(0) to Fe(VI) without using harmful chemicals. Electrolysis was performed by using a sponge iron as an anode in NaOH solution at different ionic strengths. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) curves showed that the sponge iron had higher electrical activity than the grey cast iron. The optimum current density was 0.054mAcm(-2) in 10M NaOH solution, which is much lower than the electrolyte concentrations used in other electrode materials. A comparison of current efficiency and energy consumption was conducted and is briefly discussed. The generated ferrate solution was applied to degrade phenol in water at two levels (2mgL(-1) and 5mgL(-1)). The maximum removal efficiency was ∼70% and the optimum pH for phenol treatment was 9.0. Experiments on phenol removal using conventional coagulants (ferric chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) were performed independently to demonstrate that removal of phenol by Fe(VI) occurred mainly by oxidative transformation. A combination of Fe(VI) and coagulant may be advantageous in enhancing removal efficiency, adjusting pH, and facilitating flocculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xun [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Gannan Teachers College, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Jia Jing [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Zhenghao [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: zhwang@bnu.edu.cn

    2006-02-23

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml{sup -1} for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml{sup -1} for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine.

  7. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Jia Jing; Wang Zhenghao

    2006-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml -1 for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml -1 for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml -1 As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml -1 As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine

  8. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Multiscale simulation of DC corona discharge and ozone generation from nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang

    Atmospheric direct current (dc) corona discharge from micro-sized objects has been widely used as an ion source in many devices, such as photocopiers, laser printers, and electronic air cleaners. Shrinking the size of the discharge electrode to the nanometer range (e.g., through the use of carbon nanotubes or CNTs) is expected to lead to a significant reduction in power consumption and detrimental ozone production in these devices. The objectives of this study are to unveil the fundamental physics of the nanoscale corona discharge and to evaluate its performance and ozone production through numerical models. The extremely small size of CNTs presents considerable complexity and challenges in modeling CNT corona discharges. A hybrid multiscale model, which combines a kinetic particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model and a continuum model, is developed to simulate the corona discharge from nanostructures. The multiscale model is developed in several steps. First, a pure PIC-MCC model is developed and PIC-MCC simulations of corona plasma from micro-sized electrode with same boundary conditions as prior model are performed to validate the PIC-MCC scheme. The agreement between the PIC-MCC model and the prior continuum model indicates the validity of the PIC-MCC scheme. The validated PIC-MCC scheme is then coupled with a continuum model to simulate the corona discharge from a micro-sized electrode. Unlike the prior continuum model which only predicts the corona plasma region, the hybrid model successfully predicts the self-consistent discharge process in the entire corona discharge gap that includes both corona plasma region and unipolar ion region. The voltage-current density curves obtained by the hybrid model agree well with analytical prediction and experimental results. The hybrid modeling approach, which combines the accuracy of a kinetic model and the efficiency of a continuum model, is thus validated for modeling dc corona discharges. For

  10. Combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model for large prismatic lithium-ion batteries in real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohammed; Sweity, Haitham; Fleckenstein, Matthias; Habibi, Saeid

    2017-08-01

    Real-time prediction of the battery's core temperature and terminal voltage is very crucial for an accurate battery management system. In this paper, a combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model is developed for large prismatic cells. The proposed model consists of three sub-models, an electrochemical model, heat generation model, and thermal model which are coupled together in an iterative fashion through physicochemical temperature dependent parameters. The proposed parameterization cycles identify the sub-models' parameters separately by exciting the battery under isothermal and non-isothermal operating conditions. The proposed combined model structure shows accurate terminal voltage and core temperature prediction at various operating conditions while maintaining a simple mathematical structure, making it ideal for real-time BMS applications. Finally, the model is validated against both isothermal and non-isothermal drive cycles, covering a broad range of C-rates, and temperature ranges [-25 °C to 45 °C].

  11. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  12. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Zimmermann, Julia L; Morfill, Gregor E; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 . Interestingly, when input power is higher than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 , ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  13. Electrochemical generation and storage of electrical energy; Production et stockage electrochimiques de l'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvarque, J.F.

    2005-07-01

    Electrochemical systems have the remarkable property of being able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy and vice-versa, and this, in conditions close to the thermodynamical reversibility, without any pollutant and noise emissions, and without the need of heavy maintenance. These systems can find various applications in the different domains of the economical life, in particular in the transportation sector. Depending on the application in concern, the batteries, fuel cells and super-capacitors are more or less well-adapted and the choice of a given, or of a combination of technologies must be made with respect to the final objective of the application. This document presents the history, principle, electromotive force, capacity, power, and cyclability of closed electrochemical generators (batteries and capacitors). It presents also the principle and characteristics of open systems (fuel cells and redox systems). (J.S.)

  14. Efficient and Selective Chemical Labeling of Electrochemically Generated Peptides Based on Spirolactone Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Tao; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Tao; Tessari, Marco; de Vries, Marcel P.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Specific digestion of proteins is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and the chemical labeling of the resulting peptides is often used for peptide enrichment or the introduction of desirable tags. Cleavage of the peptide bond following electrochemical oxidation of Tyr or Trp

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone from oxygen and oxygen--sulfur hexafluoride mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experimental measurements of the yield of O 3 in nuclear-induced O 2 and O 2 -SF 6 discharges are reported. The discharges were created by bombardment with energetic particles from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. Continuous irradiation at dose rates of 10 15 --10 17 eV cm -3 s -1 and pulsed irradiation (--10 ms FWHM) at a peak dose rate of --10 20 eV cm -3 s -1 were conducted. At the lower dose rates, the addition of SF 6 generally increased the ozone yield due to the slowing of ozone destruction by negative oxygen and ozone ions. In contrast, at the high dose rates, the ozone concentration decreased due to SF 6 suppression of atomic oxygen formation by ion--ion recombination. A numerical model was developed and tested against experimental conditions. This model indicates that the steady-state ozone concentration was limited by the reaction O - 3 +O 3 →2O 2 +O - 2 with a rate coefficient of --1 x 10 -12 cm 3 s -1 . In addition to dose rate effects, pressure and temperature effects on ozone production are discussed and methods for increasing the ozone yield are suggested

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone from oxygen and oxygen-sulfur hexafluoride mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, H. E.; Miley, G. H.

    1986-08-01

    A series of experimental measurements of the yield of O3 in nuclear-induced O2 and O2-SF6 discharges are reported. The discharges were created by bombardment with energetic particles from the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. Continuous irradiation at dose rates of 1015-1017 eV cm-3 s-1 and pulsed irradiation (˜10 ms FWHM) at a peak dose rate of ˜1020 eV cm-3 s-1 were conducted. At the lower dose rates, the addition of SF6 generally increased the ozone yield due to the slowing of ozone destruction by negative oxygen and ozone ions. In contrast, at the high dose rates, the ozone concentration decreased due to SF6 suppression of atomic oxygen formation by ion-ion recombination. A numerical model was developed and tested against experimental conditions. This model indicates that the steady-state ozone concentration was limited by the reaction O-3+O3→2O2+O-2 with a rate coefficient of ˜1×10-12 cm3 s-1. In addition to dose rate effects, pressure and temperature effects on ozone production are discussed and methods for increasing the ozone yield are suggested.

  17. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  18. Studies on the permeation of hydrogen through steam generator tubes at high temperatures using an electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, F.; Yang, L.; Steward, F.R.; DeBouvier, O.

    1998-01-01

    The permeation of hydrogen through steam generator tubes at high temperatures (∼ 300 degrees C) has been studied using an electrochemical technique. With this technique, hydrogen is generated on one side of the tube and monitored on the other side. The time for the hydrogen to reach the other side is used to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the tube. Boundary conditions at the entry and exit sides have been investigated separately. Preliminary studies were performed on Stainless Steel 316 and Nickel Alloy 800 to better understand the influence of the solution chemistry on the electrochemical evolution of hydrogen. The surface phenomena effect and the trapping effect are discussed to account for differences observed in the permeation response. The hydrogen permeation through oxides at the exit side has been studied. Two nickel alloys (Alloy 800 and Alloy 600), materials widely used for steam generator tubes, have been investigated. The tubes were prefilmed using two different treatments. The oxides were formed in dry air at high temperatures (300 degrees C to 600 degrees C), or in humid gas at 300 degrees C. The diffusion coefficients at 300 degrees C in Stainless Steel 316 and Alloy 800 were determined to be of the order of 10 -6 - 10 -7 cm 2 /s for the bare metal. This is in agreement with results obtained by gas phase permeation techniques in the literature. (author)

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation by limonene ozonolysis: Parameterizing multi-generational chemistry in ozone- and residence time-limited indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.

    2016-11-01

    Terpene ozonolysis reactions can be a strong source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. SOA formation can be parameterized and predicted using the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), also known as the SOA yield, which quantifies the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized terpene. Limonene is a monoterpene that is at sufficient concentrations such that it reacts meaningfully with ozone indoors. It has two unsaturated bonds, and the magnitude of the limonene ozonolysis AMF varies by a factor of ∼4 depending on whether one or both of its unsaturated bonds are ozonated, which depends on whether ozone is in excess compared to limonene as well as the available time for reactions indoors. Hence, this study developed a framework to predict the limonene AMF as a function of the ozone [O3] and limonene [lim] concentrations and the air exchange rate (AER, h-1), which is the inverse of the residence time. Empirical AMF data were used to calculate a mixing coefficient, β, that would yield a 'resultant AMF' as the combination of the AMFs due to ozonolysis of one or both of limonene's unsaturated bonds, within the volatility basis set (VBS) organic aerosol framework. Then, β was regressed against predictors of log10([O3]/[lim]) and AER (R2 = 0.74). The β increased as the log10([O3]/[lim]) increased and as AER decreased, having the physical meaning of driving the resultant AMF to the upper AMF condition when both unsaturated bonds of limonene are ozonated. Modeling demonstrates that using the correct resultant AMF to simulate SOA formation owing to limonene ozonolysis is crucial for accurate indoor prediction.

  20. Deposition of tellurium films by decomposition of electrochemically-generated H{sub 2}Te: application to radiative cooling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, T.; Jones, E.D.; Viney, I. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Data Storage Mater.; Mastai, Y.; Hodes, G. [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2000-07-17

    The preparation of homogenous, large area thin layers of tellurium on thin polyethylene foils is described. The tellurium was formed by room temperature decomposition of electrochemically generated H{sub 2}Te. Pre-treatment of the polyethylene substrates with KMnO{sub 4} to give a Mn-oxide layer was found to improve the Te adhesion and homogeneity. Optical characterization of the layers was performed using UV/VIS/NIR spectroscopy. Such coatings have favorable characteristics for use as solar radiation shields in radiative cooling devices. The simplicity of generation of the very unstable H{sub 2}Te was also exploited to demonstrate formation of size-quantized CdTe nanocrystals. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  2. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-12-10

    We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.

  3. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  4. Cell Lysis and Detoxification of Cyanotoxins Using a Novel Combination of Microbubble Generation and Plasma Microreactor Technology for Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Siswanto, Anggun; Kuvshinov, Dmitriy; Zimmerman, William B; Lawton, Linda; Edwards, Christine

    2018-01-01

    There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products. However, most ozonation technologies have challenges for scale up including high costs and sub-optimum efficiencies, hence, a low cost and scalable ozonation technology is needed. Here we designed a low temperature plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with an incorporated fluidic oscillator for microbubble delivery of ozone. Both technologies have the potential to drastically reduce the costs of ozonation at scale. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed very rapid (cyanotoxins.

  5. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  6. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  7. Effect of the Fe Nanoparticles Generated by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid in the Catalyzed Ozone Removal of Phenolphthalein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olea-Mejia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized, in this work, zero valent iron (ZVI nanoparticles to improve the efficiency of degradation of phenolphthalein catalyzed by ozone in aqueous solution. The Fe nanoparticles were obtained using the pulsed plasma in liquid (PPL method with water as the liquid medium. Such nanoparticles have a mean size of 12 nm and are composed of ~80% Fe0, while the rest are a mixture of Fe+2 and Fe+3 oxides. The degradation of phenolphthalein was carried on a glass reactor injecting a constant amount of ozone and introducing different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles to the system. When using pure ozone, the percentage of degradation of phenolphthalein measured by colorimetry after one hour of reaction was 84%. However, when Fe nanoparticles are used, such percentage can be as high as 98% in 50 minutes of reaction. Furthermore, the degradation rate constant was 0.0334 min−1 with only ozone and it can be as high as 0.0733 min−1 with Fe nanoparticles. Finally, the total mineralization of phenolphthalein was obtained by total organic carbon (TOC determinations. It is shown that when using only ozone, we obtained a percentage of mineralization of 49% and 96% when using the highest concentration of Fe nanoparticles.

  8. Improvement of ozone yield by a multi-discharge type ozonizer using superposition of silent discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Jig; Chun, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve ozone generation, we experimentally investigated the silent discharge plasma and ozone generation characteristics of a multi-discharge type ozonizer. Ozone in a multi-discharge type ozonizer is generated by superposition of a silent discharge plasma, which is simultaneously generated in separated discharge spaces. A multi-discharge type ozonizer is composed of three different kinds of superposed silent discharge type ozonizers, depending on the method of applying power to each electrode. We observed that the discharge period of the current pulse for a multi discharge type ozonizer can be longer than that of silent discharge type ozonizer with two electrodes and one gap. Hence, ozone generation is improved up to 17185 ppm and 783 g/kwh in the case of the superposed silent discharge type ozonizer for which an AC high voltages with a 180 .deg. phase difference were applied to the internal electrode and the external electrode, respectively, with the central electrode being grounded.

  9. New generation of electrochemical immunoassay based on polymeric nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffouk F

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fouzi Mouffouk,1 Sihem Aouabdi,2 Entesar Al-Hetlani,1 Hacene Serrai,3 Tareq Alrefae,4 Liaohai Leo Chen5 1Department of Chemistry, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 2King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Gent (UZG, Gent, Belgium; 4Department of Physics, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 5Surgical Precision Research Lab. Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Screening and early diagnosis are the key factors for the reduction of mortality rate and treatment cost of cancer. Therefore, sensitive and selective methods that can reveal the low abundance of cancer biomarkers in a biological sample are always desired. Here, we report the development of a novel electrochemical biosensor for early detection of breast cancer by using bioconjugated self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles. The micelles were loaded with ferrocene molecules as “tracers” to specifically target cell surface-associated epithelial mucin (MUC1, a biomarker for breast and other solid carcinoma. The synthesis of target-specific, ferrocene-loaded polymeric micelles was confirmed, and the resulting sensor was capable of detecting the presence of MUC1 in a sample containing about 10 cells/mL. Such a high sensitivity was achieved by maximizing the loading capacity of ferrocene inside the polymeric micelles. Every single event of binding between the antibody and antigen was represented by the signal of hundreds of thousands of ferrocene molecules that were released from the polymeric micelles. This resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of the ferrocene signal detected by cyclic voltammetry. Keywords: electrochemical immunoassay, polymeric nanoparticles, breast cancer biomarkers, biosensors 

  10. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  11. Electrochemical hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection of tin in canned foods using polyaniline-modified lead cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xianjuan [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gan Wuer, E-mail: wgan@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wan Lingzhong; Deng Yun; Yang Qinghua; He Youzhao [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-12-15

    An electrochemical hydride generation system with polyaniline-modified lead cathode was developed for tin determination by coupling with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The tin fluorescence signal intensity was improved evidently as the polyaniline membrane could facilitate the transformation process from atomic tin to the SnH{sub 4} and prevent the aggradation of Sn atom on Pb electrode surface. The effects of experimental parameters and interferences have been studied. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} (3{sigma}) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.3% for 11 consecutive measurements of 50 ng mL{sup -1} Sn(IV) standard solution.

  12. Electrochemical hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection of tin in canned foods using polyaniline-modified lead cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianjuan; Gan, Wuer; Wan, Lingzhong; Deng, Yun; Yang, Qinghua; He, Youzhao

    2010-12-15

    An electrochemical hydride generation system with polyaniline-modified lead cathode was developed for tin determination by coupling with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The tin fluorescence signal intensity was improved evidently as the polyaniline membrane could facilitate the transformation process from atomic tin to the SnH(4) and prevent the aggradation of Sn atom on Pb electrode surface. The effects of experimental parameters and interferences have been studied. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.5 ng mL(-1) (3σ) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.3% for 11 consecutive measurements of 50 ng mL(-1) Sn(IV) standard solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of intermediates and assessment of ecotoxicity in the oxidation products generated during the ozonation of clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Roberto; Gonzalo, María S; Boltes, Karina; Letón, Pedro; Vaquero, Juan J; García-Calvo, E

    2009-12-30

    The degradation of an aqueous solution of clofibric acid was investigated during catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation. The catalyst, TiO(2), enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals from ozone and raised the fraction or clofibric acid degraded by hydroxyl radicals. The rate constant for the reaction of clofibric acid and hydroxyl radicals was not affected by the presence of the catalyst. The toxicity of the oxidation products obtained during the reaction was assessed by means of Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna tests in order to evaluate the potential formation of toxic by-products. The results showed that the ozonation was enhanced by the presence of TiO(2,) the clofibric acid being removed completely after 15 min at pH 5. The evolution of dissolved organic carbon, specific ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm and the concentration of carboxylic acids monitored the degradation process. The formation of 4-chlorophenol, hydroquinone, 4-chlorocatechol, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid and three non-aromatic compounds identified as a product of the ring-opening reaction was assessed by exact mass measurements performed by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). The bioassays showed a significant increase in toxicity during the initial stages of ozonation following a toxicity pattern closely related to the formation of ring-opening by-products.

  14. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel; Janda, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2005), s. 409-416 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Corona discharge * hybrid reactor * ozone * water treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2005

  15. Cell Lysis and Detoxification of Cyanotoxins Using a Novel Combination of Microbubble Generation and Plasma Microreactor Technology for Ozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagroop Pandhal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products. However, most ozonation technologies have challenges for scale up including high costs and sub-optimum efficiencies, hence, a low cost and scalable ozonation technology is needed. Here we designed a low temperature plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor with an incorporated fluidic oscillator for microbubble delivery of ozone. Both technologies have the potential to drastically reduce the costs of ozonation at scale. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed very rapid (<2 min destruction of two pure microcystins (MC-LR and MC-RR, together with removal of by-products even at low flow rate 1 L min−1 where bubble size was 0.56–0.6 mm and the ozone concentration within the liquid was 20 ppm. Toxicity levels were calculated through protein phosphatase inhibition assays and indicated loss of toxicity as well as confirming the by-products were also non-toxic. Finally, treatment of whole Microcystis aeruginosa cells showed that even at these very low ozone levels, cells can be killed and toxins (MC-LR and Desmethyl MC-LR removed. Little change was observed in the first 20 min of treatment followed by rapid increase in extracellular toxins, indicating cell lysis, with most significant release at the higher 3 L min−1 flow rate compared to 1 L

  16. Ultra-trace determination of methylmercuy in seafood by atomic fluorescence spectrometry coupled with electrochemical cold vapor generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Wenchuan, E-mail: zuhongshuai@126.com [Beijing Institute of Technology, College of Chemistry, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Center for Physical & Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China); Wang, Zhenghao [Beijing Normal University, College of Chemistry, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Methylmercury detection by ECVG-AFS without pre-separation by HPLC is proposed. • Methylmercury is atomized by direct electrochemical reduction with no reductant. • Remarkably better sensitivity is obtained than the traditional HPLC-UV-AFS method. • Glassy carbon is the best cathode material to generate Hg vapor from methylmercury. - Abstract: A homemade electrochemical flow cell was adopted for the determination of methylmercury. The cold vapor of mercury atoms was generated from the surface of glassycarbon cathode through the method of electrolytic reduction and detected by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy subsequently. The operating conditions were optimized with 2 ng mL{sup −1} methylmercury standard solution. The caliberation curve was favorably linear when the concentrations of standard HgCH{sub 3}{sup +} solutions were in the range of 0.2–5 ng mL{sup −1}(as Hg). Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for methylmercury was 1.88 × 10{sup −3} ng mL{sup −1} and the precision evaluated by relative standard deviation was 2.0% for six times 2 ng mL{sup −1} standard solution replicates. The terminal analytical results of seafood samples, available from local market, showed that the methylmercury content ranged within 3.7–45.8 ng g{sup −1}. The recoveries for methylmercury spiked samples were found to be in the range of 87.6–103.6% and the relative standard deviations below 5% (n = 6)were acquired, which showed this method was feasible for real sample analysis.

  17. Development of Portable Flow-Through Electrochemical Sanitizing Unit to Generate Near Neutral Electrolyzed Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jufang; Yang, Hongshun; Chan, Joel Zhi Yang

    2018-03-01

    We developed a portable flow-through, electrochemical sanitizing unit to produce near neutral pH electrolyzed water (producing NEW). Two methods of redirecting cathode yields back to the anode chamber and redirecting anode yields the cathode chamber were used. The NEW yields were evaluated, including: free available chlorine (FAC), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and pH. The performances of 2 electrodes (RuO 2 -IrO 2 /TiO 2 and IrO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 /TiO 2 ) were investigated. The unit produced NEW at pH 6.46 to 7.17, an ORP of 805.5 to 895.8 mV, and FAC of 3.7 to 82.0 mg/L. The NEW produced by redirecting cathode yields had stronger bactericidal effects than the NEW produced by redirecting anode yields or NEW produced by mixing the commercial unit's anode and cathode product (P portable flow-through, NEW-producing unit has great potential in a wide range of applications, such as organic farm, households, and small food industries. The examined sanitizing treatments showed effective control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, R.H.; Asinovsky, E.I.; Samoilov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures was experimentally examined. The average ozone concentration in the volume of the discharge tube was less at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperatures. The production of condensed ozone have been determined by measuring the ozone concentration when the walls was heated and ozone evaporated. The energy yield of ozone generation at cryogenic temperatures has been calculated. The maximum value was 200 g/kWh

  19. Electrochemical sensing using comparison of voltage-current time differential values during waveform generation and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  20. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed

  1. Novel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2014-12-01

    Global increases in water demand and decreases in both the quantity and quality of fresh water resources have served as the major driving forces to develop sustainable use of water resources. One viable alternative is to explore non-traditional (impaired quality) water sources such as wastewater and seawater. The current paradigm for wastewater treatment is based on technologies that are energy intensive and fail to recover the potential resources (water and energy) in wastewater. Also, conventional desalination technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) are energy intensive. Therefore, there is a need for the development of sustainable wastewater treatment and desalination technologies for practical applications. Processes based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold promise for the treatment of wastewater with recovery of the inherent energy, and MDCs could be used for both desalination of seawater and energy recovery. METs use anaerobic bacteria, referred to as exoelectrogens, that are capable of transferring electrons exogenously to convert soluble organic matter present in the wastewater directly into an electrical current to produce electrical power (MFC and MDC) or biogas (MEC). In my dissertation, I investigated the three types of METs mentioned above to: 1) have a better insight on the effect of 4 oxygen intrusion on the microbial community structure and performance of air-cathode MFCs; 2) improve the desalination efficiency of air-cathode MDCs using ion exchange resins (IXRs); and 3) enrich for extremophilic exoelectrogens from the Red Sea brine pool using MECs. The findings from these studies can shape further research aimed at developing more efficient air-cathode MFCs for practical applications, a more efficient integrated IXRMDC configuration that can be used as a pre-treatment to RO, and exploring extreme environments as a

  2. Determination of antimony by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in samples with high iron content using chelating resins as on-line removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolea, E.; Arroyo, D.; Laborda, F.; Castillo, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the removal of the interference caused by iron on electrochemical generation of stibine is proposed. It consists of a chelating resin Chelex 100 column integrated into a flow injection system and coupled to the electrochemical hydride generator quartz tube atomic absorption spectrometer (EcHG-QT-AAS). Iron, as Fe(II), is retained in the column with high efficiency, close to 99.9% under optimal conditions. No significant retention was observed for Sb(III) under same conditions and a 97 ± 5% signal recovery was achieved. An electrochemical hydride generator with a concentric configuration and a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was employed. The system is able to determine antimony concentrations in the range of ng ml -1 in presence of iron concentrations up to 400 mg l -1 . The procedure was validated by analyzing PACS-2 marine sediments reference material with a 4% (w/w) iron content and a [Fe]:[Sb] ratio of 4000:1, which caused total antimony signal suppression on the electrochemical hydride generation system. A compost sample with high iron content (0.7%, w/w), was also analyzed. A good agreement was found on both samples with the certified value and the antimony concentration determined by ICP-MS, respectively

  3. Chip-based generation of carbon nanodots via electrochemical oxidation of screen printed carbon electrodes and the applications for efficient cell imaging and electrochemiluminescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Zhang, Jizhen; Zong, Xidan; Jia, Xiaofang; Li, Dan; Wang, Erkang

    2015-06-07

    A portable lab-on-a-chip methodology to generate ionic liquid-functionalized carbon nanodots (CNDs) was developed via electrochemical oxidation of screen printed carbon electrodes. The CNDs can be successfully applied for efficient cell imaging and solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication on the paper-based chips.

