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Sample records for electrochemical phosphate sensing

  1. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  2. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Carbon nanotubes modified with antimony nanoparticles: A novel material for electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Fernando C.; Cesarino, Ivana; Cesarino, Vivian; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Machado, Sergio A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel material for the electrochemical sensing was developed. ► Sensor based CNTs modified with Sb-nanoparticles was characterised and applied. ► The proposed sensor was suitable and sensitive for the determination of bisphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel material for the electrochemical determination of bisphenol A using a nanocomposite based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with antimony nanoparticles has been investigated. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrodes were characterised by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. A scan rate study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the bisphenol A oxidation product is adsorbed on nanocomposite electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6, allowed the development of a method to determine bisphenol A levels in the range of 0.5–5.0 μmol L −1 , with a detection limit of 5.24 nmol L −1 (1.19 μg L −1 ).

  4. Study of electrochemical phosphate conversion coating of metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougelin, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    After an overview on phosphate conversion coating processes, on models of iron electrochemical dissolution, on the passivation phenomenon, and on the phosphate conversion coating treatment, this research thesis reports a detailed study of this last process. The author presents the experimental method, reports the study of this process and of passivation under constant polarization. He reports the use of various techniques and conditions: chrono-amperometry, chrono-potentiometry, cyclic volt-amperometry

  5. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Fengling Zhang; Tianyi Cai; Liang Ma; Liyuan Zhan; Hong Liu

    2017-01-01

    We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensin...

  6. Phosphate-mediated electrochemical adsorption of cisplatin on gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, Adam; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Koper, Marc T.M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Rodriguez, Paramaconi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The potential-dependent adsorption and deposition of cisplatin on polycrystalline gold electrode is mediated by the adsorption of phosphate anions on gold electrode. •Quantitative analysis suggests that the stoichiometry of the phosphate species and the cisplatin adsorbed was 1:1. •Upon reduction of the phosphate-mediated cisplatin adsorption, the platinum deposits are formed by 3D nanoclusters -- Abstract: This manuscript reports the potential-dependent adsorption and deposition of cisplatin on polycrystalline gold electrode. It was found that this process is mediated by the adsorption of phosphate anions on the gold electrode and that the maximum coverage of Pt adsorbed is given by the maximum coverage of phosphate adsorbed at a given potential. The interaction of cisplatin with the phosphate groups was confirmed by in situ FTIR spectroscopy under external reflexion configuration. Quantitative analysis suggests that the stoichiometry of the phosphate species and the cisplatin adsorbed was 1:1. Moreover, the relationship between the charge of the Pt deposited and the charge of the electrochemical surface area of the Pt deposited on the gold electrodes indicates that 3D nanoclusters of a few atoms of Pt were formed over the gold electrode upon the electrochemical reduction of the adsorbed cisplatin. The Pt nanoclusters formed under these conditions were later evaluated for the oxidation of a monolayer of carbon monoxide. The Pt nanoclusters showed a high overpotential for the oxidation of the carbon monoxide monolayer and the high oxidation overpotential was attributed to the absence of adsorption sites for OH species on the Pt clusters: only at potentials where the OH species are adsorbed at the edge between the Pt nanocluster and the gold support, the oxidation of the carbon monoxide on the Pt nanoparticles takes place.

  7. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengling; Cai, Tianyi; Ma, Liang; Zhan, Liyuan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-31

    We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  8. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  9. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  10. Electrochemical impedance study of copper in phosphate buffered solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimon, J.; Mohamad, M.; Yamin, B.M.; Kalaji, M.

    2003-01-01

    The processes occurring on the copper electrode surface in phosphate buffered solution were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of copper through their charge transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance at the onset of the hydrogen evolution region and the anodic passivation layer formation and diffusion of copper species at anodic potential regions are discussed. The specific adsorption of anions (hydroxide and/or H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/) occurred at potential less negative than -0.9V. Adsorbed hydrogen appeared at hydrogen evolution region at potential range of -1.5 to -1.0 V. The deposition of insoluble copper species occurred at anodic potential regions. (author)

  11. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meininger, M.; Wolf-Brandstetter, C.; Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J.; Moseke, C.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr 2+ ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr 2+ into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr 2+ ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  12. Recent advances in the use of ionic liquids for electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Debbie S

    2011-12-07

    Ionic Liquids are salts that are liquid at (or just above) room temperature. They possess several advantageous properties (e.g. high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows, low volatility, high thermal stability and good solvating ability), which make them ideal as non-volatile electrolytes in electrochemical sensors. This mini-review article describes the recent uses of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing applications (covering the last 3 years) in the context of voltammetric sensing at solid/liquid, liquid/liquid interfaces and carbon paste electrodes, as well as their use in gas sensing, ion-selective electrodes, and for detecting biological molecules, explosives and chemical warfare agents. A comment on the future direction and challenges in this field is also presented.

  13. Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Sensing of Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Vasilescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein analysis and quantification are required daily by thousands of laboratories worldwide for activities ranging from protein characterization to clinical diagnostics. Multiple factors have to be considered when selecting the best detection and quantification assay, including the amount of protein available, its concentration, the presence of interfering molecules, as well as costs and rapidity. This is also the case for lysozyme, a 14.3-kDa protein ubiquitously present in many organisms, that has been identified with a variety of functions: antibacterial activity, a biomarker of several serious medical conditions, a potential allergen in foods or a model of amyloid-type protein aggregation. Since the design of the first lysozyme aptamer in 2001, lysozyme became one of the most intensively-investigated biological target analytes for the design of novel biosensing concepts, particularly with regards to electrochemical aptasensors. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of aptamer-based electrochemical sensing of lysozyme, with emphasis on sensing in serum and real samples.

  14. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meininger, M. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Max Bergmann Center for Biomaterials, Technical University of Dresden, Budapester Straße 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Moseke, C., E-mail: claus.moseke@fmz.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr{sup 2+} ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr{sup 2+} into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr{sup 2+} ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  15. Fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of ratiometric electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Yu, Jianbo; Lv, Wei; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-05-15

    Previously developed electrochemical biosensors with single-electric signal output are probably affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In contrast, the ratiometric electrochemical biosensors (RECBSs) with dual-electric signal outputs have an intrinsic built-in correction to the effects from system or background electric signals, and therefore exhibit a significant potential to improve the accuracy and sensitivity in electrochemical sensing applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of RECBSs. First, the different fabrication strategies of RECBSs were introduced, referring to the analytes-induced single- and dual-dependent electrochemical signal strategies for RECBSs. Second, the different sensing modes of RECBSs were illustrated, such as differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, and so forth. Third, the analytical applications of RECBSs were discussed based on the types of target analytes. Finally, the forthcoming development and future prospects in the research field of RECBSs were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The selectivity of zirconium phosphate for caesium in electrochemical ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain, M.J.

    1988-11-01

    The properties of amorphous zirconium phosphate are investigated as an inorganic ion exchanger for use in liquid waste treatment by electrochemical ion exchange. Experiments to determine and increase the selectivity for caesium exchange over sodium are discussed, including various pulsed waveforms and studies with rotating membranes. Automation of a sampling system with pH and atomic absorption measurements is described. (author)

  17. Performance of flexible capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fiber electrochemically prepared from various phosphate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn; Chang, Yunzhen; Li, Miaoyu; Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn; Zhou, Haihan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanping

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PPy/CFs have been fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole on carbon fibers. • The electrolytes in deposition solution have effect on PPy/CFs’ capacitive behavior. • Cells of PPy/CFs obtained from NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} electrolyte has good stability in PVA/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of electrolytes in electro-deposition solution on the capacitive properties of polypyrrole (PPy), we have chosen phosphoric acid, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate as electrolyte in deposition solution respectively and electrochemically deposited PPy on carbon fibers (CFs) via galvanostatic method. The morphologies of the PPy/CFs samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscope. The specific capacitance of PPy/CFs samples has been evaluated in different electrolytes through three-electrode test system. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been systematically measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical capacitors based on PPy/CFs prepared from deposition solution containing NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O electrolyte exhibit higher specific capacitance, flexibility and excellent stability (retaining 96.8% of initial capacitance after 13,000 cycles), and that three cells connected in series can power a light-emitting diode.

  18. Application of molybdenum and phosphate modified kaolin in electrochemical treatment of paper mill wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Wang Bo; Wang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. The electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater catalyzed by molybdenum and phosphate (Mo-P) modified kaolin with graphite as anode and cathode was investigated. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and SEM spectra and the effects of pH, metal ion and introduction of NaCl on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found out that the modified kaolin loaded with Fe 3+ had higher electrochemical catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of paper mill wastewater at pH 4. A 96% COD removal efficiency was obtained in 40 min of electrochemical treatment of the wastewater at current density 30 mA cm -2 . A possible mechanism for degradation of the mill wastewater constituents was also proposed

  19. Phosphate Recovery from Human Waste via the Formation of Hydroxyapatite during Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Clément A; Jasper, Justin T; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2018-03-05

    Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO 2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved. While calcium was critical for phosphate removal, magnesium and bicarbonate had only minor impacts on phosphate removal rates at concentrations typical of toilet wastewater. Optimal conditions for phosphate removal were 3 to 4 h treatment at about 5 mA cm -2 (∼3.4 V), with greater than 20 m 2 m -3 electrode surface area to reactor volume ratios. Pilot-scale systems are currently operated under similar conditions, suggesting that phosphate removal can be viewed as an ancillary benefit of electrochemical wastewater treatment, adding utility to the process without requiring additional energy inputs. Further value may be provided by designing reactors to recover precipitated hydroxyapatite for use as a low solubility phosphorus-rich fertilizer.

  20. Electrochemical investigation of mineral electrodes in phosphate-buffered alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Erdenechimeg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetric methods have been applied to study the electrochemical behavior of the sulfide minerals in phosphate-buffered alkaline solution. The redox process of electrodes of sulfide ores was investigated using silicone-impregnated graphite electrode. The cathodic and anodic reaction products in alkaline solution were determined within the potential range of -2V to +2V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The several successive measurement cycles’ voltammograms leads to the appearance of a new anodic peak at E = 450mV, which is absent in the first cycle and curves, as well as other features that appear in cycling, can probably be explained by secondary electrochemical transformations of the products formed by the oxidation of the original pyrite at the interface between the electrode material.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.318 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p33-35

  1. Electrochemical structure-switching sensing using nanoplasmonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patskovsky, Sergiy; Dallaire, Anne-Marie; Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Meunier, Michel [Department of Engineering Physics, Laser Processing and Plasmonics Laboratory, Polytechnique, Montreal, Station Centre-ville, QC (Canada); Vallee-Belisle, Alexis [Laboratory of Biosensors and Nanomachines, Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In this article, the implementation of electrochemical plasmonic nanostructures functionalized with DNA-based structure-switching sensors is presented. eNanoSPR devices with open and microfluidic measurement cells are developed on the base of nanohole arrays in 100 nm gold film and applied for combined microscopic and electrochemical surface plasmon (eSPR) visualization. eSPR voltammograms and spectroscopy are performed using planar three electrode schematic with plasmonic nanostructure operated as working electrode. Limit of detection of eNanoSPR devices for oligonucleotide hybridization is estimated in the low nanomolar and applications for structure-switching electro-plasmonic sensing in complex liquids are discussed. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Stability, electrochemical behaviors and electronic structures of iron hydroxyl-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhongli; Sun Shaorui; Li Fan; Chen Ge [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Pingleyuan 100, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100022 (China); Xia Dingguo, E-mail: dgxia@bjut.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Pingleyuan 100, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100022 (China); Zhao Ting; Chu Wangsheng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2010-09-01

    Iron hydroxyl-phosphate with a uniform spherical particle size of around 1 {mu}m, a compound of the type Fe{sub 2-y}{open_square}{sub y}(PO{sub 4})(OH){sub 3-3y}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3y-2} (where {open_square} represents a vacancy), has been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The particles are composed of spheres of diameter <100 nm. The compound exhibits good electrochemical performance, with reversible capacities of around 150 mAh g{sup -1} and 120 mAh g{sup -1} at current densities of 170 mA g{sup -1} and 680 mA g{sup -1}, respectively. The stability of crystal structure of this material was studied by TGA and XRD which show that the material remains stable at least up to the temperature 200 deg. C. Investigation of the electronic structure of the iron hydroxyl-phosphate by GGA + U calculation has indicated that it has a better electronic conductivity than LiFePO{sub 4}.

  3. The effects to the structure and electrochemical behavior of zinc phosphate conversion coatings with ethanolamine on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Xu Shuqiang; Hu Junying; Zhang Shiyan; Zhong Xiankang; Yang Xiaokui

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed a zinc phosphate conversion coating formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D from the phosphating bath with varying amounts of ethanolamine (MEA). The effects of MEA on the form, structure, phase composition and electrochemical behavior of the phosphate coatings were examined using an scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Interpretations of the electrical elements of the equivalent circuit were obtained from the SEM structure of the coatings, assumed to be formed of two layers: an outer porous crystal layer and an inner flat amorphous layer. The result showed that adding MEA refined the microstructure of the crystal layer and that the phosphate coating, derived at the optimal content of 1.2 g/L, with the most uniform and compact outer crystal layer provided the best corrosion protection.

  4. Application of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Torriero, Angel A J

    2011-01-15

    Since 1992, when the room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation were reported to provide an attractive combination of an electrochemical solvent and electrolyte, ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, and lithium batteries. However, it has only been in the last few years that electrochemical biosensors based on carbon ionic liquid electrodes (CILEs) and IL-modified macrodisk electrodes have been reported. However, there are still a lot of challenges in achieving IL-based sensitive, selective, and reproducible biosensors for high speed analysis of biological and environmental compounds of interest. This review discusses the principles of operation of electrochemical biosensors based on CILEs and IL/composite-modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed. Key challenges and opportunities of IL-based biosensors to further development and use are considered. Emphasis is given to direct electron-transfer reaction and electrocatalysis of hemeproteins and enzyme-modified composite electrodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ordered mesoporous carbon for electrochemical sensing: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamanisha, Jean Chrysostome [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Universite du Burundi, Institut de pedagogie appliquee, B.P. 5223, Bujumbura (Burundi); Guo Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation and functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their applications as electrochemical sensors with high electrocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A promising electrode material based on its interesting properties. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters in the mesopore range, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is suitable for applications in catalysis and sensing. We report recent applications of OMC in electrochemical sensors and biosensors. After a brief description of the electrochemical properties, the functionalization of the OMC for improvement of the electrocatalytic properties is then presented. We show how the ordered mesostructure of OMC is very important in those applications. The high density of edge plane-like defective sites (EDSs), oxygen-containing groups and a large surface area on OMC may provide many favorable sites for electron transfer to compounds, which makes OMC a potential novel material for an investigation of the electrochemical behavior of substances. Moreover, the structural capabilities of OMC at the scale of a few nanometers agree with immobilization of other electrocataytic substances. Interesting properties of this material may open up a new approach to study the electrochemical determination of other biomolecules.

  6. Fabrication of a Microneedle/CNT Hierarchical Micro/Nano Surface Electrochemical Sensor and Its In-Vitro Glucose Sensing Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsam Yoon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report fabrication of a microneedle-based three-electrode integrated electrochemical sensor and in-vitro characterization of this sensor for glucose sensing applications. A piece of silicon was sequentially dry and wet etched to form a 15 × 15 array of tall (approximately 380 µm sharp silicon microneedles. Iron catalyst was deposited through a SU-8 shadow mask to form the working electrode and counter electrode. A multi-walled carbon nanotube forest was grown directly on the silicon microneedle array and platinum nano-particles were electrodeposited. Silver was deposited on the Si microneedle array through another shadow mask and chlorinated to form a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The 3-electrode electrochemical sensor was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 3~20 mM in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. The sensor’s amperometric response to the glucose concentration is linear and its sensitivity was found to be 17.73 ± 3 μA/mM-cm2. This microneedle-based sensor has a potential to be used for painless diabetes testing applications.

  7. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  8. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2015-05-01

    Reported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.

  9. Biomedical and sensing applications of a multi-mode biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrazky, Ondřej; Peterka, Pavel; Vytykáčová, SoÅa.; Proboštová, Jana; Kuneš, Martin; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ceci-Ginistrelli, Edoardo; Pugliese, Diego; Boetti, Nadia G.; Janner, Davide; Milanese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    We report on the employment of a biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber as a pH sensing probe in physiological environment. The phosphate-based optical fiber preform was fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The fiber biodegradability was first tested in-vitro and then its biodegradability and toxicity were tested in-vivo. Optical probes for pH sensing were prepared by the immobilization of a fluorescent dye on the fiber tip by a sol-gel method. The fluorescence response of the pH-sensor was measured as a ratio of the emission intensities at the excitation wavelengths of 405 and 450 nm.

  10. A facile electrochemical intercalation and microwave assisted exfoliation methodology applied to screen-printed electrochemical-based sensing platforms to impart improved electroanalytical outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Gastón D; Foster, Christopher W; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fernández, Héctor; Banks, Craig E

    2018-06-12

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) are ubiquitous with the field of electrochemistry allowing researchers to translate sensors from the laboratory to the field. In this paper, we report an electrochemically driven intercalation process where an electrochemical reaction uses an electrolyte as a conductive medium as well as the intercalation source, which is followed by exfoliation and heating/drying via microwave irradiation, and applied to the working electrode of screen-printed electrodes/sensors (termed EDI-SPEs) for the first time. This novel methodology results in an increase of up to 85% of the sensor area (electrochemically active surface area, as evaluated using an outer-sphere redox probe). Upon further investigation, it is found that an increase in the electroactive area of the EDI-screen-printed based electrochemical sensing platforms is critically dependent upon the analyte and its associated electrochemical mechanism (i.e. adsorption vs. diffusion). Proof-of-concept for the electrochemical sensing of capsaicin, a measure of the hotness of chillies and chilli sauce, within both model aqueous solutions and a real sample (Tabasco sauce) is demonstrated in which the electroanalytical sensitivity (a plot of signal vs. concentration) is doubled when utilising EDI-SPEs over that of SPEs.

  11. Removal of arsenic, phosphates and ammonia from well water using electrochemical/chemical methods and advanced oxidation: a pilot plant approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Findri Gustek, Stefica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a pilot plant purification system and apply it to groundwater used for human consumption, containing high concentrations of arsenic and increased levels of phosphates, ammonia, mercury and color. The groundwater used was obtained from the production well in the Vinkovci County (Eastern Croatia). Due to a complex composition of the treated water, the purification system involved a combined electrochemical treatment, using iron and aluminum electrode plates with simultaneous ozonation, followed by a post-treatment with UV, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The removal of the contaminant with the waste sludge collected during the electrochemical treatment was also tested. The combined electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatment resulted in the complete removal of arsenic, phosphates, color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia, while the removal of other contaminants of interest was up to 96.7%. Comparable removal efficiencies were obtained by using waste sludge as a coagulant.

  12. Electrochemical Behavior of Pure Copper in Phosphate Buffer Solutions: A Comparison Between Micro- and Nano-Grained Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imantalab, O.; Fattah-alhosseini, A.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Mazaheri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, electrochemical behavior of annealed (micro-) and nano-grained pure copper (fabricated by accumulative roll bonding process) in phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values ranging from 10.69 to 12.59 has been studied. Before any electrochemical measurements, evaluation of microstructure was obtained by optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy. To investigate the electrochemical behavior of the samples, the potentiodynamic polarization, Mott-Schottky analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out. Potentiodynamic polarization plots and EIS measurements revealed that as a result of grain refinement, the passive behavior of the nano-grained sample was improved compared to that of annealed pure copper. Also, Mott-Schottky analysis indicated that the passive films behaved as p-type semiconductors and grain refinement did not change the semiconductor type of passive films.

  13. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  14. Electrochemical Behavior Assessment of As-Cast Mg-Y-RE-Zr Alloy in Phosphate Buffer Solutions (X Na3PO4 + Y Na2HPO4) Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Asgari, Hamed

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, electrochemical behavior of as-cast Mg-Y-RE-Zr alloy (RE: rare-earth alloying elements) was investigated using electrochemical tests in phosphate buffer solutions (X Na3PO4 + Y Na2HPO4). X-ray diffraction techniques and Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and phases of the experimental alloy. Different electrochemical tests such as potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis were carried out in order to study the electrochemical behavior of the experimental alloy in phosphate buffer solutions. The PDP curves and EIS measurements indicated that the passive behavior of the as-cast Mg-Y-RE-Zr alloy in phosphate buffer solutions was weakened by an increase in the pH, which is related to formation of an imperfect and less protective passive layer on the alloy surface. The presence of the insoluble zirconium particles along with high number of intermetallic phases of RE elements mainly Mg24Y5 in the magnesium matrix can deteriorate the corrosion performance of the alloy by disrupting the protective passive layer that is formed at pH values over 11. These insoluble zirconium particles embedded in the matrix can detrimentally influence the passivation. The M-S analysis revealed that the formed passive layers on Mg-Y-RE-Zr alloy behaved as an n-type semiconductor. An increase in donor concentration accompanying solutions of higher alkalinity is thought to result in the formation of a less resistive passive layer.

  15. Integrated Electrochemical Analysis System with Microfluidic and Sensing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Suzuki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated device that carries out the timely transport of solutions andconducts electroanalysis was constructed. The transport of solutions was based oncapillary action in overall hydrophilic flow channels and control by valves that operateon the basis of electrowetting. Electrochemical sensors including glucose, lactate,glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, pH,ammonia, urea, and creatinine were integrated. An air gap structure was used for theammonia, urea, and creatinine sensors to realize a rapid response. To enhance thetransport of ammonia that existed or was produced by the enzymatic reactions, the pHof the solution was elevated by mixing it with a NaOH solution using a valve based onelectrowetting. The sensors for GOT and GPT used a freeze-dried substrate matrix torealize rapid mixing. The sample solution was transported to required sensing sites atdesired times. The integrated sensors showed distinct responses when a sample solutionreached the respective sensing sites. Linear relationships were observed between theoutput signals and the concentration or the logarithm of the concentration of theanalytes. An interferent, L-ascorbic acid, could be eliminated electrochemically in thesample injection port.

  16. The Binding Effect of Proteins on Medications and Its Impact on Electrochemical Sensing: Antipsychotic Clozapine as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Banis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine (CLZ, a dibenzodiazepine, is demonstrated as the optimal antipsychotic for patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Like many other drugs, understanding the concentration of CLZ in a patient’s blood is critical for managing the patients’ symptoms, side effects, and overall treatment efficacy. To that end, various electrochemical techniques have been adapted due to their capabilities in concentration-dependent sensing. An open question associated with electrochemical CLZ monitoring is whether drug–protein complexes (i.e., CLZ bound to native blood proteins, such as serum albumin (SA or alpha-1 acid-glycoprotein (AAG contribute to electrochemical redox signals. Here, we investigate CLZ-sensing performance using fundamental electrochemical methods with respect to the impact of protein binding. Specifically, we test the activity of bound and free fractions of a mixture of CLZ and either bovine SA or human AAG. Results suggest that bound complexes do not significantly contribute to the electrochemical signal for mixtures of CLZ with AAG or SA. Moreover, the fraction of CLZ bound to protein is relatively constant at 31% (AAG and 73% (SA in isolation with varying concentrations of CLZ. Thus, electrochemical sensing can enable direct monitoring of only the unbound CLZ, previously only accessible via equilibrium dialysis. The methods utilized in this work offer potential as a blueprint in developing electrochemical sensors for application to other redox-active medications with high protein binding more generally. This demonstrates that electrochemical sensing can be a new tool in accessing information not easily available previously, useful toward optimizing treatment regimens.

  17. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furko, M.; Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A.; Balázsi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO_3)_2 and NH_4H_2PO_4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag"+ and Zn"2"+ ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn"2"+ is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Stoermer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes using a pulsed DC power source. The microstructure and composition of the PEO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was found that the electrolyte composition has a significant effect on the coating evolution and on the resulting coating characteristics, such as microstructure, composition, coating thickness, roughness and thus on the corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating formed in silicate electrolyte was found to be superior to that formed in phosphate electrolyte in both the short-term and long-term electrochemical corrosion tests.

  19. High-Resolution Graphene Films for Electrochemical Sensing via Inkjet Maskless Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondred, John A; Stromberg, Loreen R; Mosher, Curtis L; Claussen, Jonathan C

    2017-10-24

    Solution-phase printing of nanomaterial-based graphene inks are rapidly gaining interest for fabrication of flexible electronics. However, scalable manufacturing techniques for high-resolution printed graphene circuits are still lacking. Here, we report a patterning technique [i.e., inkjet maskless lithography (IML)] to form high-resolution, flexible, graphene films (line widths down to 20 μm) that significantly exceed the current inkjet printing resolution of graphene (line widths ∼60 μm). IML uses an inkjet printed polymer lacquer as a sacrificial pattern, viscous spin-coated graphene, and a subsequent graphene lift-off to pattern films without the need for prefabricated stencils, templates, or cleanroom technology (e.g., photolithography). Laser annealing is employed to increase conductivity on thermally sensitive, flexible substrates [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)]. Laser annealing and subsequent platinum nanoparticle deposition substantially increases the electroactive nature of graphene as illustrated by electrochemical hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensing [rapid response (5 s), broad linear sensing range (0.1-550 μm), high sensitivity (0.21 μM/μA), and low detection limit (0.21 μM)]. Moreover, high-resolution, complex graphene circuits [i.e., interdigitated electrodes (IDE) with varying finger width and spacing] were created with IML and characterized via potassium chloride (KCl) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results indicated that sensitivity directly correlates to electrode feature size as the IDE with the smallest finger width and spacing (50 and 50 μm) displayed the largest response to changes in KCl concentration (∼21 kΩ). These results indicate that the developed IML patterning technique is well-suited for rapid, solution-phase graphene film prototyping on flexible substrates for numerous applications including electrochemical sensing.

  20. Phosphorus doped and defects engineered graphene for improved electrochemical sensing: synergistic effect of dopants and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Tian, Ye; Wei, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials emerged as promising metal-free catalysts have recently attracted a growing interest in electrochemical sensing applications. However, their catalytic activity and sensing performances still need to be further improved. Herein, we reported the development of unique phosphorus (P)-doped and plasma-etched graphene (denoted as PG-E) as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for dopamine (DA) sensing. It was demonstrated that introducing both P-dopants and plasma-engineered defects in graphene could synergistically improve the activity toward electrocatalytic oxidation of DA by increasing the accessible active sites and promoting the electron transport capability. The resulting PG-E modified electrode showed exceptional DA sensing performances with low detection limit, high selectivity and good stability. These results suggested that the synergistic effect of dopants and defects might be an important factor for developing the advanced graphene-based metal-free catalysts for electrochemical sensing.

  1. Effect of Sr2+AND Mg2+ IONS on electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, M.B.; Gualberto Junior, J.P.; Macedo, M.C.S.S.; Resende, C.X.; Santos, E.A. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The incorporation of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions into apatite favors the mineralization process of the bone, besides it to prevent the osteoporosis. In this work, it was evaluated the individual effect of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions in the electrochemical deposition process of calcium phosphate on metallic substrate. The electrodeposition was performed using a conventional three- electrode cell. The titanium sheets were immersed in the electrolyte containing Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 and a potential of -0. 8 V was applied. The coatings were characterized by SEM and XRD. By XRD analysis was possible to identify octacalcium phosphate in the control sample. However, after the addition of Mg2+ ions the OCP becomes the secondary phase while the brushite showed as majoritary phase. On the other hand, the incorporation of Sr2+ ions stabilized the OCP phase. (author)

  2. Nitrogen-doped graphene: effect of graphite oxide precursors and nitrogen content on the electrochemical sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Monica; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Klímová, Kateřina; Pumera, Martin

    2017-06-21

    Graphene, produced via chemical methods, has been widely applied for electrochemical sensing due to its structural and electrochemical properties as well as its ease of production in large quantity. While nitrogen-doped graphenes are widely studied materials, the literature showing an effect of graphene oxide preparation methods on nitrogen quantity and chemical states as well as on defects and, in turn, on electrochemical sensing is non-existent. In this study, the properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials, prepared via hydrothermal synthesis using graphite oxide produced by various classical methods using permanganate or chlorate oxidants Staudenmaier, Hummers, Hofmann and Brodie oxidation methods, were studied; the resulting nitrogen-doped graphene oxides were labeled as ST-GO, HU-GO, HO-GO and BR-GO, respectively. The electrochemical oxidation of biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, nicotinamide adenine nucleotide and DNA free bases, was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The nitrogen content in doped graphene oxides increased in the order ST-GO graphene followed this trend, as shown in the cyclic voltammograms. This is a very important finding that provides insight into the electrocatalytic effect of N-doped graphene. The nitrogen-doped graphene materials exhibited improved sensitivity over bare glassy carbon for ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine detection. These studies will enhance our understanding of the effects of graphite oxide precursors on the electrochemical sensing properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials.

  3. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furko, M., E-mail: monika.furko@bayzoltan.hu [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary); Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Balázsi, C. [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary)

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn{sup 2+} is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  4. Hematite Nanoparticles-Modified Electrode Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Zangeneh Kamali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN6]3−/4− redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0–2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0–35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA.

  5. Hematite Nanoparticles-Modified Electrode Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh Kamali, Khosro; Alagarsamy, Pandikumar; Huang, Nay Ming; Ong, Boon Hoong; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0–2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0–35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA. PMID:25136664

  6. Electrochemical Fabrication of Nanostructures on Porous Silicon for Biochemical Sensing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Euna; Hwang, Joonki; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Joo Heon; Lee, Sung Hwan; Tran, Van-Khue; Chung, Woo Sung; Park, Chan Ho; Choo, Jaebum; Seong, Gi Hun

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for the electrochemical patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon, and explore their applications in: (1) the quantitative analysis of hydroxylamine as a chemical sensing electrode and (2) as a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate for Rhodamine 6G. For hydroxylamine detection, AuNPs-porous silicon can enhance the electrochemical oxidation of hydroxylamine. The current changed linearly for concentrations ranging from 100 μM to 1.32 mM (R(2) = 0.995), and the detection limit was determined to be as low as 55 μM. When used as SERS substrates, these materials also showed that nanoparticles decorated on porous silicon substrates have more SERS hot spots than those decorated on crystalline silicon substrates, resulting in a larger SERS signal. Moreover, AgNPs-porous silicon provided five-times higher signal compared to AuNPs-porous silicon. From these results, we expect that nanoparticles decorated on porous silicon substrates can be used in various types of biochemical sensing platforms.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye on the boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of phosphate ions: Effect of current density, pH, and chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia; Olivi, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye (AB-210) on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) was investigated under different pH conditions. The best performance for the AB-210 oxidation occurred in alkaline phosphate solution. This is probably due to oxidizing agents such as phosphate radicals and peroxodiphosphate ions, which can be electrochemically produced with good yields on the BDD anode, mainly in alkaline solution. Under this condition, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was higher than that obtained from the model proposed by Comninellis. Electrolyses performed in phosphate buffer and in the presence of chloride ions resulted in faster COD and color removals in acid and neutral solutions, but in alkaline phosphate solution, a better performance in terms of TOC removal was obtained in the absence of chloride. Moreover, organochloride compounds were detected in all electrolyses performed in the presence of chloride. The AB-210 electrooxidation on BDD using phosphate as supporting electrolyte proved to be interesting since oxidizing species generated from phosphate ions were able to completely degrade the dye without producing organochloride compounds.

  8. Concentric-Electrode Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Case Study for Selective Hydrazine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Pecqueur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs with a design consisting of concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors that are specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10−5 M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for nine other water-soluble common analytes, the capability to entirely recover its base signal after water flushing, and a very low operation voltage. The specificity for hydrazine to be sensed by our OECTs is caused by its catalytic oxidation at the gate electrode, and enables an increase in the output current modulation of the devices. This has permitted the device-geometry study of the whole series of 80 micrometric OECT devices with sub-20-nm PEDOT:PSS layers, channel lengths down to 1 µm, and a specific device geometry of coplanar and concentric electrodes. The numerous geometries unravel new aspects of the OECT mechanisms governing the electrochemical sensing behaviours of the device—more particularly the effect of the contacts which are inherent at the micro-scale. By lowering the device cross-talk, micrometric gate-integrated radial OECTs shall contribute to the diminishing of the readout invasiveness and therefore further promote the development of OECT biosensors.

  9. Electrochemical and spectroscopic in situ techniques for the investigation of the phosphating of zinc coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomandl, A.

    2003-05-01

    In this work spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were developed for the investigation of surface treatments used in steel industry. ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Raman spectroscopy and the Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) were applied to the investigation of the kinetics of phosphating as well as the properties of phosphate layers. Phosphating of zinc coated steel leads to the formation of a crystalline layer consisting of zinc phosphate and is employed to enhance paint adhesion and corrosion protection. For the high reaction rates necessary in industrial production lines, oxidation agents are added to the phosphating bathes to accelerate the reaction. The oxidation agents provide an additional reduction reaction beside the hydrogen formation and therefore decrease the number of gas bubbles, which would block the zinc surface and reduce the rate of phosphating. With addition of H2O2 or nitrates the rate of layer formation is distinctly increased. In a combined experiment of ICP-AES with QCM and potential transients, it was shown that the presence of these accelerators in the phosphating bath increases the rate of zinc dissolution and hence leads to a faster formation of the phosphate layer. In under paint corrosion of painted, zinc coated steel phosphate layers are exposed to a highly alkaline environment. The stability of a phosphate layer against alkaline attack is therefore essential for its performance in corrosion protection. To enhance the alkaline stability Mn and Ni are added to modern phosphating bathes. The incorporation of these elements reduces the dissolution rate in 0.1 M NaOH proportional to their concentration in the phosphate layer. The dissolution of Zn, P, Mn and Ni was determined quantitatively with ICP-AES. Raman spectroscopy showed the formation of a Mn-hydroxide layer during alkaline attack, which protects the phosphate layer and reduces further dissolution. On basis of these results the reaction of phosphate layers

  10. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  11. Comparison study of biomimetic strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings by electrochemical deposition and air plasma spray: morphology, composition and bioactive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Xia; Meng, Yizhi; Weyant, Christopher M

    2012-10-01

    In this study, strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by electrochemical deposition and plasma spray under different process parameters to achieve various coating morphologies. The coating composition was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy while the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped calcium phosphate coatings were evaluated using bone cell culture using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. The addition of strontium leads to enhanced proliferation suggesting the possible benefits of strontium incorporation in calcium phosphate coatings. The morphology and composition of deposited coatings showed a strong influence on the growth of cells.

  12. Nanostructured layer-by-layer films containing phaeophytin-b: Electrochemical characterization for sensing purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes Pauli, Gisele Elias; Araruna, Felipe B.; Eiras, Carla; Leite, José Roberto S.A.; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Filho, Severino Gonçalves Brito; Vanderlei de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Chavero, Lucas Natálio; Sartorelli, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the study and characterization of a new platform for practical applications, where the use of phaeophytin-b (phaeo-b), a compound derived from chlorophyll, was characterized and investigated for sensing purposes. Modified electrodes with nanostructured phaeo-b films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, where phaeo-b was assembled with cashew gum, a polysaccharide, or with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The multilayer formation was investigated with UV–Vis spectroscopy by monitoring the absorption band associated to phaeo-b at approximately 410 nm, where distinct molecular interactions between the materials were verified. The morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical properties through redox behavior of phaeo-b were studied with cyclic voltammetry. The produced films were applied as sensors for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection. In terms of sensing, the cashew/phaeo-b film exhibited the most promising result, with a fast response and broad linear range upon the addition of H 2 O 2 . This approach provides a simple and inexpensive method for development of a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for H 2 O 2 . - Highlights: • Potential applications of phaeophytin-b • Low-cost method to produce sensitive nanostructured films • Electrochemical sensor based on phaeophytin-b and cashew gum

  13. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Meatza, I. de [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Martin, M.I., E-mail: imartin@ietcc.csic.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Bengoechea, M. [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, I. [Dpto. I-D-i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Rabanal, M.E., E-mail: mariaeugenia.rabanal@uc3m.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  14. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Meatza, I. de; Martin, M.I.; Bengoechea, M.; Cantero, I.; Rabanal, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO 4 has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  15. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  16. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J.; Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silvan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  17. Localized Electrochemiluminescence from Nanoneedle Electrodes for Very-high-density Electrochemical Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-09-28

    In this paper, localized electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was visualized from nanoneedle electrodes that achieved very-high-density electrochemical sensing. The localized luminescence at the nanometer-sized tip observed was ascribed to enhanced mass transfer of the luminescence probe at the tip than on the planar surface surrounding the tip, which provided higher luminescence at the tip. The size of the luminescence spots was restricted to 15 μm permitting the electrochemical analysis with a density over 4 × 103 spots/mm2. The positive correlation between the luminescence intensity at the tips and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide supported the quantitative ECL analysis using nanoneedle electrodes. The further modification of glucose oxidase at the electrode surface conceptually demonstrated that the concentration of glucose ranging from 0.5 to 5 mM could be quantified using the luminescence at the tips, which could be further applied for the detection of multiple molecules in the complex biosystem. This successful localized ECL offers a specific strategy for the development of very-high-density electrochemical arrays without the complicated chip design.