  4. Electrochemical aptasensor for detecting Der p2 allergen using polycarbonate-based double-generation gold nanoparticle chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor for detecting the group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p2 was developed. First, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane was prepared. A modified AAO barrier-layer surface with an array of nanohemispheres of 400 nm in diameter was used as a template for the nanoelectroforming of a nickel mold. After electroforming, the AAO template was etched and a nickel nanomold with a concave nanostructure array was produced. The formed nanostructured nickel nanomold was then used in the replica molding of a nanostructured polycarbonate (PC substrate via hot embossing. Finally, a gold thin film was sputtered onto the PC substrate to form a double-generation gold nanoparticle electrode (array of nanohemispheres with smaller nanoparticles orderly distributed on each nanohemisphere. After immobilizing specifically designed aptamers on the fabricated electrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of Der p2. The sensitivity of the proposed scheme for the detection of the dust mite antigen Der p2 was 2.088 Ω / (ng/mL × cm2 with a dynamic detection range of 27.5–400 ng/mL and detection limit of 16.47 ng/mL.The aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor proposed in this study possesses many advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, and high consistency over currently used sensors. The proposed sensor was found to be useful for the rapid detection of rare molecules present in an analyte. Keywords: Aptamers, Der p2 dust mite allergen detection, Nanostructured biosensors, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  5. The Use of Al, Cu, and Fe in an Integrated Electrocoagulation-Ozonation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Barrera Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of supplying electrochemically generated metallic ions (Al, Cu, and Fe during an ozonation process for treating industrial wastewater. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the electrocoagulation (EC, ozonation, and coupled EC-ozonation processes were examined by the decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD as a function of treatment time. The EC was performed in a raw industrial wastewater, which has contributions from 39 chemical, 34 metal finishing, 22 textile, 11 leather, and 5 automotive plants, at pH (7.3 using a current density of 150 A/m2 for 60 min, giving a 45% reduction in COD. The ozonation process was more effective with the same wastewater, reducing the COD by 52% after 60 min of treatment. Combining the EC and ozonation methods resulted in a synergistic process that improves the reduction of COD in a shorter time. In just 12 min the integrated process reduced the COD by 88%. Thus, the combination of EC and ozonation processes improves noticeably the wastewater quality, decreasing the treatment time and also reducing the sludge production.

  6. Electrochemical generation of arsenic volatile species using a gold/mercury amalgam cathode. Determination of arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caiminagua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical generation of arsenic volatile species (arsine using an Au/Hg amalgam cathode in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, is described. Results were compared with those obtained with other cathodes commonly used for generation of arsine. The effects of the electrolytic conditions and interferent ions have been studied. Results show that the Au/Hg cathode has better tolerance to interference and higher repeatability than cathodes made out of platinum (Pt, gold (Au, reticulated glassy carbon (RGC, lead (Pb. Under optimized conditions, a 0.027 μg L−1 (3σ detection limit for As(III in aqueous solutions and a 2.4% relative standard deviation for a 0.1 μg L−1 As(III were obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by determination of As in a certified reference material. The proposed method was applied to the determination of As in spiked tap water samples.

  7. Iron turbidity removal from the active process water system of the Kaiga Generating Station Unit 1 using an electrochemical filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Iron turbidity is observed in the intermediate cooling circuit of the active process water system (APWS) of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS). Deposition of hydrous/hydrated oxides of iron on the plate type heat exchanger, which is employed to transfer heat from the APWS to the active process cooling water system (APCWS), can in turn result in higher moderator D 2 O temperatures due to reduced heat transfer. Characterization of turbidity showed that the major component is γ-FeOOH. An in-house designed and fabricated electrochemical filter (ECF) containing an alternate array of 33 pairs of cathode and anode graphite felts was successfully tested for the removal of iron turbidity from the APWS of Kaiga Generating Station Unit No. 1 (KGS No. 1). A total volume of 52.5 m 3 water was processed using the filter. At an average inlet turbidity of 5.6 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), the outlet turbidity observed from the ECF was 1.6 NTU. A maximum flow rate (10 L . min -1 ) and applied potential of 18.0-20.0 V was found to yield an average turbidity-removal efficiency of ∝ 75 %. When the experiment was terminated, a throughput of > 2.08 . 10 5 NTU-liters was realized without any reduction in the removal efficiency. Removal of the internals of the filter showed that only the bottom 11 pairs of felts had brownish deposits, while the remaining felts looked clean and unused. (orig.)

  8. Novel Lead dioxide-Graphite-Polymer composite anode for electrochemical chlorine generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gedam, N.; Neti, R.N.; Kormunda, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, JUL (2015), s. 109-116 ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : beta-Lead dioxide * Graphite * Polymer composite anode * Chlorine generation * Cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  9. Electrochemical selenium hydride generation with in situ trapping in graphite tube atomizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jan; Rychlovský, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2003), s. 919-930 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0754; GA ČR GA203/01/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : hydride generation * electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry * In situ trapping Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.361, year: 2003

  10. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed constant current behaviors at near neutral pH reflect the intrinsic electrocatalytic reactivity of the metal electrodes for water reduction. This journal is © the Owner Societies.

  11. Multistage leaching of metals from spent lithium ion battery waste using electrochemically generated acidic lixiviant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, N J; Adamek, N; Cheng, K Y; Haque, N; Bruckard, W; Kaksonen, A H

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (leaching with the graphite electrolyte solution improved leach yields overall, but the electrodes corroded over time. Though yields obtained with both electrolyte leach solutions were low when compared to the 4 M HCl control, there still remains potential to optimise the conditions for the generation of the acidic anolyte solution and the solubilisation of valuable metals from the LIB waste. A preliminary value proposition indicated that the process has the potential to be economically feasible if leach yields can be improved, especially based on the value of recoverable cobalt and lithium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Next Generation Refrigeration Lubricants for Low Global Warming Potential/Low Ozone Depleting Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessell, Edward

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop and test new synthetic lubricants that possess high compatibility with new low ozone depleting (LOD) and low global warming potential (LGWP) refrigerants and offer improved lubricity and wear protection over current lubricant technologies. The improved compatibility of the lubricants with the refrigerants, along with improved lubricating properties, will resulted in lower energy consumption and longer service life of the refrigeration systems used in residential, commercial and industrial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment.

  13. Gold nano particle decorated graphene core first generation PAMAM dendrimer for label free electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Rajesh, R; Dharuman, V; Venkatasan, R; Hahn, J H; Pandian, S Karutha

    2012-01-15

    A novel first generation (G1) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) with graphene core (GG1PAMAM) was synthesized for the first time. Single layer of GG1PAMAM was immobilized covalently on mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer on Au transducer. This allows cost effective and easy deposition of single layer graphene on the Au transducer surface than the advanced vacuum techniques used in the literature. Au nano particles (17.5 nm) then decorated the GG1PAMAM and used for electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing. The sensor discriminates selectively and sensitively the complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA, hybridized), non-complementary DNA (ssDNA, un-hybridized) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) surfaces. Interactions of the MPA, GG1PAMAM and the Au nano particles were characterized by Ultra Violet (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cyclic Voltmetric (CV), Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and Differntial Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The sensor showed linear range 1×10(-6) to 1×10(-12) M with lowest detection limit 1 pM which is 1000 times lower than G1PAMAM without graphene core. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photodegradation of secondary organic aerosol generated from limonene oxidation by ozone studied with chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA prepared by ozone-initiated oxidation of D-limonene is studied with an action spectroscopy approach, which relies on detection of volatile photoproducts with chemical ionization mass-spectrometry as a function of the UV irradiation wavelength. Efficient photodegradation is observed for a broad range of ozone (0.1–300 ppm and D-limonene (0.02–3 ppm concentrations used in the preparation of SOA. The observed photoproducts are dominated by oxygenated C1-C3 compounds such as methanol, formic acid, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and acetone. The irradiation wavelength dependence of the combined yield of the photoproducts closely tracks the absorption spectrum of the SOA material suggesting that photodegradation is not limited to the UV wavelengths. Kinetic simulations suggest that RO2+HO2/RO2 reactions represent the dominant route to photochemically active carbonyl and peroxide species in the limonene SOA prepared in these experiments. Similar photodegradation processes are likely to occur in realistic SOA produced by OH- or O3-initiated oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in clean air.

  15. Effects of conventional ozonation and electro-peroxone pretreatment of surface water on disinfection by-product formation during subsequent chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqin; Guo, Di; Yao, Weikun; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2018-03-01

    The electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process is an emerging ozone-based electrochemical advanced oxidation process that combines conventional ozonation with in-situ cathodic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production for oxidative water treatment. In this study, the effects of the E-peroxone pretreatment on disinfection by-product (DBP) formation from chlorination of a synthetic surface water were investigated and compared to conventional ozonation. Results show that due to the enhanced transformation of ozone (O 3 ) to hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electro-generated H 2 O 2 , the E-peroxone process considerably enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement and significantly reduced bromate (BrO 3 - ) formation compared to conventional ozonation. However, natural organic matter (NOM) with high UV 254 absorbance, which is the major precursors of chlorination DBPs, was less efficiently abated during the E-peroxone process than conventional ozonation. Consequently, while both conventional ozonation and the E-peroxone process substantially reduced the formation of DBPs (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids) during post-chlorination, higher DBP concentrations were generally observed during chlorination of the E-peroxone pretreated waters than conventional ozonation treated. In addition, because of conventional ozonation or the E-peroxone treatment, DBPs formed during post-chlorination shifted to more brominated species. The overall yields of brominated DBPs exhibited strong correlations with the bromide concentrations in water. Therefore, while the E-peroxone process can effectively suppress bromide transformation to bromate, it may lead to higher formation of brominated DBPs during post-chlorination compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process can lead to different DBP formation and speciation during water treatment trains compared to conventional ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an electrochemical 90Sr-90Y generator for separation of 90Y suitable for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Pandey, Usha; Manolkar, Remani B.; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Pillai, M.R. Ambikalmajan

    2008-01-01

    90 Y of high specific activity and very high radionuclidic purity (>99.998%) is essential for targeted therapy. Since the current methods used for the preparation of 90 Y from 90 Sr are not adaptable for use in a central/hospital radiopharmacy, a simple 90 Sr- 90 Y generator system based on electrochemical separation technique was developed. Methods: Two-cycle electrolysis procedure was developed for separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr in nitrate solution. The first electrolysis was performed for 90 min in 90 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 feed solution at pH 2-3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100-200 mA current using platinum electrodes. The second electrolysis was performed for 45 min in 3 mM HNO 3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100 mA current. In this step, the cathode from the first electrolysis containing 90 Y was used as anode along with a fresh circular platinum electrode as cathode. The 90 Y deposited on the circular cathode after the second electrolysis was dissolved in acetate buffer to obtain 90 Y acetate, suitable for radiolabeling. Results: >96% recovery of 90 Y could be achieved in each cycle, with an overall decay corrected yield of >90%. The recovered 90 Y had high radionuclidic purity with barely 30.2±15.2 kBq (817±411 nCi) of 90 Sr per 37 GBq (1 Ci) of 90 Y (0.817±0.411 ppm). Consistent and repeated separation could be demonstrated using up to 1.85 GBq (50 mCi) of 90 Sr. The generator was named 'Kamadhenu,' the eternally milk-yielding Indian mythological cow. Conclusions: A technique suitable for adaptation at central radiopharmacies for obtaining therapeutic quantities of pure 90 Y has been developed

  17. Electrochemistry for the Generation of Renewable Chemicals: One-Pot Electrochemical Deoxygenation of Xylose to δ-Valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Olusola O; Sauter, Waldemer; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-05-09

    In this study, the electrochemical conversion of xylose to δ-valerolactone via carbonyl intermediates is demonstrated. The conversion was achieved in aqueous media and at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates that the feedstock for production of renewable chemicals and biofuels through electrochemistry can be extended to primary carbohydrate molecules. This is the first report on a one-pot electrochemical deoxygenation of xylose to δ-valerolactone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  19. Characteristics of Partial Discharge and Ozone Generation for Twisted-pair of Enameled Wires under High-repetitive Impulse Voltage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Enokizono, Masato; Shibakita, Toshihide; Umehara, Eiji; Toshimitsu, Jun; Ninomiya, Shinji; Taniguchi, Hideki; Abe, Yukari

    In recent years, inverter drive machines such as a hybrid vehicle and an electric vehicle are operated under high voltage pulse with high repetition rate. In this case, inverter surge is generated and affected the machine operation. Especially, the enameled wire of a motor is deteriorated due to the partial discharge (PD) and finally breakdown of the wire will occur. In order to investigate a PD on a resistant enameled wire, characteristics of PD in the twisted pair sample under bipolar repetitive impulse voltages are investigated experimentally. The relationship between the applied voltage and discharge current was measured at PD inception and extinction, and we estimated the repetitive PD inception and extinction voltages experimentally. The corresponding optical emission of the discharge was also observed by using an ICCD camera. Furthermore, ozone concentration due to the discharge was measured during the life-time test of the resistant enameled wires from a working environmental point of view.

  20. Updated (BP3) Technical and Economic Feasibility Study - Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein

    2016-10-12

    This topical report summarizes the results of an updated Technical & Economic Feasibility Study (T&EFS) which was conducted in Budget Period 3 of the project to evaluate the performance and cost of the Electrochemical Membrane (ECM)-based CO2 capture system. The ECM technology is derived from commercially available inorganic membranes; the same used in FuelCell Energy’s commercial fuel cell power plants and sold under the trade name Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The ECM stacks are utilized in the Combined Electric Power (generation) And Carbon dioxide Separation (CEPACS) systems which can be deployed as add-ons to conventional power plants (Pulverized Coal, Combined Cycle, etc.) or industrial facilities to simultaneously produce power while capturing >90% of the CO2 from the flue gas. In this study, an ECM-based CEPACS plant was designed to capture and compress >90% of the CO2 (for sequestration or beneficial use) from the flue gas of a reference 550 MW (nominal, net AC) Pulverized Coal (PC) Rankine Cycle (Subcritical steam) power plant. ECM performance was updated based on bench scale ECM stack test results. The system process simulations were performed to generate the CEPACS plant performance estimates. The performance assessment included estimation of the parasitic power consumption for CO2 capture and compression, and the efficiency impact on the PC plant. While the ECM-based CEPACS system for the 550 MW PC plant captures 90% of CO2 from the flue gas, it generates additional (net AC) power after compensating for the auxiliary power requirements of CO2 capture and compression. An equipment list, ECM stacks packaging design, and CEPACS plant layout were developed to facilitate the economic analysis. Vendor quotes were also solicited. The economic feasibility study included estimation of CEPACS plant capital cost, cost of electricity (COE) analyses and estimation of cost per ton of CO2 captured. The incremental COE for the ECM-based CO2 capture is expected to meet

  1. Updated (BP3) Technical and Economic Feasibility Study - Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2017-12-21

    This topical report summarizes the results of an updated Technical & Economic Feasibility Study (T&EFS) which was conducted in Budget Period 3 of the project to evaluate the performance and cost of the Electrochemical Membrane (ECM)-based CO2 capture system. The ECM technology is derived from commercially available inorganic membranes; the same used in FuelCell Energy’s commercial fuel cell power plants and sold under the trade name Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The ECM stacks are utilized in the Combined Electric Power (generation) And Carbon dioxide Separation (CEPACS) systems which can be deployed as add-ons to conventional power plants (Pulverized Coal, Combined Cycle, etc.) or industrial facilities to simultaneously produce power while capturing >90% of the CO2 from the flue gas. In this study, an ECM-based CEPACS plant was designed to capture and compress >90% of the CO2 (for sequestration or beneficial use) from the flue gas of a reference 550 MW (nominal, net AC) Pulverized Coal (PC) Rankine Cycle (Subcritical steam) power plant. ECM performance was updated based on bench scale ECM stack test results. The system process simulations were performed to generate the CEPACS plant performance estimates. The performance assessment included estimation of the parasitic power consumption for CO2 capture and compression, and the efficiency impact on the PC plant. While the ECM-based CEPACS system for the 550 MW PC plant captures 90% of CO2 from the flue gas, it generates additional (net AC) power after compensating for the auxiliary power requirements of CO2 capture and compression. An equipment list, ECM stacks packaging design, and CEPACS plant layout were developed to facilitate the economic analysis. Vendor quotes were also solicited. The economic feasibility study included estimation of CEPACS plant capital cost, cost of electricity (COE) analyses and estimation of cost per ton of CO2

  2. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  3. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. Here we introduce a new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 dataset based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. To reduce retrieval noise and artifacts as seen in the current operational linear fit (LF) algorithm, the new algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO, uses characteristic features extracted directly from OMI radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). To solve the problem of low bias for large SO2 total columns in the LF product, the OMSO2VOLCANO algorithm employs a table lookup approach to estimate SO2 Jacobians (i.e., the instrument sensitivity to a perturbation in the SO2 column amount) and iteratively adjusts the spectral fitting window to exclude shorter wavelengths where the SO2 absorption signals are saturated. To first order, the effects of clouds and aerosols are accounted for using a simple Lambertian equivalent reflectivity approach. As with the LF algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO provides total column retrievals based on a set of predefined SO2 profiles from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, including a new profile peaked at 13 km for plumes in the upper troposphere. Examples given in this study indicate that the new dataset shows significant improvement over the LF product, with at least 50% reduction in retrieval noise over the remote Pacific. For large eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 (approximately 1700 kt total SO2/ and Sierra Negra in 2005 (greater than 1100DU maximum SO2), OMSO2VOLCANO generally agrees well with other algorithms that also utilize the full spectral content of satellite measurements, while the LF algorithm tends to underestimate SO2. We also demonstrate that, despite the

  4. Effect of Pulse Width on Oxygen-fed Ozonizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Sho; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    Though general ozonizers based on silent discharge (barrier discharge) have been used to supply ozone at many industrial situations, there is still some problem, such as improvements of ozone yield. In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed discharge in order to improve the characteristics of ozone generation. It is known that a pulse width gives strong effect to the improvement of energy efficiency in exhaust gas processing. In this paper, the effect of pulse duration on ozone generation by pulsed discharge in oxygen would be reported.

  5. Analysis of silicon-based integrated photovoltaic-electrochemical hydrogen generation system under varying temperature and illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwa Bhatt; Brijesh Tripathi; Pankaj Yadav; Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Last decade witnessed tremendous research and development in the area of photo-electrolytic hydrogen generation using chemically stable nanostructured photo-cathode/anode materials.Due to intimately coupled charge separation and photo-catalytic processes,it is very difficult to optimize individual components of such system leading to a very low demonstrated solar-to-fuel efficiency (SFE) of less than 1%.Recently there has been growing interest in an integrated photovoltaic-electrochemical (PV-EC) system based on GaAs solar cells with the demonstrated SFE of 24.5% under concentrated illumination condition.But a high cost of GaAs based solar cells and recent price drop of poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells motivated researchers to explore silicon based integrated PV-EC system.In this paper a theoretical framework is introduced to model silicon-based integrated PV-EC device.The theoretical framework is used to analyze the coupling and kinetic losses of a silicon solar cell based integrated PV-EC water splitting system under varying temperature and illumination.The kinetic loss occurs in the range of 19.1%-27.9% and coupling loss takes place in the range of 5.45%-6.74% with respect to varying illumination in the range of 20-100 mW/cm2.Similarly,the effect of varying temperature has severe impact on the performance of the system,wherein the coupling loss occurs in the range of 0.84%-21.51% for the temperature variation from 25 to 50 ℃.

  6. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  7. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  8. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  9. Electrochemical separation of 90-yttrium in the electrochemical 90Sr/90Y generator and its use for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0, Tyr3] octreotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Đorđe Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals based on 90Y are widely used in the treatment of malignant deseases. In order to meet the requirements for their future application, a 90Sr/90Y generator was developed and 90Y eluted from this locally produced generator was used for the radiolabelling of the DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate and the preparation of [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate (90Y-DOTATATE for peptide receptore radionuclide therapy. 90Sr/90Y generator was based on the electrochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr in a two-cycle electrolysis procedure. Three electrode cells were used to perform both electrolyses. In both cycles, working electrodes were kept on constant potential. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 2.7 of the value before the electrolyses. The radionuclidic purity of the 90Y solution was analysed by ITLC and extraction paper chromatography. The labelling of peptide (100 mg DOTATATE with 90YCl3 was performed at 95°C for 30 minutes. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and chromatographic separation, using a solid SepPak C-18 column. Results obtained confirmed the efficiency of our electrochemical separation technique and quality control methods for 90Y. The achieved efficiency of the 90Sr/90Y generator above 96% of the theoretical value represents a good basis for the further development of this generator. The labelling of the DOTATATE with 90Y exhibited a high efficiency, too: there was less than 1% of 90Y3+in the 90Y-DOTATATE.

  10. Comparison of Four Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Methods: Next-generation Sequencing, INNO-LiPA, Electrochemical DNA Chip, and Nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilyanimit, Pornjarim; Chansaenroj, Jira; Poomipak, Witthaya; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, thus necessitating early detection by screening. Rapid and accurate HPV genotyping is crucial both for the assessment of patients with HPV infection and for surveillance studies. Fifty-eight cervicovaginal samples were tested for HPV genotypes using four methods in parallel: nested-PCR followed by conventional sequencing, INNO-LiPA, electrochemical DNA chip, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Seven HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 56, and 58) were identified by all four methods. Nineteen HPV genotypes were detected by NGS, but not by nested-PCR, INNO-LiPA, or electrochemical DNA chip. Although NGS is relatively expensive and complex, it may serve as a sensitive HPV genotyping method. Because of its highly sensitive detection of multiple HPV genotypes, NGS may serve as an alternative for diagnostic HPV genotyping in certain situations. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  11. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  12. A model of the generation and transport of ozone in high-tension nozzle driven corona inside a novel diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, T.; Patil, Jagadish G.

    2012-01-01

    The genesis and transport of ozone (O 3 ) are investigated in a novel plasma diode and described in this paper. The innovative cathode (K) of this axial symmetric diode which operated at the high voltage (φ 0 ), has a large number of sharpened nozzles located on different radial planes of its central tubular-mast and is encircled by the anode (A). The nozzles played the dual role of oxygen (O 2 ) injection as well as creation of high electric field (E) in the A-K gap, enabled the formation of a cold corona. Electrons in the corona under the influence of E moved towards anode, collided with O 2 and created the O radicals. O in turn joined the free O 2 and formed O 3 . The evolution of O 3 here is modeled in various O 2 pressure (P), electron density (n e ), and temperature (T) in terms of the major reaction modes involving e, O, O 2 , and O 3 . Typical steady state O 3 density attained so in P ∼ bar, n e ∼ 10 15 m −3 and T∼ 300 K is over 10 25 m −3 and that of O lower ∼10 20 m −3 . Both the O and O 3 densities increased with an enhanced n e of avalanche multiplications in corona. O 3 increased also with a higher P but the temporal O reversed in trend midway and reduced with P towards the steady state. A sharp decline in diode resistance with smaller A-K gap induced finite discharge current and led to the undesired heating of corona. It is shown that the O 3 density reduced with the temperature rise but O density reduced with the T rise up to 500 K and then rose modestly with the further T increase.

  13. A model of the generation and transport of ozone in high-tension nozzle driven corona inside a novel diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, T.; Patil, Jagadish G.

    2012-12-01

    The genesis and transport of ozone (O3) are investigated in a novel plasma diode and described in this paper. The innovative cathode (K) of this axial symmetric diode which operated at the high voltage (ϕ0), has a large number of sharpened nozzles located on different radial planes of its central tubular-mast and is encircled by the anode (A). The nozzles played the dual role of oxygen (O2) injection as well as creation of high electric field (E) in the A-K gap, enabled the formation of a cold corona. Electrons in the corona under the influence of E moved towards anode, collided with O2 and created the O radicals. O in turn joined the free O2 and formed O3. The evolution of O3 here is modeled in various O2 pressure (P), electron density (ne), and temperature (T) in terms of the major reaction modes involving e, O, O2, and O3. Typical steady state O3 density attained so in P ˜ bar, ne ˜ 1015 m-3 and T ˜ 300 K is over 1025 m-3 and that of O lower ˜1020 m-3. Both the O and O3 densities increased with an enhanced ne of avalanche multiplications in corona. O3 increased also with a higher P but the temporal O reversed in trend midway and reduced with P towards the steady state. A sharp decline in diode resistance with smaller A-K gap induced finite discharge current and led to the undesired heating of corona. It is shown that the O3 density reduced with the temperature rise but O density reduced with the T rise up to 500 K and then rose modestly with the further T increase.

  14. The use of biodiesel blends on a non-road generator and its impacts on ozone formation potentials based on carbonyl emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Ming; Lu, Mingming; Liang, Fuyan; Tzillah, Aisha; Dendramis, Nancy; Watson, Libya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, emissions of carbonyl compounds from the use B50 and B100 were measured with a non-road diesel generator. A total of 25 carbonyl compounds were identified in the exhaust, including 10 with laboratory-synthesized standards. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein were found as the most abundant carbonyl compounds emitted for both diesel and biodiesel. The sulphur content of diesel fuels and the source of biodiesel fuels were not found to have a significant impact on the emission of carbonyl compounds. The overall maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) was the highest at 0 kW and slightly increased from 25 to 75 kW. The MIR of B100 was the highest, followed by diesel and B50, which is consistent with the emission rates of total carbonyl compounds. This suggests that the use of biodiesel blends may be more beneficial to the environment than using pure biodiesel. -- Highlights: •Carbonyl compound emission from biodiesel blends combustion on a non-road generator. •25 compounds were identified, including 10 by laboratory-synthesized standards. •Sources of biodiesel have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •Sulphur contents have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •MIR of emitted carbonyls decreases in the following order: B100, diesel, B50. -- The study found that B50 resulted in lower total carbonyl emission rates and ozone formation potential resultant from these compounds, whereas both increased with B100

  15. Ozone and dinitrogen monoxide production in atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge plasma effluent generated by nanosecond pulse superimposed alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The effects of nanosecond pulse superposition to alternating current voltage (NS + AC) on the generation of an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and reactive species are experimentally studied, along with measurements of ozone (O3) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) in the exhausted gas through the air DBD plasma (air plasma effluent). The charge-voltage cycle measurement indicates that the role of nanosecond pulse superposition is to induce electrical charge transport and excess charge accumulation on the dielectric surface following the nanosecond pulses. The densities of O3 and N2O in NS + AC DBD are found to be significantly increased in the plasma effluent, compared to the sum of those densities generated in NS DBD and AC DBD operated individually. The production of O3 and N2O is modulated significantly by the phase in which the nanosecond pulse is superimposed. The density increase and modulation effects by the nanosecond pulse are found to correspond with the electrical charge transport and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse. It is suggested that the electrical charge transport by the nanosecond pulse might result in the enhancement of the nanosecond pulse current, which may lead to more efficient molecular dissociation, and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse increases the discharge coupling power which would enhance molecular dissociation.

  16. Development of Compact Ozonizer with High Ozone Output by Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Satoru; Kouno, Kanako; Sakugawa, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Youhei

    Conventional ozonizer with a high ozone output using silent or surface discharges needs a cooling system and a dielectric barrier, and therefore becomes a large machine. A compact ozonizer without the cooling system and the dielectric barrier has been developed by using a pulsed power generated discharge. The wire to plane electrodes made of metal have been used. However, the ozone output was low. Here, a compact and high repetition rate pulsed power generator is used as an electric source of a compact ozonizer. The ozone output of 6.1 g/h and the ozone yield of 86 g/kWh are achieved at 500 pulses per second, input average power of 280 W and an air flow rate of 20 L/min.

  17. Fuel cells. Technology and future chances of electrochemical power generation. Brennstoffzellen. Technik und Zukunft der elektrochemischen Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.

    1980-01-01

    This is a translation of the original edition which appeared in 1976 in Great Britain under the title 'Fuel Cells'. The emphasis of this book lies on a simplified presentation of the general fundamentals of the direct electrochemical transformation of chemical energy into electrical energy. Application areas of high-, middle- and low-temperature fuel cells as well as economic aspects and future chances are shortly outlined.

  18. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  19. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  20. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  1. On-line electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction of inorganic selenium followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiabi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamini, Yadollah, E-mail: yyamini@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seidi, Shahram [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsayei, Maryam; Safari, Meysam; Rezaei, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-30

    In this work, for the first time, a rapid, simple and sensitive microextraction procedure is demonstrated for the matrix separation, preconcentration and determination of inorganic selenium species in water samples using an electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction (EC-in-tube SPME) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). In this approach, in which EC-in-tube SPME and HG-AAS system were combined, the total analysis time, was decreased and the accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity were increased. In addition, to increases extraction efficiency, a novel nanostructured composite coating consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was prepared on the inner surface of a stainless-steel tube by a facile electrodeposition method. To evaluate the offered setup and the new PPy-EGDMA coating, it was used to extract inorganic selenium species in water samples. Extraction of inorganic selenium species was carried out by applying a positive potential through the inner surface of coated in-tube under flow conditions. Under the optimized conditions, selenium was detected in amounts as small as 4.0 parts per trillion. The method showed good linearity in the range of 0.012–200 ng mL{sup −1}, with coefficients of determination better than 0.9996. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (RSD%, n = 5) were in the range of 2.0–2.5% and 2.7–3.2%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of inorganic selenium species in some water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. - Graphical abstract: An electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination ultra-trace amounts of Se in aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A nanostructured composite coating consisting of PPy doped with EGDMA was prepared. • The coating was

  2. Two-phase ozonation of chlorinated organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Freshour, A.; West, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years the amount of research being conducted in the field of single-phase ozonation has grown extensively. However, traditional aqueous-phase ozonation systems are limited by a lack of selective oxidation potential, low ozone solubility in water, and slow intermediate decomposition rates. Furthermore, ozone may decompose before it can be utilized for pollutant destruction since ozone can be highly unstable in aqueous solutions. Naturally occurring compounds such as NaHCO 3 also affect ozone reactions by inhibiting the formation of OH-free radicals. To compensate for these factors, excess ozone is typically supplied to a reactor. Since ozone generation requires considerable electric power consumption (16 - 24 kWh/kg of O 3 ), attempts to enhance the ozone utilization rate and stability should lead to more efficient application of this process to hazardous waste treatment. To improve the process, ozonation may be more efficiently carried out in a two-phase system consisting of an inert solvent (saturated with O 3 ) contacted with an aqueous phase containing pollutants. The non-aqueous phase must meet the following criteria: (1) non-toxic, (2) very low vapor pressure, (3) high density (for ease of separation), (4) complete insolubility in water, (5) reusability, (6) selective pollutant extractability, (7) high oxidant solubility, and (8) extended O 3 stability. Previously published studies (1) have indicated that a number of fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds fit these criteria. For this project, FC40 (a product of 3M Co.) was chosen due to its low vapor pressure (3 mm Hg) and high specific gravity (1.9). The primary advantages of the FC40 solvent are that it is non-toxic, reusable, has an ozone solubility 10 times that of water, and that 85 % of the ozone remains in the solvent even after 2 hours. This novel two-phase process has been utilized to study the rapid destruction of organic chlorine compounds and organic mixtures

  3. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  4. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  5. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  6. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  7. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi.

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  8. Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leathers (FLs production produces some not-to-specification material, which contains valuable ingredients like fruit pulp, sugars and acidulates. Recovery of FL for product recycling requires decolorization. In earlier research, we proved the efficiency of an ozone-based decolorization process; however, it produces carbonyls as major byproducts, which could be of concern. A headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for 10 carbonyls analysis in ozonated FL solution/suspension. Effects of dopant concentration, derivatization temperature and time were studied. The adapted method was used to analyze ozonated FL solution/suspension samples. Dopant concentration and derivatization temperature were optimized to 17 mg/mL and 60 °C, respectively. Competitive extraction was studied, and 5 s extraction time was used to avoid non-linear derivatization of 2-furfural. The detection limits (LODs for target carbonyls ranged from 0.016 and 0.030 µg/L. A much lower LOD (0.016 ppb for 2-furfural was achieved compared with 6 and 35 ppb in previous studies. Analysis results confirmed the robustness of the adapted method for quantification of carbonyls in recycled process water treated with ozone-based decolorization. Ethanal, hexanal, 2-furfural, and benzaldehyde were identified as byproducts of known toxicity but all found below levels for concern.

  9. Comparison of SAGE 2 ozone measurements and ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium) during the period February 1985 to January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, Hugo; Demuer, Dirk; Veiga, R. E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone profiles obtained from 24 balloon soundings, at 50 deg 48 min N, 4 deg 21 min E, carried out with the electro-chemical ozonesondes are discussed. The data were used as correlative data to the ozone profiles acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2). Good agreement was obtained between the two data sets. The difference of percentage between the ozone column density of the mean balloon and SAGE profile is 4.4% in the altitude region between 10 to 26 km. From the statistical analysis it seems that there is a difference between the mean profiles at the level of the ozone maximum and around the 30 km level. Similar results are obtained with an error analysis of both data. The differences between the mean profiles in the lower stratosphere are probably real, and are due to the presence of ozone.

  10. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  11. Electrochemical biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosnier, Serge

    2015-01-01

    "This is an excellent book on modern electrochemical biosensors, edited by Professor Cosnier and written by leading international experts. It covers state-of-the-art topics of this important field in a clear and timely manner."-Prof. Joseph Wang, UC San Diego, USA  "This book covers, in 13 well-illustrated chapters, the potential of electrochemical methods intimately combined with a biological component for the assay of various analytes of biological and environmental interest. Particular attention is devoted to the description of electrochemical microtools in close contact with a biological cell for exocytosis monitoring and to the use of nanomaterials in the electrochemical biosensor architecture for signal improvement. Interestingly, one chapter describes the concept and design of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells. Each topic is reviewed by experts very active in the field. This timely book is well suited for providing a good overview of current research trends devoted to electrochemical...

  12. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  13. Bio-electrochemical remediation of real field petroleum sludge as an electron donor with simultaneous power generation facilitates biotransformation of PAH: effect of substrate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Remediation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied under self-induced electrogenic microenvironment with the function of variable organic loads (OLs) in bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) systems. Operation under various OLs documented marked influence on both electrogenic activity and remediation efficiency. Both total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and its aromatic fraction documented higher removal with OL4 operation followed by OL3, OL2, OL1 and control. Self-induced biopotential and associated multiple bio-electrocatalytic reactions during BET operation facilitated biotransformation of higher ring aromatics (5-6) to lower ring aromatic (2-3) compounds. Asphaltenes and NSO fractions showed negligible removal during BET operation. Higher electrogenic activity was recorded at OL1 (343mV; 53.11mW/m(2), 100Ω) compared to other three OLs operation. Bioaugmentation to anodic microflora with anaerobic culture documented enhanced electrogenic activity at OL4 operation. Voltammetric profiles, Tafel analysis and VFA generation were in agreement with the observed power generation and degradation efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scanning electrochemical microscopy. 47. Imaging electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction in an acidic medium by the tip generation-substrate collection mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José L; Bard, Allen J

    2003-07-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic medium was studied on different electrode materials by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) operating in a new variation of the tip generation-substrate collection mode. An ultramicroelectrode tip placed close to the substrate electrode oxidizes water to oxygen at a constant current. The substrate is held at a potential where the tip-generated oxygen is reduced and the resulting substrate current is measured. By changing the substrate potential, it is possible to obtain a polarization (current-potential) curve, which depends on the electrocatalytic activity of the substrate material. The main difference between this mode and the classical feedback SECM mode of operation is that the feedback diffusion process is not required for the measurement, allowing its application for studying the ORR in acidic solutions. Activity-sensitive images of heterogeneous surfaces, e.g., with Pt and Au electrodes, were obtained from the substrate current when the x-y plane was scanned with the tip. The usefulness of this technique for imaging electrocatalytic activity of smooth metallic electrodes and of highly dispersed fuel cell-type electrocatalysts was demonstrated. The application of this method to the combinatorial chemical analysis of electrode materials and electrocatalysts is discussed.

  15. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR): A community-wide effort to quantify tropospheric ozone in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Paoletti, E.; Galbally, I. E.; Naja, M. K.; Tarasick, D. W.; Evans, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emissions controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone's impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? To answer these questions the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) initiated the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR). With over 220 member scientists and air quality specialists from 36 nations, TOAR's mission is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause. TOAR has also built the world's largest database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure and dose metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world, freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity. Plots of these metrics show the regions of the world with the greatest ozone exposure for humans and crops/ecosystems, at least in areas where observations are available. The results also highlight regions where air quality is improving and where it has degraded. TOAR has also conducted the first intercomparison of tropospheric column ozone from ozonesondes and multiple satellite instruments, which provide similar estimates of the present-day tropospheric ozone burden.

  16. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  17. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  18. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  19. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  20. Electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hun

    2007-02-01

    This book explains potentiometry, voltametry, amperometry and basic conception of conductometry with eleven chapters. It gives the specific descriptions on electrochemical cell and its mode, basic conception of electrochemical analysis on oxidation-reduction reaction, standard electrode potential, formal potential, faradaic current and faradaic process, mass transfer and overvoltage, potentiometry and indirect potentiometry, polarography with TAST, normal pulse and deferential pulse, voltammetry, conductometry and conductometric titration.

  1. Portable Nitric Oxide (NO) Generator Based on Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrite for Potential Applications in Inhaled NO Therapy and Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Zajda, Joanna; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Ren, Hang; Toomasian, John M; Major, Terry C; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Carr, Benjamin; Johnson, Thomas; Haft, Jonathan W; Bartlett, Robert H; Hunt, Andrew P; Lehnert, Nicolai; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2017-11-06

    A new portable gas phase nitric oxide (NO) generator is described for potential applications in inhaled NO (INO) therapy and during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. In this system, NO is produced at the surface of a large-area mesh working electrode by electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions in the presence of a soluble copper(II)-ligand electron transfer mediator complex. The NO generated is then transported into gas phase by either direct purging with nitrogen/air or via circulating the electrolyte/nitrite solution through a gas extraction silicone fiber-based membrane-dialyzer assembly. Gas phase NO concentrations can be tuned in the range of 5-1000 ppm (parts per million by volume for gaseous species), in proportion to a constant cathodic current applied between the working and counter electrodes. This new NO generation process has the advantages of rapid production times (5 min to steady-state), high Faraday NO production efficiency (ca. 93%), excellent stability, and very low cost when using air as the carrier gas for NO (in the membrane dialyzer configuration), enabling the development of potentially portable INO devices. In this initial work, the new system is examined for the effectiveness of gaseous NO to reduce the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) during CPB, where 500 ppm of NO added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator or to the cardiotomy suction air in a CPB system is shown to prevent activation of white blood cells (granulocytes and monocytes) during extracorporeal circulation with cardiotomy suction conducted with five pigs.

  2. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  5. Ozone sonde cell current measurements and implications for observations of near-zero ozone concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vömel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory measurements of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sonde cell current using ozone free air as well as defined amounts of ozone reveal that background current measurements during sonde preparation are neither constant as a function of time, nor constant as a function of ozone concentration. Using a background current, measured at a defined timed after exposure to high ozone may often overestimate the real background, leading to artificially low ozone concentrations in the upper tropical troposphere, and may frequently lead to operator dependent uncertainties. Based on these laboratory measurements an improved cell current to partial pressure conversion is proposed, which removes operator dependent variability in the background reading and possible artifacts in this measurement. Data from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX have been reprocessed using the improved background treatment based on these laboratory measurements. In the reprocessed data set near-zero ozone events no longer occur. At Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, and San Cristóbal, nearly all near-zero ozone concentrations occur in soundings with larger background currents. To a large extent, these events are no longer observed in the reprocessed data set using the improved background treatment.

  6. Materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

  7. Electrochemical One-Electron Oxidation of Low-Generation Polyamidoamine-Type Dendrimers with a 1,4-Phenylenediamine Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerich, Ole; Hansen, Thomas; Thorvildsen, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    voltammetry (DPV) in methanol, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The dendrimers are more difficult to oxidize than N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMePD). The oxidation potentials decrease with increasing dendrimer generation up to G0.5, after which the potential is essentially......A series of polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-type dendrimers with a 1,4-phenylenediamine (PD) core is prepared from PD by procedures including Michael addition of methyl acrylate followed by aminolysis with 1,2-ethanediamine. Their one-electron oxidation potentials are determined by differential pulse......,N,N',N'-tetra-n-alkyl-p-phenylenediamines, including a planar arrangement of the atoms linked to the two PD nitrogen atoms. Thus, the effect of chain size on the oxidation potential appears to be caused primarily by a simple electronic effect. The calculations indicate considerable reorientation of the dendrimer side chains on oxidation, presumably...

  8. Electrochemical characteriztion of the bioanode during simultaneous azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation in an air-cathode single chambered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian; Hu Yongyou; Hou Bin

    2011-01-01

    To achieve high power output based on simultaneously azo dye decolorization using microbial fuel cell (MFC), the bioanode responses during decolorization of a representative azo dye, Congo red, were investigated in an air-cathode single chambered MFC using representative electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the maximum stable voltage output was delayed due to slowly developed anode potential during Congo red decolorization, indicating that the electrons recovered from co-substrate are preferentially transferred to Congo red rather than the bioanode of the MFC and Congo red decolorization is prior to electricity generation. Addition of Congo red had a negligible effect on the Ohmic resistance (R ohm ) of the bioanode, but the charge-transfer resistance (R c ) and the diffusion resistance (R d ) were significantly influenced. The R c and R d firstly decreased then increased with increase of Congo red concentration, probably due to the fact that the Congo red and its decolorization products can act as electron shuttle for conveniently electrons transfer from bacteria to the anode at low concentration, but result in accelerated consumption of electrons at high concentration. Cyclic voltammetry results suggested that Congo red was a more favorable electron acceptor than the bioanode of the MFC. Congo red decolorization did not result in a noticeable decrease in peak catalytic current until Congo red concentration up to 900 mg l -1 . Long-term decolorization of Congo red resulted in change in catalytic active site of anode biofilm.

  9. Corrosion evaluation of heat recovery steam generator superheater tube in two methods of testing: Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Rio Pudjidarma; Riastuti, Rini

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the corrosion process which occurs on the water side of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) superheater tube. The tube was 13CrMo44 and divided into 3 types of specimen: new tube, used tube (with oxide layer on surface), cleaned-used tube (without oxide layer on surface). The evaluation of corrosion parameters wasperformed using deaerated ultra-high purity water (boiler feed water) in two methods of testing: Tafel polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Tafel polarization was excellent as its capability to show the value of corrosion current and the corrosion rate explicitly, on the other hand, EIS was excellent as its capability to explain for corrosion mechanism on metal interface in detail. Both methods showed that the increase of electrolyte temperature from 25°C to 55°C would increase the corrosion rate with the mechanism of decreasing polarization resistance due to thinning out the passive film thickness and enlarge the area of reduction reaction of cathode. Magnetite oxide scale which is laid on the surface of used tube specimen shows protective nature to reduce the corrosion rate, and clear up this oxide would increase the corrosion rate back as new tube.