  18. Ion exchange and electrochemical evaluation of the microporous phosphate Li9Fe7(PO4)10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becht, Gregory A.; Vaughey, John T.; Britt, Robin L.; Eagle, Cassandra T.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2008-01-01

    A new lithium iron(III) phosphate, Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 , has been synthesized and is currently under electrochemical evaluation as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The sample was prepared via the ion exchange reaction of Cs 5 K 4 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 1 in the 1 M LiNO 3 solution under hydrothermal conditions at 200 deg. C. The fully Li + -exchanged sample Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 2 cannot yet be synthesized by conventional high-temperature, solid-state methods. The parent compound 1 is a member of the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series that was previously isolated from a high-temperature (750 deg. C) reaction employing the eutectic CsCl/KCl molten salt. The polycrystalline solid 1 was first prepared in a stoichiometric reaction via conventional solid-state method then followed by ion exchange giving rise to 2. Both compounds adopt three-dimensional structures that consist of orthogonally interconnected channels where electropositive ions reside. It has been demonstrated that the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series possesses versatile ion exchange capabilities with all the monovalent alkali metal and silver cations due to its facile pathways for ion transport. 1 and 2 were subject to electrochemical analysis and preliminary results suggest that the latter can be considered as an anode material. Electrochemical results indicate that Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 is reduced below 1 V (vs. Li) to most likely form a Fe(0)/Li 3 PO 4 composite material, which can subsequently be cycled reversibly at relatively low potential. An initial capacity of 250 mAh/g was measured, which is equivalent to the insertion of thirteen Li atoms per Li 9+x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 (x = 13) during the charge/discharge process (Fe 2+ + 2e → Fe 0 ). Furthermore, 2 shows a lower reduction potential (0.9 V), by approximately 200 mV, and much better electrochemical reversibility than iron(III) phosphate, FePO 4 , highlighting the value of improving the ionic conductivity of the sample

  19. Current trends in electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Richtera, Lukas; Hynek, David; Labuda, Jan; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-11-15

    DNA methylation plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Several genetic diseases and most malignancies tend to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. Among other analytical methods, electrochemical approaches have been successfully employed for characterisation of DNA methylation patterns that are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of particular diseases. This article discusses current trends in the electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation. Particularly, it provides an overview of applied electrode materials, electrode modifications and biorecognition elements applications with an emphasis on strategies that form the core DNA methylation detection approaches. The three main strategies as (i) bisulfite treatment, (ii) cleavage by restriction endonucleases, and (iii) immuno/affinity reaction were described in greater detail. Additionally, the availability of the reviewed platforms for early cancer diagnosis and the approval of methylation inhibitors for anticancer therapy were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphate sensing by fluorecent reporter proteins embedded in poly-acrylamide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Gu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate sensors were developed by embedding fluorescent reporter proteins (FLIPPi) in polyacrylamide nanoparticles; with diameters from 40 to 120 nm. The sensor activity and protein loading efficiency varied according to nanoparticle composition, that is, the total monomer content (% T) and the......, in nanoparticles for, for example, sensing, biological catalysis, and gene delivery.......Phosphate sensors were developed by embedding fluorescent reporter proteins (FLIPPi) in polyacrylamide nanoparticles; with diameters from 40 to 120 nm. The sensor activity and protein loading efficiency varied according to nanoparticle composition, that is, the total monomer content (% T......) and the cross-linker content (% C). Nanoparticles with 28% T and 20% C were considered optimal as a result of relatively high loading efficiency (50.6%) as well as high protein activity (50%). The experimental results prove that the cross-linked polyacrylamide matrix could protect FLIPPi from degradation...

  1. A Supramolecular Sensing Platform for Phosphate Anions and an Anthrax Biomarker in a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Huskens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A supramolecular platform based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs has been implemented in a microfluidic device. The system has been applied for the sensing of two different analyte types: biologically relevant phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids, which are important for anthrax detection. A Eu(III-EDTA complex was bound to β-cyclodextrin monolayers via orthogonal supramolecular host-guest interactions. The self-assembly of the Eu(III-EDTA conjugate and naphthalene β-diketone as an antenna resulted in the formation of a highly luminescent lanthanide complex on the microchannel surface. Detection of different phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids was demonstrated by monitoring the decrease in red emission following displacement of the antenna by the analyte. Among these analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP and pyrophosphate, as well as dipicolinic acid (DPA which is a biomarker for anthrax, showed a strong response. Parallel fabrication of five sensing SAMs in a single multichannel chip was performed, as a first demonstration of phosphate and carboxylic acid screening in a multiplexed format that allows a general detection platform for both analyte systems in a single test run with µM and nM detection sensitivity for ATP and DPA, respectively.

  2. Nanostructured layer-by-layer films containing phaeophytin-b: Electrochemical characterization for sensing purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes Pauli, Gisele Elias [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Araruna, Felipe B. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Eiras, Carla [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAV, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Leite, José Roberto S.A. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba (Brazil); Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Filho, Severino Gonçalves Brito; Vanderlei de Souza, Maria de Fátima [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos Bioativos, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Chavero, Lucas Natálio; Sartorelli, Maria Luisa [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); and others

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the study and characterization of a new platform for practical applications, where the use of phaeophytin-b (phaeo-b), a compound derived from chlorophyll, was characterized and investigated for sensing purposes. Modified electrodes with nanostructured phaeo-b films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, where phaeo-b was assembled with cashew gum, a polysaccharide, or with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The multilayer formation was investigated with UV–Vis spectroscopy by monitoring the absorption band associated to phaeo-b at approximately 410 nm, where distinct molecular interactions between the materials were verified. The morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical properties through redox behavior of phaeo-b were studied with cyclic voltammetry. The produced films were applied as sensors for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection. In terms of sensing, the cashew/phaeo-b film exhibited the most promising result, with a fast response and broad linear range upon the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. This approach provides a simple and inexpensive method for development of a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Potential applications of phaeophytin-b • Low-cost method to produce sensitive nanostructured films • Electrochemical sensor based on phaeophytin-b and cashew gum.

  3. Promoting Effect of Layered Titanium Phosphate on the Electrochemical and Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reported a composite electrolyte prepared by incorporating layered α-titanium phosphate (α-TiP into an iodide-based electrolyte using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate(EmimBF4 ionic liquid as solvent. The obtained composite electrolyte exhibited excellent electrochemical and photovoltaic properties compared to pure ionic liquid electrolyte. Both the diffusion coefficient of triiodide (I3 − in the electrolyte and the charge-transfer reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface were improved markedly. The mechanism for the enhanced electrochemical properties of the composite electrolyte was discussed. The highest conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was obtained for the composite electrolyte containing 1wt% α-TiP, with an improvement of 58% in the conversion efficiency than the blank one, which offered a broad prospect for the fabrication of stable DSSCs with a high conversion efficiency.

  4. Improved in vivo performance of amperometric oxygen (PO2) sensing catheters via electrochemical nitric oxide generation/release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hang; Coughlin, Megan A; Major, Terry C; Aiello, Salvatore; Rojas Pena, Alvaro; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-08-18

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of -2 ± 11% and good correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of -31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R(2) = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors.

  5. Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensing of neurological drugs and neurotransmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Bankim J.; Swami, Nathan S.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Hirsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterial-modified detection systems represent a chief driver towards the adoption of electrochemical methods, since nanomaterials enable functional tunability, ability to self-assemble, and novel electrical, optical and catalytic properties that emerge at this scale. This results in tremendous gains in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and versatility. We review the electrochemical methods and mechanisms that may be applied to the detection of neurological drugs. We focus on understanding how specific nano-sized modifiers may be applied to influence the electron transfer event to result in gains in sensitivity, selectivity and versatility of the detection system. This critical review is structured on the basis of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System, specifically ATC Code N (neurotransmitters). Specific sections are dedicated to the widely used electrodes based on the carbon materials, supporting electrolytes, and on electrochemical detection paradigms for neurological drugs and neurotransmitters within the groups referred to as ATC codes N01 to N07. We finally discuss emerging trends and future challenges such as the development of strategies for simultaneous detection of multiple targets with high spatial and temporal resolutions, the integration of microfluidic strategies for selective and localized analyte pre-concentration, the real-time monitoring of neurotransmitter secretions from active cell cultures under electro- and chemotactic cues, aptamer-based biosensors, and the miniaturization of the sensing system for detection in small sample volumes and for enabling cost savings due to manufacturing scale-up. The Electronic Supporting Material (ESM) includes review articles dealing with the review topic in last 40 years, as well as key properties of the analytes, viz., pK a values, half-life of drugs and their electrochemical mechanisms. The ESM also defines analytical figures of merit of the drugs and neurotransmitters. The

  6. One pot synthesis of dandelion-like polyaniline coated gold nanoparticles composites for electrochemical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Dai, Wanlin; Liu, Baichen; Mo, Guangquan; Zhang, Junjun; Ye, Jiaping; Ye, Jianshan

    2018-04-18

    In this work, we report a facile and green strategy for one pot and in-situ synthesis of a dandelion-like conductive polyaniline coated gold nanoparticle nanocomposites (Au@PANI). The Au@PANI was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, FTIR, UV-vis and conductivity measurement, respectively. Newly-designed Au@PANI materials possessed a significantly high conductivity and strong adsorption capability. Thus, the Au@PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was utilized for construct a novel electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous assay of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Under the optimized conditions, an excellent electrochemical response in the simultaneous of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ with detection limit of 0.003 and 0.008 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. Moreover, the prepared sensors realized an excellent reproducibility, repeatability and long term stability, as well as reliable practical assays in real water samples. Besides, the possible formation mechanism and sensing mechanism of Au@PANI nanocomposites have been discussed in detail. We believe this study provides a novel method of fabrication of noble metal nanoparticles decorated conducting polymer materials for the electrochemical sensing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Layered Metal Nanoparticle Structures on Electrodes for Sensing, Switchable Controlled Uptake/Release, and Photo-electrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Kahn, Jason S; Willner, Itamar

    2016-01-06

    Layered metal nanoparticle (NP) assemblies provide highly porous and conductive composites of unique electrical and optical (plasmonic) properties. Two methods to construct layered metal NP matrices are described, and these include the layer-by-layer deposition of NPs, or the electropolymerization of monolayer-functionalized NPs, specifically thioaniline-modified metal NPs. The layered NP composites are used as sensing matrices through the use of electrochemistry or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as transduction signals. The crosslinking of the metal NP composites with molecular receptors, or the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the electropolymerized NP matrices lead to selective and chiroselective sensing interfaces. Furthermore, the electrosynthesis of redox-active, imprinted, bis-aniline bridged Au NP composites yields electrochemically triggered "sponges" for the switchable uptake and release of electron-acceptor substrates, and results in conductive surfaces of electrochemically controlled wettability. Also, photosensitizer-relay-crosslinked Au NP composites, or electrochemically polymerized layered semiconductor quantum dot/metal NP matrices on electrodes, are demonstrated as functional nanostructures for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.; Leleux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal

  9. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, P; Sekar, C

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 3 × 10(-5)M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Xia, Shanhong; Tong, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2015-08-05

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO{sub 3} nanoparticles (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO{sub 3}. The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO{sub 3} weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO{sub 3} weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L{sup −1} for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. - Highlights: • PC samples with different morphology and electrochemical activities were prepared. • Highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed for food colourants. • The accuracy and practicability was testified to be good by HPLC.

  11. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Qin; Xia, Shanhong; Tong, Jianhua; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-01-01

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO 3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO 3 ) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO 3 . The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO 3 weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO 3 weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L −1 for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. - Highlights: • PC samples with different morphology and electrochemical activities were prepared. • Highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed for food colourants. • The accuracy and practicability was testified to be good by HPLC

  12. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas El Sahili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3'-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the

  13. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sahili, Abbas; Li, Si-Zhe; Lang, Julien; Virus, Cornelia; Planamente, Sara; Ahmar, Mohammed; Guimaraes, Beatriz G; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Vigouroux, Armelle; Soulère, Laurent; Reader, John; Queneau, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2015-08-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3'-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of

  14. Graphene-Paper Based Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies amongothers. In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in theresearch and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materialsfor electrochemical sensors. The chapter covers the design, fabrication, functionalizationand...... functionalization ofgraphene papers with polymer and nanoscale functional building blocks for electrochemical-sensing purposes. In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis ison enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detectionof glucose. We finally conclude...

  15. Aggregation of Individual Sensing Units for Signal Accumulation: Conversion of Liquid-Phase Colorimetric Assay into Enhanced Surface-Tethered Electrochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianxiang; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bao, Jianchun; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-07-22

    A novel concept is proposed for converting liquid-phase colorimetric assay into enhanced surface-tethered electrochemical analysis, which is based on the analyte-induced formation of a network architecture of metal nanoparticles (MNs). In a proof-of-concept trial, thymine-functionalized silver nanoparticle (Ag-T) is designed as the sensing unit for Hg(2+) determination. Through a specific T-Hg(2+)-T coordination, the validation system based on functionalized sensing units not only can perform well in a colorimetric Hg(2+) assay, but also can be developed into a more sensitive and stable electrochemical Hg(2+) sensor. In electrochemical analysis, the simple principle of analyte-induced aggregation of MNs can be used as a dual signal amplification strategy for significantly improving the detection sensitivity. More importantly, those numerous and diverse colorimetric assays that rely on the target-induced aggregation of MNs can be augmented to satisfy the ambitious demands of sensitive analysis by converting them into electrochemical assays via this approach.

  16. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown in MW Plasma Torch: Electronic and Electrochemical Behavior, Gas Sensing, Field Emission, IR Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Majzlíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 µm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‑modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures.

  18. Polypyrrole-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Ag (PPy-PEDOT-Ag) nanocomposite films for label-free electrochemical DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, S; Sumathi, C; Umar, Ahmad; Jae Kim, Sang; Wilson, J; Dharuman, V

    2013-09-15

    The electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing of bipolymer polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PPy-PEDOT) nanotubes functionalized with Ag nanoparticles has been investigated. The bipolymer nanotubes are prepared by simple chemical route and silver nanoparticles (Ag) further deposited over the PPy-PEDOT nanotubes to form PPy-PEDOT-Ag nanocomposite films. DNA labeled at 5'end using 6-mercapto-1-hexhane (HS-ssDNA) is immobilized on the PPy-PEDOT-Ag surface to form PPy-PEDOT-Ag-S-ssDNA and hybridization sensing is done in phosphate buffer. The presence of Ag nanoparticles (~28±5nm) well dispersed in the polymer composite with high surface area, high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity provides desirable microenvironment for the immobilization of probe DNA with controlled orientation leading to increased hybridization efficiency with target DNA. The morphological and structural characterizations by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirm the nanotube structure of composite polymer while Raman measurements indicate the efficient interactions between the PPy, PEDOT, Ag and HS-ssDNA. The sensor effectively discriminates different target DNA sequences with PPy-PEDOT-Ag-S-ssDNA substrate. The observed dynamic detection range is found between 1×10(-11)M and 1×10(-14)M with the lowest detection limit (3 σ/b) of 5.4×10(-15)M. This observed value is of higher sensitivity than that for MWCNT-Ag, PANi-Au, MWCNT-PPy-Au and PPy-PANi-Au composites reported previously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D printed stretchable capacitive sensors for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Wei, Hong; Liu, Wenguang; Meng, Hong; Zhang, Peixin; Yan, Chaoyi

    2018-05-01

    Developments of innovative strategies for the fabrication of stretchable sensors are of crucial importance for their applications in wearable electronic systems. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of stretchable capacitive sensors using a novel 3D printing method for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing applications. Unlike conventional lithographic or templated methods, the programmable 3D printing technique can fabricate complex device structures in a cost-effective and facile manner. We designed and fabricated stretchable capacitive sensors with interdigital and double-vortex designs and demonstrated their successful applications as tactile and electrochemical sensors. Especially, our stretchable sensors exhibited a detection limit as low as 1 × 10-6 M for NaCl aqueous solution, which could have significant potential applications when integrated in electronics skins.

  20. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi 2 CdO 4 phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  1. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianyue Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium phosphate (CaP coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating’s morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future.

  2. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ju, Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Shijia, E-mail: dingshijia@163.com [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2014-10-10

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL{sup −1} in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  3. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo; Cheng, Wei; Ju, Huangxian; Ding, Shijia

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL −1 in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring

  4. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  5. Graphene prepared by one-pot solvent exfoliation as a highly sensitive platform for electrochemical sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Can; Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Gang [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Qing, E-mail: qing_li_2@brown.edu [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by one-step solvent exfoliation as superior electrode material. • Compared with RGO, prepared graphene exhibited stronger signal enhancement. • A widespread and highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was constructed. - Abstract: Graphene was easily obtained via one-step ultrasonic exfoliation of graphite powder in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and particle size measurements indicated that the exfoliation efficiency and the amount of produced graphene increased with ultrasonic time. The electrochemical properties and analytical applications of the resulting graphene were systematically studied. Compared with the predominantly-used reduced graphene oxides, the obtained graphene by one-step solvent exfoliation greatly enhanced the oxidation signals of various analytes, such as ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), xanthine (XA), hypoxanthine (HXA), bisphenol A (BPA), ponceau 4R, and sunset yellow. The detection limits of AA, DA, UA, XA, HXA, BPA, ponceau 4R, and sunset yellow were evaluated to be 0.8 μM, 7.5 nM, 2.5 nM, 4 nM, 10 nM, 20 nM, 2 nM, and 1 nM, which are much lower than the reported values. Thus, the prepared graphene via solvent exfoliation strategy displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a universal and sensitive electrochemical sensing platform.

  6. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, BabanKumar; Kumar, Tejinder; Thakur, Ritula; Rana, Shakshi; Singh, Inderbir

    2017-08-15

    Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molybdenum disulfide nanoflower-chitosan-Au nanoparticles composites based electrochemical sensing platform for bisphenol A determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yan-Ming; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work constructs a novel electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection. • Flower-like MoS 2 are prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure. • AuNPs are assembled on MoS 2 nanoflowers modified electrode for signal amplification. • The developed sensor exhibits low detection limit and wide linear range. - Abstract: Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide are attracting increasing attention in electrochemical sensing due to their unique electronic properties. In this work, flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed the MoS 2 nanoflower had sizes with diameter of about 200 nm and was constructed with many irregular sheets as a petal-like structure with thickness of several nanometers. A novel electrochemical sensor was constructed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on MoS 2 and chitosan-gold nanoparticles composites modified electrode. The sensor showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. A good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.05 to 100 μM with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −9 M (S/N = 3). The developed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and long-term stability, and it was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in different samples. This work indicated MoS 2 nanoflowers were promising in electrochemical sensing and catalytic applications

  8. Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Baig, Umair; Khalid, Mohd

    2011-02-28

    In this study, the electrically conducting polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate (PANI-TiP) cation exchange nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The cation exchange nanocomposite based sensor for detection of ammonia vapors was developed at room temperature. It was revealed that the sensor showed good reversible response towards ammonia vapors ranging from 3 to 6%. It was found that the sensor with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) doped exhibited higher sensing response than hydrochloric acid doped. This sensor has detection limit ≤1% ammonia. The response of resistivity changes of the cation exchange nanocomposite on exposure to different concentrations of ammonia vapors shows its utility as a sensing material. These studies suggest that the cation exchange nanocomposite could be a good material for ammonia sensor at room temperature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong [Xinjiang Univ., Xinjiang (China). School of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi{sub 2}CdO{sub 4} phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  10. Paper-based electrochemical sensing platform with integral battery and electrochromic read-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Crooks, Richard M

    2012-03-06

    We report a battery-powered, microelectrochemical sensing platform that reports its output using an electrochromic display. The platform is fabricated based on paper fluidics and uses a Prussian blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. The integrated metal/air battery powers both the electrochemical sensor and the electrochromic read-out, which are in electrical contact via a paper reservoir. The sample activates the battery and the presence of analyte in the sample initiates the color change of the Prussian blue spot. The entire system is assembled on the lab bench, without the need for cleanroom facilities. The applicability of the device to point-of-care sensing is demonstrated by qualitative detection of 0.1 mM glucose and H(2)O(2) in artificial urine samples.

  11. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO 2 or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  12. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  13. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.rocca@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO{sub 2} or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  14. Graphene oxide directed in-situ deposition of electroactive silver nanoparticles and its electrochemical sensing application for DNA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ningning [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504 (Japan); He, Suyu; Zhu, Qionghua; Huang, Jiafu [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504 (Japan); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China)

    2017-01-25

    The development of high-performance biosensing platform is heavily dependent on the recognition property of the sensing layer and the output intensity of the signal probe. Herein, we present a simple and highly sensitive biosensing interface for DNA detection on the basis of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) directed in-situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The fabrication process and electrochemical properties of the biosensing interface were probed by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that GONs can specifically adsorb at the single-stranded DNA probe surface, and induces the deposition of highly electroactive AgNPs. Upon hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides to generate the duplex DNA on the electrode surface, the GONs with the deposited AgNPs will be liberated from the sensing interface due to the inferior affinity of GONs and duplex DNA, resulting in the reduction of the electrochemical signal. Such a strategy combines the superior recognition of GONs toward single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, and the strong electrochemical response of in-situ deposited AgNPs. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor can detect target DNA over a wide range from 10 fM to 10 nM with a detection limit of 7.6 fM. Also, the developed biosensor shows outstanding discriminating ability toward oligonucleotides with different mismatching degrees. - Highlights: • An novel DNA biosensor was constructed based on GONs with deposited AgNPs. • GONs catalyze the in-situ deposition of AgNPs on the sensing interface. • Unique π-stacking of GONs with probe DNA contributes high selectivity of the biosensor. • High electroactivity of AgNPs leads to low detection limit (7.6 fM) for target DNA.

  15. Nanomaterials for electrochemical sensing and biosensing

    CERN Document Server

    Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Nanomaterial-Based ElectrodesCarbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors, Martin Pumera, National Institute for Materials Science, JapanElectrochemistry on Single Carbon Nanotube, Pat Collier, Caltech, USATheory of Voltammetry at Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Richard G. Compton, Oxford University, UKMetal Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Frank Marken, University of Bath, UKSemiconductor Quantum Dots for Electrochemical Bioanalysis, Eugenii Katz, Clarkson University, USAN

  16. Novel redox species polyaniline derivative-Au/Pt as sensing platform for label-free electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liyuan; Shan, Jiao; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang, E-mail: mazhanfang@cnu.edu.cn

    2016-03-10

    A novel electrochemical redox-active nanocomposite was synthesized by a one-pot method using N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine as monomer, and HAuCl{sub 4} and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} as co-oxidizing agents. The as-prepared poly(N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine)-Au/Pt exhibited admirable electrochemical redox activity at 0.15 V, excellent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrocatalytic ability and favorable electron transfer ability. Based on these, the evaluation of the composite as sensing substrate for label-free electrochemical immunosensing to the sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 199 was described. This technique proved to be a prospective detection tool with a wide liner range from 0.001 U mL{sup −1} to 40 U mL{sup −1}, and a low detection limit of 2.3 × 10{sup −4} U mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3). In addition, this method was used for the analysis of human serum sample, and good agreement was obtained between the values and those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implying the potential application in clinical research. Importantly, the strategy of the present substrate could be extended to other polymer-based nanocomposites such as polypyrrole derivatives or polythiophene derivatives, and this could be of great significance for the electrochemical immunoassay. - Highlights: • A novel electrochemical redox composite PPPD-Au/Pt was synthesized by one-pot method. • PPPD-Au/Pt was used as sensing substrate for label-free electrochemical immunosensor. • The immunosensor showed wide detection range and ultralow detection limit for the detection of CA199.

  17. Detection of Hepatitis C core antibody by dual-affinity yeast chimera and smartphone-based electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Venkatesh, A G; Sun, Alex; Brickner, Howard; Looney, David; Hall, Drew A

    2016-12-15

    Yeast cell lines were genetically engineered to display Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen linked to gold binding peptide (GBP) as a dual-affinity biobrick chimera. These multifunctional yeast cells adhere to the gold sensor surface while simultaneously acting as a "renewable" capture reagent for anti-HCV core antibody. This streamlined functionalization and detection strategy removes the need for traditional purification and immobilization techniques. With this biobrick construct, both optical and electrochemical immunoassays were developed. The optical immunoassays demonstrated detection of anti-HCV core antibody down to 12.3pM concentrations while the electrochemical assay demonstrated higher binding constants and dynamic range. The electrochemical format and a custom, low-cost smartphone-based potentiostat ($20 USD) yielded comparable results to assays performed on a state-of-the-art electrochemical workstation. We propose this combination of synthetic biology and scalable, point-of-care sensing has potential to provide low-cost, cutting edge diagnostic capability for many pathogens in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglan; Jin, Jun; Yuan, Caixia; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-21

    A simple and mild strategy was proposed to develop a novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline (ZrO2/OMP) and further used for the detection of methyl parathion (MP), one of the organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). Due to the strong affinity of phosphate groups with ZrO2 and the advantages of OMP such as high catalytic activity and good conductivity, the developed sensor showed a limit of detection as low as 2.28 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3) by square-wave voltammograms, and good selectivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Most importantly, this novel sensor was successfully applied to detect MP in real samples of apple and cabbage. It is expected that this method has potential applications in electrochemical sensing platforms with simple, sensitive, selective and fast analysis.

  19. Forensic electrochemistry: indirect electrochemical sensing of the components of the new psychoactive substance "Synthacaine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba, Loanda R; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Smith, Jamie P; Thompson, Paul D; Evans, Peter R; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; do Carmo, Devaney R; Banks, Craig E

    2015-08-21

    "Synthacaine" is a New Psychoactive Substance which is, due to its inherent psychoactive properties, reported to imitate the effects of cocaine and is therefore consequently branded as "legal cocaine". The only analytical approach reported to date for the sensing of "Synthacaine" is mass spectrometry. In this paper, we explore and evaluate a range of potential analytical techniques for its quantification and potential use in the field screening "Synthacaine" using Raman spectroscopy, presumptive (colour) testing, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemistry. HPLC analysis of street samples reveals that "Synthacaine" comprises a mixture of methiopropamine (MPA) and 2-aminoindane (2-AI). Raman spectroscopy and presumptive (colour) tests, the Marquis, Mandelin, Simon's and Robadope test, are evaluated towards a potential in-the-field screening approach but are found to not be able to discriminate between the two when they are both present in the same sample, as is the case in the real street samples. We report for the first time a novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the sensing of MPA and 2-AI which is independently validated in street samples with HPLC. This novel electrochemical approach based upon one-shot disposable cost effective screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes holds potential for in-the-field screening for "Synthacaine".

  20. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10 −7 to 3 × 10 −5 M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples. - Highlights: • EDTA- hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles have been synthesized by microwave irradiation method. • A novel amperometric Uric Acid biosensor has been fabricated using E-HA/GCE. • The fabricated sensor exhibits a wide linear range, good stability and high reproducibility. • The sensor was applied for the detection of UA in human blood serum and urine

  1. Electrochemical sensing of glucose by reduced graphene oxide-zinc ferrospinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnavaz, Zohreh, E-mail: zohreh.shahnavaz@siswa.um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Woi, Pei Meng, E-mail: pmwoi@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Center of Ionic Liquids, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alias, Yatimah, E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Center of Ionic Liquids, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • A facile in situ hydrothermal method for ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles incorporation into graphene oxide sheets. • Excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability properties compared to others Zn-based glucose sensor. • Amount of reduced graphene oxide directly affected the electro-catalytic activity of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposite towards glucose detection. - Abstract: We have developed ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets modified glassy carbon (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO/GCE) electrode as a novel system for the electrochemical glucose sensing. Via a facile in situ hydrothermal route, the reduction of GO and the formation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occurred simultaneously. This enables the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles dispersed on the reduced graphene sheet. Characterization of nanocomposite by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly demonstrate the successful attachment of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to graphene sheets. Electrochemical studies revealed that the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO/GCE possess excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of glucose and the performance of sensor is enhanced by integration of graphene nanosheets with ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  2. One-step and low-temperature synthesis of iodine-doped graphene and its multifunctional applications for hydrogen evolution reaction and electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Xiao-lin; Wei, Xiao-ping; Wang, Xin-wei; Tian, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Iodine (I) has emerged as a powerful heteroatom dopant for efficiently tailoring the electrocatalytic properties of graphene. However, the preparation methods of I-doped graphene (I-G) and its electrocatalysis applications remain largely unexplored. Herein, a one-step and low-temperature hydrothermal approach was developed for the successful synthesis of I-G with a high I-doping level (0.52 at.%). The resulting I-G was then applied as a metal-free catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and electrochemical sensing. It was shown that the I-G exhibited a dramatically enhanced HER activity compared to undoped graphene, attributed to the critical role of I-doping in offering large exposed active sites and high electron transfer capability. Furthermore, I-G also displayed attractive sensing performances for highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine. These findings demonstrate that the hydrothermally synthesized I-G can be a promising electrocatalyst for multifunctional applications in water-splitting and electrochemical sensing.

  3. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10{sup −7} to 3 × 10{sup −5} M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples. - Highlights: • EDTA- hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles have been synthesized by microwave irradiation method. • A novel amperometric Uric Acid biosensor has been fabricated using E-HA/GCE. • The fabricated sensor exhibits a wide linear range, good stability and high reproducibility. • The sensor was applied for the detection of UA in human blood serum and urine.

  4. Cu-Hemin Metal-Organic-Frameworks/Chitosan-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Peroxidase-Like Bioactivity for Electrochemical Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Yang, Han; He, Juan; Zhang, Yayun; Yu, Jie; Song, Yonghai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, sensitive and effective method to detect hydrogen peroxide based on a hybrid Cu-hemin metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs)/chitosan-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) nanocomposite was achieved via Cu-hemin MOFs constructing with CS-rGO in room temperature. The Cu-hemin MOFs/CS-rGO nanomaterials exhibited a unique peroxidase-like activity and good electrical conductivity as well as some novel properties. And the as-prepared electrode resulted in a perfect electrochemical performance towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide which was superior to natural enzymes and some inorganic mimic enzymes. - Highlights: • A hybrid Cu-hemin MOF/CS-rGO with a unique peroxidase-like activity was prepared. • The CS-rGO improved electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites greatly. • The 3D porous structure enhanced the catalytic activity of hemin for H 2 O 2 . • A novel sensitive electrochemical biosensing for H 2 O 2 detection was achieved. - Abstract: Herein, a Cu-hemin metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs)/chitosan (CS)-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) nanocomposite with unique peroxidase-like bioactivity and good electrical conductivity was prepared for electrochemical H 2 O 2 sensing for the first time. The prepared Cu-hemin MOFs/CS-rGO nanocomposites were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The results showed that after the Cu-hemin MOFs were formed on the CS-rGO surface, the crystalline structure of the Cu-hemin MOFs was kept while the size of Cu-hemin MOFs was decreased and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites was enhanced greatly as compared with that of Cu-hemin MOFs. The unique peroxidase-like bioactivity and good electrical conductivity as well as some novel properties of Cu-hemin MOFs/CS-rGO nanocomposites resulted in

  5. Biomimetic supercontainers for size-selective electrochemical sensing of molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Nathan L.; Must, Indrek; Qiao, Yupu; Zhang, Shi-Li; Wang, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    New ionophores are essential for advancing the art of selective ion sensing. Metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs), a new family of biomimetic coordination capsules designed using sulfonylcalix[4]arenes as container precursors, are known for their tunable molecular recognition capabilities towards an array of guests. Herein, we demonstrate the use of MOSCs as a new class of size-selective ionophores dedicated to electrochemical sensing of molecular ions. Specifically, a MOSC molecule with its cavities matching the size of methylene blue (MB+), a versatile organic molecule used for bio-recognition, was incorporated into a polymeric mixed-matrix membrane and used as an ion-selective electrode. This MOSC-incorporated electrode showed a near-Nernstian potentiometric response to MB+ in the nano- to micro-molar range. The exceptional size-selectivity was also evident through contrast studies. To demonstrate the practical utility of our approach, a simulated wastewater experiment was conducted using water from the Fyris River (Sweden). It not only showed a near-Nernstian response to MB+ but also revealed a possible method for potentiometric titration of the redox indicator. Our study thus represents a new paradigm for the rational design of ionophores that can rapidly and precisely monitor molecular ions relevant to environmental, biomedical, and other related areas.

  6. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  7. Electrochemical sensing of tumor suppressor protein p53-deoxyribonucleic acid complex stability at an electrified interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Černocká, Hana; Ostatná, Veronika; Navrátilová, Lucie; Brázdová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 828, MAY2014 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00956S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-36108S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Deoxyribonucleic acid-protein binding * Tumor suppressor protein p53 * Electrochemical sensing Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014

  8. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design.

  9. Graphene nanoflakes on transparent glass electrode sensor for electrochemical sensing of anti-diabetic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Jagriti; Malhotra, Nitesh; Singhal, Chaitali; Bhatia, Rishabh; Kathuria, Vikas; Jain, Manan

    2017-04-01

    Metformin (Mf) plays a major role in controlling insulin level of individuals at risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Overdose of Mf can cause lactic acidosis, diarrhoea, cough, or hoarseness, etc. These particulars point out the identification for selective and sensitive methods of Mf determination. In the present work, graphene nanoflakes-polymethylene blue (GNF-PMB) nano-composites were developed onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 /F) coated glass substrates for electrochemical sensing of Mf using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The developed sensor shows quick response time (10 s), linearity as 10-10 3  µM, LOD (0.1 nM), and good shelf life (10 weeks). Attempts have been made to utilize this electrode for estimation of Mf in urine samples. Configured as a highly responsive, reproducible Mf sensor, it combines the electrical properties of GNF and stable electron transfer of PMB. The newly developed Mf sensor presents a promising candidate in point-of-care diagnosis.

  10. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion protection of metals by phosphate coatings and ecologically beneficial alternatives. Properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Duan.

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion and protection characteristics of inorganic zinc and manganese phosphate coatings in aqueous solution have been examined by physical methods, accelerated corrosion tests and electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. Some water-soluble organic films have been evaluated for the temporary protection of metal parts as the ecologically beneficial alternatives to phosphate coatings. The results show that zinc phosphate is a better insulator than manganese phosphate, but the porosity of the former is inferior to that of the latter. In neutral and alkaline solutions the anodic current of both zinc and manganese phosphates decreases and their open potential moves in a positive direction. In acidic medium both the polarization current and the open potential are close to those of the substrate. Confirmed by the impedance measurements, the corrosion of phosphated steel in acidic solution is controlled by a dissolution reaction, in neutral medium is first reaction controlled then diffusion controlled, and in alkaline environment only diffusion controlled. The insulation of acrylate+copolymer, epoxy and inhibitor+bonding materials is superior to that of zinc or manganese phosphates. In general, most of the alternatives can afford a better temporary protection for metal parts compared to inorganic phosphate coatings. The corrosion failure of inorganic phosphate coatings is mainly induced by the electrochemical dissolution of the substrate. This electrochemical process initiates at the bottom of the pores within the coating. In neutral solution, the hydrolysis of corrosion products decrease the pH value of the solution in the anodic zone, resulting in an acidic dissolution of phosphate coatings. At the same time, the depolarization of oxygen increases the pH value in the cathodic zone, causing an alkaline hydrolysis of phosphates. (author) figs., tabs., 149 refs

  12. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  13. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ren [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Department of Biology, College of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin Changjian, E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol{sup -1} was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  14. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ren; Lin Changjian; Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol -1 was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Three Dimensional Graphene for Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Chen, Ruwen; Liang, Qionglin; Li, Jinghong

    2015-07-01

    The rational assembly and doping of graphene play an crucial role in the improvement of electrochemical performance for analytical applications. Covalent assembly of graphene into ordered hierarchical structure provides an interconnected three dimensional conductive network and large specific area beneficial to electrolyte transfer on the electrode surface. Chemical doping with heteroatom is a powerful tool to intrinsically modify the electronic properties of graphene due to the increased free charge-carrier densities. By incorporating covalent assembly and nitrogen doping strategy, a novel nitrogen doped three dimensional reduced graphene oxide nanostructure (3D-N-RGO) was developed with synergetic enhancement in electrochemical behaviors. The as prepared 3D-N-RGO was further applied for catechol detection by differential pulse voltammetry. It exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity towards catechol with increased peak current and decreased potential difference between the oxidation and reduction peaks. Owing to the improved electro-chemical properties, the response of the electrochemical sensor varies linearly with the catechol concentrations ranging from 5 µM to 100 µM with a detection limit of 2 µM (S/N = 3). This work is promising to open new possibilities in the study of novel graphene nanostructure and promote its potential electrochemical applications.

  16. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with protein by click chemistry as sensing platform for sensitized electrochemical immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Honglan; Ling Chen; Huang Ru; Qiu Xiaoying; Shangguan Li; Gao Qiang; Zhang Chengxiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with protein by click chemistry. ► The SWNTs conjugated with protein showed excellent dispersion in water and kept good bioacitvity. ► A competitive electrochemical immunoassay for the determination of anti-IgG was developed with high sensitivity and good stability. - Abstract: The application of the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition to the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the protein and the use of the artificial SWNTs as a sensing platform for sensitive immunoassay were reported. Covalent functionalization of azide decorated SWNTs with alkyne modified protein was firstly accomplished by the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition. FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron micrograph were used to characterize the protein-functionalized SWNTs. It was found that the SWNTs conjugated with the proteins showed excellent dispersion in water and kept good bioacitivity when immunoglobulin (IgG) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were chosen as model proteins. As a proof-of-concept, IgG-functionalized SWNTs were immobilized onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by simple casting method as immunosensing platform and a sensitive competitive electrochemical immunoassay was developed for the determination of anti-immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) using HRP as enzyme label. The fabrication of the immunosensor were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the redox probe [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . The SWNTs as immobilization platform showed better sensitizing effect, a detection limit of 30 pg mL −1 (S/N = 3) was obtained for anti-IgG. The proposed strategy provided a stable immobilization method and sensitized recognition platform for analytes. This work demonstrated that the click coupling of SWNTs with protein was an effective

  17. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Controllable Fabrication and Tuned Electrochemical Performance of Potassium Co-Ni Phosphate Microplates as Electrodes in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Chen, Yule; He, Jiangyu; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wenwen; He, Yuanqing; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Ning; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2018-01-31

    Most reported pristine phosphates, such as NH 4 MPO 4 ·H 2 O (M = Co, Ni), are not very stable as supercapacitor electrodes because of their chemical properties. In this work, KCo x Ni 1-x PO 4 ·H 2 O microplates were fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method at low temperature and used as electrodes in supercapacitors. The Co and Ni content could be adjusted, and optimal electrochemical performance was found in KCo 0.33 Ni 0.67 PO 4 ·H 2 O, which also possessed superior specific capacitance, rate performance, and long-term chemical stability compared with NH 4 Co 0.33 Ni 0.67 PO 4 ·H 2 O because of its unique chemical composition and microstructure. Asymmetric supercapacitor cells based on KCo 0.33 Ni 0.67 PO 4 ·H 2 O and active carbon were assembled, which produce specific capacitance of 34.7 mA h g -1 (227 F g -1 ) under current density of 1.5 A g -1 and retain 82% as initial specific capacitance after charging and discharging approximately 5000 times. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor cells (ASCs) exhibited much higher power and energy density than most previously reported transition metal phosphate ASCs. The KCo x Ni 1-x PO 4 ·H 2 O electrodes fabricated in this work are efficient, inexpensive, and composed of naturally abundant materials, rendering them promising for energy storage device applications.