  10. In-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric system for the determination of sulfite in beverage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Nattany T G; Barbosa, Elaine M O; da Silva, Paulo A B; de Souza, Gustavo C S; Nascimento, Valberes B; Lavorante, André F

    2016-07-15

    This work reports an in-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric procedure for the determination of SO3(2-). The method was based on a redox reaction between the I3(-) and SO3(2-) ions, after the diffusion of SO2 through a gas diffusion chamber. Under optimum experimental conditions, a linear response ranging from 1.0 to 12.0 mg L(-1) (R=0.9999 and n=7), a detection and quantification limit estimated at 0.26 and 0.86 mg L(-1), respectively, a standard deviation relative of 0.4% (n=10) for a reference solution of 4.0 mg L(-1) SO3(2-) and sampling throughput for 40 determinations per hour were achieved. Addition and recovery tests with juice and wine samples were performed resulting in a range between 92% and 110%. There were no significant differences at a 95% confidence level in the analysis of eight samples when comparing the new method with a reference procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  12. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Energy loss in electrochemical diaphragm process of chlorine and alkali industry - A collateral effect of the undesirable generation of chlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Mirapalheta, Almir; e Silva Zanta, Carmem Lucia de Paiva; Tonholo, Josealdo [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Henrique dos Santos Andrade, Marcio [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Braskem S/A, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Vilar, Eudesio Oliveira [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal de Campina, Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Contamination of NaOH with chlorate constitutes a major problem for the chlorine-alkali industry, particularly when electrolytic cells based on the diaphragm process are employed. In this paper, pilot and laboratory cell experiments revealed that chlorate contamination in diaphragm cells also inhibits hydrogen evolution and gives rise to a significant increase in electrical energy consumption. Electrolysis carried out under conditions that simulated the industrial process (current density 240 mA cm{sup -2}; temperature 90 C; brine flux 23 L cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) revealed that chlorate formation depends on brine flux and NaOH production. The inhibitory effect of chlorate on the main cathodic reaction was demonstrated in bench cell experiments, with cathodic displacement of the hydrogen evolution reaction by more than 100 mV in the presence of 0.4% chlorate compared with ideal conditions in which chlorate formation was absent. This hydrogen generation overpotential can charge the total electric energy balance in more than 5% of the total value, consisting of a critical loss for this process. (author)

  14. Penggunaan Unit Slow Sand Filter, Ozon Generator dan Rapid Sand Filter Skala Rumah Tangga Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Air Sumur Dangkal Menjadi Air Layak Minum (Parameter Zat Organik dan Deterjen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Prawita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Air sumur merupakan air tanah yang sering kali digunakan masyarakat untuk aktivitas sehari-hari. Air sumur dengan kadar organik dan deterjen tinggi tidak layak dikonsumsi masyarakat karena dapat menyebabkan berbagai macam penyakit. Selain itu, adanya zat organik dan deterjen mempengaruhi warna dan bau air sumur sehingga tidak layak konsumsi. Slow sand filter merupakan unit pengolahan yang mampu meremoval zat organik pada air. Slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dalam proses pengolahan sehingga lebih ekonomis dan efektif. Sedangkan ozon, efektif digunakan untuk meremoval zat organik yang ada dalam air dengan mengubah rantai zat organik menjadi lebih sederhana. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan slow sand filter, ozon generator dan rapid sand filter dalam menyisihkan beban deterjen dan zat organik pada air sumur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi removal pada unit slow sand filter untuk beban organik dan deterjen sebesar 57,6% dan 60,5 %, pada unit ozonasi sebesar 47,4% dan 17,5%, dan pada unit rapid sand filter sebesar 50,0% dan 50,9 %.

  15. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  16. Electrochemical capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  17. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  18. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  19. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0 ... for capacity losses in lithium ion cells and lithium-alloy cells....

  20. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  1. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  2. Experimental monitoring of ozone production in a PET cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanibellato, L.; Cicoria, G.; Pancaldi, D.; Boschi, S.; Mostacci, D.; Marengo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone produced from radiolytic processes was investigated as a possible health hazard in the working environment at the University Hospital 'S.Orsola-Malpighi' PET facility. Intense radiation fields can generate ozone, known to be the most toxic gas produced by ionizing radiation around a particle accelerator. To evaluate ozone concentration in air, two different measurement campaigns were conducted with passive diffusion detectors. Comparison of the results with the concentration limits recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) demonstrated that ozone poses no health hazard to workers around a biomedical cyclotron.

  3. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  4. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  6. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  7. Ozone Sensitivity to Varying Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances in CCMI-1 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Stone, Kane A.; Schofield, Robyn; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Yamashita, Yousuke; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Sudo, Kengo; Plummer, David A.; Scinocca, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1) will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  8. Ozone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1 will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  9. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  10. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  11. Music Generated by a Zn/Cu Electrochemical Cell, a Lemon Cell, and a Solar Cell: A Demonstration for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    The circuit board found in a commercial musical greeting card is used to supply music for electrochemical cell demonstrations. Similar to a voltmeter, the "modified" musical device is connected to a chemical reaction that produces electricity. The commercial 1 V battery inside the greeting card circuit board can be replaced with an…

  12. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  13. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NCEP TOVS & SBUV/2 Column Ozone GRIB Format Daily L3 Global 1 Deg Lat/Lon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TOAST is a new near real-time operational ozone map generated by combining TOVS tropospheric and lower stratospheric (4 to 23 km) ozone retrievals with SBUV/2...

  15. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ozone is often used in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes.

  16. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ozone is often used in combination with H 2 O 2 , UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes

  17. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  18. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  19. Effect of Climate Change on Surface Ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year-2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  20. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  1. The Transition of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Total Ozone Products to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters have analyzed the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery in conjunction with the AIRS total column ozone to aid high wind forecasts. One of the limitations of the total ozone product is that it is difficult for forecasters to determine whether elevated ozone concentrations are related to stratospheric air or climatologically high values of ozone in certain regions. During the summer of 2013, SPoRT created an AIRS ozone anomaly product which calculates the percent of normal ozone based on a global stratospheric ozone mean climatology. With the knowledge that ozone values 125 percent of normal and greater typically represent stratospheric air; the anomaly product can be used with the total column ozone product to confirm regions of stratospheric air. This paper describes the generation of these products along with forecaster feedback concerning the use of the AIRS ozone products in conjunction with the RGB Air Mass product to access the utility and transition of the products.

  2. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  3. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Electrochemical attosyringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforge, François O; Carpino, James; Rotenberg, Susan A; Mirkin, Michael V

    2007-07-17

    The ability to manipulate ultrasmall volumes of liquids is essential in such diverse fields as cell biology, microfluidics, capillary chromatography, and nanolithography. In cell biology, it is often necessary to inject material of high molecular weight (e.g., DNA, proteins) into living cells because their membranes are impermeable to such molecules. All techniques currently used for microinjection are plagued by two common problems: the relatively large injector size and volume of injected fluid, and poor control of the amount of injected material. Here we demonstrate the possibility of electrochemical control of the fluid motion that allows one to sample and dispense attoliter-to-picoliter (10(-18) to 10(-12) liter) volumes of either aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. By changing the voltage applied across the liquid/liquid interface, one can produce a sufficient force to draw solution inside a nanopipette and then inject it into an immobilized biological cell. A high success rate was achieved in injections of fluorescent dyes into cultured human breast cells. The injection of femtoliter-range volumes can be monitored by video microscopy, and current/resistance-based approaches can be used to control injections from very small pipettes. Other potential applications of the electrochemical syringe include fluid dispensing in nanolithography and pumping in microfluidic systems.

  5. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  9. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  10. Combined treatment of mezcal vinasses by ozonation and activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    In Mexico, mezcal production generates huge amounts of vinasses (MV) that cause negative environmental impacts. Thus, MV treatment is necessary before discharge to water bodies. Although there is no information for mezcal vinasses, similar effluents have been treated by biological processes (i.e. anaerobic and aerobic) usually complemented by oxidative chemical pretreatments (ozonation) and physico-chemical methods. In this work MV were first ozonated and followed by batch aerobic biological degradation. In the ozonation stage, organic matter removals were 4.5-11 % as COD, whereas the removal of aromatic compounds and phenols were 16-32 % and 48-83 % respectively. In the aerobic post-treatment, COD depletions up to 85 % were achieved; removals in ozone pre-treated vinasses were higher (80 to 85 %) than that of raw vinasse (69 %). It seems that ozonation preferentially attacked the recalcitrant fraction of organic matter present in the vinasses and increased its aerobic biodegradability.

  11. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  12. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  13. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  14. Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O cubic particles on boron doped diamond substrate as efficient photocathode for solar hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrokefalos, Christos K. [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom); Hasan, Maksudul, E-mail: maksudul.hasan@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Rohan, James F. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Compton, Richard G. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QZ, England (United Kingdom); Foord, John S., E-mail: john.foord@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of low-cost photocathode by electrochemical method is described. • Boron-doped diamond is presented as catalyst support. • NiO nanoparticles on Cu{sub 2}O surface enhances photocurrent and electrode stability. • Synergy of metallic interaction between Cu and Ni leads to high efficiency. - Abstract: Herein, we report a novel photocathode for the water splitting reaction. The electrochemical deposition of Cu{sub 2}O particles on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and the subsequent decoration with NiO nanoparticles by a dip coating method to act as co-catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction is described. The morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Cu{sub 2}O particles are cubic and decorated sporadically with NiO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the electronic interaction at the interface between Cu{sub 2}O and NiO through a binding energy shift of the main Cu 2p peak. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of NiO-Cu{sub 2}O/BDD showed a much higher current density (−0.33 mA/cm{sup 2}) and photoconversion efficiency (0.28%) compared to the unmodified Cu{sub 2}O/BDD electrode, which are only −0.12 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.06%, respectively. The enhancement in PEC performance is attributable to the synergy of NiO as an electron conduction mediator leading to the enhanced charge separation and transfer to the reaction interface for hydrogen evolution as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge carrier density calculation. Stability tests showed that the NiO nanoparticles loading content on Cu{sub 2}O surface is a crucial parameter in this regard.

  15. A high voltage DC switching power supply of corona discharge for ozone tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketkaew, Siseerot

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This paper presents a study of design and construction of a high voltage DC switching power supply for corona generating of ozone gas generating. This supply uses fly back converter at 3 k Vdc 30 khz and controls its operation using PWM techniques. I C TL494 is controlled of the switching. The testing of supply by putting high voltage to ozone gas tube at one-hour, the oxygen quantity 21 % of air, which ozone tube model enables ozone gas generating capacity of 95.2 mgO3/hr

  16. Plasmachemical and heterogeneous processes in ozonizers with oxygen activation by a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankelevich, Yu. A., E-mail: ymankelevich@mics.msu.su; Voronina, E. N.; Poroykov, A. Yu.; Rakhimov, T. V.; Voloshin, D. G.; Chukalovsky, A. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Plasmachemical and heterogeneous processes of generation and loss of ozone in the atmosphericpressure dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen are studied theoretically. Plasmachemical and electronic kinetics in the stage of development and decay of a single plasma filament (microdischarge) are calculated numerically with and without allowance for the effects of ozone vibrational excitation and high initial ozone concentration. The developed analytical approach is applied to determine the output ozone concentration taking into account ozone heterogeneous losses on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric surface. Using the results of quantummechanical calculations by the method of density functional theory, a multistage catalytic mechanism of heterogeneous ozone loss based on the initial passivation of a pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface by ozone and the subsequent interaction of O{sub 3} molecules with the passivated surface is proposed. It is shown that the conversion reaction 2O{sub 3} → 3O{sub 2} of a gas-phase ozone molecule with a physically adsorbed ozone molecule can result in the saturation of the maximum achievable ozone concentration at high specific energy depositions, the nonstationarity of the output ozone concentration, and its dependence on the prehistory of ozonizer operation.

  17. Phenols removal using ozonation-adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) in rotating packed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamah, E. F.; Leonita, S.; Bismo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic wastewater containing phenols was treated using combination method of ozonation-adsorption with GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) in a packed bed rotating reactor. Ozone reacts quickly with phenol and activated carbon increases the oxidation process by producing hydroxyl radicals. Performance parameters evaluated are phenol removal percentage, the quantity of hydroxyl radical formed, changes in pH and ozone utilization, dissolved ozone concentration and ozone concentration in off gas. The performance of the combination method was compared with single ozonation and single adsorption. The influence of GAC dose and initial pH of phenols were evaluated in ozonation-adsorption method. The results show that ozonation-adsorption method generates more OH radicals than a single ozonation. Quantity of OH radical formation increases with increasing pH and quantity of the GAC. The combination method prove better performance in removing phenols. At the same operation condition, ozonation-adsorption method is capable of removing of 78.62% phenols as compared with single ozonation (53.15%) and single adsorption (36.67%). The increasing percentage of phenol removal in ozonation-adsorption method is proportional to the addition of GAC dose, solution pH, and packed bed rotator speed. Maximum percentage of phenol removal is obtained under alkaline conditions (pH 10) and 125 g of GAC

  18. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  19. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  20. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  1. Comparison of SAGE II ozone measurements and ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium) during the period February 1985 to January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muer, D.; De Backer, H.; Zawodny, J. M.; Veiga, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The ozone profiles obtained from 24 balloon soundings at Uccle (50 deg 48 min N, 4 deg 21 min E) made with electrochemical ozonesondes were used as correlative data for SAGE II ozone profiles retrieved within a distance of at most 600 km from Uccle. The agreement between the two data sets is in general quite good, especially for profiles nearly coincident in time and space, and during periods of little dynamic activity over the area considered. The percent difference between the ozone column density of the mean balloon and SAGE profile is 4.4 percent (-3.3) percent in the altitude region between 10 and 26 km. From a statistical analysis it appears that there is a small but meaningful difference between the mean profiles at the level of the ozone maximum and around the 30-km level. An error analysis of both data sets give similar results, leading to the conclusion that these differences are instrumentally induced. However, differences between the mean profiles in the lower stratosphere are probably real and due to the high ozone variability in time and space in that altitude region.

  2. Investigating the effect of gas flow rate, inlet ozone concentration and relative humidity on the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in the removal of xylene from waste airstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. MokaramI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe catalytic ozonation is an efficient process for the degradation of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air stream. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in removal of xylene from the polluted air stream andthe influence of retention time (gas flow rate, inlet ozone dose and relative humidity on this performanceMethodsthe catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selectedoperational variables.ResultsThe results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was greater than that of single adsorption in removal of xylene under similar inlet concentration and relative humidity. We found a significant catalytic effect for activated carbon when used in combination with ozonation process, leading to improvement of xylene removal percentage. In addition, the elimination capacity of the system improved with the increase of inlet ozone dose as well as gas flow rate. The relative humidity showed a positive effect of the xylene removal at the range of 5 to 50%, while the higher humidity (more than 50% resulted in reduction of the performance.ConclusionThe findings of the present work revealed that the catalytic ozonation process can be an efficient technique for treating the air streams containing industrial concentrations of xylene. Furthermore, there is a practical potential to retrofit the present adsorption systems intothe catalytic ozonation simply by coupling them with the ozonation system. the catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selected

  3. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design.

  4. Electrical discharges of plasma ozonizer and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirawanichakul, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ozone synthesis is one of the applications of near atmospheric plasma processing. An ozone generator in this research comprised two annular cylindrical-shaped electrodes. The inner electrode was made ofstainless steel covered with the dielectric glass and the outer electrode was also made of stainless steel. The electric spacing gap was 0.0075 m and length of ozonizer was 0.21 m. Oxygen gas passing through thedischarge gap between two electrodes supplied by an alternating current (AC high voltage power supply, frequency 50 Hz, ranging of 6-10 kVAC was used for producing ozone. The amount of ozone was determinedby the KI standard method. The result showed that the concentration of ozone is proportional to the AC applied voltage. For determining effect of purified oxygen feed rate of 6-10 L/min on quantity of ozone, theresults indicated that at the volumetric flow rate of 8 L/min produced the largest amount of ozone. In addition, ozone concentration at a flow rate of 8 L/min and an electrical discharge time of 3 minutes wasapproximately determined as 41, 60, 80 and 135 mg/L at 8, 9, 10 and 11 kVAC, respectively. Moreover, study of dye wastewater of Krajud mat was proposed and treated by three different methods. Firstly, dye wastewater was solely treated by a plasma ozonation. Secondly, a combination ofozonation and alum coagulation was used for dye wastewater treatment. Finally, the combined ozonation and activated carbon adsorption were used for dye wastewater treatment. The experimental results showedthat the percentage of light absorbance reduction of pink dyed wastewater for these three different methods was about 56%, 35% and 10%, respectively compared to the reference sample. In addition, For thesemethods, the percentage of BOD of treated dye wastewater could be reduced to 64%, 54% and 46% respectively, the percentage of COD could be reduced to approximately 78%, 62% and 27%, respectively, comparedto the reference sample. In conclusion, the

  5. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  6. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  7. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  8. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesildag, Ali; Ekinci, Duygu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN) 6 3- and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  9. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesildag, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ekinci, Duygu, E-mail: dekin@atauni.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-09-30

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  10. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  11. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  12. A cloud-ozone data product from Aura OMI and MLS satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low-troposphere/boundary-layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric H2O, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30° S and 30° N for October 2004–April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of  ∼ 10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intraseasonal/Madden–Julian oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary-layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over landmass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

  13. Lessons from the Ozone Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    On September 16, 1987, a treaty was signed that was unique in that annals of international diplomacy. The Montreal Protocol on substrates that Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated significant reductions in the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of the Montreal Protocol was that it imposed substantial short-term economic costs in order to protect human health and the environment against speculative future dangers - dangers which rested on scientific theories rather than on proven facts. Unlike environmental agreements of the past, it was not a response to harmful events, but rather preventive action on a global scale. In the realm of international relations, there will always be resistance to change and there will always be uncertainties - political, economic, scientific, psychological. The ozone negotiations demonstrated that the international community, even in the real world of ambiguity and imperfect knowledge, can be capable of undertaking difficult cooperative actions for the benefit of future generation. The Montreal Protocol may well be a paradigm for international cooperation on the challenge of global warming

  14. The role and importance of ozone for atmospheric chemistry and methods for measuring its concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. The thin layer of ozone that surrounds Earth acts as a shield protecting the planet from irradiation by UV light. When it is close to the planet's surface, ozone is a powerful photochemical oxidant that damage, icons frescos, museum exhibits, rubber, plastic and all plant and animal life. Besides the basic properties of some methods for determining the ozone concentration in working and living conditions, this paper presents a detailed description of the electrochemical method. The basic properties of the electrochemical method are used in the construction of mobile equipment for determining the sum of oxidants in the atmosphere. The equipment was used for testing the determination of the ozone concentration in working rooms, where the concentration was at a high level and caused by UV radiation or electrostatic discharge. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that this equipment for determining the ozone concentration in the atmosphere is very powerful and reproducible in measurements.

  15. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Sichu; Sheng, Li; Huang, Shuhang; Guo, Hongguang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide-OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on

  17. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  18. Application of Ozone MBBR Process in Refinery Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a kind of sewage treatment technology based on fluidized bed. At the same time, it can also be regarded as an efficient new reactor between active sludge method and the biological membrane method. The application of ozone MBBR process in refinery wastewater treatment is mainly studied. The key point is to design the ozone +MBBR combined process based on MBBR process. The ozone +MBBR process is used to analyze the treatment of concentrated water COD discharged from the refinery wastewater treatment plant. The experimental results show that the average removal rate of COD is 46.0%~67.3% in the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrated water by ozone MBBR process, and the effluent can meet the relevant standard requirements. Compared with the traditional process, the ozone MBBR process is more flexible. The investment of this process is mainly ozone generator, blower and so on. The prices of these items are relatively inexpensive, and these costs can be offset by the excess investment in traditional activated sludge processes. At the same time, ozone MBBR process has obvious advantages in water quality, stability and other aspects.

  19. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  20. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  1. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  2. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  3. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  4. Identification of phenylbutyrate-generated metabolites in Huntington disease patients using parallel liquid chromatography/electrochemical array/mass spectrometry and off-line tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbel, Erika N; Leymarie, Nancy; Schiavo, Susan; Sharma, Swati; Gevorkian, Sona; Hersch, Steven; Matson, Wayne R; Costello, Catherine E

    2010-04-15

    Oral sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) is currently under investigation as a histone deacetylation (HDAC) inhibitor in Huntington disease (HD). Ongoing studies indicate that symptoms related to HD genetic abnormalities decrease with SPB therapy. In a recently reported safety and tolerability study of SPB in HD, we analyzed overall chromatographic patterns from a method that employs gradient liquid chromatography with series electrochemical array, ultraviolet (UV), and fluorescence (LCECA/UV/F) for measuring SPB and its metabolite phenylacetate (PA). We found that plasma and urine from SPB-treated patients yielded individual-specific patterns of approximately 20 metabolites that may provide a means for the selection of subjects for extended trials of SPB. The structural identification of these metabolites is of critical importance because their characterization will facilitate understanding the mechanisms of drug action and possible side effects. We have now developed an iterative process with LCECA, parallel LCECA/LCMS, and high-performance tandem MS for metabolite characterization. Here we report the details of this method and its use for identification of 10 plasma and urinary metabolites in treated subjects, including indole species in urine that are not themselves metabolites of SPB. Thus, this approach contributes to understanding metabolic pathways that differ among HD patients being treated with SPB. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon quantum dots directly generated from electrochemical oxidation of graphite electrodes in alkaline alcohols and the applications for specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengli; Xu, Yuanhong; Niu, Fushuang; Gooding, J Justin; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-04-25

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are attracting tremendous interest owing to their low toxicity, water dispersibility, biocompatibility, optical properties and wide applicability. Herein, CQDs with an average diameter of (4.0 ± 0.2) nm and high crystallinity were produced simply from the electrochemical oxidation of a graphite electrode in alkaline alcohols. The as-formed CQDs dispersion was colourless but the dispersion gradually changed to bright yellow when stored in ambient conditions. Based on UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), this colour change appeared to be due to oxygenation of surface species over time. Furthermore, the CQDs were used in specific and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) with broad linear ranges of 10-200 μM with a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). The application of the CQDs for Fe(3+) detection in tap water was demonstrated and the possible mechanism was also discussed. Finally, based on their good characteristics of low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the CQDs were successfully applied to cell imaging.

  6. Making equipment to process paddy water for providing drinking water by using Ozone-UVC& Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styani, E.; Dja'var, N.; Irawan, C.; Hanafi

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on making equipment which is useful to process paddy water to be consumable as drinking water by using ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration. The equipment which is made by the process of ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis is driven by electric power generated from solar panels. In the experiment, reverse osmosis system with ozone-UVC reactor proves to be good enough in producing high quality drinking water.

  7. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    around 2 ms and 12 ms in this figure, and during the discharge period, the current was continuous without any pulse . Once a discharge generated in...electron avalanches [10]. Fig. 1. High pressure ozone generator. (a) Top view (b) Side view Fig. 2. Barrier discharge device. Table 1... discharge N. Osawa P1 P, UY. Yoshioka UP2 P, R. Hanaoka P1 P 1 Center for Electric, Optic and Energy applications, Department of Electric and

  8. Electrochemical vapor generation of selenium species after online photolysis and reduction by UV-irradiation under nano TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis and its application to selenium speciation by HPLC coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jing; Wang, Qiuquan; Huang, Benli [Xiamen University (China). Department of Chemistry; MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen (China)

    2005-01-01

    An online UV photolysis and UV/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis reduction device (UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD) and an electrochemical vapor generation (ECVG) cell have been used for the first time as an interface between high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for selenium speciation. The newly designed ECVG cell of approximately 115 {mu}L dead volume consists of a carbon fiber cathode and a platinum loop anode; the atomic hydrogen generated on the cathode was used to reduce selenium to vapor species for AFS determination. The noise was greatly reduced compared with that obtained by use of the UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD-KBH{sub 4}-acid interface. The detection limits obtained for seleno-DL-cystine (SeCys), selenite (Se{sup IV}), seleno-DL-methionine (SeMet), and selenate (Se{sup VI}) were 2.1, 2.9, 4.3, and 3.5 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation of selenium in water-soluble extracts of garlic shoots cultured with different selenium species. The results obtained suggested that UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD-ECVG should be an effective interface between HPLC and AFS for the speciation of elements amenable to vapor generation, and is superior to methods involving KBH{sub 4}. (orig.)

  9. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  10. Electrochemical components

    CERN Document Server

    Pera, Marie-Cécile; Gualous, Hamid; Turpin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Marie-Cécile Péra is Full Professor at the University of Franche-Comte in France and Deputy Director of the FEMTO-ST Institute (CNRS). Her research activities include modeling, control and diagnosis of electrical power generation systems (fuel cells - PEMFC and SOFC, supercapacities, batteries) for transportation and stationary applications. Daniel Hissel is Full Professor at the University of Franche-Comte in France and Director of the Fuel Cell Lab Research Federation (CNRS). He also leads a research team devoted to hybrid electrical systems in the FEMTO-ST Institute (CNRS). Hamid Gualo

  11. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  12. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  13. Impacts of ozone-vegetation coupling and feedbacks on global air quality, ecosystems and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.