  19. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Xia, Shanhong; Tong, Jianhua; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-08-05

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO3. The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L(-1) for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The EIS investigation of powder polyester coatings on phosphated low carbon steel: The effect of NaNO2 in the phosphating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegdic, B.V.; Bajat, J.B.; Popic, J.P.; Stevanovic, S.I.; Miskovic-Stankovic, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effect of NaNO 2 on surface morphology of iron-phosphate coatings were determined. → Better corrosion stability of polyester coating on phosphated steel without NaNO 2 . → EIS results and microscopic examinations correlate well with adhesion measurements. - Abstract: The effect of different type of iron-phosphate coatings on corrosion stability and adhesion characteristic of top powder polyester coating on steel was investigated. Iron-phosphate coatings were deposited on steel in the novel phosphating bath with or without NaNO 2 as an accelerator. The corrosion stability of the powder polyester coating was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), adhesion by pull-off and NMP test, while surface morphology of phosphate coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion and corrosion stability of powder polyester coatings were improved with pretreatment based on iron-phosphate coating deposited from NaNO 2 -free bath.

  1. MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules: Synthesis, characterization and its electrochemical sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthamizh, Selvamani; Suresh, Ranganathan; Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Praveen Kumar, Sivakumar; Munusamy, Settu; Narayanan, Vengidusamy, E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules without use of any other external reagent. • High crystalline MnWO{sub 4} was obtained with phase purity. • Electrochemical sensing platform based on MnWO{sub 4} for sensing quercetin. • Micromolar detection ability of MnWO{sub 4} modified GCE. - Abstract: Manganese tungstate (MnWO{sub 4}) was synthesized by surfactant free precipitation method. MnWO{sub 4} was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase, crystalline nature and the morphological analysis were carried out using XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, FT-IR, Raman, and DRS-UV–Vis spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the optical property and the presence of functional groups. From the analysis, the morphology of the MnWO{sub 4} was observed to be in capsules with breadth and thickness were in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W), and manganese (Mn) were investigated using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The synthesized MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules were used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect quercetin.

  2. A study of the inhibiton of copper corrosion by triethyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUYI MA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of phosphates, triethyl phosphate (TEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, were used to form self-assembled monolayers for the inhibition of the corrosion of copper in 0.2 mol dm–3 NaCl solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was applied to investigate the inhibition effects. The results showed that their inhibition ability first increased with increasing immersion time in ethanolic solutions of the corresponding compounds. However, when the immersion time was increased over some critical point, the inhibition effect decreased. For the same immersion time, the inhibition effect of the TPP monolayer was more pronounced than that of the TEP monolayer. Thus, ab initio calculations were used to interpret the relationship between the inhibition effects and the structures of the compounds.

  3. Electrochemical potentials of layered oxide and olivine phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium ion battery; cathodes; density functional theory; density of states; Bader charge analysis; electrochemical ... voltage, ionic diffusion coefficient, phase stability and charge ... routes to synthesis and fabrication techniques. .... from the lithiated one. ..... Ebner W, Fouchard D and Xie L 1994 Solid State Ionics 69 238.

  4. Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Vijayender [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Carrara, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.carrara@epfl.c [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Stagni, Claudio [Department DEIS, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Samori, Bruno [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Sensing systems based on electrochemical detection have generated great interest because electronic readout may replace conventional optical readout in microarray. Moreover, they offer the possibility to avoid labelling for target molecules. A typical electrochemical array consists of many sensing sites. An ideal micro-fabricated sensor-chip should have the same measured values for all the equivalent sensing sites (or spots). To achieve high reliability in electrochemical measurements, high quality in functionalization of the electrodes surface is essential. Molecular probes are often immobilized by using alkanethiols onto gold electrodes. Applying effective cleaning methods on the chip is a fundamental requirement for the formation of densely-packed and stable self-assembly monolayers. However, the available well-known techniques for chip cleaning may not be so reliable. Furthermore, it could be necessary to recycle the chip for reuse. Also in this case, an effective recycling technique is required to re-obtain well cleaned sensing surfaces on the chip. This paper presents experimental results on the efficacy and efficiency of the available techniques for initial cleaning and further recycling of micro-fabricated chips. Piranha, plasma, reductive and oxidative cleaning methods were applied and the obtained results were critically compared. Some interesting results were attained by using commonly considered cleaning methodologies. This study outlines oxidative electrochemical cleaning and recycling as the more efficient cleaning procedure for electrochemical based sensor arrays.

  5. Palladium nanoparticles deposited on graphene and its electrochemical performance for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijowska, Ewa; Onyszko, Magdalena; Urbas, Karolina; Aleksandrzak, Malgorzata; Shi, Xiaoze; Moszyński, Dariusz; Penkala, Krzysztof; Podolski, Jacek; El Fray, Mirosława

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with reduced graphene oxide/palladium nanocomposite (RGO-Pd). Characterization tools showed well dispersed uniform Pd nanoparticles on a partly reduced graphene oxide surface. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrated successful immobilization of GOx on RGO-Pd modified GCE (GCE-RGO-Pd) using covalent bonding of GOx with RGO-Pd (RGO-Pd-GOx). Therefore, it was used as an electrochemical biosensor of glucose. RGO-Pd-GOx exhibited good electrocatalysis toward glucose in different glucose concentrations (from 2 to 10 mM, which includes the blood glucose levels of both normal and diabetic persons) with O2 saturated phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.4. The system showed a linear increase in current at potential -0.085 V in the concentration range examined, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 41.3 μA cm-2 mM-1, suggesting that RGO-Pd-GOx-modified GCE could be a potential candidate as a glucose sensor.

  6. Self-Assembled Nanorod Structures on Nanofibers for Textile Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes with Intrinsic Tactile Sensing Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H; Khalili, Nazanin; Morrison, Taylor; Naguib, Hani E

    2018-05-21

    A novel polyaniline nanorod (PAniNR) three-dimensional structure was successfully grown on flexible polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrate as the electrode material for electrochemical capacitors (ECs), constructed via self-stabilized dispersion polymerization process. The electrode offered desired mechanical properties such as flexibility and bendability, whereas it maintained optimal electrochemical characteristics. The electrode and the assembled EC cell also achieved intrinsic piezoresistive sensing properties, leading to real-time monitoring of excess mechanical pressure and bending during cell operations. The PAniNR@PAN electrodes show an average diameter of 173.6 nm, with the PAniNR growth of 50.7 nm in length. Compared to the electrodes made from pristine PAni, the gravimetric capacitance increased by 39.8% to 629.6 F/g with aqueous acidic electrolyte. The electrode and the assembled EC cell with gel electrolyte were responsive to tensile, compressive, and bending stresses with a sensitivity of 0.95 MPa -1 .

  7. Extraordinary tunable dynamic range of electrochemical aptasensor for accurate detection of ochratoxin A in food samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the design of a sensitive, electrochemical aptasensor for detection of ochratoxin A (OTA with an extraordinary tunable dynamic sensing range. This electrochemical aptasensor is constructed based on the target induced aptamer-folding detection mechanism and the recognition between OTA and its aptamers results in the conformational change of the aptamer probe and thus signal changes for measurement. The dynamic sensing range of the electrochemical aptasensor is successfully tuned by introduction of free assistant aptamer probes in the sensing system. Our electrochemical aptasensor shows an extraordinary dynamic sensing range of 11-order magnitude of OTA concentration from 10−8 to 102 ng/g. Of great significance, the signal response in all OTA concentration ranges is at the same current scale, demonstrating that our sensing protocol in this research could be applied for accurate detections of OTA in a broad range without using any complicated treatment of signal amplification. Finally, OTA spiked red wine and maize samples in different dynamic sensing ranges are determined with the electrochemical aptasensor under optimized sensing conditions. This tuning strategy of dynamic sensing range may offer a promising platform for electrochemical aptasensor optimizations in practical applications.

  8. Electrochemical sensing behaviour of Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Narayanan, V., E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Vijayalakshmi, L. [Annai Veilankanni' s College for Women (Arts and Science), Saidapet, Chennai 600015 (India); Stephen, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, DRS-UV-Visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The XRD confirms the phase purity of the synthesized Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The optical property of Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were studied by DRS UV-Visible analysis. The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were examined using uric acid as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid.

  9. Electrochemical Sensing toward Trace As(III) Based on Mesoporous MnFe₂O₄/Au Hybrid Nanospheres Modified Glass Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Han, Xiaojuan; Fan, Honglei; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-06-22

    Au nanoparticles decorated mesoporous MnFe₂O₄ nanocrystal clusters (MnFe₂O₄/Au hybrid nanospheres) were used for the electrochemical sensing of As(III) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Modified on a cheap glass carbon electrode, these MnFe₂O₄/Au hybrid nanospheres show favorable sensitivity (0.315 μA/ppb) and limit of detection (LOD) (3.37 ppb) toward As(III) under the optimized conditions in 0.1 M NaAc-HAc (pH 5.0) by depositing for 150 s at the deposition potential of -0.9 V. No obvious interference from Cd(II) and Hg(II) was recognized during the detection of As(III). Additionally, the developed electrode displayed good reproducibility, stability, and repeatability, and offered potential practical applicability for electrochemical detection of As(III) in real water samples. The present work provides a potential method for the design of new and cheap sensors in the application of electrochemical determination toward trace As(III) and other toxic metal ions.

  10. LPG and NH3 sensing characteristics of DC electrochemically deposited Co3O4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, P. N.; Khollam, Y. B.; Gunjal, S. D.; Koinkar, P. M.; Jadkar, S. R.; Mohite, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    Present communication reports the LPG and NH3 sensing properties of Co3O4 films prepared on throughly cleaned stainless steel (SS) and copper (CU) substrates by using DC electrochemical deposition method followed by air annealing at 350°C/2 h. The resultant films are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LPG and NH3 gas sensing properties of these films are measured at room temperature (RT) by using static gas sensing system at different concentrations of test gas ranging from 25 ppm to 350 ppm. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies clearly indicated the formation of pure cubic spinel Co3O4 in all films. The LPG and NH3 gas sensing properties of films showed (i) the increase in sensitivity factor (S.F.) with gas concentrations and (ii) more sensibility to LPG as compared to NH3 gas. In case of NH3 gas (conc. 150 ppm) and LPG gas (conc. 60 ppm) sensing, the maximum S.F. = 270 and 258 are found for the films deposited on CU substrates, respectively. For all films, the response time (3-5 min.) is found to be much higher than the recovery time (30-50 sec). For all films, the response and recovery time are found to be higher for LPG as compared to NH3 gas. Further, repeatability-reproducibility in gas sensing properties is clearly noted by analysis of data for number of cycles recorded for all films from different set of depositions.

  11. Gamma rays shielding and sensing application of some rare earth doped lead-alumino-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    Seven rare earth (Sm3+, Eu3+ and Nd3+) doped lead alumino phosphate glasses were prepared. The protective and sensing measures from gamma rays were analysed in terms of parameters viz. density (ρ), refractive index, energy band gap (Eg), mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number (Zeff) and buildup factors (energy absorption EABF as well as exposure buildup factor EBF). The energy dependent parameters (mfp, Zeff, EABF and EBF) were investigated in the energy region from 15 keV to 15 MeV. EABF and EBF values were observed to be maximum in the intermediate energy region. Besides, the EABF and EBF values for the prepared samples are shown to have strong dependence on chemical composition of the glass at lower energy, whereas, it is almost independent of chemical composition in higher energy region. The prepared glass samples are found to have potential applications in radiation shielding as well as radiation sensing, which further find numerous applications in the field of medicine and industry.

  12. Electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes as electrochemical sensing interface for sensitive detection of tumor marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ya [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chai Yaqin; Song Zhongju [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy (Au-PtNPs) on carbon nanotubes as electrochemical sensing interface and HRP as blocking agent for the fabrication of high sensitive immunosensor. Display Omitted Highlights: > In this work, we proposed a novel electrochemical sensing surface. > The sensing surface possessed larger electro-active areas and higher conductivity due to the introduction of MWCNTs. > The signal could be amplified effectively by synergetic catalysis effect of Au-PtNPs and HRP towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. > Biomolecules could be immobilized on the surface of Au-PtNPs tightly with the bioactivity kept well. > The simple fabrication method provided a new potential for the future development of practical devices for clinical diagnosis application. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing interface, electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles (Au-PtNPs) on carbon nanotubes, was proposed and used to fabricate a label-free amperometric immunosensor. On the one hand, the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) could increase active area of the electrode and enhance the electron transfer ability between the electrode and redox probe; on the other hand, the Au-PtNPs not only could be used to assemble biomolecules with bioactivity kept well, but also could further facilitate the shuttle of electrons. In the meanwhile, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) instead of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites and avoid the nonspecific adsorption. With the synergetic catalysis effect of Au-PtNPs and HRP towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), the signal could be amplified and the sensitivity could be enhanced. Using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as model analyte, the fabricated immunosensor exhibited two wide linear ranges in the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng mL{sup -1} and 20-200 ng mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.17 ng mL{sup -1} at a signal-to-noise of

  13. Metal nanostructures for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, Si Yin; Teng, Choon Peng; Ye, Enyi

    2017-01-01

    This review covers the recent development of metal nanostructures in electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing. It highlights a variety of nanostructured materials including noble metals, other transition metals, bimetallic systems, and their hybrid with carbon-based nanomaterials. Particularly, attention is devoted to numerous approaches that have been implemented for improving the sensors performance by tailoring size, shape, composition, effective surface area, adsorption capability and electron-transfer properties. The correlation of the metal nanostructures to the glucose sensing performance is addressed with respect to the linear concentration range, sensitivity and detection limit. In overall, this review provides important clues from the recent scientific achievements of glucose sensor nanomaterials which will be essentially useful in designing better and more effective electrocatalysts for future electrochemical sensing industry. - Highlights: • Overview of recent development of metal nanostructures in electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing. • Special attention is focussed on noble metals, other transition metals, bimetallic systems, and their hybrid with carbon-based nanomaterials. • Merits and limitations of various metal nanostructures in electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing. • Strategies to improve the glucose sensing performance of metal nanostructures as electrocatalysts.

  14. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dilonardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  15. An electrochemical-cantilever platform for hybrid sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Dohn, Søren; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a fully-functional, microfabricated electrochemical-cantilever hybrid platform with flow control. A new cantilever chip format is designed, fabricated, and mounted in a custom polymer flow cell. Issues such as leakage and optical/electrical access are addressed, and combined...... mechanical and electrochemical performance is investigated. Lastly, a cantilever is “defunctionalized” in situ to create a reference cantilever for differential measurements in detection of Cu2+ ions at concentrations of 10 μM and 100 nM....

  16. Study on Electrochemical Insulin Sensing Utilizing a DNA Aptamer-Immobilized Gold Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Kubo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated an insulin-sensing method by utilizing an insulin-binding aptamer IGA3, which forms an anti-parallel G-quadruplex with folded single strands. Spectroscopic observation indicates that some anti-parallel G-quadruplex bind hemin and show peroxidase activity. In this study, the peroxidase activity of IGA3 with hemin was confirmed by spectrophotometric measurements, i.e., the activity was three-times higher than hemin itself. IGA3 was then immobilized onto a gold electrode to determine its electrochemical activity. The peroxidase activity of the immobilized IGA3-hemin complex was determined by cyclic voltammetry, and a cathodic peak current of the electrode showed a dependence on the concentration of H2O2. The cathodic peak current of the IGA3-hemin complex decreased by binding it to insulin, and this decrease depended on the concentration of insulin.

  17. Biocompatibility behavior of β–tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings obtained on 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, H.H.; Uquillas, J.A.; Aperador, W.; Gutiérrez, O.; Caicedo, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological interfaces involve the interaction of complex macromolecular systems and other biomolecules or biomaterials. Researchers have used a combination of cell, material sciences and engineering approaches to create functional biointerfaces to help improve biological functions. Materials such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and chitosan are important biomaterials to be used in biomedical applications such as bone-prosthesis interfaces. In this work, it was evaluated the effect of different concentrations of chitosan on the structural, electrochemical and biocompatible properties of β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan ((β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 )-(C 6 H 11 NO 4 )n) hybrid coatings. β–tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrates applying 260 mA AC, an agitation velocity of 250 rpm, and temperature deposition of 60 °C. It was possible to obtain coatings of 600 μm of thickness. Structure and surface properties were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It was found that the arrangement of the β-TCP crystal lattice changed with increasing chitosan weight concentration, showing that the orthorhombic structure of β-TCP is under tensile stress. The electrochemical properties of β–tricalcium phosphate/chitosan (β-TCP–Ch) coatings were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Cellular biocompatibility was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay using primary chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. β-TCP–Ch coatings with chitosan concentrations up to 25% caused cytotoxic effects to only 5–10% of CHO cells. Obtained results showed the influence of chitosan in the structural, electrochemical, and biocompatible properties of AISI 316L Stainless Steel. Consequently, the electrochemical and cytotoxic behavior of β-TCP–Ch on 316L Stainless Steel indicated that the coatings might be a promising material in biomedical applications

  18. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  19. Electrochemical genosensing of Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli on silica magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liébana, Susana; Brandão, Delfina [Grup de Sensors i Biosensors, Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Bellaterra) (Spain); Cortés, Pilar; Campoy, Susana [Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Bellaterra) (Spain); Alegret, Salvador [Grup de Sensors i Biosensors, Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Bellaterra) (Spain); Pividori, María Isabel, E-mail: Isabel.Pividori@uab.cat [Grup de Sensors i Biosensors, Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Bellaterra) (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    A magneto-genosensing approach for the detection of the three most common pathogenic bacteria in food safety, such as Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli is presented. The methodology is based on the detection of the tagged amplified DNA obtained by single-tagging PCR with a set of specific primers for each pathogen, followed by electrochemical magneto-genosensing on silica magnetic particles. A set of primers were selected for the amplification of the invA (278 bp), prfA (217 bp) and eaeA (151 bp) being one of the primers for each set tagged with fluorescein, biotin and digoxigenin coding for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. The single-tagged amplicons were then immobilized on silica MPs based on the nucleic acid-binding properties of silica particles in the presence of the chaotropic agent as guanidinium thiocyanate. The assessment of the silica MPs as a platform for electrochemical magneto-genosensing is described, including the main parameters to selectively attach longer dsDNA fragments instead of shorter ssDNA primers based on their negative charge density of the sugar-phosphate backbone. This approach resulted to be a promising detection tool with sensing features of rapidity and sensitivity very suitable to be implemented on DNA biosensors and microfluidic platforms. - Highlights: • Silica magnetic particles were used for the first time as carrier in electrochemical magneto-genosensing of single-tagged amplicons. • They demonstrated to be a robust platform for the electrochemical detection of PCR products. • Differential adsorption properties for longer dsDNA amplicon incorporating the tagging primers over shorter ssDNA tagged primers were observed due to the negative charge density. • Electrochemical magneto-genosensing of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli was successfully performed.

  20. Electrochemical genosensing of Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli on silica magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liébana, Susana; Brandão, Delfina; Cortés, Pilar; Campoy, Susana; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A magneto-genosensing approach for the detection of the three most common pathogenic bacteria in food safety, such as Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli is presented. The methodology is based on the detection of the tagged amplified DNA obtained by single-tagging PCR with a set of specific primers for each pathogen, followed by electrochemical magneto-genosensing on silica magnetic particles. A set of primers were selected for the amplification of the invA (278 bp), prfA (217 bp) and eaeA (151 bp) being one of the primers for each set tagged with fluorescein, biotin and digoxigenin coding for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. The single-tagged amplicons were then immobilized on silica MPs based on the nucleic acid-binding properties of silica particles in the presence of the chaotropic agent as guanidinium thiocyanate. The assessment of the silica MPs as a platform for electrochemical magneto-genosensing is described, including the main parameters to selectively attach longer dsDNA fragments instead of shorter ssDNA primers based on their negative charge density of the sugar-phosphate backbone. This approach resulted to be a promising detection tool with sensing features of rapidity and sensitivity very suitable to be implemented on DNA biosensors and microfluidic platforms. - Highlights: • Silica magnetic particles were used for the first time as carrier in electrochemical magneto-genosensing of single-tagged amplicons. • They demonstrated to be a robust platform for the electrochemical detection of PCR products. • Differential adsorption properties for longer dsDNA amplicon incorporating the tagging primers over shorter ssDNA tagged primers were observed due to the negative charge density. • Electrochemical magneto-genosensing of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli was successfully performed.

  1. Facile fabrication of nanoporous PdFe alloy for nonenzymatic electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wang, Zhihong [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355 (China); Zhao, Dianyun [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Xu, Caixia, E-mail: chm_xucx@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanoporous PdFe alloy, characterized by open three-dimensional bicontinuous nanospongy architecture, was easily fabricated by selectively dealloying PdFeAl source alloys, which exhibits greatly enhanced sensing performance and structure stability towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose compared with NP-Pd and Pd/C catalysts. - Highlights: • NP-PdFe alloy is fabricated by a simple dealloying method. • NP-PdFe possesses open three-dimensional bicontinuous spongy morphology. • NP-PdFe shows high electrochemical sensing activities towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose. • NP-PdFe shows good long-term stability for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose detection. • NP-PdFe shows good reproducibility for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose detection. - Abstract: Nanoporous (NP) PdFe alloy is easily fabricated through one step mild dealloying of PdFeAl ternary source alloy in NaOH solution. Electron microscopy characterization demonstrates that selectively dissolving Al from PdFeAl alloy generates three-dimensional bicontinuous nanospongy architecture with the typical ligament size around 5 nm. Electrochemical measurements show that the NP-PdFe alloy exhibits the superior electrocatalytic activity and durability towards hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection compared with NP-Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts. In addition, NP-PdFe performs high sensing performance towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a wide linear range from 0.5 to 6 mM with a low detection limit of 2.1 μM. This nanoporous structure also can sensitively detect glucose over a wide concentration range (1–32 mM) with a low detection limit of 1.6 μM and high resistance against chloride ions. Along with these attractive features, the as-made NP-PdFe alloy also has a good anti-interference towards ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine.

  2. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  3. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  4. Electrochemical, morphological and microstructural characterization of carbon film resistor electrodes for application in electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Liess, Hans-Dieter; Brett, Christopher M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical and microstructural properties of carbon film electrodes made from carbon film electrical resistors of 1.5, 15, 140 Ω and 2.0 kΩ nominal resistance have been investigated before and after electrochemical pre-treatment at +0.9 V vs SCE, in order to assess the potential use of these carbon film electrodes as electrochemical sensors and as substrates for sensors and biosensors. The results obtained are compared with those at electrodes made from previously investigated 2 Ω carbon film resistors. Cyclic voltammetry was performed in acetate buffer and phosphate buffer saline electrolytes and the kinetic parameters of the model redox system Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- obtained. The 1.5 Ω resistor electrodes show the best properties for sensor development with wide potential windows, similar electrochemical behaviour to those of 2 Ω and close-to-reversible kinetic parameters after electrochemical pre-treatment. The 15 and 140 Ω resistor electrodes show wide potential windows although with slower kinetics, whereas the 2.0 kΩ resistor electrodes show poor cyclic voltammetric profiles even after pre-treatment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy related these findings to the interfacial properties of the electrodes. Microstructural and morphological studies were carried out using contact mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. AFM showed more homogeneity of the films with lower nominal resistances, related to better electrochemical characteristics. X-ray diffraction and Confocal Raman spectroscopy indicate the existence of a graphitic structure in the carbon films

  5. Development of the scientific concept of the phosphate methods for actinide-containing waste handling (pyrochemical fuel reprocessing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, A.I.; Orlova, V.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Bychkov, A.V.; Volkov, Yu.F.; Lukinykh, A.N.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lizin, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The crystallochemical phosphate concept in question is developed successfully in the new pyro-electrochemical reprocessing technology of irradiated fuel in molten chlorides of alkaline elements at one of the leading scientific nuclear centers - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors. Irradiated fuel is dissolved in molten chlorides of alkaline elements by mean of treating by chlorine. Then uranium and plutonium dioxides are removed electrochemically. The melt, when used many times, is contaminated by the residual actinide and contains fission products and the so called 'process' elements. This melt is unacceptable for future use. Phosphate methods can be applied for the solution of the following tasks: a) reprocessing (purification) of molten chloride salt solvents; b) conversion of the spent chloride melts to the insoluble stable crystalline product for safe storage and disposal. Within the framework of task 'a' phosphate methods may be realized by the several ways: 1) phosphate concentrating of impurities and their extraction from molten chlorides into solid phase by mean of chemical precipitation, co-precipitation, ion exchange and other chemical interactions, 2) conversion of precipitated waste phosphates to stable crystalline phosphate powders or ceramics for safe storage and disposal. (authors)

  6. Development of a phosphating process for corrosion protection in NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Adonis Marcelo Saliba

    2001-01-01

    NdFeB magnets are important materials, which produce better energy efficiency in electrical devices, but they are rather vulnerable to corrosion. In this study, a phosphating treatment for protection against corrosion of NdFeB magnets has been investigated. Phosphating is generally used as a pretreatment in the application of protective coatings. This treatment increases the corrosion assistance in defective areas of the coating as well as improves the adhesion between coating and substrate. A commercial NdFeB magnet produced by powder metallurgy has been used and the effect of the following parameters on phosphating was studied: time of phosphating; pH of phosphating solution; anodic polarization and molybdate addition to the phosphating solution. The results showed a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of magnets phosphated in a solution concentrated between 10-20 g/L NaH 2 PO 4 , pH in the range of 3 to 4.6, acidulated preferably with H 3 PO 4 at room temperature (20±1) deg C. Conversion coatings formed at solutions of pH 3.8 showed better corrosion resistance. Phosphating times longer than 4 hours increased the magnet corrosion resistance 10 to 20 times. This resistance improves with higher immersion times. Anodic polarization of the magnet in the range 200-400 mV SCE accelerated phosphating. Results indicated that molybdate interacts preferentially with Nd rich phase of the magnet. In addition to the newly developed technology in this work for NdFeB corrosion protection, two methodologies have been introduced to facilitate electrochemical analyses: selection of samples of similar electrochemical behavior, based on the current density after 200s of constant anodic polarization; and evaluation of the corrosion protection provided by conversion coatings by monitoring of gas evolution during corrosion in acid solution. (author)

  7. Multifunctional fluorescent sensing of chemical and physical stimuli using smart riboflavin-5'-phosphate/Eu3+ coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Fan; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Chen, Zi-Han; Han, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2018-07-05

    A novel type of stimuli-responsive fluorescent polymers has been developed via the self-assembly of riboflavin-5'-phosphate (RiP) as ligand and europium (III) (Eu 3+ ) as central metal ion coordinated with the ligand. The as-prepared RiP/Eu 3+ coordination polymers (RiP/Eu 3+ CPs) are smart and multifunctional for respectively responding to chemical and physical stimuli, in which RiP acts as the stimuli-responsive fluorescent signal indicator. For sensing chemical stimuli, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA, an anthrax biomarker) having higher bonding force towards Eu 3+ can grab it from smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs through competition reaction, resulting in the release of RiP for highly sensitive and selective DPA monitoring in a mix-and-read fluorescent enhancement format, and the detection limit is as low as 41.5 nM. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been also performed to verify the DPA sensing principle. For sensing physical stimuli, the smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs can be acting as a novel sensory probe for the determination of temperature from 10 °C to 40 °C based on the thermal-induced disruption of the binding between Eu 3+ and RiP and the disassembly of the smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs accompanying with the recovery of the fluorescence of RiP. This work establishes an effective platform for multifunctional sensing of chemical and physical stimuli utilizing both smart lanthanide nanoscale coordination polymers (LNCPs) and novel sensing strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocompatibility behavior of β–tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings obtained on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, A. [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, H.H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); National Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical Association, Chicago, IL, 60606 (United States); Uquillas, J.A. [Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud COCSA, Escuela de Medicina, Hospital de los Valles, Edificio de Especialidades Médicas, Av. Interoceánica km 12 1/2 Cumbayá, Quito (Ecuador); Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02139 (United States); Aperador, W. [Departament of Engineering, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá (Colombia); Gutiérrez, O. [Departament of Pharmacology Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: julio.cesar.caicedo@correounivalle.edu.co [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-06-01

    Biological interfaces involve the interaction of complex macromolecular systems and other biomolecules or biomaterials. Researchers have used a combination of cell, material sciences and engineering approaches to create functional biointerfaces to help improve biological functions. Materials such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and chitosan are important biomaterials to be used in biomedical applications such as bone-prosthesis interfaces. In this work, it was evaluated the effect of different concentrations of chitosan on the structural, electrochemical and biocompatible properties of β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan ((β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2})-(C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NO{sub 4})n) hybrid coatings. β–tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrates applying 260 mA AC, an agitation velocity of 250 rpm, and temperature deposition of 60 °C. It was possible to obtain coatings of 600 μm of thickness. Structure and surface properties were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It was found that the arrangement of the β-TCP crystal lattice changed with increasing chitosan weight concentration, showing that the orthorhombic structure of β-TCP is under tensile stress. The electrochemical properties of β–tricalcium phosphate/chitosan (β-TCP–Ch) coatings were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Cellular biocompatibility was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay using primary chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. β-TCP–Ch coatings with chitosan concentrations up to 25% caused cytotoxic effects to only 5–10% of CHO cells. Obtained results showed the influence of chitosan in the structural, electrochemical, and biocompatible properties of AISI 316L Stainless Steel. Consequently, the electrochemical and cytotoxic behavior of β-TCP–Ch on 316L Stainless Steel indicated that the coatings might be a promising material in

  9. A comparison of the influence of catholyte vs phosphate detergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electro-chemical activation of aqueous media is a relatively new technology. The alkaline part of the activated media (catholyte) has outstanding detergency properties. Catholyte provides an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional phosphate based detergents. Little is, however, known about the effect of ...

  10. Ultrasonic irradiation and its application for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Minqi; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Qingdong; Wei, Yinyin; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic irradiation was utilized for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings was investigated by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Various effects of the addition of Nd(2)O(3) in phosphating bath on the performance of the coatings were also investigated. Results show that the composition of phosphate coating were Zn(3)(PO(4))(2).4H(2)O(hopeite) and Zn crystals. The phosphate coatings became denser with fewer microscopic holes by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment. The addition of Nd(2)O(3) reduced the crystallinity of the coatings, with the additional result that the crystallites were increasingly nubby and spherical. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was also significantly improved by ultrasonic irradiation treatment; both the anodic and cathodic processes of corrosion taking place on the aluminum alloy substrate were suppressed consequently. In addition, the electrochemical impedance of the coatings was also increased by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment compared with traditional treatment.

  11. Current Progress of Nanomaterials in Molecularly Imprinted Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunju; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Xinxin; Li, Jianping

    2018-01-02

    Nanomaterials have received much attention during the past decade because of their excellent optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Nanomaterials possess high chemical reactivity, also high surface energy. Thus, provide a stable immobilization platform for biomolecules, while preserving their reactivity. Due to the conductive and catalytic properties, nanomaterials can also enhance the sensitivity of molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors by amplifying the electrode surface, increasing the electron transfer, and catalyzing the electrochemical reactions. Molecularly imprinted polymers that contain specific molecular recognition sites can be designed for a particular target analyte. Incorporating nanomaterials into molecularly imprinted polymers is important because nanomaterials can improve the response signal, increase the sensitivity, and decrease the detection limit of the sensors. This study describes the classification of nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers, their analytical properties, and their applications in the electrochemical sensors. The progress of the research on nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers and the application of nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers is also reviewed.

  12. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  13. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  14. Morphology–dependent electrochemical sensing properties of manganese dioxide–graphene oxide hybrid for guaiacol and vanillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Tian; Shi, Zhaoxia; Deng, Yaping; Sun, Junyong; Wang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MnO 2 with different morphologies were prepared via facile methods. • MnO 2 are loaded on GO via simply grinding which have high solubility and stability. • MnO 2 –GO exhibit high electrocatalytic activities depending on their shapes. • MnO 2 –GO is first used to the determination of guaiacol and vanillin simultaneously. - Abstract: Various morphologies of manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) electrocatalysts, including nanoflowers, nanorods, nanotubes, nanoplates, nanowires and microspheres were prepared via facile hydrothermal synthesis and precipitation methods. By simply grinding with graphene oxide (GO), MnO 2 could be readily dissolved in water with high solubility and stability. The structures and electrochemical performances of these as–prepared MnO 2 –GO hybrids were fully characterized by various techniques, and the properties were found to be strongly dependent on morphology. As sensing materials for the simultaneous determination of guaiacol and vanillin for the first time, the nanoflowers–like MnO 2 , coupled with GO, exhibited relatively high sensitivity. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity was ascribed to the high purity, good crystallinity, and unique porous microstructure, which were favorable for transfer of electrons. These results may provide valuable insights for the development of nanostructured modified electrodes for next–generation high–performance electrochemical sensors

  15. Polymer multilevel lab-on-chip systems for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Garau, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    with depths as small as tens of nanometers and as big as hundreds of microns on the same polymer chip. The authors also describe in detail the fabrication procedure of polymer substrates with embedded Au and pedot:tosylate electrodes for electrochemical applications. The electrode fabrication process...... is simple and fit for integration in a production scheme. The electrode–substrates are then bonded to injection molded counterparts to be used for electrochemical applications. A dimensional and functional characterization of the electrodes is also presented here....

  16. Electrochemical Sensing of Neurotoxic Agents Based on Their Electron Transfer Promotion Effect on an Au Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shiori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Katsuhiko; Kitamura, Yusuke; Ihara, Toshihiro

    2017-06-06

    An electrochemical molecular sensor based on a new principle is reported. Nereistoxin (NRT, 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane), a naturally occurring neurotoxin (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist), was adsorbed on an Au electrode via Au-S covalent bonding and accelerated the electron transfer between the electrode and the marker, ferricyanide anion. The contrast between the electrochemical responses obtained with the bare and NRT-modified Au electrodes was more pronounced at a low ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte, KCl. In the presence of 1 mM KCl, almost a 0/1 contrast between the signals was obtained through electrostatic interaction between the protonated tertiary amino group of NRT and the anionic ferricyanide ion. No current was observed with an electrode modified with mercaptopropionic acid. An unusually low ionic strength thickened the electric double layer to the degree where current was not observed with the bare electrode. The effect of the electrostatic concentration of the marker ion becomes obvious under such conditions. Commercially available NRT-related pesticides such as Cartap and Bensultap were also detected using the same format after pretreatments by hydrolysis/reduction. The present sensing method was successfully applied to human serum with satisfactory sensitivity.

  17. Electrochemical Sensing toward Trace As(III Based on Mesoporous MnFe2O4/Au Hybrid Nanospheres Modified Glass Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Au nanoparticles decorated mesoporous MnFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters (MnFe2O4/Au hybrid nanospheres were used for the electrochemical sensing of As(III by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV. Modified on a cheap glass carbon electrode, these MnFe2O4/Au hybrid nanospheres show favorable sensitivity (0.315 μA/ppb and limit of detection (LOD (3.37 ppb toward As(III under the optimized conditions in 0.1 M NaAc-HAc (pH 5.0 by depositing for 150 s at the deposition potential of −0.9 V. No obvious interference from Cd(II and Hg(II was recognized during the detection of As(III. Additionally, the developed electrode displayed good reproducibility, stability, and repeatability, and offered potential practical applicability for electrochemical detection of As(III in real water samples. The present work provides a potential method for the design of new and cheap sensors in the application of electrochemical determination toward trace As(III and other toxic metal ions.

  18. Adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on copper surface from phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, L.P.; Selyaninov, I.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.I.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electrochemical and XPS results has shown that adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) on copper electrodes in neutral phosphate solutions proceeds through the formation of the chemical bonds by copper (I) cations with exo-sulfur and nitrogen atoms. A protection layer formed of Cu(I)MBT complex prevents precipitation of copper (II) phosphate on a copper surface. The thickness of the surface film consisting of a complex [Cu(I)MBT] n (having probably polymeric nature), where MBT acts as at least three-dentate ligand, increases depending on the exposure time, reaching 8-9 nm after immersing for 12 h in test solution. Even in a case of the preliminary formation of copper (II) phosphate on the copper electrode at the anodic potential addition of small amounts of MBT results in complete removal of copper (II) phosphate from the surface.

  19. Investigation of the benzotriazole as addictive for carbon steel phosphating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annies, V.; Cunha, M.T.; Rodrigues, P.R.P.; Banczek, E.P.; Terada, M.

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the viability of substitution of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) for benzotriazole (BTAH) in the zinc phosphate bath (PZn+NaNO 2 ) for phosphating of carbon steel (SAE 1010). The characterization of the samples was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was evaluated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated by Open Circuit Potential, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Anodic Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves in a 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl electrolyte. The experimental results showed that the phosphate layer obtained in the solution with benzotriazole (PZn+BTAH) presented better corrosion resistance properties than that obtained in sodium nitrite. The results demonstrated that the sodium nitrite NaNO 2 can be replaced by benzotriazole (BTAH) in zinc phosphate baths. (author)

  20. Stability, electrochemical behaviors and electronic structures of iron hydroxyl-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongli; Sun Shaorui; Li Fan; Chen Ge; Xia Dingguo; Zhao Ting; Chu Wangsheng; Wu Ziyu

    2010-01-01

    Iron hydroxyl-phosphate with a uniform spherical particle size of around 1 μm, a compound of the type Fe 2-y □ y (PO 4 )(OH) 3-3y (H 2 O) 3y-2 (where □ represents a vacancy), has been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The particles are composed of spheres of diameter -1 and 120 mAh g -1 at current densities of 170 mA g -1 and 680 mA g -1 , respectively. The stability of crystal structure of this material was studied by TGA and XRD which show that the material remains stable at least up to the temperature 200 deg. C. Investigation of the electronic structure of the iron hydroxyl-phosphate by GGA + U calculation has indicated that it has a better electronic conductivity than LiFePO 4 .

  1. Analysis of Electrochemical Porosity of Phosphatized Coatings on Galvanized Steel Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte Haroldo de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work refers to the application of a Voltammetric Anodic Dissolution (VAD Technique in the analysis of coating discontinuities, focusing on pores and cracks that exposed the substrate. An evaluation was made of the influence of several parameters, such as the concentration of the passivation solution and sweep rate (SR, on the substrate passivation process and on the porosity indexes of tricationic phosphate coatings of Fe/Zn/Mn. The phosphatization process used was a commercial tricationic Fe/Zn/Mn phosphate bath applied on a galvanized steel (GS substrate. Once the best experimental conditions for the use of the VAD technique had been defined, the grain size and layer weight were related to porosity indexes. The porosity was found to show a tendency to decrease with increasing grain size. The VAD technique consists of the anodic polarization of the substrate/coating system and measurement of the charge density involved in the substrate passivation process. A quantitative porosity index was obtained by comparing the passivation charge density of the substrate without coating (standard passivation charge density and the passivation charge of the coated substrate.

  2. A Differential Electrochemical Readout ASIC With Heterogeneous Integration of Bio-Nano Sensors for Amperometric Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishizadeh, Sara S; Taurino, Irene; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2017-10-01

    A monolithic biosensing platform is presented for miniaturized amperometric electrochemical sensing in CMOS. The system consists of a fully integrated current readout circuit for differential current measurement as well as on-die sensors developed by growing platinum nanostructures (Pt-nanoS) on top of electrodes implemented with the top metal layer. The circuit is based on the switch-capacitor technique and includes pseudodifferential integrators for concurrent sampling of the differential sensor currents. The circuit further includes a differential to single converter and a programmable gain amplifier prior to an ADC. The system is fabricated in [Formula: see text] technology and measures current within [Formula: see text] with minimum input-referred noise of [Formula: see text] and consumes [Formula: see text] from a [Formula: see text] supply. Differential sensing for nanostructured sensors is proposed to build highly sensitive and offset-free sensors for metabolite detection. This is successfully tested for bio-nano-sensors for the measurement of glucose in submilli molar concentrations with the proposed readout IC. The on-die electrodes are nanostructured and cyclic voltammetry run successfully through the readout IC to demonstrate detection of [Formula: see text].

  3. Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-05-15

    Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543 mA mol(-1) L cm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4) mol L(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7) mol L(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monolithic All-Phosphate Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery with Improved Interfacial Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shicheng; Mertens, Andreas; Tempel, Hermann; Schierholz, Roland; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2018-06-22

    High interfacial resistance between solid electrolyte and electrode of ceramic all-solid-state batteries is a major reason for the reduced performance of these batteries. A solid-state battery using a monolithic all-phosphate concept based on screen printed thick LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anode and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode composite layers on a densely sintered Li 1.3 Al 0.3 Ti 1.7 (PO 4 ) 3 solid electrolyte has been realized with competitive cycling performance. The choice of materials was primarily based on the (electro-)chemical and mechanical matching of the components instead of solely focusing on high-performance of individual components. Thus, the battery utilized a phosphate backbone in combination with tailored morphology of the electrode materials to ensure good interfacial matching for a durable mechanical stability. Moreover, the operating voltage range of the active materials matches with the intrinsic electrochemical window of the electrolyte which resulted in high electrochemical stability. A highly competitive discharge capacity of 63.5 mAh g -1 at 0.39 C after 500 cycles, corresponding to 84% of the initial discharge capacity, was achieved. The analysis of interfacial charge transfer kinetics confirmed the structural and electrical properties of the electrodes and their interfaces with the electrolyte, as evidenced by the excellent cycling performance of the all-phosphate solid-state battery. These interfaces have been studied via impedance analysis with subsequent distribution of relaxation times analysis. Moreover, the prepared solid-state battery could be processed and operated in air atmosphere owing to the low oxygen sensitivity of the phosphate materials. The analysis of electrolyte/electrode interfaces after cycling demonstrates that the interfaces remained stable during cycling.

  5. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  6. Performance evaluation of a continuous bipolar electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation (ECEO-EF) reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahvi, Amir Hossein, E-mail: ahmahvi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Seyed Jamal Al-din [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesdaghinia, Alireza, E-mail: mesdaghinia@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Hamed, E-mail: hgharibi65@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: hsowlat@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Max removal efficiencies of the reactor for both ammonia and phosphate were 99%. {center_dot} Corresponding efficiencies under actual wastewater conditions were 98%. {center_dot} Optimum removal conditions were neutral pH and current density of 3 A. {center_dot} Lower influent concentration and higher detention time favored removal efficiency. {center_dot} Besides ammonia and phosphate, Al{sup 3+} plate enables removal of nitrite and nitrate. - Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a continuous bipolar ECEO-EF reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent. The reactor was comprised of two distinct units: electrochemical and separation. In the electrochemical unit, Al, stainless steel, and RuO{sub 2}/Ti plates were used. All the measurements were performed according to the standard methods. Maximum efficiency of the reactor for phosphate removal was 99% at pH of 6, current density of 3 A, detention time of 60 min, and influent phosphate concentration of 50 mg/l. The corresponding value for ammonia removal was 99% at a pH of 7 under the same operational conditions as for phosphate removal. For both phosphate and ammonia, the removal efficiency was highest at neutral pH, with higher current densities, and with lower influent concentrations. In addition to removal of phosphate and ammonia, application of the Al{sup 3+} plates enabled the removal of nitrite and nitrate, which may be present in wastewater effluent and are also products of the electrochemical process. The reactor was also able to decrease the concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, and COD under actual wastewater conditions by 98%, 98%, and 72%, respectively. According to the results of the present study, the reactor can be used for efficient removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater.

  7. Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing platform based on graphene wrapping SnO2 nanocorals and autonomous cascade DNA duplication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Xu; Huang, Ke-Jing; Lin, Feng; Fang, Lin-Xia

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a sensitive, universal and reusable electrochemical biosensor based on stannic oxide nanocorals-graphene hybrids (SnO 2 NCs-Gr) is developed for target DNA detection by using two kinds of DNA enzymes for signal amplification through an autonomous cascade DNA duplication strategy. A hairpin probe is designed composing of a projecting part at the 3'-end as identification sequence for target, a recognition site for nicking endonuclease, and an 18-carbon shim to stop polymerization process. The designed DNA duplication-incision-replacement process is handled by KF polymerase and endonuclease, then combining with gold nanoparticles as signal carrier for further signal amplification. In the detection system, the electrochemical-chemical-chemical procedure, which uses ferrocene methanol, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine and l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as oxidoreduction neurogen, deoxidizer and zymolyte, separately, is applied to amplify detection signal. Benefiting from the multiple signal amplification mechanism, the proposed sensor reveals a good linear connection between the peak current and logarithm of analyte concentration in range of 0.0001-1 × 10 -11 molL -1 with a detection limit of 1.25 × 10 -17 molL -1 (S/N=3). This assay also opens one promising strategy for ultrasensitive determination of other biological molecules for bioanalysis and biomedicine diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward selective electrochemical 'E-tongue': Potentiometric DO sensor based on sub-micron ZnO-RuO{sub 2} sensing electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuiykov, Serge, E-mail: serge.zhuiykov@csiro.au [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering Division, 37 Graham Road, Highett, VIC 3190 (Australia); Kats, Eugene [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering Division, 37 Graham Road, Highett, VIC 3190 (Australia); Plashnitsa, Vladimir [Research and Education Centre of Carbon Resources, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2011-06-01

    Highlights: > We examine ZnO-doped RuO{sub 2} sensing electrode of DO sensor. > Study of ZnO-RuO{sub 2} confirmed the development of high surface-to-volume ratio. > Developed sensing electrode is insensitive to the presence of various dissolved salts. > 20 mol% ZnO-doped RuO{sub 2} sensing electrode enables maximum DO sensitivity. > We conclude that DO sensor based on ZnO-RuO{sub 2} electrode can work at 11-30 deg. C. - Abstract: Planar dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors based on thick-film ZnO-RuO{sub 2} sensing electrodes (SEs) with different mol% of ZnO were prepared on the alumina substrates using a screen-printing method and their structural and electrochemical properties were closely studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Structural and electrochemical properties of ZnO-RuO{sub 2}-SEs have been investigated. Interference testing ascertained that the DO sensor based on sub-micron ZnO-RuO{sub 2}-SE is insensitive to the presence of various dissolved ions including Cl{sup -}, Li{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} within a concentration range of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -1} mol/L for DO measurement from 0.5 to 8.0 ppm in the test solution at a temperature range of 11-30 deg. C. These dissolved salts had practically no effect on the sensor's output potential difference response, whereas Br{sup -} ions had some effects at concentration more than 10{sup -3} mol/L. The relationship between DO and the sensor's potential difference was found to be relatively linear with the maximum sensitivity of -50.6 mV per decade was achieved at 20 mol% ZnO at 7.35 pH. The response and recovery time to pH changes for the planar device based on 20 mol% ZnO-RuO{sub 2}-SE was found to be 10 and 25 s

  9. Electrochemical sensing of etoposide using carbon quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kudr, Jiri; Cernei, Natalia; Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-04-25

    In this study, enhancement of the electrochemical signals of etoposide (ETO) measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is demonstrated. In comparison with a bare GCE, the modified GCE exhibited a higher sensitivity towards electrochemical detection of ETO. The lowest limit of detection was observed to be 5 nM ETO. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed for the further study of the working electrode surface after the modification with CQDs. Finally, the GCE modified with CQDs under optimized conditions was used to analyse real samples of ETO in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. After different incubation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h), these samples were then prepared prior to electrochemical detection by the GCE modified with CQDs. High performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detection method was employed to verify the results from the GCE modified with CQDs.

  10. Electrochemical Sensing, Photocatalytic and Biological Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis via Green Chemistry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Archana, B.; Lingaraju, K.; Kavitha, C.; Suresh, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have successfully synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Nps) via solution combustion method using sugarcane juice as the novel fuel. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO Nps have been analyzed using various analytical tools. The synthesized ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye, indicating that the ZnO Nps are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. The synthesized ZnO Nps also show good electrochemical sensing of dopamine. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschesichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO Nps show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The above studies clearly demonstrate versatile applications of ZnO synthesized by simple eco-friendly route.

  11. Nano zinc phosphate coatings for enhanced corrosion resistance of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano ZnO increases the number of nucleating sites for phosphating. • Faster attainment of steady state during nano zinc phosphating. - Abstract: Nano crystalline zinc phosphate coatings were developed on mild steel surface using nano zinc oxide particles. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The particles size of the nano zinc phosphate coating developed was also characterized by TEM analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies were carried out in 3.5% NaCl solution. Significant variations in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance were observed as nano ZnO concentrations were varied from 0.25 to 2 g/L in the phosphating baths. The results showed that nano ZnO particles in the phosphating solution yielded phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance than the normal zinc phosphate coatings (developed using normal ZnO particles in the phosphating baths). Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano ZnO. The activation effect brought about by the nano ZnO reduces the amount of accelerator (NaNO 2 ) required for phosphating

  12. Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate/collagen coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xueni [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hu Tao [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Chen Mengdi; Cao Sheng; Zhang Leilei [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hou Xianghui [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the coatings was also evaluated by scratch tests and tensile bond tests. It was demonstrated that the coatings of three-dimensional collagen network structure was formed on the C/C composites from the electrolyte containing collagen. The surface of the collagen network was covered by uniform CaP aggregates. The coatings were actually composites of CaP and collagen. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was a favorable composition in the coatings with the increase of the collagen concentration in the electrolyte. The formed collagen network increased the cohesive and adhesive strength of the coatings. The adhesive strength between the coatings and substrates increased as the collagen concentration in the electrolyte increased. The coatings prepared at the collagen concentration of 500 mg/L in the electrolyte were not scraped off until the applied load reached 32.0 {+-} 2.2 N and the average tensile adhesive strength of the coatings was 4.83 {+-} 0.71 MPa. After C/C coated with composite coatings (500 mg/L) being immersed in a 10{sup -3} M Ca (OH){sub 2} solution at 30-33 deg. C for 96 h, nano-structured HA/collagen coatings similar to the natural human bone were obtained on the C/C.

  13. Highly selective and sensitive phosphate anion sensors based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors functionalized by ion imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuling; Chen, Dunjun; Bin, Liu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-06-09

    A novel ion-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) was developed to detect trace amounts of phosphate anion. This sensor combined the advantages of the ion sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and specific recognition of ion imprinted polymers. The current response showed that the fabricated sensor is highly sensitive and selective to phosphate anions. The current change exhibited approximate linear dependence for phosphate concentration from 0.02 mg L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1), the sensitivity and detection limit of the sensor is 3.191 μA/mg L(-1) and 1.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The results indicated that this AlGaN/GaN HEMT-based electrochemical sensor has the potential applications on phosphate anion detection.

  14. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  15. Electrochemical sensing platforms based on the different carbon derivative incorporated interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Çevik, Emre; Durmuş, Zehra; Şenel, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    their effects on the properties of these biosensors. Biosensors were prepared by Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization on the composite electrodes composed of carbon black, carbon nanofiber (CNF), extended graphite, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), reduced graphene oxide (REGO) and poly(glycidyl methacrylateco-vinylferrocene) (P(GMA-co-VFc)) as mediator, covalent linker, and host matrix for carbon derivatives. The modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was used for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and to follow electrochemical behavior of different carbon derivatives which were recorded. The electrochemical characterization was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Amperometric measurements showed that the REGO and MWCNT modified electrodes have excellent performance in comparison with other carbon derivatives studied.

  16. Down-Regulation of the Na+-Coupled Phosphate Transporter NaPi-IIa by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Na+-coupled phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa is the main carrier accomplishing renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. It is driven by the electrochemical Na+ gradient across the apical cell membrane, which is maintained by Na+ extrusion across the basolateral cell membrane through the Na+/K+ ATPase. The operation of NaPi-IIa thus requires energy in order to avoid cellular Na+ accumulation and K+ loss with eventual decrease of cell membrane potential, Cl- entry and cell swelling. Upon energy depletion, early inhibition of Na+-coupled transport processes may delay cell swelling and thus foster cell survival. Energy depletion is sensed by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a serine/threonine kinase stimulating several cellular mechanisms increasing energy production and limiting energy utilization. The present study explored whether AMPK influences the activity of NAPi-IIa. Methods: cRNA encoding NAPi-IIa was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional expression of wild-type AMPK (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA, of inactive AMPKαK45R (AMPKα1K45R+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA or of constitutively active AMPKγR70Q (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1R70Q. NaPi-IIa activity was estimated from phosphate-induced current in dual electrode voltage clamp experiments. Results: In NaPi-IIa-expressing, but not in water-injected Xenopus oocytes, the addition of phosphate (1 mM to the extracellular bath solution generated a current (Ip, which was significantly decreased by coexpression of wild-type AMPK and of AMPKγR70Q but not of AMPKαK45R. The phosphate-induced current in NaPi-IIa- and AMPK-expressing Xenopus ooocytes was significantly increased by AMPK inhibitor Compound C (20 µM. Kinetic analysis revealed that AMPK significantly decreased the maximal transport rate. Conclusion: The AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK is a powerful regulator of NaPi-IIa and thus of renal tubular phosphate transport.

  17. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminur Rahman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.

  18. Electrochemical genosensing of Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli on silica magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Susana; Brandão, Delfina; Cortés, Pilar; Campoy, Susana; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2016-01-21

    A magneto-genosensing approach for the detection of the three most common pathogenic bacteria in food safety, such as Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli is presented. The methodology is based on the detection of the tagged amplified DNA obtained by single-tagging PCR with a set of specific primers for each pathogen, followed by electrochemical magneto-genosensing on silica magnetic particles. A set of primers were selected for the amplification of the invA (278 bp), prfA (217 bp) and eaeA (151 bp) being one of the primers for each set tagged with fluorescein, biotin and digoxigenin coding for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. The single-tagged amplicons were then immobilized on silica MPs based on the nucleic acid-binding properties of silica particles in the presence of the chaotropic agent as guanidinium thiocyanate. The assessment of the silica MPs as a platform for electrochemical magneto-genosensing is described, including the main parameters to selectively attach longer dsDNA fragments instead of shorter ssDNA primers based on their negative charge density of the sugar-phosphate backbone. This approach resulted to be a promising detection tool with sensing features of rapidity and sensitivity very suitable to be implemented on DNA biosensors and microfluidic platforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical behaviour of carbon paste electrodes enriched with tin oxide nanoparticles using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muti, Mihrican; Erdem, Arzum; Caliskan, Ayfer; Sınag, Ali; Yumak, Tugrul

    2011-08-01

    The effect of the SnO(2) nanoparticles (SNPs) on the behaviour of voltammetric carbon paste electrodes were studied for possible use of this material in biosensor development. The electrochemical behaviour of SNP modified carbon paste electrodes (CPE) was first investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The performance of the SNP modified electrodes were compared to those of unmodified ones and the parameters affecting the response of the modified electrode were optimized. The SNP modified electrodes were then tested for the electrochemical sensing of DNA purine base adenine to explore their further development in biosensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical quartz crystal impedance study on immobilization of glucose oxidase in a polymer grown from dopamine oxidation at an Au electrode for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingrui; Deng Chunyan; Xie Qingji; Yang Yang; Yao Shouzhuo

    2006-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was codeposited into a polymer grown from oxidation of dopamine (DA) at an Au electrode in a neutral phosphate aqueous solution for the first time. The electrochemical quartz crystal impedance analysis (EQCIA) method was used to monitor the GOD-immobilization process. Effects of concentrations of phosphate buffer, DA and GOD were investigated, and the optimal concentrations were found to be 20.0mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 30.0mM DA and 5.00mgml -1 GOD. A glucose biosensor was thus constructed, and effects of various experimental parameters on the sensor performance, including applied potential, solution pH and electroactive interferents, were examined. At an optimal potential of 0.6V versus the KCl-saturated calomel electrode (SCE), the current response of the biosensor in the selected phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) was linear with the concentration of glucose from 0.05 to 9mM, with a lower detection limit of 3μM (S/N=3), short response time (within 15s) and good anti-interferent ability. The Michaelis constant (K m app ) was estimated to be 9.6mM. The biosensor exhibited good storage stability, i.e. 96% of its initial response was retained after 7-day storage in the selected phosphate buffer at 4deg. C, and even after another 3 weeks the biosensor retained 86% of its initial response. In addition, the enzymatic specific activity and enzymatic relative activity of the GOD immobilized in the polymer from dopamine oxidation (PFDO) were estimated from the EQCIA method to be 1.43kUg -1 and 3.7%, respectively, which were larger than the relevant values obtained experimentally using poly(o-aminophenol) and poly(N-methylpyrrole) matrices, suggesting that the PFDO is a better matrix to immobilize GOD

  1. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalakanta Behera; Shubha Pandey; Anu Kadyan; Siddharth Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, ...

  2. Corrosion of alloy 22 in phosphate ions effect and chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.

    2009-01-01

    Alloy 22 belongs to Ni-Cr-Mo family. This alloy resists the most aggressive environments for industrial applications, in oxidizing as well as reducing conditions, because exhibits an excellent uniform and localized corrosion resistance in aqueous solution. Because of its outstanding corrosion resistant, this alloy is one of the candidate to be considered for the outer shell of the canister that would contain high level radioactive nuclear wastes in a geological repository. The aim of this work is to study ion phosphate influence over Alloy 22 corrosion behavior under aggressive conditions, such as high temperature and high ion chloride concentration, where this material might be susceptible to crevice corrosion. Two different types of samples were used: cylinder specimens for uniform corrosion behavior studies and Prismatic Crevice Assembly (PCA) specimens for localized corrosion studies. Electrochemical tests were performed in deaerated aqueous solution of 1 M NaCl and 1 M NaCl with different phosphate additions at 90 C degrees and pH near neutral. The anodic film and corrosion products obtained were studied by SEM/EDS. Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) curves obtained for uniform corrosion studies, showed an increase of the passivity range in phosphate containing solutions. The passive current value was 1 μA/cm 2 approximately in all the tests. PCA electrochemical tests, that combined a CPP with a potentiostatic polarization step for 2 hours in between the forward and reverse scan, showed crevice corrosion development in some cases. The repassivation potential value, determined by the intersection of the forward and the reverse scan, increased with phosphate addition. A complete crevice corrosion inhibition effect was found for phosphate concentration higher than 0.3 M. These results indicate that the passivity potential range depend on phosphate presence and might be related with the incorporation of the anion in the passive film. Results of the tests

  3. The transport of phosphate between the plasma and dialysate compartments in peritoneal dialysis is influenced by an electric potential difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    was not identifiable. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the electrochemical gradient between plasma water and dialysate favours the diffusive phosphate transport, and both electric and chemical potentials must be taken into account in calculations of the transperitoneal phosphate transport.......Six kinetic models of transperitoneal phosphate transport were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 22 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective......, and lymphatic convective phosphate transport. Calculations allowed for a 20% protein binding of phosphate. The validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective phosphate transport mechanisms were identifiable. A lymphatic convective phosphate transport mechanism...

  4. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the Electrochemical Behavior of Thiazolidine and Its Applications Using a Flow–Through Chronoamperometric Sensor Based on a Gold Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Hao Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of thiazolidine (tetrahydrothiazole on gold and platinum electrodes were investigated in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 2.77–11.61, acetate buffer (pH 4.31, phosphate buffer solutions (pH 2.11 and 6.38 and methanol or acetonitrile containing various supporting electrolytes. Detection was based on a gold wire electrochemical signal obtained with a supporting electrolyte containing 20% methanol-1.0 mM of phosphate buffer (pH 6.87, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase. Comparison with results obtained with a commercial amperometric detector shows good agreement. Using the chronoamperometric sensor with the current at a constant potential, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.05 to 16 mg L−1 was found. The limit of quantification (LOQ of the method for thiazolidine was found to be 1 ng.

  6. Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of methyl salicylate using electroactive gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2013-11-07

    Electrochemical sensing of methyl salicylate, a key plant volatile has been achieved using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The electrochemical response of planar gold electrodes, SPCE and AuNP-SPCE in alkaline electrolyte in the presence and absence of methyl salicylate were studied to understand the amperometric response of various electrochemical reactions. The reaction mechanism includes hydrolysis of methyl salicylate and the oxidation of negative species. The electrochemical responses were recorded using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the results showed characteristic signals for methyl salicylate oxidation. Among the examined electrodes, AuNP-SPCE possessed three fold better sensitivity than planar gold and 35 times better sensitivity than SPCE (at 0.5 V). The methyl salicylate sensing by AuNP-SPCE possessed 95% of its methyl salicylate response. The electroanalytical results of soybean extract showed that AuNP-SPCE can be employed for the determination of methyl salicylate in real samples.

  7. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review. PMID:26690155

  8. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-12-04

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO₂ sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  9. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakanta Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability, ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2 gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  10. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Ostafe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB, has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE, especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998 and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  11. Sensing and tactile artificial muscles from reactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzuelo, Laura Valero; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Smit, Mascha Afra; Otero, Toribio Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Films of conducting polymers can be oxidized and reduced in a reversible way. Any intermediate oxidation state determines an electrochemical equilibrium. Chemical or physical variables acting on the film may modify the equilibrium potential, so that the film acts as a sensor of the variable. The working potential of polypyrrole/DBSA (Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid) films, oxidized or reduced under constant currents, changes as a function of the working conditions: electrolyte concentration, temperature or mechanical stress. During oxidation, the reactive material is a sensor of the ambient, the consumed electrical energy being the sensing magnitude. Devices based on any of the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers must act simultaneously as sensors of the working conditions. Artificial muscles, as electrochemical actuators constituted by reactive materials, respond to the ambient conditions during actuation. In this way, they can be used as actuators, sensing the surrounding conditions during actuation. Actuating and sensing signals are simultaneously included by the same two connecting wires.

  12. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A. F.; Domínguez-Vélez, V.; Morales-Morales, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO2/stainless steel and TiO2/titanium electrodes. TiO2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of a cancer biomarker in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Marion; Ahmad, Lama; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa; Salmon, Laurent

    2017-10-15

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is a tumor-secreted cytokine that stimulates tumor cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. AMF could be detected in serum or urine of cancer patients with worse prognosis. Reported as a cancer biomarker, AMF secretion into body fluids might be closely related to metastases formation. In this study, a sensitive and specific carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor was designed for the detection and quantification of a protein model of AMF, namely phosphoglucose isomerase from rabbit muscle (RmPGI). Indeed, RmPGI displays high homology with AMF and has been shown to have AMF activity. The biosensor was constructed by covalent binding of the enzyme substrate d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). Immobilization was achieved on a gold surface electrode following a bottom-up approach through an aminated surface obtained by electrochemical patterning of ethylene diamine and terminal amine polyethylene glycol chain to prevent non-specific interactions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions were quantified in a range of 10 fM to 100nM. Complex formation was analyzed through monitoring of the redox couple Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and square wave voltammetry. The F6P-biosensor demonstrates a detection limit of 6.6 fM and high selectivity when compared to other non-specific glycolytic proteins such as d-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Detection of protein in spiked plasma was demonstrated and accuracy of 95% is obtained compared to result obtained in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). F6P-biosensor is a very promising proof of concept required for the design of a carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor using the enzyme substrate as bioreceptor. Such biosensor could be generalized to detect other protein biomarkers of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Point of care with micro fluidic paper based device integrated with nano zeolite-graphene oxide nanoflakes for electrochemical sensing of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Jagriti; Malhotra, Nitesh; Singhal, Chaitali; Mathur, Ashish; Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Anil, Anusree; Ingle, Aviraj; Pundir, Chandra S

    2017-02-15

    The present study was aimed to develop an ultrasensitive technique for electroanalysis of ketamine; a date rape drug. It involved the fabrication of nano-hybrid based electrochemical micro fluidic paper-based analytical device (EμPADs) for electrochemical sensing of ketamine. A paper chip was developed using zeolites nanoflakes and graphene-oxide nanocrystals (Zeo-GO). EμPAD offers many advantages such as facile approach, economical and potential for commercialization. Nanocrystal modified EμPAD showed wide linear range 0.001-5nM/mL and a very low detection limit of 0.001nM/mL. The developed sensor was tested in real time samples like alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and found good correlation (99%). The hyphenation of EμPAD integrated with nanocrystalline Zeo-GO for detection of ketamine has immense prospective for field-testing platforms. An extensive development could be made for industrial translation of this fabricated device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticorrosive Behavior and Porosity of Tricationic Phosphate and Zirconium Conversion Coating on Galvanized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Camilo S.; Pimenta, Egnalda P. S.; Lins, Vanessa F. C.

    2018-05-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel treated with tricationic phosphate and zirconium conversion coating after painting, by using electrochemical techniques, accelerated and field corrosion tests. A non-uniform and heterogeneous distribution of zirconium on the steel surface was observed due to preferential nucleation of the zirconium on the aluminum-rich sites on the surface of galvanized steel. The long-term anti-corrosion performance in a saline solution was better for the phosphate coating up to 120 days. The coating capacitance registered a higher increase for the zirconium coatings than the phosphate coatings up to 120 days of immersion. This result agrees with the higher porosity of zirconium coating in relation to the phosphate coating. After 3840 h of accelerated corrosion test, and after 1 year of accelerated field test, zirconium-treated samples showed an average scribe delamination length higher than the phosphate-treated samples.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of poly(aniline-co-fluoroaniline) films and their application as humidity sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amit L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present manuscript, humidity sensing properties of a copolymer, poly(aniline-co-fluoroaniline) have been reported. The copolymer was prepared on indium-tin-oxide coated glass plates as well as platinum surface in the form of films using electrochemical technique (versus standard calomel electrode) in acidic medium. Synthesis of copolymer films was supported by Fourier transform infra-red, ultraviolet-visible, scanning electron microscope and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Molecular weight and electrical conductivity of these films were measured at different temperature. Polyaniline and poly(2-fluoroaniline) films were also synthesized using the same technique to compare the data with copolymer film. On exposure to humid atmosphere, the response behaviour of copolymer film exhibited a change in resistance with respect to relative humidity (RH). This copolymer film was found to be most sensitive in the 30-65% RH range and shows a linear behaviour with in this range.

  17. Surface Properties of PAN-based Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidization in Organic Electrolyte Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Bo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PAN-based carbon fibers were modified by electrochemical oxidization using fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate (O3P, triethanolamine (TEOA and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether ammonium phosphate (O3PNH4 as organic electrolyte respectively. Titration analysis, single fiber fracture strength measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM were used to evaluate the content of acidic functional group on the surface, mechanical properties and surface morphology of carbon fiber. The optimum process of electrochemical treatment obtained is at 50℃ for 2min and O3PNH4 (5%, mass fraction as the electrolyte with current density of 2A/g. In addition, the surface properties of modified carbon fibers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and single fiber contact angle test. The results show that the hydrophilic acidic functional groups on the surface of carbon fiber which can enhance the surface energy are increased by the electrochemical oxidation using O3PNH4 as electrolyte, almost without any weakening to the mechanical properties of carbon fiber.

  18. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical Biosensors - Sensor Principles and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Dorothee; MacKenzie, Robert; Vörös, Janos; Reimhult, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate

  20. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragay, Gemma; Merkoçi, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  1. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK"1"/"2) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. - Highlights: • Electrochemical effect of MBZ and PTX (anti tubulin drugs) on breast cancer cells was detected. • Detection was carried by silicon nanograss electrodes(SiNGEs). • Signaling pathways activated in the cells by drug treatment, change the anodic

  2. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad [Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Nano Bio Electronic Devices Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Thin Film and Nanoelectronic Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolahad, Mohammad, E-mail: m.abdolahad@ut.ac.ir [Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Nano Bio Electronic Devices Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Thin Film and Nanoelectronic Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK{sup 1/2}) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. - Highlights: • Electrochemical effect of MBZ and PTX (anti tubulin drugs) on breast cancer cells was detected. • Detection was carried by silicon nanograss electrodes(SiNGEs). • Signaling pathways activated in the cells by drug treatment, change the

  3. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A F; Cabanzo, R; Meléndez, A M; Domínguez-Vélez, V; Morales-Morales, J A

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO 2 /stainless steel and TiO 2 /titanium electrodes. TiO 2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  4. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  5. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV- state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  6. Low-waste electrochemical decontamination of stainless-steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Smirnov, I.V.; Shadrin, A.Yu.; Firsin, N.G.; Zakharchuk, G.A.; Pavlov, A.B.; Shilov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical decontamination method using a formic acid-based recycling electrolyte was proposed to remove firmly fixed contaminants from stainless-steel surfaces. The following provisions make for minimisation of the amounts of waste: (i) use of specially designed electrodes with vacuum removal of spent electrolyte; (ii) inter-cycle removal of radionuclides from the electrolyte by using an inorganic sorbent; (iii) periodic regeneration of the spent electrolyte. the dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Ni) being transformed into acidic phosphates; (iv) solidification of residues arising from the regeneration of the electrolyte and spent sorbent into iron-phosphate ceramics. The technology and equipment developed were used for decontamination of a plutonium glove-box. The level of surface contamination was reduced 100-fold in two decontamination cycles. The depth of metal skimming was 1.5 μ for the ceiling and walls and 4.5 μ for the table top. Each square meter of stainless-steel surface provides about 100 g of solid radioactive waste in the form of iron-phosphate ceramic blocks

  7. Piezoelectric sensor for sensitive determination of metal ions based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. H.; Shen, C. Y.; Lin, Y. M.; Du, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metal ions arising from human activities are retained strongly in water; therefore public water supplies must be monitored regularly to ensure the timely detection of potential problems. A phosphate-modified dendrimer film was investigated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for sensing metal ions in water at room temperature in this study. The chemical structures and sensing properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and QCM measurement, respectively. This phosphate-modified dendrimer sensor can directly detect metal ions in aqueous solutions. This novel sensor was evaluated for its capacity to sense various metal ions. The sensor exhibited a higher sensitivity level and shorter response time to copper(II) ions than other sensors. The linear detection range of the prepared QCM based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer was 0.0001 ∼ 1 μM Cu(II) ions (R2 = 0.98). The detection properties, including sensitivity, response time, selectivity, reusability, maximum adsorption capacity, and adsorption equilibrium constants, were also investigated.

  8. Fabrication of three-dimensional carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith

    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. The aim of the research work carried out in this thesis was to develop three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. Three different fabrica...

  9. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg 2+ ), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg 2+ by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T (25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg 2+ ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg 2+ –T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg 2+ ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH 4 and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg 2+ level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg 2+ . The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg 2+ against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg 2+ in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%

  10. Electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sejin; Boo, Hankil; Chung, Taek Dong

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical determination of glucose concentration without using enzyme is one of the dreams that many researchers have been trying to make come true. As new materials have been reported and more knowledge on detailed mechanism of glucose oxidation has been unveiled, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor keeps coming closer to practical applications. Recent reports strongly imply that this progress will be accelerated in 'nanoera'. This article reviews the history of unraveling the mechanism of direct electrochemical oxidation of glucose and making attempts to develop successful electrochemical glucose sensors. The electrochemical oxidation of glucose molecules involves complex processes of adsorption, electron transfer, and subsequent chemical rearrangement, which are combined with the surface reactions on the metal surfaces. The information about the direct oxidation of glucose on solid-state surfaces as well as new electrode materials will lead us to possible breakthroughs in designing the enzymeless glucose sensing devices that realize innovative and powerful detection. An example of those is to introduce nanoporous platinum as an electrode, on which glucose is oxidized electrochemically with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. Better model of such glucose sensors is sought by summarizing and revisiting the previous reports on the electrochemistry of glucose itself and new electrode materials

  11. Enzyme-linked electrochemical DNA ligation assay using magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.

  12. Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Acetaminophen and Isoniazid (Hepatotoxicity-Related Drugs) Utilizing Bismuth Oxide Nanorod Modified Screen-Printed Electrochemical Sensing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Bahaa G; Khairy, Mohamed; Rashwan, Farouk A; Banks, Craig E

    2017-02-07

    To overcome the recent outbreaks of hepatotoxicity-related drugs, a new analytical tool for the continuously determination of these drugs in human fluids is required. Electrochemical-based analytical methods offer an effective, rapid, and simple tool for on-site determination of various organic and inorganic species. However, the design of a sensitive, selective, stable, and reproducible sensor is still a major challenge. In the present manuscript, a facile, one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 2.33 ) nanostructures (nanorods) was developed. These BiO nanorods were cast onto mass disposable graphite screen-printed electrodes (BiO-SPEs), allowing the ultrasensitive determination of acetaminophen (APAP) in the presence of its common interference isoniazid (INH), which are both found in drug samples. The simultaneous electroanalytical sensing using BiO-SPEs exhibited strong electrocatalytic activity toward the sensing of APAP and INH with an enhanced analytical signal (voltammetric peak) over that achievable at unmodified (bare) SPEs. The electroanalytical sensing of APAP and INH are possible with accessible linear ranges from 0.5 to 1250 μM and 5 to 1760 μM with limits of detection (3σ) of 30 nM and 1.85 μM, respectively. The stability, reproducibility, and repeatability of BiO-SPE were also investigated. The BiO-SPEs were evaluated toward the sensing of APAP and INH in human serum, urine, saliva, and tablet samples. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that BiO-SPEs sensing platforms provide a potential candidate for the accurate determination of APAP and INH within human fluids and pharmaceutical formulations.

  13. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core–shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Gangbing, E-mail: zhgb1030@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wu, Xiangyang, E-mail: wuxy@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • A core–shell heterostructure MWCNTs@GONRs was produced from unzipping MWCNTs. • A new electrochemical sensor for PAAs was developed based on MWCNTs@GONRs hybrids. • The sensor shows good analytical performance for PAAs detection. - Abstract: Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core–shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3′-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0–500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP.

  14. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core–shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A core–shell heterostructure MWCNTs@GONRs was produced from unzipping MWCNTs. • A new electrochemical sensor for PAAs was developed based on MWCNTs@GONRs hybrids. • The sensor shows good analytical performance for PAAs detection. - Abstract: Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core–shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3′-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0–500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP

  15. Double coating protection of Nd–Fe–B magnets: Intergranular phosphating treatment and copper plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Haibo; Qiao, Liang; Lin, Min; Jiang, Liqiang; Che, Shenglei; Hu, Yangwu

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a double coating protection technique of phosphating treatment and copper plating was made to improve the corrosion resistance of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets. In other words, the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B is allowed to generate passive phosphate conversion coating through phosphating treatment, followed by the copper coating on the surface of sintered Nd–Fe–B. The morphology and corrosion resistance of the phosphated sintered Nd–Fe–B were observed using SEM and electrochemical method respectively. The phosphate conversion coating was formed more preferably on the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B than on the main crystal region; just after a short time of phosphating treatment, the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B has been covered by the phosphate conversion coating and the corrosion resistance is significantly improved. With the synergistic protection of the intergranular phosphorization and the followed copper electrodeposition, the corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd–Fe–B is significantly better than that with a single phosphate film or single plating protection. - Highlights: • We combined intergranular phosphating and copper plating to protect Nd–Fe–B. • The phosphate conversion coating was formed preferably on the intergranular region. • The phosphating coating can obviously improve the corrosion resistance of Nd–Fe–B. • The corrosion resistance of Nd–Fe–B was improved by double coating protection

  16. Double coating protection of Nd–Fe–B magnets: Intergranular phosphating treatment and copper plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Haibo; Qiao, Liang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Lin, Min [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, Liqiang; Che, Shenglei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Hu, Yangwu, E-mail: 346648086@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wenzhou Institute of Industry and Science, Wenzhou 325000 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, a double coating protection technique of phosphating treatment and copper plating was made to improve the corrosion resistance of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets. In other words, the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B is allowed to generate passive phosphate conversion coating through phosphating treatment, followed by the copper coating on the surface of sintered Nd–Fe–B. The morphology and corrosion resistance of the phosphated sintered Nd–Fe–B were observed using SEM and electrochemical method respectively. The phosphate conversion coating was formed more preferably on the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B than on the main crystal region; just after a short time of phosphating treatment, the intergranular region of sintered Nd–Fe–B has been covered by the phosphate conversion coating and the corrosion resistance is significantly improved. With the synergistic protection of the intergranular phosphorization and the followed copper electrodeposition, the corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd–Fe–B is significantly better than that with a single phosphate film or single plating protection. - Highlights: • We combined intergranular phosphating and copper plating to protect Nd–Fe–B. • The phosphate conversion coating was formed preferably on the intergranular region. • The phosphating coating can obviously improve the corrosion resistance of Nd–Fe–B. • The corrosion resistance of Nd–Fe–B was improved by double coating protection.