    2016-12-01

    resistance that is not accounted for in current generation of crop models. Our results show that a more complete understanding of ozone-vegetation interactions is necessary to derive more realistic future projections of climate, air quality, ecosystem functions and food security.

  14. Pseudocapacitive Oxides and Sulfides for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The intermittent nature of several sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind energy has ignited the demand of electrochemical energy storage devices in the form of batteries and electrochemical capacitors. The future generation

  15. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  16. Flow injection electrochemical hydride generation inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of hydride forming elements and its application to the analysis of fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bings, Nicolas H.; Stefanka, Zsolt; Mallada, Sergio Rodriguez

    2003-01-01

    A flow injection (FI) method was developed using electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) as a sample introduction system, coupled to an inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-TOFMS) for rapid and simultaneous determination of six elements forming hydrides (As, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb and Se). A novel low volume electrolysis cell, especially suited for FI experiments was designed and the conditions for simultaneous electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG; electrolyte concentrations and flow rates, electrolysis voltage and current) as well as the ICP-TOFMS operational parameters (carrier gas flow rate, modulation pulse width (MPW)) for the simultaneous determination of 12 isotopes were optimized. The compromise operation parameters of the electrolysis were found to be 1.4 and 3 ml min -1 for the anolyte and catholyte flow rates, respectively, using 2 M sulphuric acid. An optimum electrolysis current of 0.7 A (16 V) and an argon carrier gas flow rate of 0.91 l min -1 were chosen. A modulation pulse width of 5 μs, which influences the sensitivity through the amount of ions being collected by the MS per single analytical cycle, provided optimum results for the detection of transient signals. The achieved detection limits were compared with those obtained by using FI in combination with conventional nebulization (FI-ICP-TOFMS); values for chemical hydride generation (FI-CHG-ICP-TOFMS) were taken from the literature. By using a 200 μl sample loop absolute detection limits (3σ) in the range of 10-160 pg for As, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb and 1.1 ng for Se and a precision of 4-8% for seven replicate injections of 20-100 ng ml -1 multielemental sample solutions were achieved. The analysis of a standard reference material (SRM) 1643d (NIST, 'Trace Elements in Water') showed good agreement with the certified values for As and Sb. Se showed a drastic difference, which is probably due to the presence of hydride-inactive Se species in the sample. Recoveries better than

  17. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  18. Ozone profiles from tethered balloon measurements in an urban plume experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.; Storey, R. W.; Clendenin, C. G.; Jones, S.; Leighty, B.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center used two tethered balloon systems to measure ozone in the general area of Norfolk, Va. The large balloon system which has an altitude range of 1,500 meters was located at Wallops Island, Va., and the smaller balloon which has an altitude range of 900 meters was located at Chesapeake, Va. Each balloon system measured ozone, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction from ground to its maximum altitude. From these measurements and from the location of the balloon sites, areas of ozone generation and ozone transport may be inferred. The measurements which were taken during August 1979 are discussed as well as the measurement techniques.

  19. Utilization of a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator for the preparation of {sup 90}Y-labeled RGD peptide dimer in clinically relevant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div.

    2014-09-01

    The work reported in this paper provides a systematic study towards the development of an optimized strategy for preparation of a clinically relevant dose of {sup 90}Y-labeled dimeric RGD peptide derivative, DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} [DOTA-(RGD){sub 2}] for in vivo targeted therapy utilizing {sup 90}Y obtained from a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator. The performance of the generator was evaluated to ensure its suitability for providing {sup 90}Y in adequate quantity and purity required for formulation of clinically relevant dose for PRRT. {sup 90}Y-DOTA-(RGD){sub 2} was synthesized in high yield (86.2 ± 2.5%) and radiochemical purity (98.4 ± 0.5%) using clinically relevant dose (∝ 3.8 GBq) of {sup 90}Y. In vitro stability studies revealed that the radiolabeled conjugate retained its radiochemical purity in normal saline and human serum. Preliminary biodistribution studies carried out in C57/BL6 mice bearing melanoma tumors showed that the preparation exhibited significant tumor uptake (5.30 ± 0.78% of injected activity at 30 min post-injection) with good tumor to background ratio. The optimized radiolabeling protocol seems to be an attractive strategy which is largely viewed as a springboard to realize scope of developing {sup 90}Y labeled cyclic RGD peptides for targeted therapy of tumors over-expressing integrin-α{sub ν}β{sub 3} receptors. (orig.)

  20. Determination of As in tobacco by using electrochemical hydride generation at a Nafion® solid polymer electrolyte cell hyphenated with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Gan, Wuer; Deng, Yun; Sun, Huihui

    2011-11-01

    In the present work, a novel solid polymer electrolyte hydride generation (SPE-HG) cell was developed. The home-made SPE-HG cell, mainly composed of three components (Nafion®117 membrane for separating and H + exchanging, a soft graphite felt cathode and a Ti mesh modified by Ir anode), was employed for detecting As by coupling to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The H + generated by electrolysis of pure water in anode chamber transferred to cathode chamber through SPE, and immediately reacted with As 3 + to generate AsH 3. The relative mechanisms and operation conditions for hydride generation of As were investigated in detail. The developed cell employed water as an alternative of acid anolyte, with virtues of low-cost, more than 6 months lifetime and environment friendly compared with the conventional cell. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of determination of As 3 + for sample blank solution was 0.12 μg L - 1 , the RSD was 2.9% for 10 consecutive measurements of 5 μg L - 1 As 3 + standard solution. The accuracy of the method was verified by the determination of As in the reference Tea (GBW07605) and the developed method was successfully applied to determine trace amounts of As in tobacco samples with recovery from 97% to 103%.

  1. 77 FR 15368 - 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9647-5] 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission... Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC... such as performance standards for electric generating units (EGUs) on high electric demand days, oil...

  2. 78 FR 25265 - 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9806-5] 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission... Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC... such as performance standards for electric generating units (EGUs) on high electric demand days, oil...

  3. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B.; Lee, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data

  4. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S. [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data.

  5. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  6. Regulation of Electrochemically Generated H2O2 in Situ from a Novel CB-PTFE Cathode for Transformation of Chlorine Benzene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, X.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fenton's reagents (H2O2 and Fe2+ catalyst commonly) have been widely used in soil and groundwater remediation. But the excessive H2O2 decomposition and the pH modification (acidification) problem have been limitations for Fenton based remediation strategies. The Electro-Fenton (E- Fenton) processes has been recently developed to solve the problems, in which Fe2+ or H2O2are generated in situ as continuing source of Fenton's reagents. In this study, a novel CB-PTFE cathode and a Fe cathode were employed to generate H2O2 and Fe2+ in situ simultaneously. The generated reactive oxidizing species, i.e., O2,H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (HO•), oxidized bio-refractory organics to nontoxic matters in groundwater. Automatic pH adjustments are achieved by appropriately arraying the electrodes. Laboratory batch tests and column tests for the E-Fenton oxidation and hybrid electrolysis system were conducted to evaluate the transformation efficiency of chlorine benzene. Results from batch experiments suggested the CB-PTFE cathode was effective for reducing O2 to H2O2. The H2O2 concentration reached 468 mg/L under the condition of pH 3.0 and 30mA/cm2 in 60 minutes, which was 5 and 10 times of that with a graphite and C-felt cathode. The removal efficiency of chlorine benzene reached 80% in 20 minutes. Both chlorine benzene degradation and H2O2 production increased with decreasing solution pH and increasing current density. The results from the columns tests proved that the in situ E-Fenton system is a feasible method for groundwater remediation.

  7. Mechanism for enhanced degradation of clofibric acid in aqueous by catalytic ozonation over MnOx/SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yu; Li, Laisheng; Bing, Jishuai; Wang, Yingxin; Yan, Huihua

    2015-04-09

    Comparative experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic ability of MnO(x)/SBA-15 for the ozonation of clofibric acid (CA) and its reaction mechanism. Compared with ozonation alone, the degradation of CA was barely enhanced, while the removal of TOC was significantly improved by catalytic ozonation (O3/MnO(x)/SBA-15). Adsorption of CA and its intermediates by MnO(x)/SBA-15 was proved unimportant in O3/MnO(x)/SBA-15 due to the insignificant adsorption of CA and little TOC variation after ceasing ozone in stopped-flow experiment. The more remarkably inhibition effect of sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) on the removal of TOC in catalytic ozonation than in ozonation alone elucidated that MnO(x)/SBA-15 facilitated the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH), which was further verified by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Highly dispersed MnO(x) on SBA-15 were believed to be the main active component in MnO(x)/SBA-15. Some intermediates were indentified and different degradation routes of CA were proposed in both ozonation alone and catalytic ozonation. The amounts of small molecular carboxylic acids (i.e., formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA) and oxalic acid (OA)) generated in catalytic ozonation were lower than in ozonation alone, resulting from the generation of more OH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tetracycline degradation by ozonation in the aqueous phase: Proposed degradation intermediates and pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Hammad; Bae, Hyokwan; Jung, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    During the ozonation of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous media at pHs 2.2 and 7.0, the effects of pH variations, protonation and dissociation of functional groups and variation in free radical exposure were investigated to elucidate the transformation pathway. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detected around 15 ozonation products, and uncovered their production and subsequent degradation patterns. During ozonation at pH 2.2, the TC degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the structure, ozonation chemistry and mass spectrometry data of TC. Ozonation of TC at the C11a-C12 and C2-C3 double bonds, aromatic ring and amino group generated products of m/z 461, 477, 509 and 416, respectively. Further ozonation at the above mentioned sites gave products of m/z 432, 480, 448, 525 and 496. The removal of TOC reached a maximum of ∼40% after 2 h of ozonation, while TC was completely removed within 4-6 min at both pHs. The low TOC removal efficiency might be due to the generation of recalcitrant products and the low ozone supply for high TC concentration. Ozonation decreased the acute toxicity of TC faster at pH 7.0 than pH 2.2, but the maximum decrease was only about 40% at both pHs after 2 h of ozonation. In this study, attempts were made to understand the correlation between the transformation products, pathway, acute toxicity and quantity of residual organics in solution. Overall, ozonation was found to be a promising process for removing TC and the products initially generated.

  9. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  10. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone, from the surface to the tropopause. While a suite of observations provides significant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone, observational gaps make it necessary to use global atmospheric chemistry models to synthesize our understanding of the processes and variables that control tropospheric ozone abundance and its variability. Models facilitate the interpretation of the observations and allow us to make projections of future tropospheric ozone and trace gas distributions for different anthropogenic or natural perturbations. This paper assesses the skill of current-generation global atmospheric chemistry models in simulating the observed present-day tropospheric ozone distribution, variability, and trends. Drawing upon the results of recent international multi-model intercomparisons and using a range of model evaluation techniques, we demonstrate that global chemistry models are broadly skillful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric ozone over the seasonal cycle, for extreme pollution episodes, and changes over interannual to decadal periods. However, models are consistently biased high in the northern hemisphere and biased low in the southern hemisphere, throughout the depth of the troposphere, and are unable to replicate particular metrics that define the longer term trends in tropospheric ozone as derived from some background sites. When the models compare unfavorably against observations, we discuss the potential causes of model biases and propose directions for future developments, including improved evaluations that may be able to better diagnose the root cause of the model-observation disparity. Overall, model results should be approached critically, including determining whether the model performance is acceptable for

  11. Observation of enhanced ozone in an electrically active storm over Socorro, NM: Implications for ozone production from corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschwaner, K.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Dubey, M. K.; Avallone, L. M.; Sawaengphokai, P. C.; Edens, H. E.; Winn, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Enhancements in ozone were observed between about 3 and 10 km altitude within an electrically active storm in central New Mexico. Measurements from satellite sensors and ground-based radar show cloud top pressures between 300 and 150 mb in the vicinity of an ozonesonde launched from Socorro, NM, and heavy precipitation with radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ. Data from a lightning mapping array and a surface electric field mill show a large amount of electrical activity within this thunderstorm. The observed ozone enhancements are large (50% above the mean) and could have resulted from a number of possible processes, including the advection of polluted air from the urban environments of El Paso and Juarez, photochemical production by lightning-generated NOx from aged thunderstorm outflow, downward mixing of stratospheric air, or local production from within the thunderstorm. We find that a large fraction of the ozone enhancement is consistent with local production from corona discharges, either from cloud particles or by corona associated with lightning. The implied global source of ozone from thunderstorm corona discharge is estimated to be 110 Tg O3 a-1 with a range between 40 and 180 Tg O3 a-1. This value is about 21% as large as the estimated ozone production rate from lightning NOx, and about 3% as large as the total chemical production rate of tropospheric ozone. Thus while the estimated corona-induced production of ozone may be significant on local scales, it is unlikely to be as important to the global ozone budget as other sources.

  12. Epipremnum aureum and Dracaena braunii as indoor plants for enhanced bio-electricity generation in a plant microbial fuel cell with electrochemically modified carbon fiber brush anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Pranab Jyoti; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2018-04-13

    In this study, two different unexploited indoor plants, Epipremnum aureum and Dracaena braunii were used to produce clean and sustainable bio-electricity in a plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC). Acid modified carbon fiber brush electrodes as well as bare electrodes were used in both the PMFCs. A bentonite based clay membrane was successfully integrated in the PMFCs. Maximum performance of E. aureum was 620 mV which was 188 mV higher potential than D. braunii. The bio-electricity generation using modified electrode was 154 mV higher than the bare carbon fiber, probably due to the effective bacterial attachment to the carbon fiber owing to hydrogen bonding. Maximum power output of 15.38 mW/m 2 was obtained by E. aureum with an internal resistance of 200 Ω. Higher biomass yield was also obtained in case of E. aureum during 60 days of experiment, which may correlate with the higher bio-electricity generation than D. braunii. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  14. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  15. Uncertainties in models of tropospheric ozone based on Monte Carlo analysis: Tropospheric ozone burdens, atmospheric lifetimes and surface distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Parrish, David D.; Galbally, Ian E.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Naik, Vaishali; Young, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    Recognising that global tropospheric ozone models have many uncertain input parameters, an attempt has been made to employ Monte Carlo sampling to quantify the uncertainties in model output that arise from global tropospheric ozone precursor emissions and from ozone production and destruction in a global Lagrangian chemistry-transport model. Ninety eight quasi-randomly Monte Carlo sampled model runs were completed and the uncertainties were quantified in tropospheric burdens and lifetimes of ozone, carbon monoxide and methane, together with the surface distribution and seasonal cycle in ozone. The results have shown a satisfactory degree of convergence and provide a first estimate of the likely uncertainties in tropospheric ozone model outputs. There are likely to be diminishing returns in carrying out many more Monte Carlo runs in order to refine further these outputs. Uncertainties due to model formulation were separately addressed using the results from 14 Atmospheric Chemistry Coupled Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) chemistry-climate models. The 95% confidence ranges surrounding the ACCMIP model burdens and lifetimes for ozone, carbon monoxide and methane were somewhat smaller than for the Monte Carlo estimates. This reflected the situation where the ACCMIP models used harmonised emissions data and differed only in their meteorological data and model formulations whereas a conscious effort was made to describe the uncertainties in the ozone precursor emissions and in the kinetic and photochemical data in the Monte Carlo runs. Attention was focussed on the model predictions of the ozone seasonal cycles at three marine boundary layer stations: Mace Head, Ireland, Trinidad Head, California and Cape Grim, Tasmania. Despite comprehensively addressing the uncertainties due to global emissions and ozone sources and sinks, none of the Monte Carlo runs were able to generate seasonal cycles that matched the observations at all three MBL stations. Although

  16. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  17. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  18. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  19. Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic

  20. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  1. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Kara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an “intelligent” drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery.

  2. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnane; Rouillard, Camille; Mathault, Jessy; Boisvert, Martin; Tessier, Frédéric; Landari, Hamza; Melki, Imene; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Boisselier, Elodie; Fortin, Marc-André; Boilard, Eric; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2016-05-28

    In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT) sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an "intelligent" drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery.

  3. Electrochemical generation of energy: from the portable electronic devices to industrial plants; Generacion electroquimica de energia electrica: de los dispositivos electronicos portatiles a las plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, Javier [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article proposes the electrical energy generation via electrochemistry as substitute of petroleum and discusses on the development of low and high temperature fuel cells fed by diverse types of fuels: electrolyte fuel cells of polymeric membrane, PEM cells H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, cell of direct alcohol consumption, PEM cells and bio-fuel cells, SOFC cells and bio-fuel cells. It presents its constitution, operation principles, and use plausibility, present situation in the market, advantages and disadvantages, as well as already made cell insertion projects. [Spanish] Este trabajo propone la generacion de energia electrica via electroquimica como sustituto del petroleo y discurre sobre el desarrollo de celdas de combustible de baja y alta temperatura alimentadas por diversos tipos de combustibles: celdas de combustible de electrolito de membrana polimerica, celda PEM H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, celda de consumo directo de alcohol, celdas PEM y biocombustibles, celdas de combustible de oxido solido y biocombustibles. Expone su constitucion, principios de operacion, plausibilidad de uso, situacion actual en el mercado, ventajas y desventajas, asi como proyectos de insercion de celdas ya realizados.

  4. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  5. Artificially ionized region as a source of ozone in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Aleksandr V; Litvak, Aleksandr G; Vikharev, A L; Ivanov, O A; Borisov, Nikolai D; Sergeichev, Konstantin F

    2000-01-01

    A set of physical and chemical processes occurring in a microwave stratospheric discharge of nanosecond duration is discussed in connection with the effect they may have locally on the ozone layer in the artificially ionized region (AIR) in the stratosphere. The AIR, to be created at altitudes of 18 - 20 km by the microwave breakdown of air with ground-produced powerful electromagnetic wave beams, is planned for use in the natural physical experiment aimed at active monitoring of the ozone layer (its internal state and a set of plasma-chemical and photochemical processes) by controllably generating a considerable amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Results of relevant theoretical studies are presented, as are those of a large series of laboratory experiments performed under conditions similar to those prevailing in the stratosphere. Discharge regimes securing the efficient growth of ozone concentration are identified and studied in detail. It is demonstrated that such a stratospheric ozonizer is about as efficient as the best ground-based ozonizers used at present. For typical stratospheric conditions (low pressures and temperatures T ∼ 200 - 220 K), it is shown that the intense generation of ozone in a microwave breakdown effected by groups of short nanosecond pulses does not virtually increase the density of nitrogen oxides - gases that play a vital role in catalytic ozone-decomposing reactions. The possibility of effectively producing ozone in prebreakdown electric fields is established experimentally. It is demonstrated that due to its long lifetime, ozone produced locally at altitudes of 18 - 20 km may spread widely under the action of winds and turbulent diffusion, thus leading to an additional - artificial - ozonization of the stratosphere. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Electrochemical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibiting Layers Formed in a Defect from Lithium-Leaching Organic Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.; Meeusen, M.; Gonzalez Garcia, Y.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the electrochemical evaluation of protective layers generated in a coating defect from lithium-leaching organic coatings on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloys as a function of neutral salt spray exposure time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the electrochemical

  7. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  8. Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-S.; Tsai, S.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10 -4 cm 3 s -1 with detection limit of 58.8 μg m -3 h -1 . Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozone

  9. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  10. Electrochemical gating in scanning electrochemical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahonen, P.; Ruiz, V.; Kontturi, K.; Liljeroth, P.; Quinn, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can be used to determine the conductivity of nanoparticle assemblies as a function of assembly potential. In contrast to conventional electron transport measurements, this method is unique in that electrical connection to the film is not

  11. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  12. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  13. Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The new generation GISS climate model includes fully interactive chemistry related to ozone in historical and future simulations, and interactive methane in future simulations. Evaluation of ozone, its tropospheric precursors, and methane shows that the model captures much of the large-scale spatial structure seen in recent observations. While the model is much improved compared with the previous chemistry-climate model, especially for ozone seasonality in the stratosphere, there is still slightly too rapid stratospheric circulation, too little stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux in the Southern Hemisphere and an Antarctic ozone hole that is too large and persists too long. Quantitative metrics of spatial and temporal correlations with satellite datasets as well as spatial autocorrelation to examine transport and mixing are presented to document improvements in model skill and provide a benchmark for future evaluations. The difference in radiative forcing (RF calculated using modeled tropospheric ozone versus tropospheric ozone observed by TES is only 0.016 W m−2. Historical 20th Century simulations show a steady increase in whole atmosphere ozone RF through 1970 after which there is a decrease through 2000 due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone forcing increases throughout the 21st century under RCP8.5 owing to a projected recovery of stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in methane, but decreases under RCP4.5 and 2.6 due to reductions in emissions of other ozone precursors. RF from methane is 0.05 to 0.18 W m−2 higher in our model calculations than in the RCP RF estimates. The surface temperature response to ozone through 1970 follows the increase in forcing due to tropospheric ozone. After that time, surface temperatures decrease as ozone RF declines due to stratospheric depletion. The stratospheric ozone depletion also induces substantial changes in surface winds and the Southern Ocean circulation, which may play a role in

  14. Electrochemical characterization of liquid resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.M.; Whiteley, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    During the first two years of operation of Sandia's Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA I) the reliability of the CuSO 4 solution resistors in the Marx Generator Energy Storage System has been unsatisfactory. Resistor failure, which is characterized by a large increase in resistance, has been attributed to materials, production techniques, and operating parameters. The problems associated with materials and production techniques have been identified and solutions are proposed. Non-ideal operating parameters are shown to cause polarization of the cathode in the resistor. This initiates electrochemical reactions in the resistor. These reactions often lead to resistance changes and to eventual resistor failure

  15. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  16. Volcanic-aerosol-induced changes in stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.; Browell, E. V.; Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fenn, M. A.; Butler, C. F.; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.; Cros, B.; Mayor, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of lower stratospheric ozone in the Tropics using electrochemical concentrations cell (ECC) sondes and the airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo are compared with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and ECC sonde measurements from below the eruption to determine what changes have occurred as a result. Aerosol data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible and IR wavelengths of the lidar system are used to examine the relationship between aerosols and ozone changes. Ozone decreases of 30 percent at altitudes between 19 and 26 km, partial column (16-28 km) decreases of about 27 D.U., and slight increases (5.4 D.U.) between 28 and 31 km are found in comparison with SAGE 2 climatological values.

  17. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  18. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  19. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  20. Gas-Phase Functionalization of Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube Fiber Assemblies: Reaction Control, Electrochemical Properties, and Use for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Daniel; Senokos, Evgeny; Alemán, Belén; Cabana, Laura; Navío, Cristina; Marcilla, Rebeca; Prato, Maurizio; Vilatela, Juan J; Marchesan, Silvia

    2018-02-14

    The assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into fibers (CNTFs) is a convenient approach to exploit and apply the unique physico-chemical properties of CNTs in many fields. CNT functionalization has been extensively used for its implementation into composites and devices. However, CNTF functionalization is still in its infancy because of the challenges associated with preservation of CNTF morphology. Here, we report a thorough study of the gas-phase functionalization of CNTF assemblies using ozone which was generated in situ from a UV source. In contrast with liquid-based oxidation methods, this gas-phase approach preserves CNTF morphology, while notably increasing its hydrophilicity. The functionalized material is thoroughly characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Its newly acquired hydrophilicity enables CNTF electrochemical characterization in aqueous media, which was not possible for the pristine material. Through comparison of electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes and ionic liquids, we decouple the effects of functionalization on pseudocapacitive reactions and quantum capacitance. The functionalized CNTF assembly is successfully used as an active material and a current collector in all-solid supercapacitor flexible devices with an ionic liquid-based polymer electrolyte.