  17. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  18. Achieving direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase by one step electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its use in glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was accomplished at a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate (GCE/ERGO/SDS). A pair of reversible peaks is exhibited on GCE/ERGO/SDS/GOD by cyclic voltammetry. The peak-to-peak potential separation of immobilized GOD is 28 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH7.0) with a scan rate of 50 mV/s. The average surface coverage is 2.62×10(-10) mol cm(-2). The resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to glucose with linear range from 1 to 8 mM (R(2)=0.9878), good reproducibility and detection limit of 40.8 μM. The results from the biosensor were similar (±5%) to those obtained from the clinical analyzer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce

    2018-02-10

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  20. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun; Xu, Kuoxi

    2017-01-01

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L −1 , pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  1. Recent progress and developments in lithium cobalt phosphate chemistry- Syntheses, polymorphism and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Nilges, Tom

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes the development, investigation, and optimization of polymorphic lithium cobalt phosphate LiCoPO4. One of the three polymorphs known to date, olivine-type or Pnma-LiCoPO4, shows intriguing electrochemical properties as a high-voltage cathode material, which are of interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density. Hence, scientists have developed optimization strategies to improve its performance for commercial applications. Herein, a number of procedures for the synthesis of Pnma-LiCoPO4 is presented, including thermodynamic as well as kinetically controlled approaches. The continuous improvement of its electrochemical performance is illustrated, which was realized by the development of solvothermal techniques that allow a precise particle size and morphology control. In the course of these investigations, two new polymorphs, Pna21-LiCoPO4 and Cmcm-LiCoPO4, have been discovered which show different physical and structural properties compared to Pnma-LiCoPO4. Despite their significantly poorer electrochemical performance, these polymorphs allow interesting insights into the variable structure chemistry of transition-metal phosphates, which canalizes in intriguing magnetic and thermal properties. The similarities and differences in the chemical and physical properties of Pnma-LiCoPO4, Pna21-LiCoPO4, and Cmcm-LiCoPO4 are discussed.

  2. Electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire-modified electrode for voltammetric detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2006-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire and methylene blue for DNA hybridization detection is presented. Nanowires of conducting polymers were directly synthesized through a three-step electrochemical deposition procedure in an aniline-containing electrolyte solution, by using the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the working electrode. The morphology of the polyaniline films was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameters of the nanowires range from 80 to 100 nm. The polyaniline nanowires-coated electrode exhibited very good electrochemical conductivity. Oligonucleotides with phosphate groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto the amino groups of polyaniline nanowires on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement using methylene blue (MB) as an indicator. The approach described here can effectively discriminate complementary from non-complementary DNA sequence, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -12 mol l -1 of complementary target, suggesting that the polyaniline nanowires hold great promises for sensitive electrochemical biosensor applications

  3. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg{sup 2+}), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T{sub (25)} oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg{sup 2+} ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg{sup 2+}–T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg{sup 2+} ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH{sub 4} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg{sup 2+} level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg{sup 2+}. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg{sup 2+} in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%.

  4. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  5. Fabrication and electrochemical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for applications to nano-electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sookhyun; Choi, Hyonkwang; Jeon, Minhyon; Vedala, Harindra; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Wonbong

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated and electrochemically characterized two types of individual carbon nanotube electrodes: an as-produced multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) electrode and a modified MWNT electrode. As-produced MWNTs were electrically contacted with Au/Ti layers by using nanolithography and RF magnetron sputtering. Open-ended modified MWNT electrodes were fabricated by using a reactive ion etching treatment under an oxygen atmosphere. We also performed cyclic voltammetry measurements to detect aqueous dopamine solutions with different concentrations. We found that an individual MWNT electrode, which had a small effective area, showed good electrochemical performance. The electrocatalytic behavior of the modified electrode, which had 'broken' open ends were better than that of the as-produced electrode with respect to sensitivity. The modified electrode was capable of detecting dopamine at the picomolar level. Therefore, an individual modified MWNT electrode has potential for applications to active components in nanobiosensors.

  6. A host-guest-recognition-based electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2012-05-15

    A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection is presented based on the host-guest recognition technique. In this sensing protocol, a 15 based thrombin aptamer (ab. TBA) was dually labeled with a thiol at its 3' end and a 4-((4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)azo) benzoic acid (dabcyl) at its 5' end, respectively, which was previously immobilized on one Au electrode surface by AuS bond and used as the thrombin probe during the protein sensing procedure. One special electrochemical marker was prepared by modifying CdS nanoparticle with β-cyclodextrins (ab. CdS-CDs), which employed as electrochemical signal provider and would conjunct with the thrombin probe modified electrode through the host-guest recognition of CDs to dabcyl. In the absence of thrombin, the probe adopted linear structure to conjunct with CdS-CDs. In present of thrombin, the TBA bond with thrombin and transformed into its special G-quarter structure, which forced CdS-CDs into the solution. Therefore, the target-TBA binding event can be sensitively transduced via detecting the electrochemical oxidation current signal of Cd of CdS nanoparticles in the solution. Using this method, as low as 4.6 pM thrombin had been detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  8. Novel Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2 was developed based on an Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite synthesized using a simple and cost effective approach with an electrochemically active biofilm. The optical, structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite were examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and their electrochemical performance was analyzed by CV, differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite modified GCE (Ag@TiO 2 /GCE) displayed excellent performance towards H 2 O 2 sensing at − 0.73 V in the linear response range from 0.83 μM to 43.3 μM, within a detection limit and sensitivity of 0.83 μM and ∼ 65.2328 ± 0.01 μAμM −1 cm −2 , respectively. In addition, Ag@TiO 2 /GCE exhibited good operational reproducibility and long term stability. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite by electrochemically active biofilm for H 2 O 2 sensing. - Highlights: • Electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) • EAB mediated synthesis of Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite • Ag@TiO 2 nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode • Ag@TiO 2 /GCE for H 2 O 2 sensing • Nonenzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2

  9. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  10. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  11. Metal Phosphates as Proton Conducting Materials for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyser Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana

    The present thesis presents the results achieved during my ph.d. project on a subject of intermediate temperature proton conducting metal phosphates as electrolyte materials for fuel cells and electrolysers. Fuel cells and electrolysers are electrochemical devices with high energy conversion...... with a proton conductivity of above 10-2S cm-1. Chapter 1 of the thesis is an introduction to basics of fuel cell and electrolyser technologies as well as proton conducting materials. Extended discussion on the proton conducting materials, a particularly phosphates is made in Chapter 2. Three major types...... starts with synthesis and investigation of three rare earth metal phosphate hydrates, which is first presented in Chapter 5. Structural and surface water as well as its stability has been investigated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses combined with structural modeling calculations...

  12. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenjian; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10 −9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins. (paper)

  13. Ion sensors based on novel fiber organic electrochemical transistors for lead ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuedan; Zhou, Zhou; Qing, Xing; Zhong, Weibing; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Fiber organic electrochemical transistors (FECTs) based on polypyrrole and nanofibers have been prepared for the first time. FECTs exhibited excellent electrical performances, on/off ratios up to 10(4) and low applied voltages below 2 V. The ion sensitivity behavior of the fiber organic electrochemical transistors was investigated. It exhibited that the transfer curve of FECTs shifted to lower gate voltage with increasing cations concentration, the sensitivity reached to 446 μA/dec in the 10(-5)-10(-2) M Pb(2+) concentration range. The ion selective properties of the FECTs have also been systematically studied for the detection of potassium, calcium, aluminum, and lead ions. The devices with different cations showed great difference in response curves. It was suitable for selectively monitoring Pb(2+) with respect to other cations. The results indicated FECTs were very effective for electrochemical sensing of lead ion, which opened a promising perspective for wearable electronics in healthcare and biological application. Graphical Abstract The schematic diagram of fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole and nanofibers for ion sensing.

  14. Mixing transition-metal phosphates Li_3V_2_−_xFe_x(PO_4)_3 (0≤x≤2): the synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Yanming; Kuang, Quan; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Youzhong; Jing, Zhenzhen; Hou, Shiyu

    2016-01-01

    lithium conductivity, which in turn contributed to the poor electrochemical performance. Although our results did not show Fe"3"+/Fe"2"+ electrochemical activity contrary to our expectation, this preliminary study on Li_3V_2_−_xFe_x(PO_4)_3 (0≤x≤2) have provided a prerequisite for further improving the electrochemical properties by nanosizing and carbon-coating to better use these mixing transition-metal phosphate cathodes in the future.

  15. Binary CuO/Co3O4 nanofibers for ultrafast and amplified electrochemical sensing of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Wang Wen; Song Wenbo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Binary CuO/Co 3 O 4 nanofiber as active electrode material. → Dramatically enhanced catalytic activity and direct fructose detection. → Significantly lowered overpotential, ultrafast (1 s) and sensitive (18.988 μA mM -1 ) response. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide-doped copper oxide composite nanofibers (CCNFs) were successfully achieved via electrospinning followed by thermal treatment processes and then exploited as active electrode material for direct enzyme-free fructose detection. The morphology and the structure of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrocatalytic activity of CCNFs films towards fructose oxidation and sensing performances were evaluated by conventional electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t) revealed the distinctly enhanced sensing properties towards fructose compared to pure copper oxide nanofibers (CNFs), i.e., showing significantly lowered overpotential of 0.30 V, ultrafast (1 s) and ultrasensitive (18.988 μA mM -1 ) current response in a wide linear range of 1.0 x 10 -5 M to 6.0 x 10 -3 M with satisfied reproducibility and stability, which could be ascribed to the synergic catalytic effect of the binary CuO/Co 3 O 4 composite nanofibers and the highly porous three-dimensional network films structure of the CCNFs. In addition, a good selectivity for fructose detection was achieved. Results in this work demonstrated that CCNFs is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for enzymeless fructose sensor fabrication.

  16. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Electrochemical behaviour of a vanadium anode in phosphoric acid and phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, V.; Darchen, A.; Fur, E. Le; Pivan, J.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Anodic polarisation of a vanadium electrode has been studied in H 3 PO 4 solutions and some phosphate solutions: LiH 2 PO 4 , NaH 2 PO 4 , KH 2 PO 4 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . The anodic behaviour of a vanadium electrode showed similarities in weak concentrated H 3 PO 4 , in LiH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 solutions: the polarisation curve exhibited a current peak followed by current oscillations and then a current plateau. Concentrated H 3 PO 4 , 1 M KH 2 PO 4 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solutions involved vanadium passivation with a very slight current density plateau. Yellow compound identified to VOPO 4 .2H 2 O was obtained after controlled potential oxidation of vanadium in 5-10 M H 3 PO 4 . Green products were obtained in 1 M phosphate solutions and in 1-3 M H 3 PO 4 on vanadium anode after controlled potential electrolysis. All these vanadophosphate compounds contained the monovalent cation which was present in the solution

  18. Nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar as the electrochemical sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of circulating free DNA in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiyi, Li; Ling, Liu; Hongxia, Bei; Zaijun, Li

    2016-05-15

    Graphene aerogel has attracted increasing attention due to its large specific surface area, high-conductivity and electronic interaction. The paper reported a facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped multiple graphene aerogel/gold nanostar (termed as N-doped MGA/GNS) and its use as the electrochemical sensing platform for detection of double stranded (dsDNA). On the one hand, the N-doped MGA offers a much better electrochemical performance compared with classical graphene aerogel. Interestingly, the performance can be enhanced by only increasing the cycle number of graphene oxide gelation. On the other hand, the hybridization with GNS further enhances the electrocatalytic activity towards Fe(CN)6(3-/4-). In addition, the N-doped MGA/GNS provides a well-defined three-dimensional architecture. The unique structure make it is easy to combine with dsDNA to form the electroactive bioconjugate. The integration not only triggers an ultrafast DNA electron and charge transfer, but also realizes a significant synergy between N-doped MGA, GNS and dsDNA. As a result, the electrochemical sensor based on the hybrid exhibits highly sensitive differential pulse voltammetric response (DPV) towards dsDNA. The DPV signal linearly increases with the increase of dsDNA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-)(21) g ml(-)(1) to 1.0×10(-16) g ml(-1) with the detection limit of 3.9×10(-22) g ml(-1) (S/N=3). The sensitivity is much more than that of all reported DNA sensors. The analytical method was successfully applied in the electrochemical detection of circulating free DNA in human serum. The study also opens a window on the electrical properties of multiple graphene aerogel and DNA as well their hybrids to meet the needs of further applications as special nanoelectronics in molecule diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xu, Kuoxi, E-mail: xukx@henu.edu.cn [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L{sup −1}, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  20. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111......) surface appear apparently adsorbate free, indicated by the presence of a (4×4) structure and the herringbone surface reconstruction, respectively. Upon potential increase, phosphate anions adsorb on both surfaces and for Cu(111) the formation of a (√3×√3)R30° structure is found, whereas on Au(111) a "(√3......×√7)" structure is formed. For a Cu-submonolayer on Au(111), coadsorption of phosphate anions leads to the formation of a (2×2) vacancy structure within an assumed pseudomorphic structure of the Cu-submonolayer with the phosphate anions occupying the vacancies. When desorbing the phosphate anions at low...

  1. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core-shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-10-03

    Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core-shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3'-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0-500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  3. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A., E-mail: klm.1985@yahoo.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliofkhazraei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained.

  4. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  5. A novel electrochemical aptamer-antibody sandwich assay for lysozyme detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Cristina; Hayat, Akhtar; Mishra, Rupesh; Vasilescu, Alina; del Valle, Manel; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, we have reported a novel electrochemical aptamer-antibody based sandwich biosensor for the detection of lysozyme. In the sensing strategy, an anti-lysozyme aptamer was immobilized onto the carbon electrode surface by covalent binding via diazonium salt chemistry. After incubating with a target protein (lysozyme), a biotinylated antibody was used to complete the sandwich format. The subsequent additions of avidin-alkaline phosphatase as an enzyme label, and a 1-naphthyl phosphate substrate (1-NPP) allowed us to determine the concentration of lysozyme (Lys) via Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) of the generated enzyme reaction product, 1-naphthol. Using this strategy, a wide detection range from 5 fM to 5 nM was obtained for a target lysozyme, with a detection limit of 4.3 fM. The control experiments were carried out by using bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c and casein. The results showed that the proposed biosensor had good specificity, stability and reproducibility for lysozyme analysis. In addition, the biosensor was applied for detecting lysozyme in spiked wine samples, and very good recovery rates were obtained in the range from 95.2 to 102.0% for lysozyme detection. This implies that the proposed sandwich biosensor is a promising analytical tool for the analysis of lysozyme in real samples.

  6. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zhonghua, E-mail: xzh@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); He, Nan [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Rao, Honghong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was explored by using a facile and green strategy. • Well dispersed and uniform NiHCF nanoparticles can be effectively produced by the introduction of electrochemical reduction graphene oxide films. • Metal hexacyanoferrate as a potential electron mediator was proposed and applied into non-enzymatic sensing. - Abstract: Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  7. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; He, Nan; Rao, Honghong; Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was explored by using a facile and green strategy. • Well dispersed and uniform NiHCF nanoparticles can be effectively produced by the introduction of electrochemical reduction graphene oxide films. • Metal hexacyanoferrate as a potential electron mediator was proposed and applied into non-enzymatic sensing. - Abstract: Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  8. Development of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based sensing system for DEHP detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd. Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Yu, Paklam; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    This research work presents a real time and non invasive technique to detect Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)content in purified water and quantify its concentration by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy(E.I.S.). Planar Inter-digital capacitive

  9. Electrochemical detection on electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuwan, Chanpen; Sukthang, Kreeta; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Wechsatol, Wishsanuruk; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2011-06-15

    In this work, the use of three-electrode electrochemical sensing system with an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic device is reported for quantitative analysis of iodide. T-junction EWOD mixer device was designed using arrays of 50-μm spaced square electrodes for mixing buffer reagent and analyte droplets. For fabrication of EWOD chips, 5-μm thick silver EWOD electrodes were formed on a glass substrate by means of sputtering and lift-off process. PDMS and Teflon thin films were then coated on the electrodes by spin coating to yield hydrophobic surface. An external three-electrode system consisting of Au working, Ag reference and Pt auxiliary wires were installed over EWOD electrodes at the end of T-junction mixer. In experiment, a few-microliter droplets of Tris buffer and iodide solutions were moved toward the mixing junction and transported toward electrochemical electrodes by EWOD process. A short processing time within seconds was achieved at EWOD applied voltage of 300V. The analyte droplets mixed with different concentrations were successfully analyzed by cyclic voltametry. Therefore, the combination of EWOD digital microfluidic and electrochemical sensing system has successfully been demonstrated for rapid chemical analysis with minimal reagent consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The corrosion properties of phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy: The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an eco-friendly accelerating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, R. [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarabi, A.A., E-mail: sarabi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-01

    Sodium nitrite has been used as an accelerating agent in phosphating bath to improve its properties. However, it is well known that sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic component in phosphating sludge. In this study, it has been aimed to replace sodium nitrite by an environmentally friendly accelerating agent. To this end, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in phosphating bath to improve the phosphate coating formation on an AZ31 magnesium alloy. The effect of SDS/sodium nitrite ratio on the phosphated samples properties was also studied. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), direct current (DC) polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the properties of phosphated magnesium samples were studied. Results showed uniform phosphate coating formation on the magnesium sample mostly in hopeite phase composition. In addition, a denser and less permeable coating can be obtained at these conditions. The corrosion resistance of the phosphated samples was superiorly improved using higher SDS concentration in the phosphating bath.

  11. The corrosion properties of phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy: The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an eco-friendly accelerating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, R.; Sarabi, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite has been used as an accelerating agent in phosphating bath to improve its properties. However, it is well known that sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic component in phosphating sludge. In this study, it has been aimed to replace sodium nitrite by an environmentally friendly accelerating agent. To this end, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in phosphating bath to improve the phosphate coating formation on an AZ31 magnesium alloy. The effect of SDS/sodium nitrite ratio on the phosphated samples properties was also studied. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), direct current (DC) polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the properties of phosphated magnesium samples were studied. Results showed uniform phosphate coating formation on the magnesium sample mostly in hopeite phase composition. In addition, a denser and less permeable coating can be obtained at these conditions. The corrosion resistance of the phosphated samples was superiorly improved using higher SDS concentration in the phosphating bath.

  12. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    xue, Zhonghua; He, Nan; Rao, Honghong; Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-02-01

    Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy versus cyclic voltammetry for the electroanalytical sensing of capsaicin utilising screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randviir, Edward P; Metters, Jonathan P; Stainton, John; Banks, Craig E

    2013-05-21

    Screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes (SPEs) are explored as electroanalytical sensing platforms for the detection of capsaicin in both synthetic capsaicin solutions and capsaicin extracted from chillies and chilli sauces utilising both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is found that the technique which is most applicable to the electroanalytical detection of capsaicin depends upon the analyte concentration: for the case of low capsaicin concentrations, CV is a more appropriate method as capsaicin exhibits characteristic voltammetric waves of peak heights relevant to the capsaicin concentration; but for the case of high capsaicin concentrations where the voltammetric waves merge and migrate out of the potential window, EIS is shown to be a more appropriate technique, owing to the observed linear increases in R(ct) with increasing concentration. Furthermore, we explore different types of screen printed carbon nanotube electrodes, namely single- and multi- walled carbon nanotubes, finding that they are technique-specific: for the case of low capsaicin concentrations, single-walled carbon nanotube SPEs are preferable (SW-SPE); yet for the case of EIS at high capsaicin concentrations, multi-walled carbon nanotube SPEs (MW-SPE) are preferred, based upon analytical responses. The analytical performance of CV and EIS is applied to the sensing of capsaicin in grown chillies and chilli sauces and is critically compared to 'gold standard' HPLC analysis.

  14. Light-Regulated Electrochemical Sensor Array for Efficiently Discriminating Hazardous Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongqiu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Huihui; Jin, Han; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jin, Qinghui; Zou, Jie; Haick, Hossam; Jian, Jiawen

    2017-10-27

    Inadequate detection limit and unsatisfactory discrimination features remain the challenging issues for the widely applied electrochemical gas sensors. Quite recently, we confirmed that light-regulated electrochemical reaction significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity, and thereby can potentially extend the detection limit to the parts per billion (ppb) level. Nevertheless, impact of the light-regulated electrochemical reaction on response selectivity has been discussed less. Herein, we systematically report on the effect of illumination on discrimination features via design and fabrication of a light-regulated electrochemical sensor array. Upon illumination (light on), response signal to the examined gases (C 3 H 6 , NO, and CO) is selectively enhanced, resulting in the sensor array demonstrating disparate response patterns when compared with that of the sensor array operated at light off. Through processing all the response patterns derived from both light on and light off with a pattern recognition algorithm, a satisfactory discrimination feature is observed. In contrast, apparent mutual interference between NO and CO is found when the sensor array is solely operated without illumination. The impact mechanism of the illumination is studied and it is deduced that the effect of the illumination on the discriminating features can be mainly attributed to the competition of electrocatalytic activity and gas-phase reactivity. If the enhanced electrocatalytic activity (to specific gas) dominates the whole sensing progress, enhancements in the corresponding response signal would be observed upon illumination. Otherwise, illumination gives a negligible impact. Hence, the response signal to part of the examined gases is selectively enhanced by illumination. Conclusively, light-regulated electrochemical reaction would provide an efficient approach to designing future smart sensing devices.

  15. Impact of carbon-fluorine doped titanium dioxide in the performance of an electrochemical sensing of dopamine and rosebengal sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Fluorine and Carbon as dopants in the TiO2 based electrochemical sensor and DSSC were presented in this work. A series of Carbon nano-cones and disc doped TiO2 (TC, Fluorine doped TiO2 (FT and C & F co-doped TiO2 (CFT powdered samples were prepared via solid state synthesis. The CFT film showed excellent electrochemical sensitivity to the oxidation of dopamine in aqueous solution and could be employed as a dopamine sensor. The proposed sensor exhibited good linear response in the range of 10-820 μM with a detection limit of 3.6 μM under optimum conditions. The photovoltaic performances of Rose Bengal sensitized solar cells were assessed through I-V measurements. The CFT based DSSC shows a short-circuit current density and a power conversion efficiency (η of 0.908 mA/cm2 and 0.163% respectively, which is 35% and 38% greater than the performance of other PT based cells. The characterization studies such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, TEM and EPR spectroscopy were utilized for further investigation, which helps us to understand how fluorine and carbon play a part in dopamine sensing and solar energy conversion.

  16. Development of nano SiO2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.; Selvi, J. Arockia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Coatings showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano SiO 2 is adsorbed on mild steel surface and become nucleation sites. • The nano SiO 2 accelerates the phosphating process. - Abstract: This paper reports the development of nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel at low temperature for achieving better corrosion protection. A new formulation of phosphating bath at low temperature with nano SiO 2 was attempted to explore the possibilities of development of nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel with improved corrosion resistance. The coatings developed were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical measurements. Significant variation in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance was observed as nano SiO 2 concentrations varied from 0.5–4 g/L. The results showed that, the nano SiO 2 in the phosphating solution changed the initial potential of the interface between mild steel substrate and phosphating solution and reduce the activation energy of the phosphating process, increase the nucleation sites and yielded zinc phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance. Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano SiO 2 . The new formulation reported in the present study was free from Ni or Mn salts and had very low concentration of sodium nitrite (0.4 g/L) as accelerator

  17. Corrosion of alloy 22 in phosphate and chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.

    2007-01-01

    Alloy C-22 is a Ni-based alloy (22% Cr, 13% Mo, 3% W y 3% Fe in weight per cent) that exhibits an excellent uniform and localized corrosion resistance due to its protective passive film. It was designed to resist the most aggressive environments for industrial applications. Alloy 22 is one of the candidates to be considered for the outer shell of the canister that would contain high level radioactive nuclear wastes. The effect of phosphate ion in chloride containing solutions at 90 C degrees was studied under aggressive conditions were this material might be susceptible to crevice corrosion. The electrolyte solution, which consisted of 1M NaCl and different phosphate concentrations (between 10 -3 M and 1M), was deoxygenated by bubbling with nitrogen. Electrochemical tests, electron microscope observations (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis (EDS) were conducted. Crevice corrosion was not detected and the comparison of the potentiodynamic polarization tests showed an increase of the passivity range in phosphate containing solutions. The passive current value was 1 μA/cm 2 approximately in all the tests that were performed in this work. The differences in composition of the anodic film formed on the samples suggest that phosphate is responsible for the increase of the passivity range by incorporation to the passive film. (author)

  18. Effects of phosphate environments on turbine materials: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Shalvoy, R.S.; Gould, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a serious hazard to large steam turbines. In many cases, this cracking is thought caused by concentrated deposits of caustics or chlorides, formed from the steam by concentrating mechanisms. To minimize the likelihood of forming these corrosive deposits, turbine manufacturers recommend that the levels of contaminants in the steam be maintained at low levels. The steam purity needed to prevent the formation of corrosive deposits is at present uncertain. As an aid in judging the steam purity needed to avoid corrosive deposits, the General Electric Company surveyed the utility industry to determine current feedwater practices, the levels of steam purity attained, and the nature of the corrosion problems encountered. One hypothesis to explain the lower corrosivity of steam from drum boilers concerns the sodium phosphate to compounds commonly added to drum boiler water for pH control. To test this hypothesis, the present program was undertaken to study the effect of sodium phosphate on the corrosivity of the two most common corrosive turbine deposits, sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide. Four turbine materials - a rotor steel, a disc steel, and two turbine blade steels - were chosen for this study. The results from the first half of a two-year project are described. So far the corrosivity of the deposits without phosphate has been determined. Work to determine the corrosivity of deposits with phosphate is presently under way and only the electrochemical test results are discussed

  19. Electrochemical performances of lithium ion battery using alkoxides of group 13 as electrolyte solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Masuda, Yuki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Wakihara, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Tris(methoxy polyethylenglycol) borate ester (B-PEG) and aluminum tris(polyethylenglycoxide) (Al-PEG) were used as electrolyte solvent for lithium ion battery, and the electrochemical property of these electrolytes were investigated. These electrolytes, especially B-PEG, showed poor electrochemical stability, leading to insufficient discharge capacity and rapid degradation with cycling. These observations would be ascribed to the decomposition of electrolyte, causing formation of unstable passive layer on the surface of electrode in lithium ion battery at high voltage. However, significant improvement was observed by the addition of aluminum phosphate (AlPO 4 ) powder into electrolyte solvent. AC impedance technique revealed that the increase of interfacial resistance of electrode/electrolyte during cycling was suppressed by adding AlPO 4 , and this suppression could enhance the cell capabilities. We infer that dissolved AlPO 4 components formed electrochemically stable layer on the surface of electrode

  20. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Vörös

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance.

  1. Carbon paste electrode with covalently immobilized thionine for electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, K.; Sriman Narayanan, S.

    2017-11-01

    A water-soluble redox mediator, thionin was covalently immobilized to the functionalized graphite powder and a carbon paste electrode was fabricated from this modified graphite powder. The immobilization procedure proved to be effective in anchoring the thionin mediator in the graphite electrode setup without any leakage problem during the electrochemical studies. The covalent immobilization of the thionin mediator was studied with FT-IR and the electrochemical response of the thionin carbon paste electrode was optimized on varying the supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate. The modified electrode exhibited well-defined electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2 at a lower potential of -0.266 V with good sensitivity. The developed amperometric sensor was efficient towards H2O2 in the linear range from 2.46 × 10-5 M to 4.76 × 10-3 M, with a detection limit of 1.47 × 10-5 M respectively. Important advantages of this sensor are its excellent electrochemical performance, simple fabrication, easy renewability, reproducible analytical results, acceptable accuracy and good operational and long-term stability.

  2. Pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for impedance based cell sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive glass-like carbon structures can be obtained from a polymer template through a pyrolysis process. These structures can be used as electrodes for bio sensing applications such as electrochemical evaluation of cell adhesion and proliferation. This study focuses on the optimi...... to decrease the resistivity of the resulting carbon material and improve the performance in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Finally, EIS was used to monitor adhesion and proliferation of HeLa cells....

  3. Construction of a zinc porphyrin-fullerene-derivative based nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for sensitive sensing of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai; Fan, Suhua; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hong; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2014-07-01

    Enzymatic sensors possess high selectivity but suffer from some limitations such as instability, complicated modified procedure, and critical environmental factors, which stimulate the development of more sensitive and stable nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors. Herein, a novel nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor is proposed based on a new zinc porphyrin-fullerene (C60) derivative (ZnP-C60), which was designed and synthesized according to the conformational calculations and the electronic structures of two typical ZnP-C60 derivatives of para-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(p)-C60) and ortho-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(o)-C60). The two derivatives were first investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and ZnP(p)-C60 with a bent conformation was verified to possess a smaller energy gap and better electron-transport ability. Then ZnP(p)-C60 was entrapped in tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) film and modified on glassy carbon electrode (TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE). The TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed four well-defined quasi-reversible redox couples with extremely fast direct electron transfer and excellent nonenzymatic sensing ability. The electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 showed a wide linear range from 0.035 to 3.40 mM, with a high sensitivity of 215.6 μA mM(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.81 μM. The electrocatalytic oxidation of nitrite showed a linear range from 2.0 μM to 0.164 mM, with a sensitivity of 249.9 μA mM(-1) and a LOD down to 1.44 μM. Moreover, the TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed excellent stability and reproducibility, and good testing recoveries for analysis of the nitrite levels of river water and rainwater. The ZnP(p)-C60 can be used as a novel material for the fabrication of nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors.

  4. Electrochemical dopamine sensor based on P-doped graphene: Highly active metal-free catalyst and metal catalyst support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Xin-Wei; Tian, Ye

    2017-12-01

    Heteroatom doping is an effective strategy to enhance the catalytic activity of graphene and its hybrid materials. Despite a growing interest of P-doped graphene (P-G) in energy storage/generation applications, P-G has rarely been investigated for electrochemical sensing. Herein, we reported the employment of P-G as both metal-free catalyst and metal catalyst support for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). As a metal-free catalyst, P-G exhibited prominent DA sensing performances due to the important role of P doping in improving the electrocatalytic activity of graphene toward DA oxidation. Furthermore, P-G could be an efficient supporting material for loading Au nanoparticles, and resulting Au/P-G hybrid showed a dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity and extraordinary sensing performances with a wide linear range of 0.1-180μM and a low detection limit of 0.002μM. All these results demonstrated that P-G might be a very promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Graphene Ink Film Based Electrochemical Detector for Paracetamol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene ink is a commercialized product in the graphene industry with promising potential application in electronic device design. However, the limitation of the graphene ink is its low electronic performance due to the ink preparation protocol. In this work, we proposed a simple post-treatment of graphene ink coating via electrochemical oxidation. The electronic conductivity of the graphene ink coating was enhanced as expected after the treatment. The proposed electrochemical oxidation treatment also exposes the defects of graphene and triggered an electrocatalytic reaction during the sensing of paracetamol (PA. The overpotential of redox is much lower than conventional PA redox potential, which is favorable for avoiding the interference species. Under optimum conditions, the graphene ink-based electrochemical sensor could linearly detect PA from 10 to 500 micro molar (μM, with a limit of detection of 2.7 μM.

  6. Single-Molecule Sensing with Nanopore Confinement: from Chemical Reactions to Biological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao; Ying, Yi-Lun; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-03-25

    The nanopore can generate an electrochemical confinement for single-molecule sensing which help understand the fundamental chemical principle in nanoscale dimensions. By observing the generated ionic current, individual bond-making and bond-breaking steps, single biomolecule dynamic conformational changes and electron transfer processes that occur within pore can be monitored with high temporal and current resolution. These single-molecule studies in nanopore confinement are revealing information about the fundamental chemical and biological processes that cannot be extracted from ensemble measurements. In this concept, we introduce and discuss the electrochemical confinement effects on single-molecule covalent reactions, conformational dynamics of individual molecules and host-guest interactions in protein nanopores. Then, we extend the concept of nanopore confinement effects to confine electrochemical redox reactions in solid-state nanopores for developing new sensing mechanisms. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bimetallic Ag-Pd nanoparticles-decorated graphene oxide: a fascinating three-dimensional nanohybrid as an efficient electrochemical sensing platform for vanillin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junhua; Feng, Haibo; Li, Jun; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Yonglan; He, Lingzhi; Qian, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D Ag-Pd/GO nanohybrid was fabricated via a green and in situ chemical route. • Ag-Pd/GO shows excellent electro-catalytic properties for the oxidation of vanillin. • The 3D hybrid-based sensor shows excellent performances for the vanillin detection. • This proposed method was successfully used to detect vanillin in children’s snacks. - Abstract: In this work, a fascinating hybrid based on Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles-decorated graphene oxide (Ag-Pd/GO) has been successfully synthesized by a green and in situ chemical reduction strategy. The resultant hybrid was particularly characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The morphological results illustrate that Ag-Pd nanoparticles in microspheric appearances are highly dispersed and embedded on the GO layers, resulting in a rough surface and three-dimensional (3D) microstructure with a high Ag-Pd content in the matrix. The as-synthesized 3D Ag-Pd/GO hybrid displays distinctly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the vanillin oxidation in comparison with that of the monometal-decorated GO, revealing a synergistic effect of the matrix GO and the doped bimetallic Ag-Pd. Therefore, the Ag-Pd/GO composite can be used as an enhanced electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitive determination of vanillin, and the fabricated sensor displays a wide detection range of 0.02–45 μmol dm −3 , low detection limit of 5 nmol dm −3 and satisfactory recoveries between 98.8 % and 103.5 %. All the results demonstrate that the 3D hybrids integrated graphene with bimetallic nanoparticles are promising candidates for the development of high-performance electrochemical sensors

  8. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Jay K; Neupane, Dharmendra; Nepal, Bishal; Mikhaylov, Vasilii; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2018-03-16

    Nanoporous gold (np-Au), because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  9. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  10. Investigation of duty cycle effect on corrosion properties of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azem, Funda Ak, E-mail: funda.ak@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Delice, Tulay Koc, E-mail: tulaykocdelice@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, Guler, E-mail: gulerungan@hotmail.com [Es Group, Izmir (Turkey); Cakir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmet.cakir@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-11-01

    The bioceramic calcium phosphate (CaP) is frequently used for improving bone fixation in titanium medical implants and thus increasing lifetime of the implant. It is known that the application of CaP coatings on metallic implant devices offers the possibility of combining the strength of the metals and the bioactivity of the ceramic materials. Many different techniques are available for producing CaP coatings. Electrochemical deposition method is widely used because of its ease of operation parameters, low temperature requirement, reproducibility and suitability for coating complex structures. This technique allows obtaining CaP coatings which promote bone in growth during the first healing period leading to permanent fixation. Electrochemical pulse technique is an alternative to calcium phosphate deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. Additionally, pulse electrodeposition technique can produce more uniform and denser CaP coatings on metallic implants. In this study, CaP based coatings were produced by electrochemical pulse technique on Ti6Al4V substrates. The resulting CaP deposits were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion properties of the CaP coatings were also investigated. The results showed that various duty cycle ranges have remarkably effect on morphology, crystallinity and corrosion properties of the produced CaP coatings. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited CaP based coating were produced by pulse deposition technique. • The pulsed electrodeposited coatings produced under 30% and 50% duty cycles were exhibited better corrosion resistance. • Produced coatings consist of irregular flake-like structure and compact network with fine needles.

  11. Recent advances in transition-metal dichalcogenides based electrochemical biosensors: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2017-11-15

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) comprise a category of two-dimensional (2D) materials that offer exciting properties, including large surface area, metallic and semi-conducting electrical capabilities, and intercalatable morphologies. Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. TMDCs nanomaterials have been widely applied in various electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. The marriage of TMDCs and electrochemical biosensors has created many productive sensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food safety. In recent years, an increasing number of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors are reported, suggesting TMDCs offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical biosensors. This review summarizes recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on TMDCs for detection of various inorganic and organic analytes in the last five years, including glucose, proteins, DNA, heavy metal, etc. In addition, we also point out the challenges and future perspectives related to the material design and development of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond nanowires with enhanced electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalini, Jayakumar; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Hsun; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of N 2 incorporation in Ar/CH 4 plasma on the electrochemical properties and microstructure of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are reported. While the electrical conductivity of the films increased monotonously with increasing N 2 content (up to 25%) in the plasma, the electrochemical behavior was optimized for UNCD films grown in (Ar–10% N 2 )/CH 4 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the main factor resulting in high conductivity in the films was the formation of needle-like nanodiamond grains and the induction graphite layer encapsulating these grains. The electrochemical process for N 2 -incorporated UNCD films can readily be activated due to the presence of nanographite along the grain boundaries of the films. The formation of needle-like diamond grains was presumably due to the presence of CN species that adhered to the existing nanodiamond clusters, which suppressed radial growth of the nanodiamond crystals, promoting anisotropic growth and the formation of needle-like nanodiamond. The N 2 -incorporated UNCD films outperformed other electrochemical electrode materials, such as boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon, in that the UNCD electrodes could sense dopamine, urea, and ascorbic acid simultaneously in the same mixture with clear resolution

  13. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical; aluminium-doped zinc oxide; PVA-coated; UV sensing. 1. Introduction ... Metal oxides having good optical and structural proper- ties also require good .... close to the calculated defect level due to zinc interstitial. PL spectra of ...

  14. Acetaminophen and acetone sensing capabilities of nickel ferrite nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shrabani; Kumari, Manisha; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2017-07-01

    Present work elucidates the gas sensing and electrochemical sensing capabilities of sol-gel-derived nickel ferrite (NF) nanostructures based on the electrical and electrochemical properties. In current work, the choices of target species (acetone and acetaminophen) are strictly governed by their practical utility and concerning the safety measures. Acetone, the target analyte for gas sensing measurement is a common chemical used in varieties of application as well as provides an indirect way to monitor diabetes. The gas sensing experiments were performed within a homemade sensing chamber designed by our group. Acetone gas sensor (NF pellet sensor) response was monitored by tracking the change in resistance both in the presence and absence of acetone. At optimum operating temperature 300 °C, NF pellet sensor exhibits selective response for acetone in the presence of other common interfering gases like ethanol, benzene, and toluene. The electrochemical sensor fabricated to determine acetaminophen is prepared by coating NF onto the surface of pre-treated/cleaned pencil graphite electrode (NF-PGE). The common name of target analyte acetaminophen is paracetamol (PC), which is widespread worldwide as a well-known pain killer. Overdose of PC can cause renal failure even fatal diseases in children and demand accurate monitoring. Under optimal conditions NF-PGE shows a detection limit as low as 0.106 μM with selective detection ability towards acetaminophen in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), which co-exists in our body. Use of cheap and abundant PGE instead of other electrodes (gold/Pt/glassy carbon electrode) can effectively reduce the cost barrier of such sensors. The obtained results elucidate an ample appeal of NF-sensors in real analytical applications viz. in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical industry, drug detection, and health monitoring.