  1. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  2. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  3. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  4. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  5. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  6. Bio-electrochemical synthesis of commodity chemicals by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-02

    Aug 2, 2016 ... be exploited in a bio-electrochemical system for current generation or to provide ..... fiber was desorbed directly to GC injector for 3 min. This ..... The authors are grateful to COMSATS Institute of Information. Technology ...

  7. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.

  8. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10 12 and 10 15 eV . cm -3 . sec -1 . The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10 -19 cm 3 . eV -1 . The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Low temperature ozone oxidation of solid waste surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, James A.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid waste management presents a significant challenge to human spaceflight and especially, long-term missions beyond Earth orbit. A six-month mission will generate over 300 kg of solid wastes per crewmember that must be dealt with to eliminate the need for storage and prevent it from becoming a biological hazard to the crew. There are several methods for the treatment of wastes that include oxidation via ozone, incineration, microbial oxidation or pyrolysis and physical methods such as microwave drying and compaction. In recent years, a low temperature oxidation process using ozonated water has been developed for the chemical conversion of organic wastes to CO2 and H2O. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate and effectiveness with which ozone oxidized several different waste materials. Increasing the surface area by chopping or shredding the solids into small pieces more than doubled the rate of oxidation. A greater flow of ozone and agitation of the ozonated water system also increased processing rates. Of the materials investigated, plastics have proven the most difficult to oxidize. The processing of plastics above the glass transition temperatures caused the plastics to clump together which reduced the exposed surface area, while processing at lower temperatures reduced surface reaction kinetics.

  10. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  11. The roles of ozone and zeolite on reactive dye degradation in electrical discharge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, L; Kusic, H; Koprivanac, N; Locke, B R

    2006-05-01

    In this study high voltage pulsed corona electrical discharge advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to bleach and degrade C.I. Reactive Green 8 and C.I. Reactive Red 45 organic dyes in water solutions. Two types of hybrid gas/liquid high voltage electrical discharge (corona) reactors, known as hybrid series and hybrid parallel were studied. The difference between these reactors relates to electrode configuration, which affects the amounts of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals produced. Experiments were conducted using dye concentrations of 20 mgl(-1) and 75 mgl(-1), with and without NH4ZSM5 zeolite addition in order to determine possible effects of added solid particles to total process efficiency. The role of ozone in combination with zeolites was assessed through comparative direct ozonation experiments with ozone supplied by an ozone generator. UV/VIS spectrophotometric measurements and measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) were used for the determination of decolorization and mineralization rates.

  12. Ozone alteration of membrane permeability in Chlorella. I. Permeability of potassium ion as measured by 86Rubidium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.L.; Frederick, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    The addition of ozone to a suspension of Chlorella sorokiniana causes a rapid loss of K + , as measured by efflux of 86 Rb from prelabeled cells. The efflux of the tracer is stimulated some 15 to 20 times over that of the control. For about 100 microliters per liter ozone, about 25 minutes (6 x 10 -8 moles O 3 delivered per minute) of exposure are required for a 50% depletion of the intracellular K + . The stimulation of K + efflux is nearly linearly dependent upon the amount of ozone delivered into the solution. Following short pulses of ozone (lasting 1 to 5 minutes), efflux rates return to the control level but only after about 15 minutes. While influx of K + is ultimately inhibited by ozone, at low concentrations or for short exposure times the tracer influx is stimulated 100 to 200%. Ozone stimulation of an active pump mechanism is unlikely in view of a concomitant decrease in respiration. Thus, this influx may represent movement of K + along its electrochemical gradient. Assuming that influx and efflux are in steady-state according to the Goldman equation, it was calculated that the membrane potential for K + of -80 to -90 millivolts in control cells drops to -40 millivolts with ozone exposure and is accompanied by a calculated increased permeability to K + of 2- to 3-fold. 25 references, 6 figures

  13. Ozone-UV-catalysis based advanced oxidation process for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Jankunaite, Dalia; Racys, Viktoras; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2017-07-01

    A bench-scale advanced oxidation (AO) reactor was investigated for the degradation of six pollutants (2-naphthol, phenol, oxalic acid, phthalate, methylene blue, and D-glucose) in a model wastewater at with the aim to test opportunities for the further upscale to industrial applications. Six experimental conditions were designed to completely examine the experimental reactor, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, photolytic ozonation, catalytic ozonation, and photocatalytic ozonation. The stationary catalyst construction was made from commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder by mounting it on a glass support and subsequently characterized for morphology (X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy) as well as durability. The ozone was generated in a dielectrical barrier discharge reactor using air as a source of oxygen. The degradation efficiency was estimated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration as well as toxicity using Daphnia magna, and degradation by-products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The photocatalytic ozonation was the most effective for the treatment of all model wastewater. The photocatalytic ozonation was most effective against ozonation and photolytic ozonation at tested pH values. A complete toxicity loss was obtained after the treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. The possible degradation pathway of the phthalate by oxidation was suggested based on aromatic ring opening reactions. The catalyst used at this experiment confirmed as a durable for continuous use with almost no loss of activity over time. The design of the reactor was found to be very effective for water treatment using photocatalytic ozonation. Such design has a high potential and can be further upscaled to industrial applications due to the simplicity and versatility of manufacturing and maintenance.

  14. Mechanism for enhanced degradation of clofibric acid in aqueous by catalytic ozonation over MnOx/SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yu; Li, Laisheng; Bing, Jishuai; Wang, Yingxin; Yan, Huihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Clofibric acid (CA) is efficiently mineralized by O 3 /MnO x /SBA-15. • Adsorption of CA and its intermediates on MnO x /SBA-15 is proved unimportant. • Initiation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) is enhanced in O 3 /MnO x /SBA-15. • Uniformly distributed MnO x accounts for the high activity of MnO x /SBA-15. • Degradation routes of CA in ozonation alone and catalytic ozonation are proposed. - Abstract: Comparative experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic ability of MnO x /SBA-15 for the ozonation of clofibric acid (CA) and its reaction mechanism. Compared with ozonation alone, the degradation of CA was barely enhanced, while the removal of TOC was significantly improved by catalytic ozonation (O 3 /MnO x /SBA-15). Adsorption of CA and its intermediates by MnO x /SBA-15 was proved unimportant in O 3 /MnO x /SBA-15 due to the insignificant adsorption of CA and little TOC variation after ceasing ozone in stopped-flow experiment. The more remarkably inhibition effect of sodium bisulfite (NaHSO 3 ) on the removal of TOC in catalytic ozonation than in ozonation alone elucidated that MnO x /SBA-15 facilitated the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH), which was further verified by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Highly dispersed MnO x on SBA-15 were believed to be the main active component in MnO x /SBA-15. Some intermediates were indentified and different degradation routes of CA were proposed in both ozonation alone and catalytic ozonation. The amounts of small molecular carboxylic acids (i.e., formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA) and oxalic acid (OA)) generated in catalytic ozonation were lower than in ozonation alone, resulting from the generation of more ·OH

  15. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  16. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  17. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  18. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume

  19. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-06-02

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  20. Method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stuart B.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Huff, Shawn L.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2015-06-02

    A method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method includes quantifying the nonlinear response of an electrochemical system by measuring higher-order current or voltage harmonics generated by moderate-amplitude sinusoidal current or voltage perturbations. The method involves acquisition of the response signal followed by time apodization and fast Fourier transformation of the data into the frequency domain, where the magnitude and phase of each harmonic signal can be readily quantified. The method can be implemented on a computer as a software program.

  1. Electrochemical generation of oxygen. 1: The effects of anions and cations on hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation on platinum electrode. 2: The effects of anions and cations on oxygen generation on platinum electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Yeager, E.; Ogrady, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were studied of anions and cations on hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation on Pt by linear sweep voltammetry, and on oxygen generation on Pt by potentiostatic overpotential measurement. The hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation regions are greatly influenced by anion adsorption. In acids, the strongly bound hydrogen occurs at more cathodic potential when chloride and sulfate are present. Sulfate affects the initial phase of oxide film formation by produced fine structure while chloride retards the oxide-film formation. In alkaline solutions, both strongly and weakly bound hydrogen are influenced by iodide, cyanide, and barium and calcium cations. These ions also influence the oxide film formation. Factors considered to explain these effects are discussed. The Tafel slope for oxygen generation was found to be independent on the oxide thickness and the presence of cations or anions. The catalytic activity indicated by the exchange current density was observed decreasing with increasing oxide layer thickness, only a minor dependence on the addition of certain cations and anions was found.

  2. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  3. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  4. Nanohybrid capacitor: the next generation electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K. [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Conventional electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) designed with two symmetrical activated carbon electrodes can deliver substantially more power than similar size Li-ion batteries. There is presently a major effort to increase the energy density of EDLC s up to a target value in the vicinity of 20-30 Wh kg{sup -1}.The present review article deals with the recent contributions to get this high energy density and new approaches that have been made to increase the withstanding voltage of the EDLCs. Important alternative approach to meet this goal that is under serious investigation is to develop an asymmetric (hybrid) capacitors. Hybrid capacitor systems are the promising approach to meet the goal to effectively increase the energy density. The investigation is to develop hybrid capacitors has been initiated by Li-ion capacitors. And, now Nanohybrid capacitor certainly achieves as high energy density as Li-ion capacitors with higher stability, higher safety and higher productivity. This is the new lithium-ion based hybrid capacitor using the lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) negative intercalation electrode that can operate at unusually high current densities. The high-rate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode has a unique nano-structure consisting of unusually small nano-crystalline Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nucleated and grafted onto carbon nano-fiber anchors (nc-Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/CNF). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Improved functionality of graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam architecture by UV-ozone treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ruiz, Isaac; Lee, Ilkeun; Zaera, Francisco; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-04-01

    Optimization of the electrode/electrolyte double-layer interface is a key factor for improving electrode performance of aqueous electrolyte based supercapacitors (SCs). Here, we report the improved functionality of carbon materials via a non-invasive, high-throughput, and inexpensive UV generated ozone (UV-ozone) treatment. This process allows precise tuning of the graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam (GM) transitionally from ultrahydrophobic to hydrophilic within 60 s. The continuous tuning of surface energy can be controlled by simply varying the UV-ozone exposure time, while the ozone-oxidized carbon nanostructure maintains its integrity. Symmetric SCs based on the UV-ozone treated GM foam demonstrated enhanced rate performance. This technique can be readily applied to other CVD-grown carbonaceous materials by taking advantage of its ease of processing, low cost, scalability, and controllability.Optimization of the electrode/electrolyte double-layer interface is a key factor for improving electrode performance of aqueous electrolyte based supercapacitors (SCs). Here, we report the improved functionality of carbon materials via a non-invasive, high-throughput, and inexpensive UV generated ozone (UV-ozone) treatment. This process allows precise tuning of the graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam (GM) transitionally from ultrahydrophobic to hydrophilic within 60 s. The continuous tuning of surface energy can be controlled by simply varying the UV-ozone exposure time, while the ozone-oxidized carbon nanostructure maintains its integrity. Symmetric SCs based on the UV-ozone treated GM foam demonstrated enhanced rate performance. This technique can be readily applied to other CVD-grown carbonaceous materials by taking advantage of its ease of processing, low cost, scalability, and controllability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06795a

  6. Intercomparison of ozone measurements between Lidar and ECC-sondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Boesenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Dier, H. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Goersdorf, U. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Matthias, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Peters, G. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Schaberl, T. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Senff, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1996-02-01

    An intercomparison experiment for measurements of ozone vertical profiles in the lower troposphere was performed using a ground-based ozone DIAL (DIfferential Absorption Lidar) and ECC-sondes (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) attached to tethered as well as free flying balloons, which took place in June of 1994. The tethered balloon was used for ozone soundings in the planetary boundary layer up to an altitude of 500 m, while in the free troposphere free flying balloons were used. For the time series of up to 90 min obtained with the tethersondes both averages and standard deviations are compared. The mean difference for all measurements amounted to 3.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} only, corresponding to 3.5%. For the instantaneous profiles compared to the free flying sondes the differences were only marginally larger, with a mean value of 3.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} corresponding to 4.1%. With two exceptions all averages for a single profile stayed below 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Larger individual excursions were observed. In some cases, in particular in regions of steep aerosol gradients at layer boundaries, most probably the lidar values cause the deviation, while in other cases the ECC-sonde is suspected to yield erroneous results. For the measured standard deviation those retrieved from DIAL measurements are generally larger than measured by the ECC-sondes, especially in regions of inhomogeneous aerosol distribution. For the measurements reported here, this is attributed to residual errors in the aerosol correction of the DIAL measurements. The general agreement found in this intercomparison is regarded as excellent, DIAL is proven to be a very valuable tool for detailed studies of the ozone distribution in the lower troposphere. (orig.)

  7. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Shih-Min; Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  8. Application of ozonation for pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Costa, Raquel; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Martins, Rui C

    2017-05-15

    Due to the shortening on natural water resources, reclaimed wastewater will be an important water supply source. However, suitable technologies must be available to guaranty its proper detoxification with special concern for the emerging pharmaceutical and personal care products that are continuously reaching municipal wastewater treatment plants. While conventional biological systems are not suitable to remove these compounds, ozone, due to its interesting features involving molecular ozone oxidation and the possibility of generating unselective hydroxyl radicals, has a wider range of action on micropollutants removal and water disinfection. This paper aims to review the studies dealing with ozone based processes for water reuse by considering municipal wastewater reclamation as well as natural and drinking water treatment. A comparison with alternative technologies is given. The main drawback of ozonation is related with the low mineralization achieved that may lead to the production of reaction intermediates with toxic features. The use of hydrogen peroxide and light aided systems enhance ozone action over pollutants. Moreover, scientific community is focused on the development of solid catalysts able to improve the mineralization level achieved by ozone. Special interest is now being given to solar light catalytic ozonation systems with interesting results both for chemical and biological contaminants abatement. Nowadays the integration between ozonation and sand biofiltration seems to be the most interesting cost effective methodology for water treatment. However, further studies must be performed to optimize this system by understanding the biofiltration mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical study of ozone adsorption on the surface of Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Askari Ardehjani, Nastaran

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the adsorption of ozone molecule on Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) were investigated using density functional theory. The most stable adsorption configurations, charge transfer and adsorption energy of ozone molecule on pure and doped BNNSs are calculated. It is shown that ozone molecule has no remarkable interaction with pure boron nitride nanosheet, it tends to be chemisorbed on Fe, Co and Ni doped BNNSs with adsorption energy in the range of -249.4 to -686.1 kJ/mol. In all configurations, the adsorption of ozone molecule generates a semiconductor by reducing Eg in the pure and Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheet. It shows that the conductance of BNNSs change over the adsorption of ozone molecule. The obtained results in this study can be used in developing BN-based sheets for ozone molecule removal.

  10. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  11. Landfill leachate treatment with ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizaoui, Chedly; Bouselmi, Latifa; Mansouri, Loubna; Ghrabi, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    In the search for an efficient and economical method to treat a leachate generated from a controlled municipal solid waste landfill site (Jebel Chakir) in the region of greater Tunis in Tunisia, ozone alone and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide were studied. The leachate was characterised by high COD, low biodegradability and intense dark colour. A purpose-built reactor, to avoid foaming, was used for the study. It was found that ozone efficacy was almost doubled when combined with hydrogen peroxide at 2 g/L but higher H 2 O 2 concentrations gave lower performances. Enhancement in the leachate biodegradability from about 0.1 to about 0.7 was achieved by the O 3 /H 2 O 2 system. Insignificant changes in pH that may due to buffering effect of bicarbonate was found. A small decrease in sulphate concentrations were also observed. In contrast, chloride concentration declined at the beginning of the experiment then increased to reach its initial value. Estimates of the operating costs were made for comparison purposes and it was found that the O 3 /H 2 O 2 system at 2 g/L H 2 O 2 gave the lowest cost of about 3.1 TND (∼2.3 USD)/kg COD removed

  12. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  13. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  14. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  15. Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Fishman, Jack; Brackett, Vincent G.; Veiga, Robert E.; Nganga, Dominique; Minga, A.; Cros, Bernard; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.

    1994-01-01

    The large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol formed in the stratosphere by conversion of sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.14 deg N, 120.35 deg E) in the Philippines around June 15, 1991, has had a pronounced effect on lower stratospheric ozone in the tropics. Measurements of stratospheric ozone in the tropics using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sondes before and after the eruption and the airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) measurements from several years before the eruption and ECC sonde measurements from the year prior to the eruption to determine the resulting changes. Ozone decreases of up to 33 % compared with SAGE II climatological values were found to be directly correlated with altitude regions of enhanced aerosol loading in the 16- to 28-km range. A maximum partial-column decrease of 29 +/- Dobson units (DU) was found over the 16- to 28-km range in September 1991 along with small increases (to 5.9 +/- 2 DU) from 28 to 31.5 km. A large decrease of ozone was also found at 4 deg to 8 deg S from May to August 1992, with a maximum decrease of 33 +/- 7 DU found above Brazzaville in July. Aerosol data form the visible channel of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible wavelength of the UV DIAL system were used to examine the relationship between aerosol (surface area) densities and ozone changes. The tropical stratospheric ozone changes we observed in 1991 and 1992 are likely be explained by a combination of dynamical (vertical transport) perturbations, radiative perturbations on ozone photochemistry, and heterogeneous chemistry.

  16. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  17. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  18. Feasibility of gas-discharge and optical methods of creating artificial ozone layers of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batanov, G.M.; Kossyi, I.A.; Matveev, A.A.; Silakov, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Gas-discharge (microwave) and optical (laser) methods of generating large-scale artificial ozone layers in the stratosphere are analyzed. A kinetic model is developed to calculate the plasma-chemical consequences of discharges localized in the stratosphere. Computations and simple estimates indicate that, in order to implement gas-discharge and optical methods, the operating power of ozone-producing sources should be comparable to or even much higher than the present-day power production throughout the world. Consequently, from the engineering and economic standpoints, microwave and laser methods cannot be used to repair large-scale ozone 'holes'

  19. Statistical evaluation of mature landfill leachate treatment by homogeneous catalytic ozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. C. Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a mature landfill leachate treated by a homogeneous catalytic ozonation process with ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ at acidic pH. Quality assessments were performed using Taguchi's method (L8 design. Strong synergism was observed statistically between molecular ozone and ferric ions, pointing to their catalytic effect on •OH generation. The achievement of better organic matter depollution rates requires an ozone flow of 5 L h-1 (590 mg h-1 O3 and a ferric ion concentration of 5 mg L-1.

  20. The holes in the ozone scare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduro, R.; Schauerhamer, R.

    1992-05-01

    For the authors, the ozone hole is more politic than scientific, and is caused by anthropogenic CFC, the ozone concentration reduction measured in the antarctic stratosphere is a natural phenomena: ozone destruction by chlorides and bromides coming from volcanos and oceans. The ozone hole was discovered in 1956 and not in 1985. For the greenhouse effect, the CO[sub 2] part is very small in comparison with the atmospheric water vapour part. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from ranitidine by ozonation preceding chloramination: influencing factors and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rusen; Liao, Xiaobin; Zhao, Lei; Yuan, Baoling

    2018-05-01

    Formation of toxic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by chloramination of ranitidine, a drug to block histamine, was still an ongoing issue and posed a risk to human health. In this study, the effect of ozonation prior to chloramination on NDMA formation and the transformation pathway were determined. Influencing factors, including ozone dosages, pH, hydroxyl radical scavenger, bromide, and NOM, were studied. The results demonstrated that small ozone dosage (0.5 mg/L) could effectively control NDMA formation from subsequent chloramination (from 40 to 0.8%). The NDMA molar conversion was not only influenced by pH but also by ozone dosages at various pre-ozonation pH (reached the highest value of 5% at pH 8 with 0.5 mg/L O 3 but decreased with the increasing pH with 1 mg/L O 3 ). The NDMA molar yield by chloramination of ranitidine without pre-ozonation was reduced by the presence of bromide ion due to the decomposition of disinfectant. However, due to the formation of brominated intermediate substances (i.e., dimethylamine (DMA), dimethyl-aminomethyl furfuryl alcohol (DFUR)) with higher NDMA molar yield than their parent substances, more NDMA was formed than that without bromide ion upon ozonation. Natural organic matter (NOM) and hydroxyl radical scavenger (tert-butyl alcohol, tBA) enhanced NDMA generation because of the competition of ozone and more ranitidine left. The NDMA reduction mechanism by pre-ozonation during chloramination of ranitidine may be due to the production of oxidation products with less NDMA yield (such as DMA) than parent compound. Based on the result of Q-TOF and GC-MS/MS analysis, three possible transformation pathways were proposed. Different influences of oxidation conditions and water quality parameters suggest that strategies to reduce NDMA formation should vary with drinking water sources and choose optimal ozone dosage.

  2. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia . The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  3. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, M.R.; Bueker, P.; Emberson, L.D.; Terry, A.C.; Toet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO 3 SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status

  4. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  5. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  6. Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

  7. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  8. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  9. Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Hong, Sun-Seok; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung-Chul; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO{sub 2} emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.

  10. Nanodevices in nature: Electrochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Volkova-Gugeshashvili, Maya I.; Brown-McGauley, Courtney L.; Osei, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical multielectron reactions in photosynthesis and respiration are evaluated by thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Kharkats and Volkov [Yu.I. Kharkats, A.G. Volkov, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 891 (1987) 56] were the first to present proof that cytochrome c oxidase reduces molecular oxygen by synchronous multielectron mechanism without O 2 - intermediate formation. After this pioneering observation, it became clear that the first step of oxygen reduction is two-electron concerted process. The energy for the H + -pump of cytochrome oxidase is liberated when the third and fourth electrons are added in the last two steps of water formation independent of the reaction pathway. Electrochemical principles govern many biological properties of organisms, such as the generation of electric fields, and the conduction of fast excitation waves. These properties are supported by the function of a variety of natural nanodevices. Ionic channels, as natural nanodevices, control the plasma membrane potential, and the movement of ions across membranes; thereby, regulating various biological functions. Some voltage-gated ion channels work as plasma membrane nanopotentiostats. In plants, excitation waves are possible mechanisms for intercellular and intracellular communication in response to environmental changes. The role of electrified nanointerface of the plasma membrane in signal transduction is discussed as well

  11. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment...... catalysts based on this. Suited for upper-level high school and first-year university students, this exercise involves using a basic two-cell electrochemical setup to test multiple electrode materials as catalysts at one applied potential, and then constructing a volcano curve with the resulting currents...