  15. A Review on the Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Composed of Nanowires as Sensing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of nanowires for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reviewed in this article. Next generation sensor platforms will require significant improvements in sensitivity, specificity and parallelism in order to meet the future needs in variety of fields. Sensors made of nanowires exploit some fundamental nanoscopic effect in order to meet these requirements. Nanowires are new materials, which have the characteristic of low weight with extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. The advantages such as size scale, aspect ratio and other properties of nanowires are especially apparent in the use of electrical sensors such as electrochemical sensors and in the use of field-effect transistors. The preparation methods of nanowires and their properties are discussed along with their advantages towards electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Some key results from each article are summarized, relating the concept and mechanism behind each sensor, with experimental conditions as well as their behavior at different conditions.

  16. Optical, Nanomechanical and Electrochemical Sensing on a DVD Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    platform in order to study and count larger objects such as cells. In this way it will be possible to analyze a given sample for several parameters simultaneously. Electrodes can also be integrated on the spinning platform [4] and hereby it is possible to perform electrochemical measurements at the same...... combined with sensitive and compact read-out possibilities from optical pick-up heads makes it possible to realize full sample pretreatment and read-out in a both fast and compact manner. References: 1. M. Madou et al., Lab on a CD, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 8: 601-628, 2016 2. F...

  17. Multi-signalling cation sensing behaviour of a bis(pyridin-2-yl methyl)aniline based hetarylazo dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Sareen, Divya; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The chromogenic and electrochemical behaviour of bis(pyridine-2-yl methyl)aniline based hetarylazo dye gets perturbed in the presence of cations, most effective being Cu 2+ . The conversion of ICT to ICT/MLCT is witnessed by TD-DFT calculations. -- Highlights: •Cation sensing of hetarylazo dye based upon visual, absorption and electrochemical changes is described. •Sensing mechanism is based upon perturbation in intramolecular charge-transfer upon interaction with cations. •Sensing protocol is supported by 1 H NMR studies as well as theoretical calculations. •Hetarylazo dye acts as a multichannel sensor. •Response of the dye towards various cations has also been explored in acidic pH window. -- Abstract: We investigated the cation sensing behaviour of a bis(pyridin-2-yl methyl)aniline appended hetarylazo dye via chromogenic and electrochemical transduction channels. The binding pocket constituting both the pyridyl as well as aniline nitrogen atoms acts as recognition site for the cations and consequent perturbation in the intramolecular charge-transfer prevailing in the dye results in the chromogenic response manifested in the form of hypsochromic shift in the intramolecular charge-transfer band and the attendant naked-eye color changes. The dye exhibits significant changes in its electrochemical behaviour in the presence of cations. The experimental results are also rationalized by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations

  18. Achieving direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase by one step electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its use in glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was accomplished at a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate (GCE/ERGO/SDS). A pair of reversible peaks is exhibited on GCE/ERGO/SDS/GOD by cyclic voltammetry. The peak-to-peak potential separation of immobilized GOD is 28 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) with a scan rate of 50 mV/s. The average surface coverage is 2.62 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 . The resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to glucose with linear range from 1 to 8 mM (R 2 = 0.9878), good reproducibility and detection limit of 40.8 μM. The results from the biosensor were similar (± 5%) to those obtained from the clinical analyzer. - Highlights: • A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on GCE/ERGO/SDS. • This composite film was successfully applied in preparation of glucose biosensor. • The detection limit of the biosensor was estimated to be 40.8 μM. • The results from the sensor were similar to those obtained from the clinical analyzer

  19. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) cross-linked carbon paste electrodes for microfluidic electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Mensack, Meghan M; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Ewing, Rebecca; Dungchai, Wijitar; Chailapakul, Orawan; Cropek, Donald M; Henry, Charles S

    2011-08-07

    Recently, the development of electrochemical biosensors as part of microfluidic devices has garnered a great deal of attention because of the small instrument size and portability afforded by the integration of electrochemistry in microfluidic systems. Electrode fabrication, however, has proven to be a major obstacle in the field. Here, an alternative method to create integrated, low cost, robust, patternable carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) for microfluidic devices is presented. The new CPEs are composed of graphite powder and a binder consisting of a mixture of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and mineral oil. The electrodes are made by filling channels molded in previously cross-linked PDMS using a method analogous to screen printing. The optimal binder composition was investigated to obtain electrodes that were physically robust and performed well electrochemically. After studying the basic electrochemistry, the PDMS-oil CPEs were modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) for the detection of catecholamines and thiols, respectively, to demonstrate the ease of electrode chemical modification. Significant improvement of analyte signal detection was observed from both types of modified CPEs. A nearly 2-fold improvement in the electrochemical signal for 100 μM dithiothreitol (DTT) was observed when using a CoPC modified electrode (4.0 ± 0.2 nA (n = 3) versus 2.5 ± 0.2 nA (n = 3)). The improvement in signal was even more pronounced when looking at catecholamines, namely dopamine, using MWCNT modified CPEs. In this case, an order of magnitude improvement in limit of detection was observed for dopamine when using the MWCNT modified CPEs (50 nM versus 500 nM). CoPC modified CPEs were successfully used to detect thiols in red blood cell lysate while MWCNT modified CPEs were used to monitor temporal changes in catecholamine release from PC12 cells following stimulation with potassium.

  20. Application of phosphating techniques to aluminium and carbon steel surfaces using nitro guanidine as oxidizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briseno M, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Phosphate coatings are inorganic crystalline deposits laid down uniformly on properly prepared surfaces by a chemical reaction with the treated base metal. The reaction consists in dissolving some surface metal by acid attack and then causing surface neutralization of the phosphate solution with consequent precipitation of the phosphate coating. Phosphate coatings do not provide appreciable corrosion protection in themselves. They are useful mainly as a base for paints, ensuring good adherence of paint to steel and decreasing the tendency for corrosion to under cut the paint film at scratches or other defects. In this work firstly were realized phosphate on standard carbon steel, employing technical of cold phosphate (at 40 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 30 minutes) and hot phosphate (at 88 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 15 minutes), where with this last were obtained the best results. Both methods used phosphate solutions of Zn/Mn and using as catalyst Nitro guanidine. Aluminium surfaces were phosphate used solutions of Cr and as catalyst Sodium bi fluoride. The phosphating on this surface were realized at temperature of 50 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 10 minutes. In this work were obtained a new phosphate coatings on steel surfaces, these coatings were realized with a phosphate solution manufactured with the precipitates gathered during the hot phosphating on carbon steel. These coatings show excellent physical characteristics and of corrosion resistance. Were determined the physical testings of the coatings phosphate obtained on carbon steel and aluminium surfaces. These testing were: roughness, thickness, microhardness and adhesion. The best results were showed in carbon steel phosphate with precipitated solutions. The technical of analysis for activation with thermic neutrons was used to determine the phosphate coatings composition. Finally, corrosion testings were realized by means of two methods

  1. Novel synthesis of methoxymethyl benzene by electrochemical coupling reaction of toluene with methanol in ionic liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengtao; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hongzhu

    2009-06-15

    An ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dibutyl phosphate) was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The ionic liquid exhibited good catalytic activity for the electrochemical reaction of toluene with methanol assisted with a pair of porous graphite plane electrodes and product yield higher than 56% was observed. In addition, the electrochemical process was detected by UV-vis spectrum and the products were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to the experimental results, a possible free radical reaction mechanism was proposed. It may be concluded that a simply and feasible electrochemical coupling reaction at room temperature and atmospheric pressure may be possible. Compared with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the main product (methoxymethyl benzene) used as booster to improve fuel combustion was also studied.

  2. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium-Rich LiFePO4 Cathode Synthesized by Solid-State Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaiah, P.; Hussain, O. M.; Zhu, Jinghui; Qiu, Yejun

    2017-08-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (Li x FePO4) is synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The structural, electrical and electrochemical properties are studied in detail. It is found that the increment of lithium concentration (up to x = 1.05) does not affect the structure of LiFePO4 but improves its electrical conductivity as well as electrochemical performance. Surface morphological studies exhibited the formation of rod-like nanoparticles with small size. Electric and dielectric properties are also investigated over a frequency range of 1 Hz-1 MHz at different temperatures. The conductivity increased with increasing temperature, which follows the Arrhenius relation with the activation energy of about 0.31 eV. And the electrochemical tests found that the Li1.05FePO4 cathode possessed improved discharge capacity with better cycling performance.

  3. TiO2 Nanotubes: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sberveglieri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis—particularly by electrochemical anodization-, growth mechanism and chemical sensing properties of pure, doped and mixed titania tubular arrays are reviewed. The first part deals on how anodization parameters affect the size, shape and morphology of titania nanotubes. In the second part fabrication of sensing devices based on titania nanotubes is presented, together with their most notable gas sensing performances. Doping largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes

  4. Preparation of copper (I) oxide nanohexagon decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite and its application in electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasubramanian, R., E-mail: rss@psgias.ac.in; Biji, P.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O nanohexagon–reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been prepared by in-situ reduction method. • The rGO-Cu{sub 2}O/GCE exhibited excellent catalytic properties for dopamine due to the synergistic action of the nanocomposite. • The proposed sensor is highly selective toward dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor using copper (I) oxide nanostructure decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been proposed for selective detection of dopamine. The rGO–Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ chemical reduction method and was characterized using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV–vis and Raman Spectroscopy, respectively. From Cyclic Voltammetric (CV) studies, it was inferred that rGO–Cu{sub 2}O/GCE exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine, which is attributed to the enhanced conductivity as well as the synergistic effect of the nanocomposite. The sensing was carried out using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) wherefrom a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 50 nM with a linear range from 10 µM to 900 µM was estimated. The effect of potential interfering agents such as Uric Acid (UA), Ascorbic Acid (AA), glucose, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup −} ions toward sensing were investigated. The performance of the sensor toward the estimation of dopamine in human blood and urine samples were analyzed. The facile method for the preparation of a nanocomposite in conjunction with the low detection limit and the wide linear range for dopamine sensing is the advantage of this present study.

  5. Poly-dopamine-beta-cyclodextrin: A novel nanobiopolymer towards sensing of some amino acids at physiological pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sattar; Bageri, Leyla; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Karimzadeh, Ayub; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2016-01-01

    A novel nanobiopolymer film was electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon through cyclic voltammetry from dopamine, β-cyclodextrin, and phosphate buffer solution in physiological pH (7.40). The electrochemical behavior of polydopamine-Beta-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation and determination of some amino acids (L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, L-Glycine, and L-Phenylalanine). The modified electrode was applied for selected amino acid detection at physiological pH using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry, chronocoulometery. The linear concentration range of the proposed sensor for the L-Glycine, L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylalanine were 0.2–70, 0.06–0.2, 0.01–0.1, and 0.2–10 μM, while low limit of quantifications were 0.2, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.2 μM, respectively. The modified electrode shows many advantages as an amino acid sensor such as simple preparation method without using any specific electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, good sensitivity, short response time, and long term stability. - Highlights: • A novel biopolymer film with entitled PDA-β-CD was electrodeposited on the GCE. • Synergetic effect of β-CD and GQD on the electrical signal amplifications was investigated. • The performance of β-CD-GQD-GCE towards electrochemical sensing of some amino acids was investigated.

  6. Poly-dopamine-beta-cyclodextrin: A novel nanobiopolymer towards sensing of some amino acids at physiological pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: mhmmd_hasanzadeh@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bageri, Leyla [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad [School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, Ayub [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin [Department of Nanochemistry, Nano Technology Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Technology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboob, Soltanali [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    A novel nanobiopolymer film was electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon through cyclic voltammetry from dopamine, β-cyclodextrin, and phosphate buffer solution in physiological pH (7.40). The electrochemical behavior of polydopamine-Beta-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation and determination of some amino acids (L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, L-Glycine, and L-Phenylalanine). The modified electrode was applied for selected amino acid detection at physiological pH using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry, chronocoulometery. The linear concentration range of the proposed sensor for the L-Glycine, L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylalanine were 0.2–70, 0.06–0.2, 0.01–0.1, and 0.2–10 μM, while low limit of quantifications were 0.2, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.2 μM, respectively. The modified electrode shows many advantages as an amino acid sensor such as simple preparation method without using any specific electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, good sensitivity, short response time, and long term stability. - Highlights: • A novel biopolymer film with entitled PDA-β-CD was electrodeposited on the GCE. • Synergetic effect of β-CD and GQD on the electrical signal amplifications was investigated. • The performance of β-CD-GQD-GCE towards electrochemical sensing of some amino acids was investigated.

  7. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  8. Development and characterization of electrochemical cantilever sensor for bio/chemical sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Xueling; Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    We report the improvements made to our previously developed electrochemical cantilever (EC) sensor, where nanoporous gold material is employed as working electrodes in microcantilever arrays, while combined counter-reference electrodes are integrated on the chip. For a surface stress change of 1m...

  9. Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bernalte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication, the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes. Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3σ upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs’ implementation as a sensing platform.

  10. Surface Modification of LiMn2O4 for Lithium Batteries by Nanostructured LiFePO4 Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 spinel cathode materials have been successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction. Surface of these particles was modified by nanostructured LiFePO4 via sol gel dip coating method. Synthesized products were characterized by thermally analyzed thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results of electrochemical tests showed that the charge/discharge capacities improved and charge retention of battery enhanced. This improved electrochemical performance is caused by LiFePO4 phosphate layer on surfaces of LiMn2O4 cathode particles.

  11. Binary CuO/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofibers for ultrafast and amplified electrochemical sensing of fructose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Wen [Yantai Wanhua Polyurethanes Co., Ltd., Shandong 264002 (China); Song Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > Binary CuO/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofiber as active electrode material. > Dramatically enhanced catalytic activity and direct fructose detection. > Significantly lowered overpotential, ultrafast (1 s) and sensitive (18.988 {mu}A mM{sup -1}) response. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide-doped copper oxide composite nanofibers (CCNFs) were successfully achieved via electrospinning followed by thermal treatment processes and then exploited as active electrode material for direct enzyme-free fructose detection. The morphology and the structure of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrocatalytic activity of CCNFs films towards fructose oxidation and sensing performances were evaluated by conventional electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t) revealed the distinctly enhanced sensing properties towards fructose compared to pure copper oxide nanofibers (CNFs), i.e., showing significantly lowered overpotential of 0.30 V, ultrafast (1 s) and ultrasensitive (18.988 {mu}A mM{sup -1}) current response in a wide linear range of 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M to 6.0 x 10{sup -3} M with satisfied reproducibility and stability, which could be ascribed to the synergic catalytic effect of the binary CuO/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite nanofibers and the highly porous three-dimensional network films structure of the CCNFs. In addition, a good selectivity for fructose detection was achieved. Results in this work demonstrated that CCNFs is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for enzymeless fructose sensor fabrication.

  12. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Bhattarai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous gold (np-Au, because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  13. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohai, L.; Schreiner, W.H.; Vázquez, M.; Valcarce, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    PO 4 3− ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu 2 O, CuO and Cu(OH) 2 . ► PO 4 3− is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages

  14. Carbon nanotubes-functionalized urchin-like In2S3 nanostructure for sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, S.; Xu, Q.; Hu, X.

    2012-01-01

    Urchin-like In 2 S 3 nanostructures were functionalized with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a new kind of sensor for dopamine (DA). The new electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. It is found that the current response toward DA is significantly enhanced compared to that of a bare GCE or a GCE modified with MWCNTs. The peak separation between DA and ascorbic acid (AA) is up to 225 mV. The new electrode also has improved selectivity for DA over AA compared to the bare electrode. The new DA sensor has a wide linear range (0.5-300 μM), high sensitivity (594.9 μA mM -1 cm -2 ) and low detection limit (0.1 μM). CNTs wrapped on urchin-like nanostructures remarkable improve its electrocatalytic activity and thus provide a promising strategy to develop excellent composite materials for electrochemical sensing. (author)

  15. Enhanced catalytic and dopamine sensing properties of electrochemically reduced conducting polymer nanocomposite doped with pure graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Xu, Guiyun; Cui, Xinyan Tracy; Sheng, Ge; Luo, Xiliang

    2014-08-15

    Significantly enhanced catalytic activity of a nanocomposite composed of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with graphene oxide (GO) was achieved through a simple electrochemical reduction process. The nanocomposite (PEDOT/GO) was electrodeposited on an electrode and followed by electrochemical reduction, and the obtained reduced nanocomposite (PEDOT/RGO) modified electrode exhibited lowered electrochemical impedance and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine. Based on the excellent catalytic property of PEDOT/RGO, an electrochemical sensor capable of sensitive and selective detection of DA was developed. The fabricated sensor can detect DA in a wide linear range from 0.1 to 175μM, with a detection limit of 39nM, and it is free from common interferences such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitive and selective determination of gallic acid in green tea samples based on an electrochemical platform of poly(melamine) film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Shu-Hua

    2015-12-11

    In this work, an electrochemical sensor coupled with an effective flow-injection amperometry (FIA) system is developed, targeting the determination of gallic acid (GA) in a mild neutral condition, in contrast to the existing electrochemical methods. The sensor is based on a thin electroactive poly(melamine) film immobilized on a pre-anodized screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE*/PME). The characteristics of the sensing surface are well-characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface water contact angle experiments. The proposed assay exhibits a wide linear response to GA in both pH 3 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) under the optimized flow-injection amperometry. The detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0.076 μM and 0.21 μM in the pH 3 and pH 7 solutions, respectively. A relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.9% is obtained for 57 successive measurements of 50 μM GA in pH 7 solutions. Interference studies indicate that some inorganic salts, catechol, caffeine and ascorbic acid do not interfere with the GA assay. The interference effects from some orthodiphenolic compounds are also investigated. The proposed method and a conventional Folin-Ciocalteu method are applied to detect GA in green tea samples using the standard addition method, and satisfactory spiked recoveries are obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2014-05-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate molecule in the detection system. A functional polymer with Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) template was immobilized on the sensing surface of the inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor with sputtered gold sensing electrodes fabricated over a native layer of silicon dioxide on a single crystal silicon substrate. Various concentrations (10 to 200 ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were exposed to the sensor surface functionalized with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) in order to capture the analyte molecule, hence introducing molecular selectivity to the testing system. Impedance spectra were obtained using EIS in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the solution. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyzer algorithm was used to deduce equivalent circuit and equivalent component parameters from the experimentally obtained impedance spectra employing Randle\\'s cell model curve fitting technique. Experimental results confirmed that the immobilization of the functional polymer on sensing surface introduces selectivity for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD). © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Sensitive and selective determination of gallic acid in green tea samples based on an electrochemical platform of poly(melamine) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Shu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an electrochemical sensor coupled with an effective flow-injection amperometry (FIA) system is developed, targeting the determination of gallic acid (GA) in a mild neutral condition, in contrast to the existing electrochemical methods. The sensor is based on a thin electroactive poly(melamine) film immobilized on a pre-anodized screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE*/PME). The characteristics of the sensing surface are well-characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface water contact angle experiments. The proposed assay exhibits a wide linear response to GA in both pH 3 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) under the optimized flow-injection amperometry. The detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0.076 μM and 0.21 μM in the pH 3 and pH 7 solutions, respectively. A relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.9% is obtained for 57 successive measurements of 50 μM GA in pH 7 solutions. Interference studies indicate that some inorganic salts, catechol, caffeine and ascorbic acid do not interfere with the GA assay. The interference effects from some orthodiphenolic compounds are also investigated. The proposed method and a conventional Folin–Ciocalteu method are applied to detect GA in green tea samples using the standard addition method, and satisfactory spiked recoveries are obtained. - Highlights: • A nitrogen-rich conducting polymer was used for electroanalysis of gallic acid. • The sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral media. • Good analytical results in terms of low detection limit and wide linear range are obtained. • The flow-injection amperometric assay is highly stable for continuous 57 replicates measurement (RSD = 3.9%). • The assay shows good recovery for green tea samples.

  20. Sensitive and selective determination of gallic acid in green tea samples based on an electrochemical platform of poly(melamine) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Shu-Hua, E-mail: shcheng@ncnu.edu.tw

    2015-12-11

    In this work, an electrochemical sensor coupled with an effective flow-injection amperometry (FIA) system is developed, targeting the determination of gallic acid (GA) in a mild neutral condition, in contrast to the existing electrochemical methods. The sensor is based on a thin electroactive poly(melamine) film immobilized on a pre-anodized screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE*/PME). The characteristics of the sensing surface are well-characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface water contact angle experiments. The proposed assay exhibits a wide linear response to GA in both pH 3 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) under the optimized flow-injection amperometry. The detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0.076 μM and 0.21 μM in the pH 3 and pH 7 solutions, respectively. A relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.9% is obtained for 57 successive measurements of 50 μM GA in pH 7 solutions. Interference studies indicate that some inorganic salts, catechol, caffeine and ascorbic acid do not interfere with the GA assay. The interference effects from some orthodiphenolic compounds are also investigated. The proposed method and a conventional Folin–Ciocalteu method are applied to detect GA in green tea samples using the standard addition method, and satisfactory spiked recoveries are obtained. - Highlights: • A nitrogen-rich conducting polymer was used for electroanalysis of gallic acid. • The sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral media. • Good analytical results in terms of low detection limit and wide linear range are obtained. • The flow-injection amperometric assay is highly stable for continuous 57 replicates measurement (RSD = 3.9%). • The assay shows good recovery for green tea samples.

  1. In-situ phosphatizing coatings for aerospace, OEM and coil coating applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuder, Heather Aurelia

    The current metal coating process is a multi-step process. The surface is cleaned, primered, dried and then painted. The process is labor intensive and time consuming. The wash primer is a conversion coating, which prepares metal surface for better paint adhesion. The wash primers currently used often contain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), which seals the pores in the conversion coating. The presence of hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) make waste disposal expensive and pose dangers to workers. The novel technique of in-situ phosphatizing coating (ISPC) is a single-step, chrome-free alternative to the present coating practice. Formulation of an ISPC involves predispersal of an in-situ phosphatizing reagent (ISPR) into the paint system to form a stable formulation. The ISPR reacts with the metal surface and bonds with the paint film simultaneously, which eliminates the need for a conversion coating. In acid catalyzed paint systems, such as polyester-melamine paints, the ISPR also catalyzes cross-linking reactions between the melamine and the polyester polyols. ISPCs are formulated using commercially available coating systems including: polyester-melamine, two-component epoxy, polyurethane and high-hydroxy content polyester-melamine coil coating. The ISPCs are applied to metal substrates and their performances are evaluated using electrochemical, thermal and standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) testing methods. In addition, ISPCs were designed and formulated based on: (1) phosphate chemistry, (2) polymer chemistry, (3) sol-gel chemistry, and (4) the ion-exchange principle. Organo-functionalized silanes, which serve as excellent coupling and dispersion agents, are incorporated into the optimized ISPC formula and evaluated using standard ASTM testing methods and electrochemical spectroscopy. Also, an ion-exchange pigment, which leads to better adhesion by forming a mixed metal silicate surface, is

  2. Target-responsive aptamer release from manganese dioxide nanosheets for electrochemical sensing of cocaine with target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lu, Minghua

    2016-11-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing platform based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets was developed for sensitive screening of target cocaine with the signal amplification. Ferrocene-labeled cocaine aptamers were initially immobilized onto MnO2 nanosheets-modified screen-printed carbon electrode because of π-stacking interaction between nucleobases and nanosheets. The immobilized ferrocene-aptamer activated the electrical contact with the electrode, thereby resulting in the sensor circuit to switch on. Upon target cocaine introduction, the analyte reacted with the aptamer and caused the dissociation of ferrocene-aptamer from the electrode, thus giving rise to the detection circuit to switch off. The released aptamer was cleaved by DNase I with target recycling. Under optimal conditions, the decreasing percentage of the electronic signal relative to background current increased with the increasing cocaine concentration in the dynamic range of 0.1-20nM, and the detection limit was 32pM. The reproducibility, selectivity and method accuracy were acceptable. Importantly, this concept offers promise for rapid, simple, and cost-effective analysis of cocaine biological samples without the needs of sample separation and multiple washing steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrification of electroreduced graphene oxide–bentonite sodium composite modified electrode and its sensing application for linezolid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prashanth, S.N.; Teradal, Nagappa L.; Seetharamappa, J.; Satpati, Ashis K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene and its composites have attracted considerable attention in synthesis and electrochemical applications. In the present work, we have synthesized and characterized graphene oxide-bentonite composite (GO-BEN) and utilized it to fabricate an electrochemical sensor. For this, the solution of GO-BEN cast on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was reduced electrochemically in phosphate buffer solution of pH 6 to obtain electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-bentonite composite (ERGO-BEN-GCE). This ERGO-BEN film was used for electrochemical investigation of an oxazolidinone class of antibiotic, linezolid (LIN) for the first time. The electrochemical sensor showed excellent enhancement and adsorptive ability towards the electrooxidation of LIN. LIN exhibited two each of oxidation and reduction peaks on ERGO-BEN film in phosphate buffer of pH 7.0. Effects of accumulation time, pH of solution and scan rate were studied and various electrochemical parameters were evaluated. The plot of pH versus E p gave a slope of 26.2 mV/pH in the pH range of 4.2-8.0 indicating the participation of two electrons and one proton in the electrode process. An adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric method (AdSDPV) was developed for the determination of LIN in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples. Adsorptive stripping linear sweep voltammetric (AdSLSV) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) methods were also developed and the results were compared. LIN showed linear relationship between the current density and concentration in the range of 0.25 - 31.25 μM with a LOD of 0.0337 μM in AdSDPV method; 0.5 - 31.25 μM with a LOD of 0.100 μM in DPV method and 1.25 - 37.5 μM with a LOD of 0.5461 μM in AdSLSV method respectively. The proposed AdSDPV method was observed to be simple, fast and inexpensive and hence, could be readily adopted for quality control in pharmaceutical products

  4. Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jodi L; Kim, Jiyeon; Shear, Jason B; Bard, Allen J; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-12-23

    Microbes frequently live in nature as small, densely packed aggregates containing ∼10(1)-10(5) cells. These aggregates not only display distinct phenotypes, including resistance to antibiotics, but also, serve as building blocks for larger biofilm communities. Aggregates within these larger communities display nonrandom spatial organization, and recent evidence indicates that this spatial organization is critical for fitness. Studying single aggregates as well as spatially organized aggregates remains challenging because of the technical difficulties associated with manipulating small populations. Micro-3D printing is a lithographic technique capable of creating aggregates in situ by printing protein-based walls around individual cells or small populations. This 3D-printing strategy can organize bacteria in complex arrangements to investigate how spatial and environmental parameters influence social behaviors. Here, we combined micro-3D printing and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to probe quorum sensing (QS)-mediated communication in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that QS-dependent behaviors are observed within aggregates as small as 500 cells; however, aggregates larger than 2,000 bacteria are required to stimulate QS in neighboring aggregates positioned 8 μm away. These studies provide a powerful system to analyze the impact of spatial organization and aggregate size on microbial behaviors.

  5. Electrochemical detection of carbidopa using a ferrocene-modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH KARIMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE containing ferrocene (FC and carbon nanotubes (CNT was constructed. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the MCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic activity of the MCPE was investigated and it showed good characteristics for the oxidation of carbidopa (CD in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. A linear concentration range of 5 to 600 μM CD, with a detection limit of 3.6±0.17 μM CD, was obtained. The diffusion coefficient of CD and the transfer coefficient ( were also determined. The MCPE showed good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. The results showed that this electrode could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CD in real samples, such as urine samples.

  6. Microfluidic in-channel multi-electrode platform for neurotransmitter sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, A.; Mathault, J.; Reitz, A.; Boisvert, M.; Tessier, F.; Greener, J.; Miled, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this project we present a microfluidic platform with in-channel micro-electrodes for in situ screening of bio/chemical samples through a lab-on-chip system. We used a novel method to incorporate electrochemical sensors array (16x20) connected to a PCB, which opens the way for imaging applications. A 200 μm height microfluidic channel was bonded to electrochemical sensors. The micro-channel contains 3 inlets used to introduce phosphate buffer saline (PBS), ferrocynide and neurotransmitters. The flow rate was controlled through automated micro-pumps. A multiplexer was used to scan electrodes and perform individual cyclic voltammograms by a custom potentiostat. The behavior of the system was linear in terms of variation of current versus concentration. It was used to detect the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and glutamate.

  7. Sensing of phosphates by using luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes: application to the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadella, Sandeep; Sahoo, Jashobanta; Subramanian, Palani S; Sahu, Abhishek; Mishra, Sandhya; Albrecht, Markus

    2014-05-12

    Phenanthroline-based chiral ligands L(1) and L(2) as well as the corresponding Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized. The coordination compounds show red and green emission, which was explored for the sensing of a series of anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), HPO4(2-), HSO4(-), CH3COO(-), and HCO3(-). Among the anions, HPO4(2-) exhibited a strong response in the emission property of both europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes. The complexes showed interactions with the nucleoside phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Owing to this recognition, these complexes have been applied as staining agents in the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris. The stained microalgal cells were monitored through fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Initially, the complexes bind to the outer cell wall and then enter the cell wall through holes in which they probably bind to phospholipids. This leads to a quenching of the luminescence properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electroactive monolithic μchip for electrochemically-responsive chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    The EMμ project’s focus is ultimately, the development of an electroactive monolith that can be incorporated into a microfluidic system for electroanalytical applications such as sensing and electrochemically-controlled extractions and separations. To date our have made several significant advances to achieving this end goal. Firstly a facile fabrication method which allows for the production of fully disposable, gasket–free thin–layer cells suitable for EMμ was developed. A polydimethylsilox...

  9. Investigation of the benzotriazole as addictive for carbon steel phosphating; Estudo da utilizacao do benzotriazol como aditivo para a fosfatizacao de aco carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annies, V.; Cunha, M.T.; Rodrigues, P.R.P.; Banczek, E.P. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Costa, I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Terada, M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work studied the viability of substitution of sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) for benzotriazole (BTAH) in the zinc phosphate bath (PZn+NaNO{sub 2}) for phosphating of carbon steel (SAE 1010). The characterization of the samples was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was evaluated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated by Open Circuit Potential, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Anodic Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves in a 0.5 mol L{sup -1} NaCl electrolyte. The experimental results showed that the phosphate layer obtained in the solution with benzotriazole (PZn+BTAH) presented better corrosion resistance properties than that obtained in sodium nitrite. The results demonstrated that the sodium nitrite NaNO{sub 2} can be replaced by benzotriazole (BTAH) in zinc phosphate baths. (author)

  10. Sensing molecular properties by ATR-SPP Raman spectroscopy on electrochemically structured sensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerulla, D.; Isfort, G.; Koelbach, M.; Otto, A.; Schierbaum, K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of electrochemically structured Al surfaces as sensor arrays for combinatorial chemistry and its detection via microscopic laser techniques from very small volumes has been explored. The methodology is based on three different techniques which will be discussed separately: firstly, attenuated total reflection (ATR) is used in connection with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) excitation. A thin Al layer, evaporated on sapphire or quartz and covered with a naturally grown oxide layer, provides an optimum enhancement and confinement of the electrical field close to the surface. This is revealed by calculations and experimental data. Secondly, a Raman microscope is applied, enabling chemical spot analysis in the visible and UV range with a lateral resolution close to the diffraction limit. Finally, its application to investigate electrochemically structured Al films is discussed

  11. Palladium nanoparticles in electrochemical sensing of trace terazosin in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefid-sefidehkhan, Yasaman [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nekoueian, Khadijeh [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Amiri, Mandana, E-mail: mandanaamiri@uma.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sillanpaa, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Eskandari, Habibollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    In this approach, palladium nanoparticle film was simply fabricated on the surface of carbon paste electrode by electrochemical deposition method. The film was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The prepared electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward detection of trace amounts of terazosin, which is an antihypertensive drug. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a linear range of 1.0 × 10{sup −8}–1.0 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 1.9 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} was obtained for determination of terazosin using differential pulse voltammetry as a sensitive method. The efficiency of palladium nanoparticle film on the surface of carbon paste electrode successfully proved for determination of terazosin in pharmaceutical sample and human serum sample with promising recovery results. The effect of some foreign species has been studied. - Highlights: • PdNPs were simply fabricated by electrochemical deposition. • PdNPs exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of terazosin. • Terazosin has been determined in pharmaceutical sample and human serum sample.

  12. One-pot preparation of PEDOT:PSS-reduced graphene decorated with Au nanoparticles for enzymatic electrochemical sensing of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercante, Luiza A., E-mail: lamercante@gmail.com [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Facure, Murilo H.M. [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Center for Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Migliorini, Fernanda L.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Correa, Daniel S., E-mail: daniel.correa@embrapa.br [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Center for Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid ternary nanocomposite PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs is developed by a one-step approach. • Horseradish peroxidase is used to build a novel hybrid biomaterial. • The PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs-HRP displays excellent electrochemical activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • A significant low detection limit of 0.08 μM and wider linear range is achieved. • The constructed electrode is used detecting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in real samples. - Abstract: The development of novel graphene-based nanocomposites is a hotspot in materials science due to their unique optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and catalytic properties for varied applications. The present work reports on the development of a graphene-based ternary nanocomposite of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs) for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The hybrid nanocomposite showed superior electrochemical properties and higher stability compared to each individual component as electrode materials, showing a synergistic effect between PEDOT, rGO and AuNPs. The nanocomposite was obtained via a facile one-step approach and was assembly with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs-HRP modified electrode has been used for the amperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and exhibited a high sensitivity of up to 677 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, with a wide linear range from 5 to 400 μM and a low detection limit of 0.08 μM (S/N = 3). This developed enzymatic biosensor showed to be highly stable and unresponsive to potentially interfering substances, and it could be used for sensing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in real samples, including tap water and bovine milk samples. These enhanced sensing performance could be ascribed to the intimate contact of AuNPs onto the rough surface of the PEDOT:PSS-rGO nanocomposite, which has a high electrical conductivity and large surface area, providing

  13. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on activated fullerene modified screen printed carbon electrode for enhanced electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Ali, M Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-06-15

    In the present work, an enhanced electrochemical sensor for dopamine (DA) was developed based on palladium nanoparticles decorated activated fullerene-C60 (AC60/PdNPs) composite modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the formation of PdNPs on AC60. The fabricated AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode exhibited an enhanced electrochemical response to DA with a lower oxidation potential than that of SPCE modified with PdNPs and C60, indicating the excellent electrooxidation behavior of the AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode. The electrochemical studies confirmed that the electrooxidation of DA at the composite electrode is a diffusion controlled electrochemical process. The differential pulse voltammetry was employed for the determination of DA; under optimum conditions, the electrochemical oxidation signal of DA increased linearly at the AC60/PdNPs composite from 0.35 to 133.35 μM. The limit of detection was found as 0.056 μM with a sensitivity of 4.23 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). The good recovery of DA in the DA injection samples further revealed the good practicality of AC60/PdNPs modified electrode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of bismuth ferrite based hybrid nanostructures: Insight into a catalytic and sensing properties for the detection of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathkumar, S.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.

    2018-04-01

    We made an attempt to construct a photocatalytic and biosensor platform by using bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) particulates and fibers nanostructures towards the degradation of dye and electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid. The crystal phase and morphology of the BFO nanostructures were confirmed using XRD and FESEM respectively. Further, their photocatalytic activity was tested under sunlight. The BFO fibers showed relatively an enhanced degradation property and an efficient electrochemical sensing property compared to the Particulates.

  15. An electrochemical immunosensor based on chemical assembly of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on carbon substrates for direct detection of the pesticide endosulfan in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozhen; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Jingquan; Song, Dandan

    2012-05-01

    A glassy carbon substrate was covalently modified with a mixed layer of 4-aminophenyl and phenyl via in situ electrografting of their aryldiazonium salts in acidic solutions. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were covalently and vertically anchored on the electrode surface via the formation of amide bonds from the reaction between the amines located on the modified substrate and the carboxylic groups at the ends of the nanotubes. Ferrocenedimethylamine (FDMA) was subsequently attached to the ends of SWNTs through amide bonding followed by the attachment of an epitope, i.e., endosulfan hapten to which an antibody would bind. Association or dissociation of the antibody with the sensing interface causes a modulation of the ferrocene electrochemistry. Antibody-complexed electrodes were exposed to samples containing spiked endosulfan (unbound target analyte) in environment water and interrogated using the square wave voltammetry (SWV) technique. The modified sensing surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy, XPS, and electrochemistry. The fabricated electrochemical immunosensor can be successfully used for the detection of endosulfan over the range of 0.01-20 ppb by a displacement assay. The lowest detection limit of this immunosensor is 0.01 ppb endosulfan in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0.

  16. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  17. Achieving direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase by one step electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its use in glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoud.tabrizi@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was accomplished at a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate (GCE/ERGO/SDS). A pair of reversible peaks is exhibited on GCE/ERGO/SDS/GOD by cyclic voltammetry. The peak-to-peak potential separation of immobilized GOD is 28 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) with a scan rate of 50 mV/s. The average surface coverage is 2.62 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2}. The resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to glucose with linear range from 1 to 8 mM (R{sup 2} = 0.9878), good reproducibility and detection limit of 40.8 μM. The results from the biosensor were similar (± 5%) to those obtained from the clinical analyzer. - Highlights: • A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on GCE/ERGO/SDS. • This composite film was successfully applied in preparation of glucose biosensor. • The detection limit of the biosensor was estimated to be 40.8 μM. • The results from the sensor were similar to those obtained from the clinical analyzer.

  18. Dual and Direction-Selective Mechanisms of Phosphate Transport by the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Preobraschenski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs fill synaptic vesicles with glutamate and are thus essential for glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, VGLUTs were originally discovered as members of a transporter subfamily specific for inorganic phosphate (Pi. It is still unclear how VGLUTs accommodate glutamate transport coupled to an electrochemical proton gradient ΔμH+ with inversely directed Pi transport coupled to the Na+ gradient and the membrane potential. Using both functional reconstitution and heterologous expression, we show that VGLUT transports glutamate and Pi using a single substrate binding site but different coupling to cation gradients. When facing the cytoplasm, both ions are transported into synaptic vesicles in a ΔμH+-dependent fashion, with glutamate preferred over Pi. When facing the extracellular space, Pi is transported in a Na+-coupled manner, with glutamate competing for binding but at lower affinity. We conclude that VGLUTs have dual functions in both vesicle transmitter loading and Pi homeostasis within glutamatergic neurons. : Preobraschenski et al. show that the vesicular glutamate transporter functions as a bi-directional phosphate transporter that is coupled with different cations in each direction and hence may play a key role in neuronal phosphate homeostasis. Keywords: VGLUT, SLC17 family, type I Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter, ATPase, proteoliposomes, hybrid vesicles, anti-VGLUT1 nanobody

  19. Nanostructured Inorganic Materials at Work in Electrochemical Sensing and Biofuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaovi Holade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of analytical devices, namely (biosensors, which are currently impacting our everyday life, relies on several metrics such as low cost, high sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid response, real-time monitoring, high-throughput, easy-to-make and easy-to-handle properties. Fortunately, they can be readily fulfilled by electrochemical methods. For decades, electrochemical sensors and biofuel cells operating in physiological conditions have concerned biomolecular science where enzymes act as biocatalysts. However, immobilizing them on a conducting substrate is tedious and the resulting bioelectrodes suffer from stability. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive, authoritative, critical, and readable review of general interest that surveys interdisciplinary research involving materials science and (bioelectrocatalysis. Specifically, it recounts recent developments focused on the introduction of nanostructured metallic and carbon-based materials as robust “abiotic catalysts” or scaffolds in bioelectrochemistry to boost and increase the current and readout signals as well as the lifetime. Compared to biocatalysts, abiotic catalysts are in a better position to efficiently cope with fluctuations of temperature and pH since they possess high intrinsic thermal stability, exceptional chemical resistance and long-term stability, already highlighted in classical electrocatalysis. We also diagnosed their intrinsic bottlenecks and highlighted opportunities of unifying the materials science and bioelectrochemistry fields to design hybrid platforms with improved performance.