  13. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  14. Effect of ozonation on minocycline degradation and N-Nitrosodimethylamine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Juan; Li, Yong M

    2018-06-07

    The objective of this study was to assess reactivity of Minocycline (MNC) towards ozone and determine the effects of ozone dose, pH value, and water matrix on MNC degradation as well as to characterize N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation from MNC ozonation. The MNC initial concentration of the solution was set in the range of 2-20 mg/L to investigate NDMA formation during MNC ozonation. Four ozone doses (22.5, 37.2, 58.0, and 74.4 mg/min) were tested to study the effect of ozone dose. For the evaluation of effects of pH value, pH was adjusted from 5 to 9 in the presence of phosphate buffer. MNC ozonation experiments were also conducted in natural water to assess the influence of water matirx. The influence of the typical component of natural water was also investigated with the addition of HA and NaHCO 3 solution. Results indicated that ozone was effective in MNC removal. Consequently, NDMA and dimethylamine (DMA) were generated from MNC oxidation. Increasing pH value enhanced MNC removal but led to greater NDMA generation. Water matrices, such as HCO 3 - and humic acid, affected MNC degradation. Conversely, more NDMA accumulated due to the inhibition of NDMA oxidation by oxidant consumption. Though ⋅OH can enhance MNC degradation, ozone molecules were heavily involved in NDMA production. Seven transformation products were identified. However, only DMA and the unidentified tertiary amine containing DMA group contributed to NDMA formation.

  15. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  16. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  17. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  18. Menadione metabolism to thiodione in hepatoblastoma by scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzeroll, Janine; Bard, Allen J.; Owhadian, Omeed; Monks, Terrence J.

    2004-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of menadione on hepatocytes was studied by using the substrate generation/tip collection mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy by exposing the cells to menadione and detecting the menadione-S-glutathione conjugate (thiodione) that is formed during the cellular detoxication process and is exported from the cell by an ATP-dependent pump. This efflux was electrochemically detected and allowed scanning electrochemical microscopy monitoring and imaging of single cells and groups of highly confluent live cells. Based on a constant flux model, ≈6 × 106 molecules of thiodione per cell per second are exported from monolayer cultures of Hep G2 cells. PMID:15601769

  19. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  20. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  1. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  2. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  3. Characterization of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from the ozonation of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Juan; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection by-product which is formed during water disinfection in the presence of amine-based precursors. Ranitidine, as one kind of amine-based pharmaceuticals, has been identified as NDMA precursor with high NDMA molar conversion during chloramination. This study focused on the characterization of NDMA formation during ozonation of ranitidine. Influences of operational variables (ozone dose, pH value) and water matrix on NDMA generation as well as ranitidine degradation were evaluated. The results indicate high reactivity of ranitidine with ozone. Dimethylamine (DMA) and NDMA were generated due to ranitidine oxidation. High pH value caused more NDMA accumulation. NDMA formation was inhibited under acid conditions (pH≤5) mainly due to the protonation of amines. Water matrix such as HCO 3 - and humic acid impacted NDMA generation due to OH scavenging. Compared with OH, ozone molecules dominated the productions of DMA and NDMA. However, OH was a critical factor in NDMA degradation. Transformation products of ranitidine during ozonation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among these products, just DMA and N,N-dimethylformamide could contribute to NDMA formation due to the DMA group in the molecular structures. The NDMA formation pathway from ranitidine ozonation was also proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  5. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  6. Electrochemical Power Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Electrochemical Power Sources - Rechargeable Batteries. A K Shukla S K Martha. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 52-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Electro-chemical grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Electro-chemical grinding technique has rotation speed control, constant feed rates, and contour control. Hypersonic engine parts of nickel alloys can be almost 100% machined, keeping tool pressure at virtual zero. Technique eliminates galling and permits constant surface finish and burr-free interrupted cutting.

  8. 50 years of monitoring of the ozone layer in the Czech Republic - results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Karel; Skrivankova, Pavla; Metelka, Ladislav; Stanek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Long-term observations of total ozone (TOZ) and vertical ozone profiles, the basic parameters of the ozone layer, have been performed at the Solar and Ozone Observatory (SOO) Hradec Kralove and at the Aerological Department (AD) Praha of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) since 1961 and 1992 respectively. The Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers regularly calibrated towards the international references and electro-chemical ECC ozone sondes are used for the measurements. The observations contribute to the global GAW and NDACC ozone monitoring systems. Up to now analyses of the data give the basic findings given bellow and documented in the presentation. Some of them have important implication to the international ozone monitoring infrastructure, as well. - The decrease of TOZ by about 5-7 % in the winter-spring months towards the pre ozone-hole period have occurred since the mid eighties. This is in good agreement by the magnitude and time with depletion of the ozone layer due to chemical destruction of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes. - Significant depletion 3-5 % of TOZ has been identified also in the summer season since the early nineties. As this can not be attributed to the man-made chemical processes a change in the UT/LS dynamics over Central Europe is the most probable reason. - Aerological measurements taken at AD show that the summer reduction of TOZ very well coincides with a change of UT/LS temperature that persists for about two decades over the Czech territory. Therefore it has a long-term character that can be regarded as a climate shift in UT/LS and need to be further investigated. - 15 years of unique simultaneous Dobson/Brewer observations of TOZ performed at SOO show systematic seasonal deviations between both data sets that exceed instrumental accuracy of measurements. The differences are mostly caused by different wavelengths and their ozone absorption coefficients used by both instruments. As the Brewer observations are being

  9. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  10. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  11. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  12. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  13. Disinfection of Escherichia coli bacteria using hybrid method of ozonation and hydrodynamic cavitation with orifice plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamah, Eva F.; Ghaudenson, Rioneli; Amalia, Fitri; Bismo, Setijo

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate the performance of hybrid method of ozonation and hydrodynamic cavitation with orifice plate on E.coli bacteria disinfection. In this research, ozone dose, circulation flowrate, and disinfection method were varied. Ozone was produced by commercial ozonator with ozone dose of 64.83 mg/hour, 108.18 mg/hour, and 135.04 mg/hour. Meanwhile, hydrodynamic cavitation was generated by an orifice plate. The disinfection method compared in this research were: hydrodynamic cavitation, ozonation, and the combination of both. The best result on each method was achieved on the 60th minutes and with a circulation flowrate of 7 L/min. The hybrid method attained final concentration of 0 CFU/mL from the initial concentration of 2.10 × 105 CFU/mL. The ozonation method attained final concentration of 0 CFU/mL from the initial concentration of 1.32 × 105 CFU/mL. Cavitation method gives the least disinfection with final concentration of 5.20 × 104 CFU/mL from the initial concentration of 2.17 × 105 CFU/mL. In conclusion, hybrid method gives a faster and better disinfection of E.coli than each method on its own.

  14. The use of satellite data to determine the distribution of ozone in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack; Watson, Catherine E.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Fakhruzzaman, Khan; Veiga, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements from two independent satellite data sets have been used to derive the climatology of the integrated amount of ozone in the troposphere. These data have led to the finding that large amounts of ozone pollution are generated by anthropogenic activity originating from both the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere and from the southern tropical regions of Africa. To verify the existence of this ozone anomaly at low latitudes, an ozonesonde capability has been established at Ascension Island (8 deg S, 15 deg W) since July 1990. According to the satellite analyses, Ascension Island is located downwind of the primary source region of this ozone pollution, which likely results from the photochemical oxidation of emissions emanating from the widespread burning of savannas and other biomass. These in situ measurements confirm the existence of large amounts of ozone in the lower atmosphere. A summary of these ozonesonde data to date will be presented. In addition, we will present some ozone profile measurements from SAGE II which can be used to provide upper tropospheric ozone measurements directly in the tropical troposphere. A preliminary comparison between the satellite observations and the ozonesonde profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will also be presented.

  15. Satellite Ozone Analysis Center (SOAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Knox, J.B.; Korver, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Many questions have been raised during the 1970's regarding the possible modification of the ozonosphere by aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Concern also has been expressed over the manner in which the ozonosphere may change in the future as a result of fluorocarbon releases. There are also other ways by which the ozonosphere may be significantly altered, both anthropogenic and natural. Very basic questions have been raised, bearing upon the amount of ozone which would be destroyed by the NO/sub x/ produced in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Studies of the available satellite data have suggested that the worldwide increase of ozone during the past decade, which was observed over land stations, may have been biased by a poor distribution of stations and/or a shift of the planetary wave. Additional satellite data will be required to resolve this issue. Proposals are presented for monitoring of the Earth's ozone variability from the present time into the 1980's to establish a baseline upon which regional, as well as global, ozone trends can be measured

  16. Efficient electrochemical degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipa, Vytas; Hanna, Shannon K; Urbas, Aaron; Sander, Lane; Elliott, John; Conny, Joseph; Petersen, Elijah J

    2018-07-15

    As the production mass of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) increases, the potential for human and environmental exposure to MWCNTs may also increase. We have shown that exposing an aqueous suspension of pristine MWCNTs to an intense oxidative treatment in an electrochemical reactor, equipped with an efficient hydroxyl radical generating Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) anode, leads to their almost complete mineralization. Thermal optical transmittance analysis showed a total carbon mass loss of over two orders of magnitude due to the electrochemical treatment, a result consistent with measurements of the degraded MWCNT suspensions using UV-vis absorbance. Liquid chromatography data excludes substantial accumulation of the low molecular weight reaction products. Therefore, up to 99% of the initially suspended MWCNT mass is completely mineralized into gaseous products such as CO 2 and volatile organic carbon. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show sporadic opaque carbon clusters suggesting the remaining nanotubes are transformed into structure-less carbon during their electrochemical mineralization. Environmental toxicity of pristine and degraded MWCNTs was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and revealed a major reduction in the MWCNT toxicity after treatment in the electrochemical flow-by reactor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. First Reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Profiles (1998-2016): 2. Comparisons With Satellites and Ground-Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Sterling, Chance; Jordan, Allen; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Vömel, Holger; Allaart, Marc; Piters, Ankie; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Posny, Françoise; Corrales, Ernesto; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Félix, Christian; Komala, Ninong; Lai, Nga; Ahn Nguyen, H. T.; Maata, Matakite; Mani, Francis; Zainal, Zamuna; Ogino, Shin-ya; Paredes, Francisco; Penha, Tercio Luiz Bezerra; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Sallons-Mitro, Sukarni; Selkirk, Henry B.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Stübi, Rene; Thiongo, Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesonde (SHADOZ) network was assembled to validate a new generation of ozone-monitoring satellites and to better characterize the vertical structure of tropical ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere. Beginning with nine stations in 1998, more than 7,000 ozone and P-T-U profiles are available from 14 SHADOZ sites that have operated continuously for at least a decade. We analyze ozone profiles from the recently reprocessed SHADOZ data set that is based on adjustments for inconsistencies caused by varying ozonesonde instruments and operating techniques. First, sonde-derived total ozone column amounts are compared to the overpasses from the Earth Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite satellites that cover 1998-2016. Second, characteristics of the stratospheric and tropospheric columns are examined along with ozone structure in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We find that (1) relative to our earlier evaluations of SHADOZ data, in 2003, 2007, and 2012, sonde-satellite total ozone column offsets at 12 stations are 2% or less, a significant improvement; (2) as in prior studies, the 10 tropical SHADOZ stations, defined as within ±19° latitude, display statistically uniform stratospheric column ozone, 229 ± 3.9 DU (Dobson units), and a tropospheric zonal wave-one pattern with a 14 DU mean amplitude; (3) the TTL ozone column, which is also zonally uniform, masks complex vertical structure, and this argues against using satellites for lower stratospheric ozone trends; and (4) reprocessing has led to more uniform stratospheric column amounts across sites and reduced bias in stratospheric profiles. As a consequence, the uncertainty in total column ozone now averages 5%.

  18. Convection links biomass burning to increased tropical ozone: However, models will tend to overpredict O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Delany, Anthony C.

    1990-10-01

    Biomass burning throughout the inhabited portions of the tropics generates precursors which lead to significant local atmospheric ozone pollution. Several simulations show how this smog could be only an easily observed, local manifestation of a much broader increase in tropospheric ozone. We illustrate basic processes with a one-dimensional time-dependent model that is closer to true meteorological motions than commonly used eddy diffusion models. Its application to a representative region of South America gives reasonable simulations of the local pollutants measured there. Three illustrative simulations indicate the importance of dilution, principally due to vertical transport, in increasing the efficiency of ozone production, possibly enough for high ozone to be apparent on a very large, intercontinental scale. In the first, cook-then-mix, simulation the nitrogen oxides and other burning-produced pollutants are confined to a persistently subsident fair weather boundary layer for several days, and the resultant ozone is found to have only a transient influence on the whole column of tropospheric ozone. In the second, mix-then-cook, simulation the effect of typical cumulonimbus convection, which vents an actively polluted boundary layer, is to make a persistent increase in the tropical ozone column. Such a broadly increased ozone column is observed over the the populated "continental" portion of the tropics. A third simulation averages all emission, transport, and deposition parameters, representing one column in a global tropospheric model that does not simulate individual weather events. This "oversmoothing" simulation produces 60% more ozone than observed or otherwise modeled. Qualitatively similar overprediction is suggested for all models which average significantly in time or space, as all need do. Clearly, simulating these O3 levels will depend sensitively on knowledge of the timing of emissions and transport.

  19. Characterization of natural organic matter treated by iron oxide nanoparticle incorporated ceramic membrane-ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hosik; Kim, Yohan; An, Byungryul; Choi, Heechul

    2012-11-15

    In this study, changes in the physical and structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) were observed during hybrid ceramic membrane processes that combined ozonation with ultrafiltration ceramic membrane (CM) or with a reactive ceramic membrane (RM), namely, an iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) incorporated-CM. NOM from feed water and NOM from permeate treated with hybrid ceramic membrane processes were analyzed by employing several NOM characterization techniques. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fractionation analyses showed that the hybrid ceramic membrane process effectively removed and transformed relatively high contents of aromatic, high molecular weight and hydrophobic NOM fractions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 3-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that this process caused a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase in electron withdrawing groups. The highest removal efficiency (46%) of hydroxyl radical probe compound (i.e., para-Chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) in RM-ozonation process compared with that in CM without ozonation process (8%) revealed the hydroxyl radical formation by the surface-catalyzed reaction between ozone and IONs on the surface of RM. In addition, experimental results on flux decline showed that fouling of RM-ozonation process (15%) was reduced compared with that of CM without ozonation process (30%). These results indicated that the RM-ozonation process enhanced the destruction of NOM and reduced the fouling by generating hydroxyl radicals from the catalytic ozonation in the RM-ozonation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the economic impact of ozone on the agricultural sector in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallala, A.M.

    1990-05-01

    Ozone is the most damaging secondary pollutant to agricultural production, according to the literature. It is estimated that 90% of crop losses due to air pollution are caused by ozone. The economic impact of ozone on 20 agricultural commodities in Ontario is assessed in two steps. In the first, ozone contour maps are generated for the province. The results suggest an average ozone concentration of 40 ppB, higher than the natural background of 20 ppB. The second step measures the change in consumer and producer surplus that results from reductions in ozone levels in Ontario from 40 ppB to 20 ppB. Consumer plus producer surpluses correspond to the area below the demand curve and above the supply curve to the left of their intersection. A nonlinear programming model that maximizes consumer and producer surpluses, subject to a set of constraints, was run twice. The first run incorporates realized yields and production costs, and the second incorporates biological yield changes owing to ozone and the associated changes in production costs. The difference in value of the objective functions between the two runs shows the net benefits of reduced ozone levels. Results indicate an average net benefit of $64.3 million/y or 5.8% of the total value of all the crops considered. Average annual consumer benefits are $44.1 million and producer benefits $20.2 million. Not all producers benefit from ozone reductions; producers of fresh vegetables lose while producers of grain corn, soybeans, and winter wheat gain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  2. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnawati, Enjarlis, Slamet

    2017-11-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal from pharmaceutical wastewater were investigated using configuration of two circulation batch reactors in a series with ozonation and photocatalytic processes. The ozonation is conducted with O3/granulated activated carbon (O3/GAC), whereas photocatalysis with TiO2 that immobilized on pumice stone (PS-TiO2). The effect of circulation flow rate (10; 12; 15 L/min) and the amount PS-TiO2 (200 g, 250 g, 300 g) were examined. Wastewater of 20 L was circulated pass through the pipe that injected with O3 by the ozone generator, and subsequently flow through two GAC columns, and finally, go through photoreactor that contains photocatalyst PS-TiO2 which equipped with mercury lamp as a photon source. At a time interval, COD and phenol concentration were measured to assess the performance of the process. FESEM imaging confirmed that TiO2 was successfully impregnated on PS, as corroborated by EDX spectra. Meanwhile, degradation process indicated that the combined ozonation and photocatalytic processes (O3/GAC-TiO2) is more efficient compared to the ozonation and photocatalysis alone. For combination process with the circulation flow rate of 10 L/min and 300 g of PS-TiO2,the influent COD of around 1000 ppm are effectively degraded to a final effluent COD of 290 ppm (71% removal) and initial phenol concentration of 4.75 ppm down to 0 ppm for 4 h which this condition fulfill the discharge standards quality. Therefore, this portable prototype reactor is effective that can be used in the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. For the future, this process condition will be developed for orientation on the industrial applications (portable equipment) since pharmaceutical industries produce wastewater relatively in the small amount.

  3. The exhibition to ozone diminishes the adherence and increases the membrane permeability of macrophages alveolar of rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone gas is generated photochemically in areas with high levels of automotive or industrial emissions, and causes irritation and inflammation of the airways if inhaled. Rat alveolar macrophages were obtained by lung lavage from male Sprague Dawley rats and used as a model to assess ozone induced cell damage (0,594 ppm for up to 60 minutes). Ozone exposure caused loss of cell adherence to a polystyrene substrate and increased membrane permeability, as noted by increases in specific 51 Cr release and citoplasmic calcium levels. The results indicate that the cell membrane is a target for ozone damage. Elevations of cytoplasmic calcium could mediate other macrophage responses to ozone , including eicosanoid and nitric oxide production, with concomitant decreases in phagocytic ability and superoxide production. (Author) [es

  4. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  5. Effect of ozone on leaf cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, E S; Thomson, W W; Mudd, J B

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ozone on membrane lipids and on the electron-density patterns of cell membranes in electron micrographs. Analysis of fatty acids from tobacco leaves fumigated with ozone indicated that there was no significant difference between the ozone-treated and the control plants in the relative amounts of the fatty acids. This suggests that if the primary site of ozone action is unsaturated lipids in membranes then the amounts of affected unsaturated fatty acids are too small to be detected by gas chromatography. In support of this, characteristic electron-microscopic images of membranes are observed in cells of fumigated leaves. However, measurements of the length and width of the chloroplasts and the determination of axial ratios indicated that the ozone treatment resulted in a shrinkage of the chloroplasts. In contrast, mitochondrial changes are apparently explained in terms of ozone-induced swelling. 33 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  7. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  8. Catalytic ozonation of oxalate with a cerium supported palladium oxide: An efficient degradation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Weiwei; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cerium supported palladium oxide (PdO/CeO 2) at a low palladium loading was found very effective in catalytic ozonation of oxalate, a probe compound that is difficult to be efficiently degraded in water with hydroxyl radical oxidation and one of the major byproducts in ozonation of organic matter. The oxalate was degraded into CO 2 during the catalytic ozonation. The molar ratio of oxalate degraded to ozone consumption increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreasing ozone dosage and pH under the conditions of this study. The maximum molar ratio reached around 1, meaning that the catalyst was highly active and selective for oxalate degradation in water. The catalytic ozonation, which showed relatively stable activity, does not promote hydroxyl radical generation from ozone. Analysis with ATR-FTIR and in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that 1) oxalate was adsorbed on CeO 2 of the catalyst forming surface complexes, and 2) O 3 was adsorbed on PdO of the catalyst and further decomposed to surface atomic oxygen (*O), surface peroxide (*O 2), and O 2 gas in sequence. The results indicate that the high activity of the catalyst is related to the synergetic function of PdO and CeO 2 in that the surface atomic oxygen readily reacts with the surface cerium-oxalate complex. This kind of catalytic ozonation would be potentially effective for the degradation of polar refractory organic pollutants and hydrophilic natural organic matter. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Catalytic ozonation of oxalate with a cerium supported palladium oxide: An efficient degradation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The cerium supported palladium oxide (PdO/CeO 2) at a low palladium loading was found very effective in catalytic ozonation of oxalate, a probe compound that is difficult to be efficiently degraded in water with hydroxyl radical oxidation and one of the major byproducts in ozonation of organic matter. The oxalate was degraded into CO 2 during the catalytic ozonation. The molar ratio of oxalate degraded to ozone consumption increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreasing ozone dosage and pH under the conditions of this study. The maximum molar ratio reached around 1, meaning that the catalyst was highly active and selective for oxalate degradation in water. The catalytic ozonation, which showed relatively stable activity, does not promote hydroxyl radical generation from ozone. Analysis with ATR-FTIR and in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that 1) oxalate was adsorbed on CeO 2 of the catalyst forming surface complexes, and 2) O 3 was adsorbed on PdO of the catalyst and further decomposed to surface atomic oxygen (*O), surface peroxide (*O 2), and O 2 gas in sequence. The results indicate that the high activity of the catalyst is related to the synergetic function of PdO and CeO 2 in that the surface atomic oxygen readily reacts with the surface cerium-oxalate complex. This kind of catalytic ozonation would be potentially effective for the degradation of polar refractory organic pollutants and hydrophilic natural organic matter. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Impact of ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration on ceramic membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibn Abdul Hamid, Khaled; Sanciolo, Peter; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2017-12-01

    Ozone pre-treatment (ozonation, ozonisation) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration pre-treatment for the ceramic microfiltration (CMF) treatment of secondary effluent (SE) were studied. Ozone pre-treatment was found to result in higher overall removal of UV absorbance (UVA 254 ) and colour, and higher permeability than BAC pre-treatment or the combined use of ozone and BAC (O3+BAC) pre-treatment. The overall removal of colour and UVA 254 by ceramic filtration of the ozone pre-treated water was 97% and 63% respectively, compared to 86% and 48% respectively for BAC pre-treatment and 29% and 6% respectively for the untreated water. Ozone pre-treatment, however, was not effective in removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The permeability of the ozone pre-treated water through the ceramic membrane was found to decrease to 50% of the original value after 200 min of operation, compared to approximately 10% of the original value for the BAC pre-treated, O3+BAC pre-treated water and the untreated water. The higher permeability of the ozone pre-treated water was attributed to the excellent removal of biopolymer particles (100%) and high removal of humic substances (84%). The inclusion of a BAC stage between ozone pre-treatment and ceramic filtration was detrimental. The O3+BAC+CMF process was found to yield higher biopolymer removal (96%), lower humic substance (HS) component removal (66%) and lower normalized permeability (0.1) after 200 min of operation than the O3+CMF process (86%, 84% and 0.5 respectively). This was tentatively attributed to the chemical oxidation effect of ozone on the BAC biofilm and adsorbed components, leading to the generation of foulants that are not generated in the O3+CMF process. This study demonstrated the potential of ozone pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the CMF of SE compared to O3+BAC pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  12. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  13. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  14. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  15. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  16. Field calibration of electrochemical NO2 sensors in a citizen science context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, Bas; Jiang, Qijun; de Jonge, Dave; Bocconi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In many urban areas the population is exposed to elevated levels of air pollution. However, real-time air quality is usually only measured at few locations. These measurements provide a general picture of the state of the air, but they are unable to monitor local differences. New low-cost sensor technology is available for several years now, and has the potential to extend official monitoring networks significantly even though the current generation of sensors suffer from various technical issues.Citizen science experiments based on these sensors must be designed carefully to avoid generation of data which is of poor or even useless quality. This study explores the added value of the 2016 Urban AirQ campaign, which focused on measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Sixteen low-cost air quality sensor devices were built and distributed among volunteers living close to roads with high traffic volume for a 2-month measurement period. Each electrochemical sensor was calibrated in-field next to an air monitoring station during an 8-day period, resulting in R2 ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. When temperature and relative humidity are included in a multilinear regression approach, the NO2 accuracy is improved significantly, with R2 ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Recalibration after the campaign is crucial, as all sensors show a significant signal drift in the 2-month measurement period. The measurement series between the calibration periods can be corrected for after the measurement period by taking a weighted average of the calibration coefficients.Validation against an independent air monitoring station shows good agreement. Using our approach, the standard deviation of a typical sensor device for NO2 measurements was found to be 7 µg m-3, provided that temperatures are below 30 °C. Stronger ozone titration on street sides causes an underestimation of NO2 concentrations, which 75 % of the time is less than 2.3 µg m-3.Our findings show that citizen science

  17. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  18. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  19. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  20. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  1. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  3. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  4. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  5. Removal of arsenic, phosphates and ammonia from well water using electrochemical/chemical methods and advanced oxidation: a pilot plant approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Findri Gustek, Stefica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a pilot plant purification system and apply it to groundwater used for human consumption, containing high concentrations of arsenic and increased levels of phosphates, ammonia, mercury and color. The groundwater used was obtained from the production well in the Vinkovci County (Eastern Croatia). Due to a complex composition of the treated water, the purification system involved a combined electrochemical treatment, using iron and aluminum electrode plates with simultaneous ozonation, followed by a post-treatment with UV, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The removal of the contaminant with the waste sludge collected during the electrochemical treatment was also tested. The combined electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatment resulted in the complete removal of arsenic, phosphates, color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia, while the removal of other contaminants of interest was up to 96.7%. Comparable removal efficiencies were obtained by using waste sludge as a coagulant.

  6. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  7. Electrochemical Approaches to Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaccaro, Peter

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly important component of the world's energy supply as the threat of global warming continues to rise. There is a need to reduce the cost of this renewable energy and a future challenge to deal with the strain intermittent power sources like renewables place on the power grid. In this dissertation, electrochemistry is harnessed to address possible solutions to both of these issues. First, it is used to develop a low cost alternative photovoltaic material. Then, it is used to investigate the production of chemical fuel stocks which can be used for energy storage. In chapter 2, advances are made in the electrochemical deposition of indium (In) on molybdenum foil which enables the deposition of electronic-grade purity, continuous films with thicknesses in the micron range. As an example application, the electrodeposited In films are phosphorized via the thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth method. The resulting poly-crystalline InP films display excellent optoelectronic quality, comparable to films grown from more standard vacuum deposition techniques. This demonstrates the versatility of the developed electrochemical deposition procedure. In the remaining chapters, renewable fuel production is investigated. First in chapter 3, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is examined as a catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Typically, high-cost synthesized MoS2 is used as the catalyst because the pristine MoS 2 mineral is known to be a poor catalyst. The fundamental challenge with pristine MoS2 is the inert HER activity of the predominant (0001) basal surface plane. Here, we report a general thermal process in which the basal plane is texturized to increase the density of HER-active edge sites. The process generates high HER catalytic performance in pristine MoS 2 across various morphologies such as the bulk mineral, films composed of micron-scale flakes, and even films of a commercially-available spray of nanoflake MoS2. In

  8. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  9. Sampling Ozone Exposure of Canadian Forests at Different Scales: Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive samplers in extensive monitoring, such as that used in national forest health monitoring plots, indicates that these devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in ozone exposure of the plots. This allows for categorisation of the plots and the potential for cause-effect analysis of certain forest health responses. Forest exposure along a gradient of air pollution deposition demonstrates large variation in accumulated exposures. The efficacy of using passive samplers for in situ monitoring of forest canopy exposure was also demonstrated. The sampler data produced weak relationships with ozone values from the nearest �continuous� monitor, even though data from colocated samplers showed strong relationships. This spatial variation and the apparent effect of elevation on ozone exposure demonstrate the importance of topography and tree canopy characteristics in plant exposure on a regional scale. In addition, passive sampling may identify the effects of local pollutant gases, such as NO, which may scavenge ozone locally only to increase the production of this secondary pollutant downwind, as atmospheric reactions redress the equilibrium between concentrations of this precursor and those of the generated ozone. The use of passive samplers at the stand level is able to resolve vertical profiles within the stand and edge effects that are important in exposure of understorey and ground flora. Recent case studies using passive samplers to determine forest exposure to ozone indicate a great potential for the development of spatial models on a regional, landscape, and stand level scale.

  10. Operational Research on Design and Process Optimization of Ozone Water Application in Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zhun Jing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a very important focus in the kitchen industry today, as bacteria such as E.Coli and Salmonella are very difficult to tackle. The objective of the present study was to optimize nozzle designs that use ozone technology to bring out the best results in cleaning and sterilizing the kitchen utensils in Taylor’s University School of Hospitality kitchen area. This includes customization of the Medklinn International Sdn Bhd ozone machine and nozzle profiles that improve the effectiveness of ozone generated. Reduction or elimination of chemicals and water usage would be a part of the study. This will bring a huge impact on cost effectiveness, time saving and safety of the users. Return on investment (ROI using ozone technology is calculated at the end of the research. To compare between the traditional way of cleaning and using ozone technology, the volume of water and dishwashing liquid used, and the Relative Light Units (RLU before and after washing were recorded. The RLU numbers are found using the 3M Clean Trace measuring equipment. RLU was recorded to determine the cleanliness of the kitchen utensils before and after washing. It has been proved that ozone water with the accompaniment of the selected nozzle prototype is as efficient as the traditional way of cleaning.

  11. Degradation of the chlorophenoxyacetic herbicide 2,4-D by plasma-ozonation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, C; Magureanu, M; Parvulescu, V I

    2017-08-15

    A novel advanced oxidation process based on the combination of ozonation with non-thermal plasma generated in a pulsed corona discharge was developed for the oxidative degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water. The pulsed corona discharge in contact with liquid, operated in oxygen, produced 3.5mgL -1 ozone, which was subsequently introduced in the ozonation reactor. The solution to be treated was continuously circulated between the plasma reactor and the ozonation reactor. The system was tested for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and considerably improved performance as compared to ozonation alone, both with respect to the removal of the target compound and to mineralization. The apparent reaction rate constant for 2,4-D removal was 0.195min -1 , more than two times higher than the value obtained in ozonation experiments. The mineralization reached more than 90% after 60min treatment and the chlorine balance confirms the absence of quantifiable amounts of chlorinated by-products. The energy efficiency was considerably enhanced by shortening the duration of the discharge pulses, which opens the way for further optimization of the electrical circuit design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in synthetic air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, Milan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: simek@ipp.cas.cz; Clupek, Martin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-06-07

    We have studied the efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in coaxial wire-cylinder geometry at atmospheric pressure. A corona discharge was generated by short ({approx}150 ns) high voltage pulses applied between a silver coated copper wire anode and stainless steel cylinder cathode in synthetic air. A pyrex probe and Teflon tube was used for collecting discharge products and an ozone concentration was monitored outside of the discharge chamber by a non-dispersive UV absorption technique. The production of ozone was investigated as a function of energy density (10{sup -4}-3x10{sup -1} Wh l{sup -1}) delivered to the discharge volume by combining the discharge frequency (0.1-10 Hz) and airflow rate (1-32 l min{sup -1}). From ozone concentration measurements we have evaluated the ozone production, yield and production energy cost. The ozone production yield and cost vary in the range of 15-55 g kWh{sup -1} and 35-110 eV/molecule. (author)

  13. Measurement of ozone production scaling in a helium plasma jet with oxygen admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Ganguly, Biswa

    2012-10-01

    Capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet devices that generate confined streamer-like discharges along a rare gas flow can produce significant quantities of reactive oxygen species with average input powers ranging from 100 mW to >1 W. We have measured spatially-resolved ozone production in a He plasma jet with O2 admixture concentrations up to 5% using absorption spectroscopy of the O3 Hartley band system. A 20-ns risetime, 10-13 kV positive unipolar voltage pulse train was used to power the discharge, with pulse repetition rates varied from 1-20 kHz. The discharge was operated in a transient glow mode to scale the input power by adjusting the gap width between the anode and downstream cathodic plane. Peak ozone number densities in the range of 10^16 - 10^17 cm-3 were measured. At a given voltage, the density of ozone increased monotonically up to 3% O2 admixture (6 mm gap) as the peak discharge current decreased by an order of magnitude. Ozone production increased with distance from the capillary, consistent with observations by other groups. Atomic oxygen production inferred from O-atom 777 nm emission intensity did not scale with ozone as the input power was increased. The spatial distribution of ozone and scaling with input power will be presented.

  14. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galán Madruga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.

  15. Influence of the stratospheric humidity and methane on the ozone column depletion over the western side of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L.; Morales, L.; Cordero, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western side of South America has been previously explained as a consequence of winds in the area of the depletion, which lead to the compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, humidity and methane (originated in the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean) transported by these winds toward the stratosphere may also have a role in the ozone depletion. Oxidation of methane generates additional humidity, which in turn reacts with ozone, destroying it. Humidity and methane levels were measured by NASA and HALOE during an ozone depletion event (January 1998) that occurred along with El Nino. By analyzing these measurements, we found that, at different altitudes, changes in the humidity seem to be associated with changes in the ozone such that an increment of humidity may lead to an ozone depletion. Moreover, we found that during the event, the sum 2CH4+H2O was roughly constant only at altitudes lower than 50 km; the ratio CH4/H2O exhibited an exponential decay with the altitude that may allow assessing the generation mechanism of stratospheric humidity from methane.

  16. Impact of near-surface atmospheric composition on ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Elena; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Elansky, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    One of the consequences of the human impact on the atmosphere is increasing in tropospheric ozone concentration, with the highest ozone level being observed in industrially developed and highly populated regions of the world. In these regions, main anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are concentrated. The oxidation of these compounds, when interacting with hydroxyl and nitrogen oxides at rather high temperature and sunlight, leads to ozone formation. CO and CH4 are slowly oxidized in the atmosphere and cause an increase in global and regional background ozone. However, the oxidation of some VOCs occurs during daylight hours and is accompanied by an increase in ozone concentration near VOCs sources, particularly in urban and industrial areas. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to ozone generation is estimated to be from 40 to 70% of the total contribution of all chemical ozone precursors in the troposphere [1], with isoprene playing the main role in ozone formation [2]. The impact of aromatic hydrocarbons to ozone formation is reported to be about 40% of the total ozone generation from the oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs [3]. In this study, the results of VOCs measurements (isoprene, benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene and propilbenzene) by proton mass spectrometry in different regions of Russia along the Trans-Siberian railway from Moscow to Vladivostok from TROICA-12 campaign on a mobile laboratory in summer 2008 are analyzed. It is shown that the TROICA-12 measurements were carried out mostly in moderately polluted (2≤NOx20 ppb) conditions ( 20 and 2% of measurements, correspondingly). The lower troposphere chemical regime in the campaign is found to be mainly NOx sensitive, both in rural and urban environments, with typical morning NMHC/NOx ratios being well above 20. Hence, ozone production rates are expected to be controlled by regional NOx emissions and their complex interplay with both

  17. Electrochemical destruction of nitrosamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejen, T; Volchek, K; Ladanowski, C; Velicogna, D; Whittaker, H [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Div.

    1996-09-01

    Treatment conditions for the electrolytic destruction of nitrosamines were studied. The joint investigation between Canada and the Ukraine was part of an assessment of hazardous contaminants at former Soviet ICBM missile sites. The electrochemical destruction of N-dimethylnitrosamines (NDMA) on carbon/platinum electrodes was studied under basic and acidic conditions by UV spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and colorimetry. Experiments with a 100 ppm NDMA solution showed that electrolytic-reduction was pH sensitive within a range of pH 0.5 to 4.0. Electrolysis was effective for the reduction of NDMA in strong acidic conditions. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Electrochemical Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith; Bond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The book addresses the scientific principles underlying electrochemistry. Starting with the basic concepts of electricity, the early chapters discuss the physics and chemistry of the materials from which electrochemical cells are constructed and the properties that make these materials appropriate as cell components. Much of the importance of electrochemistry lies in the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy and vice versa; the thermodynamics of these processes is described, in the context of a wide range of applications of these interconversions. An electrode is a surface at wh

  19. Enhancing electrochemical methods for producing and regenerating alane by using electrochemical catalytic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-12-26

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) and other high capacity hydrides is provided. The electrolytic cell uses an electro-catalytic-additive within a polar non-salt containing solvent to solubilize an ionic hydride such as NaAlH.sub.4 or LiAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3 adduct. AlH.sub.3 is obtained from the adduct by heating under vacuum. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 or LiAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  20. High resolution tempo-spatial ozone prediction with SVM and LSTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, D.; Zhang, Y.; Qu, Z.; Sadighi, K.; Coffey, E.; LIU, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Henze, D. K.; Dick, R.; Shang, L.; Lv, Q.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate and predict the exposure of ozone and other pollutants in urban areas, we utilize data from various infrastructures including EPA, NOAA and RIITS from government of Los Angeles and construct statistical models to conduct ozone concentration prediction in Los Angeles areas at finer spatial and temporal granularity. Our work involves cyber data such as traffic, roads and population data as features for prediction. Two statistical models, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Long Short-term Memory (LSTM, deep learning method) are used for prediction. . Our experiments show that kernelized SVM gains better prediction performance when taking traffic counts, road density and population density as features, with a prediction RMSE of 7.99 ppb for all-time ozone and 6.92 ppb for peak-value ozone. With simulated NOx from Chemical Transport Model(CTM) as features, SVM generates even better prediction performance, with a prediction RMSE of 6.69ppb. We also build LSTM, which has shown great advantages at dealing with temporal sequences, to predict ozone concentration by treating ozone concentration as spatial-temporal sequences. Trained by ozone concentration measurements from the 13 EPA stations in LA area, the model achieves 4.45 ppb RMSE. Besides, we build a variant of this model which adds spatial dynamics into the model in the form of transition matrix that reveals new knowledge on pollutant transition. The forgetting gate of the trained LSTM is consistent with the delay effect of ozone concentration and the trained transition matrix shows spatial consistency with the common direction of winds in LA area.

  1. Ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma: role of neutrophil-derived serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltermann, T J; Peters, E A; Alberts, B; Kwikkers, K; Borggreven, P A; Hiemstra, P S; Dijkman, J H; van Bree, L A; Stolk, J

    1998-04-01

    Proteinase inhibitors may be of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Our aim was to study the role of neutrophils, and neutrophil-derived serine proteinases in an acute model in patients with asthma. Exposure to ozone induces an acute neutrophilic inflammatory reaction accompanied by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. It is thought that these two effects of ozone are linked, and that neutrophil-derived serine proteinases (i.e. elastase) may play a role in the ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Therefore, we examined the effect of recombinant antileukoprotease (rALP), one of the major serine proteinase inhibitors in the lung, on ozone-induced changes in airway hyperresponsiveness in this model. We observed that 16 h after exposure to ozone, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was increased both following placebo and rALP treatment. There was no significant difference between placebo and rALP treatment (change in area under the dose-response curve to methacholine: 117.3+/-59.0 vs 193.6+/-59.6 % fall x DD; p=.12). Moreover, the immediate decrease in FEV1 after ozone exposure was not significantly different between the two groups (placebo: -29.6+/-6.7%; rALP: -20.9+/-3.8%; p=.11). In addition, no significant differences were observed in plasma levels of fibrinogen degradation products generated by neutrophil serine proteinases before and after exposure to ozone. We conclude that neutrophil-derived serine proteinases are not important mediators for ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness.

  2. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  3. Evaluation of the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in a carbon steel making use of electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.C.; Arganis, C.; Ayala, V.; Gachuz, M.; Merino, J.; Suarez, S.; Brena, M.; Luna, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) has been identified as a problem of the nuclear plants systems in the last years. The electrochemical behavior of metal coupons of carbon steel submitted to the action of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was evaluated, making use of the electrochemical techniques of direct current as well as electrochemical noise. The generated results show a little variation in the corrosion velocities which obtained by Tafel extrapolation and resistance to the linear polarization, whereas the electrochemical noise technique presented important differences as regards the registered behavior in environment with and without microorganisms. (Author)

  4. A study of passivation/depassivation of carbon steel; electrochemical impedance spectrocopy vs. potential noise fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, P.R.; Halliop, E.; Sastri, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A technique based on recording corrosion potential fluctuations generated by corroding electrodes was used under open-circuit conditions to study passivation and depassivation of carbon steel. Quantification of the electrochemical signal in terms of the pitting corrosion rate has been attempted. The amplitude of electrochemical noise signals was analyzed under different pitting conditions and correlated to polarization resistance values obtained from the electrochemical impedance spectra. The automatic statistical data analysis of electrochemical impedance data points has been successfully applied to calculate polarization resistance values and other interesting characteristics of such measurements

  5. A comparative analysis of UV nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dragani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative assessment of ultraviolet nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone profile assimilation. The Meteorological Operational Satellite A (MetOp-A Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 nadir and the ENVISAT Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS limb profiles, generated by the ozone consortium of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA O3-CCI, were individually added to a reference set of ozone observations and assimilated in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF data assimilation system (DAS. The two sets of resulting analyses were compared with that from a control experiment, only constrained by the reference dataset, and independent, unassimilated observations. Comparisons with independent observations show that both datasets improve the stratospheric ozone distribution. The changes inferred by the limb-based observations are more localized and, in places, more important than those implied by the nadir profiles, albeit they have a much lower number of observations. A small degradation (up to 0.25 mg kg−1 for GOME-2 and 0.5 mg kg−1 for MIPAS in the mass mixing ratio is found in the tropics between 20 and 30 hPa. In the lowermost troposphere below its vertical coverage, the limb data are found to be able to modify the ozone distribution with changes as large as 60 %. Comparisons of the ozone analyses with sonde data show that at those levels the assimilation of GOME-2 leads to about 1 Dobson Unit (DU smaller root mean square error (RMSE than that of MIPAS. However, the assimilation of MIPAS can still improve the quality of the ozone analyses and – with a reduction in the RMSE of up to about 2 DU – outperform the control experiment thanks to its synergistic assimilation with total-column ozone data within the DAS. High vertical resolution ozone profile observations are essential to accurately monitor and

  6. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  7. Thermodynamics of irreversible electrochemical phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.; Tolhoek, H.A.

    1953-01-01

    A discussion from first principles is given of the energy and entropy laws in electrochemical systems. It is found that it is possible to clarify such controversial concepts as the form of the second law and the role of the electrochemical potential in the systems concerned.

  8. Numerical simulation for regional ozone concentrations: A case study by weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Al Razi, Khandakar Md; Hiroshi, Moritomi [Environmental and Renewable Energy System, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand and predict the atmospheric concentration distribution of ozone and its precursor (in particular, within the Planetary Boundary Layer (Within 110 km to 12 km) over Kasaki City and the Greater Tokyo Area using fully coupled online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model. In this research, a serious and continuous high ozone episode in the Greater Tokyo Area (GTA) during the summer of 14–18 August 2010 was investigated using the observation data. We analyzed the ozone and other trace gas concentrations, as well as the corresponding weather conditions in this high ozone episode by WRF/Chem model. The simulation results revealed that the analyzed episode was mainly caused by the impact of accumulation of pollution rich in ozone over the Greater Tokyo Area. WRF/Chem has shown relatively good performance in modeling of this continuous high ozone episode, the simulated and the observed concentrations of ozone, NOx and NO2 are basically in agreement at Kawasaki City, with best correlation coefficients of 0.87, 0.70 and 0.72 respectively. Moreover, the simulations of WRF/Chem with WRF preprocessing software (WPS) show a better agreement with meteorological observations such as surface winds and temperature profiles in the ground level of this area. As a result the surface ozone simulation performances have been enhanced in terms of the peak ozone and spatial patterns, whereas WRF/Chem has been succeeded to generate meteorological fields as well as ozone, NOx, NO2 and NO.

  9. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  10. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and processing of foods, including meat and poultry (unless such use is precluded by standards of identity in 9...

  11. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  13. 21 CFR 184.1563 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use Bottled water that prior to ozonation meets... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ozone. 184.1563 Section 184.1563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  14. Electrochemical modification of carbon electrode with benzylphosphonic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Ossonon Diby; Weissmann, Martin; Bélanger, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical modification of carbon electrodes by aryl groups bearing a phosphonate terminal functionality was carried out by both electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions (diazobenzylphosphonic acid) and electrochemical oxidation of an amine (aminobenzylphosphonic acid). The grafting by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium ions was found to be more efficient. The surface concentration of phosphonate groups, estimated by electrochemical reduction of electrostatically bound Pb(II) ions, was found to be about 25% higher for the layer formed by electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions than for the layer formed by oxidation of the amine. The acid–base properties of the grafted films were slightly influenced by the grafting procedure and the difference in the apparent pK a was most likely related to the presence of the substrate –NH-aryl linkage for the film generated by amine oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to get some insight on the chemical species present at the carbon electrode surface. For both procedures, the films consist in mixture of at least two different covalently grafted species

  15. Voltage equilibration for reactive atomistic simulations of electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce electrochemical dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom (EChemDID), a model to describe electrochemical driving force in reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The method describes the equilibration of external electrochemical potentials (voltage) within metallic structures and their effect on the self-consistent partial atomic charges used in reactive molecular dynamics. An additional variable assigned to each atom denotes the local potential in its vicinity and we use fictitious, but computationally convenient, dynamics to describe its equilibration within connected metallic structures on-the-fly during the molecular dynamics simulation. This local electrostatic potential is used to dynamically modify the atomic electronegativities used to compute partial atomic changes via charge equilibration. Validation tests show that the method provides an accurate description of the electric fields generated by the applied voltage and the driving force for electrochemical reactions. We demonstrate EChemDID via simulations of the operation of electrochemical metallization cells. The simulations predict the switching of the device between a high-resistance to a low-resistance state as a conductive metallic bridge is formed and resistive currents that can be compared with experimental measurements. In addition to applications in nanoelectronics, EChemDID could be useful to model electrochemical energy conversion devices

  16. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  18. Computational analysis of ozonation in bubble columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones-Bolanos, E.; Zhou, H.; Otten, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational ozonation model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics along with the kinetics of ozone decay and microbial inactivation to predict the performance of ozone disinfection in fine bubble columns. The model can be represented using a mixture two-phase flow model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the water flow and using two transport equations to track the concentration profiles of ozone and microorganisms along the height of the column, respectively. The applicability of this model was then demonstrated by comparing the simulated ozone concentrations with experimental measurements obtained from a pilot scale fine bubble column. One distinct advantage of this approach is that it does not require the prerequisite assumptions such as plug flow condition, perfect mixing, tanks-in-series, uniform radial or longitudinal dispersion in predicting the performance of disinfection contactors without carrying out expensive and tedious tracer studies. (author)

  19. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, F.

    1972-01-01

    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  20. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)