  20. Dual sensing-actuation artificial muscle based on polypyrrole-carbon nanotube composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, J.; Otero, Toribio F.; Pascual, Victor H.

    2017-04-01

    Dual sensing artificial muscles based on conducting polymer are faradaic motors driven by electrochemical reactions, which announce the development of proprioceptive devices. The applicability of different composites has been investigated with the aim to improve the performance. Addition of carbon nanotubes may reduce irreversible reactions. We present the testing of a dual sensing artificial muscle based on a conducting polymer and carbon nanotubes composite. Large bending motions (up to 127 degrees) in aqueous solution and simultaneously sensing abilities of the operation conditions are recorded. The sensing and actuation equations are derived for incorporation into a control system.

  1. Recurrent potential pulse technique for improvement of glucose sensing ability of 3D polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewska, Karolina; Karczewski, Jakub; Jasiński, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new approach for using a 3D polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer as a sensing material for glucose detection is proposed. Polypyrrole is electrochemically polymerized on a platinum screen-printed electrode in an aqueous solution of lithium perchlorate and pyrrole. PPy exhibits a high electroactive surface area and high electrochemical stability, which results in it having excellent electrocatalytic properties. The studies show that using the recurrent potential pulse technique results in an increase in PPy sensing stability, compared to the amperometric approach. This is due to the fact that the technique, under certain parameters, allows the PPy redox properties to be fully utilized, whilst preventing its anodic degradation. Because of this, the 3D PPy presented here has become a very good candidate as a sensing material for glucose detection, and can work without any additional dopants, mediators or enzymes.

  2. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of synthetic colorants in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampasa, Sakda; Siangproh, Weena; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-11-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (ERGO-SPCE) for the simultaneous determination of sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TZ) was proposed. An ERGO film was coated onto the electrode surface using a cyclic voltammetric method and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 0.1M phosphate buffer at a pH of 6, the two oxidation peaks of SY and TZ appeared separately at 0.41 and 0.70V, respectively. Surprisingly, the electrochemical response remarkably increased approximately 90- and 20-fold for SY and TZ, respectively, using the modified electrode in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration curves exhibited linear ranges from 0.01 to 20.0µM for SY and from 0.02 to 20.0µM for TZ. The limits of detection were found to be 0.50 and 4.50nM (at S/N=3) for SY and TZ, respectively. Furthermore, this detection platform provided very high selectivity for the measurement of both colorants. This electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine the amount of SY and TZ in commercial beverages. Comparison of the results obtained from this proposed method to those obtained by an in-house standard technique proved that this developed method has good agreement in terms of accuracy for practical applications. This sensor offers an inexpensive, rapid and sensitive determination. The proposed system is therefore suitable for routine analysis and should be an alternative method for the analysis of food colorants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotaxane and catenane host structures for sensing charged guest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Matthew J; Beer, Paul D

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: The promise of mechanically interlocked architectures, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, as prototypical molecular switches and shuttles for nanotechnological applications, has stimulated an ever increasing interest in their synthesis and function. The elaborate host cavities of interlocked structures, however, can also offer a novel approach toward molecular recognition: this Account describes the use of rotaxane and catenane host systems for binding charged guest species, and for providing sensing capability through an integrated optical or electrochemical reporter group. Particular attention is drawn to the exploitation of the unusual dynamic properties of interlocked molecules, such as guest-induced shuttling or conformational switching, as a sophisticated means of achieving a selective and functional sensor response. We initially survey interlocked host systems capable of sensing cationic guests, before focusing on our accomplishments in synthesizing rotaxanes and catenanes designed for the more challenging task of selective anion sensing. In our group, we have developed the use of discrete anionic templation to prepare mechanically interlocked structures for anion recognition applications. Removal of the anion template reveals an interlocked host system, possessing a unique three-dimensional geometrically restrained binding cavity formed between the interlocked components, which exhibits impressive selectivity toward complementary anionic guest species. By incorporating reporter groups within such systems, we have developed both electrochemical and optical anion sensors which can achieve highly selective sensing of anionic guests. Transition metals, lanthanides, and organic fluorophores integrated within the mechanically bonded structural framework of the receptor are perturbed by the binding of the guest, with a concomitant change in the emission profile. We have also exploited the unique dynamics of interlocked hosts by demonstrating that an

  4. Electrochemical Investigation of the Interaction between Catecholamines and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleat, Zahra; Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Machado, José D; Dunevall, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G; Borges, Ricardo

    2018-02-06

    The study of the colligative properties of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and catecholamines has received the attention of scientists for decades, as they could explain the capabilities of secretory vesicles (SVs) to accumulate neurotransmitters. In this Article, we have applied electrochemical methods to detect such interactions in vitro, at the acidic pH of SVs (pH 5.5) and examined the effect of compounds having structural similarities that correlate with functional groups of ATP (adenosine, phosphoric acid and sodium phosphate salts) and catecholamines (catechol). Chronoamperometry and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) provide evidence compatible with an interaction of the catechol and adenine rings. This interaction is also reinforced by an electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of ATP and the protonated ammonium group of catecholamines. Furthermore, chronoamperometry data suggest that the presence of ATP subtlety reduces the apparent diffusion coefficient of epinephrine in aqueous media that adds an additional factor leading to a slower rate of catecholamine exocytosis. This adds another plausible mechanism to regulate individual exocytosis events to alter communication.

  5. A simple route to Develop Highly porous Nano Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite film for Selective Determination of Dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Arulraj, Abraham; Arunkumar, Arumugam; Vijayan, Muthunanthevar; Balaji Viswanath, Kamatchirajan; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective sensor was developed for dopamine with electrochemically treated sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate doped nano polypyrrole (ET-SDBS-NPPy)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) film. First, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced on the electrode surface electrochemically and then, SDBS-NPPy film was polymerized electrochemically on the ERGO coated GCE and bare GCE also. The SDBS-NPPy/ERGO and SDBS-NPPy films were treated electrochemically in phosphate buffer solution to replace macro SDBS- anions by smaller phosphate anions. Then, the physical properties of the above composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and water wettability test. The replacement of SDBS- anions by phosphate anions leaves porous structure in the polymer films and also increases the hydrophobicity in the films. Then, these composite films were applied for the determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for dopamine detection is 0.1 μM-100.0 μM with the detection limit of 20 nM at S/N = 3. Generally, conducting polypyrrole film could sense ascorbic acid and dopamine simultaneously. However, we have proposed a simple route to synthesis a porous and hydrophobic polypyrrole composite film for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of higher concentration (five orders) of ascorbic acid and uric acid.

  6. Interpenetrating polyaniline-gold electrodes for SERS and electrochemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. M.; Semancik, S.

    2016-11-01

    Facile fabrication of nanostructured electrode arrays is critical for development of bimodal SERS and electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, the variation of applied potential at a polyaniline-coated Pt electrode is used to selectivity deposit Au on the polyaniline amine sites or on the underlying Pt electrode. By alternating the applied potential, the Au is grown simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the polyaniline film, leading to an interpenetrated, nanostructured polymer-metal composite extending from the Pt electrode to the electrolyte solution. The resulting films have unique pH-dependent electrochemical properties, e.g. they retain electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral solutions, and they also include SERS-active nanostructures. By varying the concentration of chloroaurate used during deposition, Au nanoparticles, nanodendrites, or nanosheets can be selectively grown. For the films deposited under optimal conditions, using 5 mmol/L chloroaurate, the SERS enhancement factor for Rhodamine 6G was found to be as high as 1.1 × 106 with spot-to-spot and electrode-to-electrode relative standard deviations as low as 8% and 12%, respectively. The advantages of the reported PANI-Au composite electrodes lie in their facile fabrication, enabling the targeted deposition of tunable nanostructures on sensing arrays, and their ability to produce orthogonal optical and electrochemical analytical results.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER DURING THE ADSORPTION OF CO ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salimon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical properties of electrode copper in carbon monoxide-saturated phosphate buffered solution were investigated. The electrochemistry of copper surface was sufficiently changed after the supporting electrolyte solution was saturated with CO. The hydrogen evolution region was depressed and shifted cathodically due to the adsorption process of CO on the copper surface in a linear or terminally bonded manner, Cu-CO . The oxidation and the reduction peaks of copper were significantly changed with two couple of redox peaks. This is due to the subsequent formation and the corresponding reduction of copper(I and the copper carbon monoxides species. Further changed in electrochemical properties occurred when the electrode surface was polarized at high cathodic potential (-1.4 V for a period of time (15 min. The hydrogen evolution region was further depressed due to the adsorption of CO process in multiple bonding sites as adsorbed bridge bonded CO, Cu-CO B L that occurred predominantly.

  8. Alizarin Red S as an electrochemical indicator for saccharide recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Soeren, E-mail: soeren.schumacher@ibmt.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Am Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Nagel, Thomas; Scheller, Frieder W.; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad [Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Am Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Transfer of the established Alizarin Red S (ARS) for saccharide-boronic acid interaction to electrochemistry. > Investigation of electrochemical behaviour of ARS and its interaction with phenylboronic acid at pH 7.4. > Through addition of fructose the ARS was displaced. > Displaced ARS could be monitored electrochemically corresponding to the used fructose concentration. - Abstract: In addition to the well-established spectroscopic Alizarin Red S (ARS) assay for the determination of binding constants between arylboronic acids and different saccharides, we report the use of ARS as a reporter in an electrochemical set-up. The electrochemical properties of ARS, the binding to phenyl boronic acid (PBA) and the competition with fructose in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By choosing a negative scan direction (starting at +0.2 V), a quasi-reversible process was detected at E{sup 0}' = -0.59V with {Delta}E{sub p} = 0.1V. An irreversible oxidation peak at +0.42 V could also be detected. These peaks are characterised both as a 2-proton-2-electron transfer and corresponds to the oxidation and reduction of the anthraquinone or the ortho-quinone moiety. After addition of phenylboronic acid a new oxidation peaks occurred at -0.42 V which correlates with the ARS-PBA interaction. The peak current increased with increasing phenylboronic acid concentration according to the release of BA and formation of the ARS-PBA ester. After addition of fructose the peak current decreases again, in proportion to the fructose concentration, enabling the use of ARS as an electrochemical reporter for fructose detection up to 50 mM. Also the interaction with other cis-diol containing compounds such as sorbitol, mannitol, glucose and mannose was investigated and a dependence based on already published binding constants to phenylboronic acid could be shown.

  9. Alizarin Red S as an electrochemical indicator for saccharide recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Soeren; Nagel, Thomas; Scheller, Frieder W.; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Transfer of the established Alizarin Red S (ARS) for saccharide-boronic acid interaction to electrochemistry. → Investigation of electrochemical behaviour of ARS and its interaction with phenylboronic acid at pH 7.4. → Through addition of fructose the ARS was displaced. → Displaced ARS could be monitored electrochemically corresponding to the used fructose concentration. - Abstract: In addition to the well-established spectroscopic Alizarin Red S (ARS) assay for the determination of binding constants between arylboronic acids and different saccharides, we report the use of ARS as a reporter in an electrochemical set-up. The electrochemical properties of ARS, the binding to phenyl boronic acid (PBA) and the competition with fructose in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By choosing a negative scan direction (starting at +0.2 V), a quasi-reversible process was detected at E 0 ' = -0.59V with ΔE p = 0.1V. An irreversible oxidation peak at +0.42 V could also be detected. These peaks are characterised both as a 2-proton-2-electron transfer and corresponds to the oxidation and reduction of the anthraquinone or the ortho-quinone moiety. After addition of phenylboronic acid a new oxidation peaks occurred at -0.42 V which correlates with the ARS-PBA interaction. The peak current increased with increasing phenylboronic acid concentration according to the release of BA and formation of the ARS-PBA ester. After addition of fructose the peak current decreases again, in proportion to the fructose concentration, enabling the use of ARS as an electrochemical reporter for fructose detection up to 50 mM. Also the interaction with other cis-diol containing compounds such as sorbitol, mannitol, glucose and mannose was investigated and a dependence based on already published binding constants to phenylboronic acid could be shown.

  10. Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A Carolina; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-04-15

    A simple, economic, highly sensitive and highly selective method for the detection of caffeine has been developed at bare and Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrochemical behaviour of caffeine was examined in electrolyte solutions of phosphate buffer saline, sodium perchlorate, and in choline chloride plus oxalic acid, using analytical determinations by fixed potential amperometry, phosphate buffer saline being the best. Modifications of the GCE surface with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Nafion, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were tested in order to evaluate possible sensor performance enhancements, Nafion giving the most satisfactory results. The effect of interfering compounds usually found in samples containing caffeine was examined at GCE without and with Nafion coating, to exclude interferences, and the sensors were successfully applied to determine the caffeine content in commercial beverages and drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohai, L. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Schreiner, W.H. [Laboratório de Superfícies e Interfases, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@fi.mdp.edu.ar [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Valcarce, M.B. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-05-15

    PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O, CuO and Cu(OH){sub 2}. ► PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages.

  12. Forensic electrochemistry: the electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinone-derivatives and their accompanying adulterants in "legal high" products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie P; Metters, Jonathan P; Irving, Craig; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Banks, Craig E

    2014-01-21

    The production and abuse of new psychoactive substances, known as "legal highs" which mimic traditional drugs of abuse is becoming a global epidemic. Traditional analytical methodologies exist which can provide confirmatory analysis but there is a requirement for an on-the-spot analytical screening tool that could be used to determine whether a substance, or sample matrix contains such legal, or formally "legal highs". In this paper the electrochemical sensing of (±)-methcathinone and related compounds at a range of commercially available electrode substrates is explored. We demonstrate for the first time that this class of "legal highs" are electrochemically active providing a novel sensing protocol based upon their electrochemical oxidation. Screen-printed graphite sensing platforms are favoured due to their proven ability to be mass-produced providing large numbers of reliable and reproducible electrode sensing platforms that preclude the requirement of surface pre-treatment such as mechanical polishing as is the case in the use of solid/re-usable electrode substrates. Additionally they hold potential to be used on-site potentially being the basis of an on-site legal high screening device. Consequently the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-4′-methylmethcathinone [3b, 4-MMC, (±)-mephedrone] and (±)-4′-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (3c, 4-MEC) is explored using screen-printed sensing platforms with the effect of pH explored upon the analytical response with their analytical efficiency evaluated towards the target legal highs. Interesting at pH values below 6 the voltammetric response quantitatively changes from that of an electrochemically irreversible response to that of a quasi-reversible signature which can be used analytically. It is demonstrated for the first time that the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-mephedrone (3b) and 4-MEC (3c) are possible with accessible linear ranges found to correspond to 16

  13. Noble metal nanoparticle-functionalized ZnO nanoflowers for photocatalytic degradation of RhB dye and electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Muhammad; Sun, Hongyu; Karim, Shafqat; Nisar, Amjad; Khan, Maaz; Ul Haq, Anwar; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Mashkoor

    2016-01-01

    Flower-like hierarchical Zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized by co-precipitation method have been hydrothermally functionalized with 8 nm Au NPs and 15 nm Ag nanoparticles. The photocatalytic and electrochemical performance of these structures are investigated. XPS studies show that the composite exhibits a strong interaction between noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) and Zinc oxide nanoflowers. The PL spectra exhibit UV emission arising due to near band edge transition and show that the reduced PL intensities of Au–ZnO and Ag–ZnO composites are responsible for improved photocatalytic activity arising due to increase in defects. Moreover, the presence of Au NPs on ZnO surface remarkably enhances photocatalytic activity as compared to Ag–ZnO and pure ZnO due to the higher catalytic activity and stability of Au NPs. On the other hand, Ag–ZnO-modified glassy carbon electrode shows good amperometric response to hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2), with linear range from 1 to 20 µM, and detection limit of 2.5 µM (S/N = 3). The sensor shows high and reproducible sensitivity of 50.8 μA cm"−"2 μM"−"1 with a fast response less than 3 s and good stability as compared to pure ZnO and Au–ZnO-based sensors. All these results show that noble metal NPs-functionalized ZnO base nanocomposites exhibit great prospects for developing efficient non-enzymatic biosensor and environmental remediators.Graphical abstractZnO nanoflowers functionalized with noble metal nanoparticles enhance photocatalytic degradation of RhB dye and electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Noble metal nanoparticle-functionalized ZnO nanoflowers for photocatalytic degradation of RhB dye and electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Muhammad [PINSTECH, Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division (Pakistan); Sun, Hongyu [Tsinghua University, Laboratory of Advanced Materials and The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Beijing, National Center for Electron Microscopy (China); Karim, Shafqat; Nisar, Amjad; Khan, Maaz [PINSTECH, Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division (Pakistan); Ul Haq, Anwar [PINSTECH, Non-destructive testing Group (Pakistan); Iqbal, Munawar [University of the Punjab, Centre for High Energy Physics (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mashkoor, E-mail: mashkoorahmad2003@yahoo.com [PINSTECH, Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division (Pakistan)

    2016-04-15

    Flower-like hierarchical Zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized by co-precipitation method have been hydrothermally functionalized with 8 nm Au NPs and 15 nm Ag nanoparticles. The photocatalytic and electrochemical performance of these structures are investigated. XPS studies show that the composite exhibits a strong interaction between noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) and Zinc oxide nanoflowers. The PL spectra exhibit UV emission arising due to near band edge transition and show that the reduced PL intensities of Au–ZnO and Ag–ZnO composites are responsible for improved photocatalytic activity arising due to increase in defects. Moreover, the presence of Au NPs on ZnO surface remarkably enhances photocatalytic activity as compared to Ag–ZnO and pure ZnO due to the higher catalytic activity and stability of Au NPs. On the other hand, Ag–ZnO-modified glassy carbon electrode shows good amperometric response to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), with linear range from 1 to 20 µM, and detection limit of 2.5 µM (S/N = 3). The sensor shows high and reproducible sensitivity of 50.8 μA cm{sup −2} μM{sup −1} with a fast response less than 3 s and good stability as compared to pure ZnO and Au–ZnO-based sensors. All these results show that noble metal NPs-functionalized ZnO base nanocomposites exhibit great prospects for developing efficient non-enzymatic biosensor and environmental remediators.Graphical abstractZnO nanoflowers functionalized with noble metal nanoparticles enhance photocatalytic degradation of RhB dye and electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Design and Electrochemical Study of Platinum-Based Nanomaterials for Sensitive Detection of Nitric Oxide in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maduraiveeran Govindhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The extensive physiological and regulatory roles of nitric oxide (NO have spurred the development of NO sensors, which are of critical importance in neuroscience and various medical applications. The development of electrochemical NO sensors is of significant importance, and has garnered a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, rapid response, low cost, miniaturization, and the possibility of real-time monitoring. Nanostructured platinum (Pt-based materials have attracted considerable interest regarding their use in the design of electrochemical sensors for the detection of NO, due to their unique properties and the potential for new and innovative applications. This review focuses primarily on advances and insights into the utilization of nanostructured Pt-based electrode materials, such as nanoporous Pt, Pt and PtAu nanoparticles, PtAu nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (rGO, and PtW nanoparticle/rGO-ionic liquid (IL nanocomposites, for the detection of NO. The design, fabrication, characterization, and integration of electrochemical NO sensing performance, selectivity, and durability are addressed. The attractive electrochemical properties of Pt-based nanomaterials have great potential for increasing the competitiveness of these new sensors and open up new opportunities in the creation of novel NO-sensing technologies for biological and medical applications.

  16. Dimerization of the voltage-sensing phosphatase controls its voltage-sensing and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Royal, Perrine; Stengel, Karen; Sandoz, Guillaume; Kohout, Susy C

    2018-05-07

    Multimerization is a key characteristic of most voltage-sensing proteins. The main exception was thought to be the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP). In this study, we show that multimerization is also critical for Ci-VSP function. Using coimmunoprecipitation and single-molecule pull-down, we find that Ci-VSP stoichiometry is flexible. It exists as both monomers and dimers, with dimers favored at higher concentrations. We show strong dimerization via the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and weak dimerization via the phosphatase domain. Using voltage-clamp fluorometry, we also find that VSDs cooperate to lower the voltage dependence of activation, thus favoring the activation of Ci-VSP. Finally, using activity assays, we find that dimerization alters Ci-VSP substrate specificity such that only dimeric Ci-VSP is able to dephosphorylate the 3-phosphate from PI(3,4,5)P 3 or PI(3,4)P 2 Our results indicate that dimerization plays a significant role in Ci-VSP function. © 2018 Rayaprolu et al.

  17. Fully printed metabolite sensor using organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblin, Gaëtan; Aliane, Abdelkader; Coppard, Romain; Owens, Róisín. M.; Mailley, Pascal; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-08-01

    As conducting polymer based devices, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are suited for printing process. The convenience of the screen-printing techniques allowed us to design and fabricate OECTs with a selected design and using different gate material. Depending on the material used, we were able to tune the transistor for different biological application. Ag/AgCl gate provided transistor with good transconductance, and electrochemical sensitivity to pH was provided by polyaniline ink. Finally, we validate the enzymatic sensing of glucose and lactate with a Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) gate often used due to its biocompatible properties. The screen-printing process allowed us to fabricate a large amount of devices in a short period of time, using only commercially available grades of ink, showing by this way the possible transfer to industrial purpose.

  18. Corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anie Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF representing acidic environments and fluoride treatments was studied. Material and Methods Zirconia rods were immersed in 1.23% and 0.123% APF solutions and maintained at 37°C for determined periods of time. Surfaces of all specimens were imaged using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sample mass and dimensions were measured for mass loss determination. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD to detect changes in crystallinity. A biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to detect ion dissolution of material into the immersion media. Results Digital microscopy revealed diminishing luster of the materials and SEM showed increased superficial corrosion of zirconia submerged in 1.23% APF. Although no structural change was found, the absorption of salts (sodium phosphate onto the surface of the materials bathed in 0.123% APF was significant. EIS indicated a greater change of impedance for the immersion solutions with increasing bathing time. Conclusion Immersion of zirconia in APF solutions showed deterioration limited to the surface, not extending to the bulk of the material. Inferences on zirconia performance in acidic oral environment can be elucidated from the study.

  19. Gold nano particle decorated graphene core first generation PAMAM dendrimer for label free electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Rajesh, R; Dharuman, V; Venkatasan, R; Hahn, J H; Pandian, S Karutha

    2012-01-15

    A novel first generation (G1) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) with graphene core (GG1PAMAM) was synthesized for the first time. Single layer of GG1PAMAM was immobilized covalently on mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer on Au transducer. This allows cost effective and easy deposition of single layer graphene on the Au transducer surface than the advanced vacuum techniques used in the literature. Au nano particles (17.5 nm) then decorated the GG1PAMAM and used for electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing. The sensor discriminates selectively and sensitively the complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA, hybridized), non-complementary DNA (ssDNA, un-hybridized) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) surfaces. Interactions of the MPA, GG1PAMAM and the Au nano particles were characterized by Ultra Violet (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cyclic Voltmetric (CV), Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and Differntial Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The sensor showed linear range 1×10(-6) to 1×10(-12) M with lowest detection limit 1 pM which is 1000 times lower than G1PAMAM without graphene core. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molybdate/phosphate composite conversion coating on magnesium alloy surface for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Zhiyi; Zhu Jin; Qiu Cheng; Liu Yali

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new conversion coating-molybdate/phosphate (Mo/P) coating on magnesium alloy was prepared and investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and salt-water immersion experiments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the Mo/P coating contained composite phases, which were consisted of metaphosphate as well as molybdate oxide with an 'alveolate-crystallized' structure. The composite Mo/P conversion coating had better corrosion resistance performance than molybdate (Mo) coating, and even had almost comparable corrosion protection for Mg alloy to the traditional chromate-based coating.

  1. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  2. Electrochemical Biosensors - Sensor Principles and Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Reimhult

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importancefor medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biologicalinformation to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity ofconnecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensorsprovide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to thedirect conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades severalsensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most commontraditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry,impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented alongwith selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-basedbiosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combinationwith electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versionsof surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry,quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy.The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determinedby the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sampleat the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemicaltransduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor moleculesall influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches,such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymesinto vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities forsignal amplification.In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the

  3. The fabrication, characterisation and electrochemical investigation of screen-printed graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randviir, Edward P; Brownson, Dale A C; Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2014-03-14

    We report the fabrication, characterisation (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and ATR) and electrochemical implementation of novel screen-printed graphene electrodes. Electrochemical characterisation of the fabricated graphene electrodes is undertaken using an array of electroactive redox probes and biologically relevant analytes, namely: potassium ferrocyanide(II), hexaammine-ruthenium(III) chloride, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), L-ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and dopamine hydrochloride (DA). The electroanalytical capabilities of the fabricated electrodes are also considered towards the sensing of AA and DA. The electrochemical and (electro)analytical performances of the fabricated screen-printed graphene electrodes are considered with respect to the relative surface morphologies and material compositions (elucidated via SEM, Raman, XPS and ATR spectroscopy), the density of electronic states (% global coverage of edge-plane like sites/defects) and the specific fabrication conditions utilised. Comparisons are made between two screen-printed graphene electrodes and alternative graphite based screen-printed electrodes. The graphene electrodes are fabricated utilising two different commercially prepared 'graphene' inks, which have long screen ink lifetimes (>3 hours), thus this is the first report of a true mass-reproducible screen-printable graphene ink. Through employment of appropriate controls/comparisons we are able to report a critical assessment of these screen-printed graphene electrodes. This work is of high importance and demonstrates a proof-of-concept approach to screen-printed graphene electrodes that are highly reproducible, paving the way for mass-producible graphene sensing platforms in the future.

  4. Biocompatibility of the titanium-based implant surfaces: Effect of the calcium dihydrogen phosphate on osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović Milena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of calcium dihydrogen phosphate in acid media on titanium-based implant surfaces, Ticer, employed in clinics, and its white form (Ticer white, on osteoblast cells was investigated. Novel surfaces M1 and M2 were obtained by immersing Ticer and Ticer white surfaces in calcium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.5. The surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results related to interaction of investigated surfaces and human osteoblast cells from indirect biocompatibility (MTT and SRB assays, proliferation (DAPI assay and mode of cell death (acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB double staining were found to be in good agreement, as well as findings from osteocalcin (OC and bone sialoprotein (BSP expression. Surfaces were obtained by employing anodic plasma-electrochemical oxidation with spark discharges without subsequent surface modifications were found to be more compatible. Soaking of Ticer and Ticer white in phosphate solution gave toxic materials (M1 and M2 which induced apoptosis and secondary necrosis in osteoblast cells.

  5. The effect of graphene oxide on surface features, biological performance and bio-stability of calcium phosphate coating applied by pulse electrochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathyunes, Leila; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of second phase of graphene oxide (GO) on the surface features and biological behavior of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was evaluated. To do so, the GO-CaP composite coating was applied on TiO2 nanotubular arrays using pulse electrochemical deposition. The SEM and AFM images showed that, the CaP-based coating with uniform and refined microstructure could be formed through its compositing with GO sheets. The biological assessment of the coatings was also conducted by cell culture test and MTT assay. Based on findings, the GO-CaP coating showed the better biocompatibility compared to the CaP coating. This could be owing to the fact that the composite coating provided the lower roughness, moderately wettable surface with a contact angle of 23.5° ± 2.6° and the higher stability in the biological environments because of being involved with only the stable phase of CHA. However, in the CaP coating, spreading of cells could be limited by the plate-like crystals with larger size. The higher solubility of the CaP coating in the cell culture medium possibly owing to the existence of some metastable CaP phases like OCP in addition to the dominant phase of CHA in this coating could be another reason for its less biocompatibility. At last, the CaP coating showed the higher apatite-forming ability in SBF solution after its compositing with GO.

  6. MIP sensors--the electrochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitesta, Cosimino; Mazzotta, Elisabetta; Picca, Rosaria A; Poma, Alessandro; Chianella, Iva; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-02-01

    This review highlights the importance of coupling molecular imprinting technology with methodology based on electrochemical techniques for the development of advanced sensing devices. In recent years, growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in the preparation of recognition elements has led researchers to design novel formats for improvement of MIP sensors. Among possible approaches proposed in the literature on this topic, we will focus on the electrosynthesis of MIPs and on less common hybrid technology (e.g. based on electrochemistry and classical MIPs, or nanotechnology). Starting from the early work reported in this field, an overview of the most innovative and successful examples will be reviewed.

  7. Chemical Sensing Applications of ZnO Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Umar, Ahmad; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Recent advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed numerous triumphs of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials due to their various exotic and multifunctional properties and wide applications. As a remarkable and functional material, ZnO has attracted extensive scientific and technological attention, as it combines different properties such as high specific surface area, biocompatibility, electrochemical activities, chemical and photochemical stability, high-electron communicating features, non-toxicity, ease of syntheses, and so on. Because of its various interesting properties, ZnO nanomaterials have been used for various applications ranging from electronics to optoelectronics, sensing to biomedical and environmental applications. Further, due to the high electrochemical activities and electron communication features, ZnO nanomaterials are considered as excellent candidates for electrochemical sensors. The present review meticulously introduces the current advancements of ZnO nanomaterial-based chemical sensors. Various operational factors such as the effect of size, morphologies, compositions and their respective working mechanisms along with the selectivity, sensitivity, detection limit, stability, etc., are discussed in this article. PMID:29439528

  8. Engineering the bioelectrochemical interface using functional nanomaterials and microchip technique toward sensitive and portable electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2016-02-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have played active roles at the forefront of bioanalysis because they have the potential to achieve sensitive, specific and low-cost detection of biomolecules and many others. Engineering the electrochemical sensing interface with functional nanomaterials leads to novel electrochemical biosensors with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and simplicity. Functional nanomaterials possess good conductivity, catalytic activity, biocompatibility and high surface area. Coupled with bio-recognition elements, these features can amplify signal transduction and biorecognition events, resulting in highly sensitive biosensing. Additionally, microfluidic electrochemical biosensors have attracted considerable attention on account of their miniature, portable and low-cost systems as well as high fabrication throughput and ease of scaleup. For example, electrochemical enzymetic biosensors and aptamer biosensors (aptasensors) based on the integrated microchip can be used for portable point-of-care diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review is a summary of our recent progress in the field of electrochemical biosensors, including aptasensors, cytosensors, enzymatic biosensors and self-powered biosensors based on biofuel cells. We presented the advantages that functional nanomaterials and microfluidic chip technology bring to the electrochemical biosensors, together with future prospects and possible challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Affinity-Mediated Homogeneous Electrochemical Aptasensor on a Graphene Platform for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection via Exonuclease-Assisted Target-Analog Recycling Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Wenxiao; Sun, Ximei; Hou, Ting; Li, Feng

    2016-02-16

    As is well-known, graphene shows a remarkable difference in affinity toward nonstructured single-stranded (ss) DNA and double-stranded (ds) DNA. This property makes it popular to prepare DNA-based optical sensors. In this work, taking this unique property of graphene in combination with the sensitive electrochemical transducer, we report a novel affinity-mediated homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor using graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the sensing platform. In this approach, the specific aptamer-target recognition is converted into an ultrasensitive electrochemical signal output with the aid of a novel T7 exonuclease (T7Exo)-assisted target-analog recycling amplification strategy, in which the ingeniously designed methylene blue (MB)-labeled hairpin DNA reporters are digested in the presence of target and, then, converted to numerous MB-labeled long ssDNAs. The distinct difference in differential pulse voltammetry response between the designed hairpin reporters and the generated long ssDNAs on the graphene/GCE allows ultrasensitive detection of target biomolecules. Herein, the design and working principle of this homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor were elucidated, and the working conditions were optimized. The gel electrophoresis results further demonstrate that the designed T7Exo-assisted target-analog recycling amplification strategy can work well. This electrochemical aptasensor realizes the detection of biomolecule in a homogeneous solution without immobilization of any bioprobe on electrode surface. Moreover, this versatile homogeneous electrochemical sensing system was used for the determination of biomolecules in real serum samples with satisfying results.

  10. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi, E-mail: mehmetyola@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10{sup −12}–1.0 × 10{sup −10} M and 2.0 × 10{sup −13} M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  11. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H_3PW_1_2O_4_0, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10"−"1"2–1.0 × 10"−"1"0 M and 2.0 × 10"−"1"3 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  12. Hierarchical one-dimensional ammonium nickel phosphate microrods for high-performance pseudocapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available :17629 | DOI: 10.1038/srep17629 www.nature.com/scientificreports Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors Kumar Raju1 & Kenneth I. Ozoemena1,2 High-performance electrochemical capacitors... OPEN w w w . n a t u r e . c o m / s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t s / 2S C I E N T I F I C REPORTS | 5:17629 | DOI: 10.1038/srep17629 Hierarchical 1-D and 2-D materials maximize the supercapacitive properties due to their unique ability to permit ion...

  13. Advancement in Sensing Technology New Developments and Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Fuchs, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The book presents the recent advancements in the area of sensors and sensing technology, specifically in environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, dielectric, magnetic, electrochemical, ultrasonic, microfluidic, flow, surface acoustic wave, gas, cloud computing and bio-medical.   This book will be useful to a variety of readers, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, working on sensors and sensing technology. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

  14. Nanoparticle-based, organic receptor coupled fluorescent chemosensors for the determination of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navneet, E-mail: navneetkaur@pu.ac.in [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (UIEAST), Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kaur, Simanpreet; Kaur, Amanpreet [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (UIEAST), Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Saluja, Preeti; Sharma, Hemant [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India); Saini, Anu; Dhariwal, Nisha [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (UIEAST), Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Ajnesh; Singh, Narinder [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India)

    2014-01-15

    The sensors have been developed using silver nanoparticles coated with organic ligands and are fully characterized with spectroscopic methods. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of organic receptors on the surface of metal nanoparticles. These chemosensors were tested against a range of biological and environmentally relevant cations in the HEPES buffered DMSO/H{sub 2}O (8:2, v/v) solvent system. The fluorescence intensity of these chemosensors was quenched upon coordination with open shell metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+}. Anion recognition properties of the corresponding metal complexes have been studied and the original fluorescence intensity of sensors was restored upon addition of phosphate (0–20 µM). Thus, a highly selective chemosensor has been devised for the micromolar estimation of phosphate in semi-aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • The silver nanoparticles have been decorated with organic receptors for chemosensor applications. • The sensor properties are developed for the estimation of phosphate anion. • Thus the sensor relies on the cation displacement assay. • The phosphate sensing event displays the “ON–OFF–ON” mode of switching in sensor.

  15. Fabrication of highly sensitive gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for nanomolar determination of primaquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapliyal, Neeta Bachheti; Chiwunze, Tirivashe Elton; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Cherukupalli, Srinivasulu

    2017-01-01

    A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface. Upon investigating the electrochemical behavior of PQ at AuNu/GCE, the developed sensor was found to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PQ. Under optimal experimental conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to PQ over a linear concentration range of 0.01–1 μM and 0.001–1 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 nM and 0.9 nM using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively. The AuNu/GCE showed good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Further, the developed sensor was successfully applied to determine the drug in human urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations demonstrating its analytical applicability in clinical analysis as well as quality control. The proposed method thus provides a promising alternative in routine sensing of PQ as well as promotes the application of gold nanourchins in electrochemical sensors. - Graphical abstract: A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and used as an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of primaquine. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for determination of primaquine • A detection limit of 0.9 nM was obtained using square wave voltammetry. • Proposed method was applied to quantify the drug in tablet and human urine samples. • Fast, simple and low-cost method for trace analysis of

  16. Fabrication of highly sensitive gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for nanomolar determination of primaquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapliyal, Neeta Bachheti, E-mail: thapliyaln@ukzn.ac.za; Chiwunze, Tirivashe Elton; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar, E-mail: karpoormath@ukzn.ac.za; Cherukupalli, Srinivasulu

    2017-05-01

    A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface. Upon investigating the electrochemical behavior of PQ at AuNu/GCE, the developed sensor was found to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PQ. Under optimal experimental conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to PQ over a linear concentration range of 0.01–1 μM and 0.001–1 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 nM and 0.9 nM using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively. The AuNu/GCE showed good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Further, the developed sensor was successfully applied to determine the drug in human urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations demonstrating its analytical applicability in clinical analysis as well as quality control. The proposed method thus provides a promising alternative in routine sensing of PQ as well as promotes the application of gold nanourchins in electrochemical sensors. - Graphical abstract: A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and used as an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of primaquine. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for determination of primaquine • A detection limit of 0.9 nM was obtained using square wave voltammetry. • Proposed method was applied to quantify the drug in tablet and human urine samples. • Fast, simple and low-cost method for trace analysis of

  17. A bioinspired copper 2,2-bipyridyl complex immobilized MWCNT modified electrode prepared by a new strategy for elegant electrocatalytic reduction and sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuri, Pinapeddavari; Saravanan, Natarajan; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-01-01

    Owing to facile electron-transfer reaction, metal complex based molecular architecture has attracted much interest in electrochemistry, especially for bioinspired electrocatalytic and electrochemical sensor applications. Indeed, preparation of stable surface-confined molecular system is a challenging task. In general, derivatization methodology, in which, a specific functional groups such as thiol, carboxylic acid, pyrene and amino bearing inorganic complexes synthesized discreetly by chemical approach have been attached suitably on electrode surface via any one of the following techniques; self-assembly, covalent immobilization, electrostatic interaction, ionic exchange and encapsulation. Herein, we report a copper-bipyridyl complex immobilized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-Nafion (Nf) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/Nf-MWCNT@bpy-Cu"2"+) prepared by a new strategy in which sequential modification of bipyridyl (bpy) ligand on MWCNT via π-π interaction followed by in-situ complexation with copper ion for efficient electrochemical reduction of H_2O_2. The copper species chemically modified electrode showed highly stable and well-defined surface-confined Cu"2"+"/"1"+ redox peak response, without any Cu"1"+"/"0 redox transition, at an equilibrium potential, E_1_/_2 = −135 mV vs Ag/AgCl in a pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Detailed physico-chemical characterization by SEM, FT-IR, Raman and ESI-MS and electrochemical characterization reveals that [Cu(bpy)_2(H_2O)_2]"+ (molecular weight 413.4) like species was immobilized as a major species on the modified electrode. A bioinspired electro-catalytic reduction of H_2O_2 was studied using cyclic voltammetric and rotating disc electrode techniques. In further, electrochemical sensing of H_2O_2 by amperometric i-t and flow injection analysis methods with a detection limit values 4.5 and 0.49 μM respectively were demonstrated.

  18. All-Plastic Electrochemical Transistor for Glucose Sensing Using a Ferrocene Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G. Malliaras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a glucose sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT in which the channel, source, drain, and gate electrodes are made from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene doped with poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The OECT employs a ferrocene mediator to shuttle electrons between the enzyme glucose oxidase and a PEDOT:PSS gate electrode. The device can be fabricated using a one-layer patterning process and offers glucose detection down to the micromolar range, consistent with levels present in human saliva.

  19. Circulation of electrolyte in an electrochemical cell, using Taylor vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J D

    1990-05-30

    In an electrochemical cell for decomposition of organic waste liquids having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment separated by a porous pot, the anode is driven by a shaft having an axial passage extending from an upper inlet in the vicinity of the liquid level to a lower outlet adjacent a turbine. The rotating anode produces Taylor vortices in annular space and liquid is drawn from layer through passage and emerges to contact the anode. In one use, organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate/odourless kerosene is destroyed. Fresh solvent is added through an inlet. A helical cooler may also be provided. (author).

  20. An Overview of Pesticide Monitoring at Environmental Samples Using Carbon Nanotubes-Based Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Wong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes have received enormous attention in the development of electrochemical sensors by promoting electron transfer reactions, decreasing the work overpotential within great surface areas. The growing concerns about environmental health emphasized the necessity of continuous monitoring of pollutants. Pesticides have been successfully used to control agricultural and public health pests; however, intense use can cause a number of damages for biodiversity and human health. In this sense, carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical sensors have been proposed for pesticide monitoring combining different electrode modification strategies and electroanalytical techniques. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent advances in the use of carbon nanotubes for the construction of electrochemical sensors dedicated to the environmental monitoring of pesticides. Future directions, perspectives, and challenges are also commented.

  1. Incorporation of hydrogel as a sensing medium for recycle of sensing material in chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yunjung; Park, Jeong Yong; Kwon, Oh Seok; Joo, Seokwon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Bae, Joonwon

    2018-01-01

    A hydrogel, produced with agarose extracted from seaweed, was introduced as a reusable medium in ultrasensitive sensors employing conducting polymer nanomaterials and aptamers. A basic dopamine (DA) sensor was constructed by placing a hydrogel, containing a sensing material composed of aptamer-linked carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (PPy-COOH NTs), onto a micropatterned gold electrode. The hydrogel provided a benign electrochemical environment, facilitated specific interactions between DA and the PPy-COOH NT sensing material, and simplified the retrieval of PPy-COOH NTs after detection. It was demonstrated that the agarose hydrogel was successfully employed as a sensing medium for detection of DA, providing a benign environment for the electrode type sensor. PPy-COOH NTs were recovered by simply heating the hydrogel in water. The hydrogel also afforded stable signal intensity after repeated use with a limit of detection of 1 nmol and a clear, stable signal up to 100 nmol DA. This work provides relevant information for future research on reusable or recyclable sensors.

  2. Electrical Characterization and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Properties of Gold/Nafion:Polypyrrole/MWCNTs Electrochemical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Saitta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical devices using as substrates copier grade transparency sheets are developed by using ion conducting Nafion:polypyrrole mixtures, deposited between gold bottom electrodes and upper electrodes based on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical properties of the Nafion:polypyrrole blends and of the gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs devices are investigated under dry conditions and in deionized water by means of frequency dependent impedance measurements and time domain electrical characterization. According to current-voltage measurements carried out in deionized water, the steady state current forms cycles characterized by redox peaks, the intensity and position of which reversibly change in response to H2O2, with a lower detection limit in the micromolar range. The sensitivity that is obtained is comparable with that of other electrochemical sensors that however, unlike our devices, require supporting electrolytes.

  3. Towards high throughput screening of electrochemical stability of battery electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodin, Oleg; Olguin, Marco; Spear, Carrie E; Leiter, Kenneth W; Knap, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    High throughput screening of solvents and additives with potential applications in lithium batteries is reported. The initial test set is limited to carbonate and phosphate-based compounds and focused on their electrochemical properties. Solvent stability towards first and second reduction and oxidation is reported from density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on isolated solvents surrounded by implicit solvent. The reorganization energy is estimated from the difference between vertical and adiabatic redox energies and found to be especially important for the accurate prediction of reduction stability. A majority of tested compounds had the second reduction potential higher than the first reduction potential indicating that the second reduction reaction might play an important role in the passivation layer formation. Similarly, the second oxidation potential was smaller for a significant subset of tested molecules than the first oxidation potential. A number of potential sources of errors introduced during screening of the electrolyte electrochemical properties were examined. The formation of lithium fluoride during reduction of semifluorinated solvents such as fluoroethylene carbonate and the H-transfer during oxidation of solvents were found to shift the electrochemical potential by 1.5–2 V and could shrink the electrochemical stability window by as much as 3.5 V when such reactions are included in the screening procedure. The initial oxidation reaction of ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate at the surface of the completely de-lithiated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 high voltage spinel cathode was examined using DFT. Depending on the molecular orientation at the cathode surface, a carbonate molecule either exhibited deprotonation or was found bound to the transition metal via its carbonyl oxygen. (paper)

  4. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Linjie [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gou, Yuqiang [Lanzhou Military Command Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Fangdi, E-mail: hufd@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yingdong, E-mail: lydj412@163.com [Gansu College of Tradition Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (k{sub s}) and electron-transfer coefficient (α) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24 s{sup −1}, and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} to 3.89 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 2.06 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%. - Highlights: • A novel ERGO–based electrochemical sensor of FA was successfully fabricated by using one-step electrodeposition method. • The electrode reaction was an adsorption–diffusion mixed controlled process. • The low detection limit with good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained. • This method was applied for the determination of FA in A. sinensis and biological samples.

  5. Droplet-based microfluidics for dose-response assay of enzyme inhibitors by electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuqing; Lu, Youlan; Ding, Yaping; Li, Li; Zhang, Fenfen; Wu, Qingsheng

    2013-09-24

    A simple but robust droplet-based microfluidic system was developed for dose-response enzyme inhibition assay by combining concentration gradient generation method with electrochemical detection method. A slotted-vials array and a tapered tip capillary were used for reagents introduction and concentration gradient generation, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip integrated with microelectrodes was used for droplet generation and electrochemical detection. Effects of oil flow rate and surfactant on electrochemical sensing were investigated. This system was validated by measuring dose-response curves of three types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, including carbamate pesticide, organophosphorus pesticide, and therapeutic drugs regulating Alzheimer's disease. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and tacrine were used as model analytes, respectively, and their IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values were determined. A whole enzyme inhibition assay was completed in 6 min, and the total consumption of reagents was less than 5 μL. This microfluidic system is applicable to many biochemical reactions, such as drug screening and kinetic studies, as long as one of the reactants or products is electrochemically active. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomolecules Electrochemical Sensing Properties of a PMo11V@N-Doped Few Layer Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid nanocomposite, PMo11V@N-doped few layer graphene, was prepared by a one-step protocol through direct immobilization of the tetrabutylammonium salt of a vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate (PMo11V onto N-doped few layer graphene (N-FLG. The nanocomposite characterization by FTIR and XPS confirmed its successful synthesis. Glassy carbon modified electrodes with PMo11V and PMo11V@N-FLG showed cyclic voltammograms consistent with surface-confined redox processes attributed to Mo-centred reductions (MoVI→MoV and a vanadium reduction (VV→VIV. Furthermore, PMo11V@N-FLG modified electrodes showed good stability and well-resolved redox peaks with high current intensities. The observed enhancement of PMo11V electrochemical properties is a consequence of a strong electronic communication between the POM and the N-doped few layer graphene. Additionally, the electro-catalytic and sensing properties towards acetaminophen (AC and theophylline (TP were evaluated by voltammetric techniques using a glassy carbon electrode modified with PMo11V@N-FLG. Under the conditions used, the square wave voltammetric peak current increased linearly with AC concentration in the presence of TP, but showing two linear ranges: 1.2 × 10−6 to 1.2 × 10−4 and 1.2 × 10−4 to 4.8 × 10−4 mol dm−3, with different AC sensitivity values, 0.022 A/mol dm−3 and 0.035 A/mol dm−3, respectively (detection limit, DL = 7.5 × 10−7 mol dm−3.

  7. Templated synthesis, characterization, and sensing application of macroscopic platinum nanowire network electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, D. H.; Kou, R.; Gil, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    properties of the electrodes, such as electrochemical active area and methanol oxidation, have also been studied. Compared with conventional polycrystalline Pt electrodes, these novel nanowire network electrodes possess high electrochemical active areas and demonstrate higher current densities and a lower...... onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation. Enzymatic Pt nanowire-network-based sensors show higher sensitivity for glucose detection than that using conventional polycrystalline Pt electrode. Such macroscopic nanowire network electrodes provide ideal platforms for sensing and other device......Abstract: Novel platinum nanowire network electrodes have been fabricated through electrodeposition using mesoporous silica thin films as templates. These electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical...

  8. Calcium phosphate-gold nanoparticles nanocomposite for protein adsorption and mediator-free H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Monitoring, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Lu Guiju; Bian XiaoJun; Jin Gendi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Wang Wei [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, 224051 (China); Hu Xiaoya, E-mail: xyhu@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Monitoring, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Wang Yang; Yang Zhanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2012-04-01

    This work reports a new method for the preparation and application of a kind of biocompatible calcium phosphate-gold nanoparticles (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}-AuNPs) nanocomposite. UV-vis spectroscopy and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to monitor the formation process of the nanocomposite and to examine the interaction between calcium phosphate and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The nanocomposite has multiple sites and improved conductivity which make it suitable for the binding of proteins to construct electrochemical sensors. Myoglobin (Mb) adsorbed on the nanocomposite retained its native structure which was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Direct electron transfer between the adsorbed Mb and the electrode was observed. Further results demonstrated that the adsorbed Mb has good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the absence of any mediator. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using gelatin modified gold nanoparticles to prepare needle-like calcium phosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium phosphate provides multiple sites for protein adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold nanoparticles act as electron tunneling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myoglobin adsorbed on the material showed direct electrochemistry and good catalysis.

  9. Polypyrrol/chitosan hydrogel hybrid microfiber as sensing artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yahya A.; Martínez, Jose G.; Al Harrasi, Ahmad S.; Kim, Seon J.; Fernández Otero, Toribio F.

    2011-04-01

    An electrochemical actuator demands that it should act as a sensor of the working conditions for its efficient application in devices. Actuation and sensing characteristics of a biopolymer/conducting polymer hybrid microfiber artificial muscle fabricated through wet spinning of a chitosan solution followed by in situ chemical polymerization with pyrrol employing bis(triflouro methane sulfonyl) imide as dopant and ferric chloride as a catalyst is presented. The polypyrrol/chitosan hybrid microfiber was investigated by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical conductivity measurement, cyclic voltammetric and chronopotentiometric methods. The electrochemical measurements related to the sensing abilities were performed as a function of applied current, concentration and temperature keeping two of the variables constant at a given time using NaCl as electrolyte. Cyclic voltammograms confirmed that the electro activity is imparted by polypyrrol (pPy). The fiber showed an electrical conductivity of 3.21x10-1 Scm-1and an average linear electrochemical actuation strain of 0.54%. The chronopotentiometric responses during the oxidation/reduction processes of the microfiber for the different anodic/cathodic currents and the linear fit observed for the consumed electrical energy during the reaction for various applied currents suggested that it can act as a sensor of applied current. The chronopotentiometric responses and the linear fit of consumed electrical energy at different temperatures suggested that the actuator can act as a temperature sensor. Similarly a semi logarithmic dependence of the consumed electrical energy with concentration of the electrolyte during reaction is suggestive of its applicability as a concentration sensor. The demand that an electrochemical actuator to be a sensor of the working conditions, for its efficient application in devices is thus verified in this material.

  10. Evolution of the dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD coating created by large amplitude sinusoidal voltammetry (LASV on corrosion resistance of the ZW3 magnesium alloy in chloride containing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajánek D.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on the preparation of coating based on the dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD on the surface of ZW3 magnesium alloy. For the preparation of the coating a cathodic electrodeposition technique called Large Amplitude Sinusoidal Voltammetry (LASV was used. The DCPD layer was prepared at the temperature of 22 ± 2 °C in electrolyte composed of 0.1M Ca(NO3.4H2O, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and H2O2. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.1M NaCl solution. The obtained data in form of Nyquist plots were analysed by the equivalent circuit method. It is clear from the measured values of polarization resistance Rp that dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPD layer prepared by LASV electro-deposition technique improved corrosion resistance of ZW3 alloy in the chosen environment.

  11. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity and the reproducibility of biosensors have improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their design. In general, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors amplify the sensitivity by facilitating greater loading of the larger sensing surface with biorecognition molecules as well as improving the electrochemical properties of the transducer. The most common types of nanomaterials and their properties will be described. In addition, the utilization of nanomaterials in immunosensors for biomarker detection will be discussed since these biosensors have enormous potential for a myriad of clinical uses. Electrochemical immunosensors provide a specific and simple analytical alternative as evidenced by their brief analysis times, inexpensive instrumentation, lower assay cost as well as good portability and amenability to miniaturization. The role nanomaterials play in biosensors, their ability to improve detection capabilities in low concentration analytes yielding clinically useful data and their impact on other biosensor performance properties will be discussed. Finally, the most common types of electroanalytical detection methods will be briefly touched upon.

  12. Structure and electrochemical properties of copper wires with seamless 1D nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A seamless Cu nanowire array grown on Cu wire is prepared by combining thermal oxidation method and electrochemical reduction. The data set described in this paper includes the structure of the Cu nanowires electrode, electrocatalytic active surface area, linear sweep voltammetry and amperometry measurement for nitrate sensing. The electrochemical data show that Cu nanowire arrays exhibited a linear response to nitrate ions over a concentration range from 50 μM to 600 μM (R2 = 0.9974 with a sensitivity of 0.357 μA μM−1 cm−1 and detection limit of 12.2 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively.

  13. A novel biodegradable nicotinic acid/calcium phosphate composite coating on Mg-3Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yingwei, E-mail: ywsong@imr.ac.cn; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2013-01-01

    A novel biodegradable composite coating is prepared to reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn alloy. The Mg-3Zn substrate is first immersed into 0.02 mol L{sup -1} nicotinic acid (NA) solution, named as vitamin B{sub 3}, to obtain a pretreatment film, and then the electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coating with ultrasonic agitation is carried out on the NA pretreatment film to obtain a NA/calcium phosphate composite coating. Surface morphology is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDX. Protection property of the coatings is evaluated by electrochemical tests. The biodegradable behavior is investigated by immersion tests. The results indicate that a thin but compact bottom layer can be obtained by NA pretreatment. The electrodeposition calcium phosphate coating consists of many flake particles and ultrasonic agitation can greatly improve the compactness of the coating. The composite coating is biodegradable and can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys in stimulated body fluid (SBF) for twenty times. The biodegradation process of the composite coating can be attributed to the gradual dissolution of the flake particles into chippings. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NA/calcium phosphate composite coating is prepared to protect Mg-3Zn alloy implant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic acid (vitamin B{sub 3}) is available to obtain a protective bottom film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic agitation greatly improves the compactness of calcium phosphate coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite coating can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn twenty times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite coating is biodegraded by the dissolution of flakes into chippings.

  14. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.0×10(-6) and 4.0×10(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.0×10(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed.

  15. Treatment of winery wastewater by electrochemical methods and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Gustek, Stefica Findri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of new system for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater (COD = 10240 mg/L; SS = 2860 mg/L) originating from vine-making industry. The system consisted of the main treatment that included electrochemical methods (electro oxidation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel, iron and aluminum electrode sets) with simultaneous sonication and recirculation in strong electromagnetic field. Ozonation combined with UV irradiation in the presence of added hydrogen peroxide was applied for the post-treatment of the effluent. Following the combined treatment, the final removal efficiencies of the parameters color, turbidity, suspended solids and phosphates were over 99%, Fe, Cu and ammonia approximately 98%, while the removal of COD and sulfates was 77% and 62%, respectively. A new approach combining electrochemical methods with ultrasound in the strong electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better removal efficiencies for majority of the measured parameters compared to the biological methods, advanced oxidation processes or electrocoagulation. Reduction of the treatment time represents another advantage of this new approach.

  16. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar eHAYAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  17. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanyi, Nora [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)]. E-mail: n.adanyi@cfri.hu; Nemeth, Edina [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Halasz, Anna [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Szendro, Istvan [MicroVacuum Ltd., H-1147 Budapest, Kerekgyarto u. 10 (Hungary); Varadi, Maria [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)

    2006-07-28

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method.

  18. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adanyi, Nora; Nemeth, Edina; Halasz, Anna; Szendro, Istvan; Varadi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method

  19. Solidification of metallic aluminum on magnesium phosphate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahalle, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the stabilization/solidification of radioactive waste using cement. More particularly, it aims at assessing the chemical compatibility between metallic aluminum and mortars based on magnesium phosphate cement. The physical and chemical processes leading to setting and hardening of the cement are first investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ("3"1P and "1"1B MAS-NMR) are first used to characterize the solid phases formed during hydration, while inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis (ICP-AES), electrical conductometry and pH measurements provide information on the pore solution composition. Then, the corrosion of metallic aluminum in magnesium phosphate mortars is studied by monitoring the equilibrium potential and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Magnesium phosphate cement is prepared from a mix of magnesium oxide (MgO) and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH_2PO_4). In the presence of water, hydration occurs according to a dissolution - precipitation process. The main hydrate is K-struvite (MgKPO_4.6H_2O). Its precipitation is preceded by that of two transient phases: phosphorrosslerite (MgHPO_4.7H_2O) and Mg_2KH(PO_4)_2.15H_2O. Boric acid retards cement hydration by delaying the formation of cement hydrates. Two processes may be involved in this retardation: the initial precipitation of amorphous or poorly crystallized minerals containing boron and phosphorus atoms, and/or the stabilization of cations (Mg"2"+, K"+) in solution. As compared with a Portland cement-based matrix, corrosion of aluminum is strongly limited in magnesium phosphate mortar. The pore solution pH is close to neutrality and falls within the passivation domain of aluminum. Corrosion depends on several parameters: it is promoted by a water-to-cement ratio (w/c) significantly higher than the chemical water demand of cement (w/c = 0.51), and by the addition of boric

  20. Fabrication of gold nanoparticles-decorated reduced graphene oxide as a high performance electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of toxicant Sudan I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junhua; Feng, Haibo; Li, Jun; Feng, Yonglan; Zhang, Yaqian; Jiang, Jianbo; Qian, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A well-dispersed AuNPs/RGO nanocomposite was fabricated via a green and in situ reduction method. •This nanocomposite displays excellent electro-catalysis activity for the oxidation of Sudan I. •The AuNPs/RGO/GCE exhibits superior comprehensive properties for the detection of Sudan I. •This proposed method was successfully applied to detect Sudan I in chilli powder and ketchup sauce. -- Abstract: In this paper, we are presenting a facile, green and in situ synthesis strategy for the convenient preparation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without the use of any template molecules and poisonous reductant. The as-synthesized nanocomposite has been detailedly characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis as well as electrochemical technologies. The morphological and structural characterizations illustrate that AuNPs can be efficiently decorated on RGO with the Au content of 20.33 wt% in the matrix and the size of the embedded AuNPs vary between 25 and 40 nm. The electrochemical investigations confirm that the small-sized AuNPs on the RGO film can remarkably boost the electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of Sudan I, which can be used as an enhanced electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitively detection of the toxicant Sudan I. Moreover, the kinetic parameter studies demonstrate that the Sudan I electro-oxidation at the AuNPs/RGO electrode is a diffusion-controlled process which involves two-electron and two-proton transfer. Under the optimal conditions, a wide linear range of Sudan I detection from 0.01 to 70 μmol L −1 with good linearity (R 2 = 0.9965, 0.9942) and a low detection limit (1.0 nmol L −1 , S/N = 3) were obtained. In comparison with the existing analogues ever reported

  1. Potentiostatic pulse-deposition of calcium phosphate on magnesium alloy for temporary implant applications--an in vitro corrosion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Wallipa, O

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was coated with calcium phosphate using potentiostatic pulse-potential and constant-potential methods and the in vitro corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was compared with the bare metal. In vitro corrosion studies were carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Calcium phosphate coatings enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy, however, the pulse-potential coating performed better than the constant-potential coating. The pulse-potential coating exhibited ~3 times higher polarization resistance than that of the constant-potential coating. The corrosion current density obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization curves was significantly less (~60%) for the pulse-deposition coating as compared to the constant-potential coating. Post-corrosion analysis revealed only slight corrosion on the pulse-potential coating, whereas the constant-potential coating exhibited a large number of corrosion particles attached to the coating. The better in vitro corrosion performance of the pulse-potential coating can be attributed to the closely packed calcium phosphate particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Molecularly Imprinted Electrochemical Gas Sensor to Sense Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Emam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects millions of people worldwide. Curing this disease has not gained much success so far. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive, and immediate method for detecting a large number of diseases, including AD. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT in the air, which is one of the chemicals found in the breath print of AD patients. A three-layer sensor was formed through deposition of a thin layer of graphene onto a glassy carbon substrate. Selective binding of the analyte was facilitated by electrochemically initiated polymerization of a solution containing the desired target molecule. Subsequent polymerization and removal of the analyte yielded a layer of polypyrrole, a conductive polymer, on top of the sensor containing molecularly imprinted cavities selective for the target molecule. Two sets of sensors have been developed. First, the graphene sensor has been fabricated with a layer of reduced graphene oxide (RGO and tested over 5–100 part per million (ppm. For the second batch, Prussian blue was added to graphene before polymerization, mainly for enhancing the electrochemical properties. The sensor was tested over 0.02-1 parts per billion (ppb level of concentration while the sensor resistance has been monitored.

  3. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  4. Fe2Ni2N nanosheet array: an efficient non-noble-metal electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chao; Dai, Rui; Cao, Xiaoqin; Ji, Yuyao; Qu, Fengli; Liu, Zhiang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Xiong, Xiaoli; Sun, Xuping; Huang, Ke

    2017-09-01

    It is very important to develop enhanced electrochemical sensing platforms for molecular detection and non-noble-metal nanoarray architecture, as electrochemical catalyst electrodes have attracted great attention due to their large specific surface area and easy accessibility to target molecules. In this paper, we demonstrate that an Fe2Ni2N nanosheet array grown on Ti mesh (Fe2Ni2N NS/TM) shows high electrocatalytic activity toward glucose electrooxidation in alkaline medium. As an electrochemical glucose sensor, such an Fe2Ni2N NS/TM catalyst electrode demonstrates superior sensing performance with a short response time of less than 5 s, a wide linear range of 0.05 μM-1.5 mM, a low detection limit of 0.038 μM (S/N = 3), a high sensitivity of 6250 μA mM-1 cm-2, as well as high selectivity and long-term stability.

  5. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  6. Embroidered electrochemical sensors on gauze for rapid quantification of wound biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2017-12-15

    Electrochemical sensors are an attractive platform for analytical measurements due to their high sensitivity, portability and fast response time. These attributes also make electrochemical sensors well suited for wearable applications which require excellent flexibility and durability. Towards this end, we have developed a robust electrochemical sensor on gauze via a unique embroidery fabrication process for quantitative measurements of wound biomarkers. For proof of principle, this biosensor was used to detect uric acid, a biomarker for wound severity and healing, in simulated wound fluid which exhibits high specificity, good linearly from 0 to 800µM, and excellent reproducibility. Continuous sensing of uric acid was also performed using this biosensor which reveals that it can generate consistent and accurate measurements for up to 7h. Experiments to evaluate the robustness of the embroidered gauze sensor demonstrate that it offers excellent resilience against mechanical stress and deformation, making it a promising wearable platform for assessing and monitoring wound status in situ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical and surface characterisation of carbon-film-coated piezoelectric quartz crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Edilson M.; Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Brett, Christopher M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of carbon films, of thickness between 200 and 500 nm, sputter-coated on gold- and platinum-coated 6 MHz piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillators, as new electrode materials have been investigated. Comparative studies under the same experimental conditions were performed on bulk electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out in 0.1 M KCl electrolyte solution, and kinetic parameters of the model redox systems Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- and [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ as well as the electroactive area of the electrodes were obtained. Atomic force microscopy was used in order to examine the surface morphology of the films, and the properties of the carbon films and the electrode-solution interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of the preparation and development of nanometer thick carbon film modified quartz crystals. Such modified crystals should open up new opportunities for the investigation of electrode processes at carbon electrodes and for the application of electrochemical sensing associated with the EQCM.

  8. Ultrasensitive electrospun nickel-doped carbon nanofibers electrode for sensing paracetamol and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lili; Zhou, Tingting; Sun, Guoying; Li, Zhaohui; Yang, Wenxiu; Jia, Jianbo; Yang, Guocheng

    2015-01-01

    The long, uniform and smooth Ni(NO 3 ) 2 -loaded polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning on a nonconductive quartz plate. The nanofibers were stabilized at 300 °C for 3 h in nitrogen atmosphere, and then the continuous heating to 800 °C at the rate of 2 °C min −1 keeping 3 h was used to prepare nickel-doped carbon nanofibers (Ni:CNFs). The composites were characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Ni:CNFs were used as the working electrode to sense paracetamol (PCT) and glucose (GLU), respectively. When sensing PCT, the Ni:CNFs electrode showed an electrochemical behavior like on macroelectrode; but for GLU, it displayed an electrochemical behavior like on microelectrode. For both of the species, higher sensitivities on the Ni:CNFs electrodes were obtained than those on bulk glassy carbon and nickel electrodes

  9. Nanopore Device for Reversible Ion and Molecule Sensing or Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Nader (Inventor); Vilozny, Boaz (Inventor); Actis, Paolo (Inventor); Seger, R. Adam (Inventor); Singaram, Bakthan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and devices for detection of ion migration and binding, utilizing a nanopipette adapted for use in an electrochemical sensing circuit. The nanopipette may be functionalized on its interior bore with metal chelators for binding and sensing metal ions or other specific binding molecules such as boronic acid for binding and sensing glucose. Such a functionalized nanopipette is comprised in an electrical sensor that detects when the nanopipette selectively and reversibly binds ions or small molecules. Also disclosed is a nanoreactor, comprising a nanopipette, for controlling precipitation in aqueous solutions by voltage-directed ion migration, wherein ions may be directed out of the interior bore by a repulsing charge in the bore.

  10. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer-mediated immunosensing interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dengyou; Luo, Qimei [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Deng, Fawen [The Fourth Hospital of Chansha, Changsha 410006 (China); Li, Zhen [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Li, Benxiang, E-mail: 172170960@qq.com [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Shen, Zhifa, E-mail: shenzhifa@wmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, College of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2017-06-08

    Highly sensitive and selective quantitation of a variety of proteins over a wide concentration range is highly desirable for increased accuracy of biomarker detection or for multidisease diagnostics. In the present contribution, using human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) as the model target protein, an electrochemical ultrasensitive immunosensing platform was developed based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer-mediated (OSAM) sensing interface. For this immunosensor, the “signal-on” signaling mechanism and enzymatic signal amplification effect were integrated into one sensing architecture. Moreover, the thiolated flexible single-stranded DNAs immobilized onto gold electrode surface not only performs the wobbling motion to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode surface and biosensing layer but also fundamentally prohibiting the direct interaction of proteins with gold substrate. Thus, the electrochemical signal could be efficiently enhanced and the unspecific adsorption or cross-reaction might be eliminated. As a result, utilizing the newly-proposed immunosensor, the HIgG can be detected down to 0.5 ng/mL, and the high detection specificity is offered. The successful design of OSAM and the highly desirable detection capability of new immunosensor are expected to provide a perspective for fabricating new robust immunosensing platform and for promising potential of oligonucleotide probe in biological research and biomedical diagnosis. - Highlights: • An electrochemical ultrasensitive immunosensing platform was developed based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer (OASM). • OASM severs as a flexible monolayer to promote electron transfer and prohibits the direct interaction of proteins with gold substrate. • The electrochemical signal is efficiently enhanced and the unspecific adsorption or cross-reaction is eliminated. • Target protein can be detected down to 0.5 ng/mL, and the high detection specificity can be obtained.

  11. Covalent attachment of aptamer onto nanocomposite as a high performance electrochemical sensing platform: Fabrication of an ultra-sensitive ibuprofen electrochemical aptasensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we report a selective electrochemical aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen (IBP). The proposed system was achieved by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan (MWCNTs/IL/Chit) nanocomposite and the covalent immobilization of the IBP specific aptamer (Apt) onto the modified electrode surface followed by methylene blue (MB) intercalated onto the Apt as the electrochemical redox marker. Upon the incubation of the IBP as a target in the proposed aptasensor, the peak current of MB decreases due to the formation of the Apt-IBP complex and the displacement of MB from the immobilized Apt onto the modified electrode surface. The nanocomposite not only increases the electrode surface area and accelerate the electron transfer kinetics but also it provides a highly stable matrix to enhance the loading amount of the Apt DNA sequence. Through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments, it was found that the proposed aptasensor could detect the IBP with a linear range (70 pM up to 6 μM) and the detection limit (LOD) as low as 20 pM. The results showed that the aptasensor had good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and specificity to detect the IBP. The proposed aptasensor was successfully applied for measuring the IBP concentration in real samples. Based on our experiments we can say that the present method proposes new horizons for the development of other aptasensors for diagnostic application in biosensing. - Highlights: • An electrochemical aptasensor is developed for ultrasensitive detection of IBP. • The aptasensor is made by covalent immobilization of aptamer on a modified GCE. • A nanocomposite as a modifier provides a specific surface with high conductivity. • This nanocomposite leads to a high density of the DNA sequence on the GCE surface. • This method proposes new horizons for development other aptasensors for

  12. Covalent attachment of aptamer onto nanocomposite as a high performance electrochemical sensing platform: Fabrication of an ultra-sensitive ibuprofen electrochemical aptasensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report a selective electrochemical aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen (IBP). The proposed system was achieved by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan (MWCNTs/IL/Chit) nanocomposite and the covalent immobilization of the IBP specific aptamer (Apt) onto the modified electrode surface followed by methylene blue (MB) intercalated onto the Apt as the electrochemical redox marker. Upon the incubation of the IBP as a target in the proposed aptasensor, the peak current of MB decreases due to the formation of the Apt-IBP complex and the displacement of MB from the immobilized Apt onto the modified electrode surface. The nanocomposite not only increases the electrode surface area and accelerate the electron transfer kinetics but also it provides a highly stable matrix to enhance the loading amount of the Apt DNA sequence. Through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments, it was found that the proposed aptasensor could detect the IBP with a linear range (70 pM up to 6 μM) and the detection limit (LOD) as low as 20 pM. The results showed that the aptasensor had good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and specificity to detect the IBP. The proposed aptasensor was successfully applied for measuring the IBP concentration in real samples. Based on our experiments we can say that the present method proposes new horizons for the development of other aptasensors for diagnostic application in biosensing. - Highlights: • An electrochemical aptasensor is developed for ultrasensitive detection of IBP. • The aptasensor is made by covalent immobilization of aptamer on a modified GCE. • A nanocomposite as a modifier provides a specific surface with high conductivity. • This nanocomposite leads to a high density of the DNA sequence on the GCE surface. • This method proposes new horizons for development other aptasensors for

  13. A Printed Organic Amplification System for Wearable Potentiometric Electrochemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwaku, Rei; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kuniaki; Uematsu, Mayu; Mano, Taisei; Maruyama, Yuki; Nomura, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Takeda, Yasunori; Fukuda, Takashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2018-03-02

    Electrochemical sensor systems with integrated amplifier circuits play an important role in measuring physiological signals via in situ human perspiration analysis. Signal processing circuitry based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have significant potential in realizing wearable sensor devices due to their superior mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here, we demonstrate a novel potentiometric electrochemical sensing system comprised of a potassium ion (K + ) sensor and amplifier circuits employing OTFT-based pseudo-CMOS inverters, which have a highly controllable switching voltage and closed-loop gain. The ion concentration sensitivity of the fabricated K + sensor was 34 mV/dec, which was amplified to 160 mV/dec (by a factor of 4.6) with high linearity. The developed system is expected to help further the realization of ultra-thin and flexible wearable sensor devices for healthcare applications.

  14. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2011-04-01

    Specific adsorption of anions to electrode surfaces may alter the rates of electrocatalytic reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) methods are used to predict the adsorption free energy of acetate and phosphate anions as a function of Pt(1 1 1) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep voltammogram (LSV) due to anion adsorption is simulated using the DFT results. The inclusion of solvation at the electrochemical interface is necessary for accurately predicting the adsorption peak position. The Langmuir model is sufficient for predicting the adsorption peak shape, indicating coverage effects are minor in altering the LSV for acetate and phosphate adsorption. Anion adsorption peak positions are determined for solution phase anion concentrations present in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells and discussion is provided as to the impact of anion adsorption on oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction rates in these devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical Nanoparticle-Enzyme Sensors for Screening Bacterial Contamination in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhong; Jiang, Ziwen; Ackerman, Jonathan D.; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Hou, Singyuk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional plating and culturing methods used to quantify bacteria commonly require hours to days from sampling to results. We present here a simple, sensitive and rapid electrochemical method for bacteria detection in drinking water based on gold nanoparticle-enzyme complexes. The gold nanoparticles were functionalized with positively charged quaternary amine headgroups that could bind to enzymes through electrostatic interactions, resulting in inhibition of enzymatic activity. In the presence of bacteria, the nanoparticles released from the enzymes and preferentially bound to the bacteria, resulting in an increase in enzyme activity, releasing a redox-active phenol from the substrate. We employed this strategy for the electrochemical sensing of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a rapid detection (<1h) with high sensitivity (102 CFU·mL−1). PMID:26042607

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on Co-Cr-Mo alloy in two media simulating physiological liquid. Caractérisation par spectroscopie d'impédance électrochimique d'un alliage de Co-Cr-Mo dans différents milieux simulant le liquide physiologique.

    OpenAIRE

    Geringer , Jean; Normand , Bernard; Diemiaszonek , Robert; Alémany-Dumont , Catherine; Mary , Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    National audience; Co-Cr-Mo is an alloy which allows manufacturing orthopedic implants, especially hip total joint prostheses. This alloy has good tribological and biocompatibility properties. This work aims at studying electrochemical behavior of this alloy. Moreover, measurements reproductibility has been improved: polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Measurements have been carried out with phosphate buffered solution and this one containing albumin, 1 g.L-1. Three diffe...

  17. Ultrasensitive aptamer-based multiplexed electrochemical detection by coupling distinguishable signal tags with catalytic recycling of DNase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Tang, Juan; Li, Qunfang; Su, Biling; Chen, Guonan

    2011-10-01

    This work reports an aptamer-based, disposable, and multiplexed sensing platform for simultaneous electrochemical determination of small molecules, employing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine as the model target analytes. The multiplexed sensing strategy is based on target-induced release of distinguishable redox tag-conjugated aptamers from a magnetic graphene platform. The electronic signal of the aptasensors could be further amplified by coupling DNase I with catalytic recycling of self-produced reactants. The assay was based on the change in the current at the various peak potentials in the presence of the corresponding signal tags. Experimental results revealed that the multiplexed electrochemical aptasensor enabled the simultaneous monitoring of ATP and cocaine in a single run with wide working ranges and low detection limits (LODs: 0.1 pM for ATP and 1.5 pM for cocaine). This concept offers promise for rapid, simple, and cost-effective analysis of biological samples.

  18. Electroanalytical Sensing of Flunitrazepam Based on Screen Printed Graphene Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Garcia-Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new electrochemical sensor for Flunitrazepam using disposable and economic Screen Printed Graphene Electrodes. It was found that the electrochemical response of this sensor was improved compared to Screen Printed Graphite Electrodes and displayed an excellent analytical performance for the detection of Flunitrazepam. Those characteristics could be attributed to the high Flunitrazepam loading capacity on the electrode surface and the outstanding electric conductivity of graphene. The methodology is shown to be useful for quantifying low levels of Flunitrazepam in a buffer solution. The protocol is also shown to be applicable for the sensing of Flunitrazepam in an alcoholic beverage e.g., Gordon’s Gin & Tonic.

  19. Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Gong, Shixing; Deng, Ying; Li, Tongtong; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Wencheng; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    By using ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode, graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) were in situ electrodeposited step by step to get a NiO/GR nanocomposite modified CILE. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE with a Nafion film to get the electrochemical sensor denoted as Nafion/Mb/NiO/GR/CILE. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal peak potential (E 0′ ) located at − 0.188 V (vs. SCE), which was the typical characteristics of Mb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. So the direct electron transfer of Mb was realized and promoted due to the presence of the NiO/GR nanocomposite on the electrode. Based on the cyclic voltammetric data, the electrochemical parameters of Mb on the modified electrode were calculated. The Mb modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of different substrates including trichloroacetic acid and H 2 O 2 . Therefore a third-generation electrochemical Mb biosensor based on NiO/GR/CILE was constructed with good stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Graphene and nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared by electrodeposition. • Electrochemical myoglobin sensor was prepared on a nanocomposite modified electrode. • Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myglobin were realized

  20. Electrochemical impedimetric sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers/sol-gel chemistry for methidathion organophosphorous insecticide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Hayat, Akhtar; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2014-12-01

    We report here a novel method to detect methidathion organophosphorous insecticides. The sensing platform was architected by the combination of molecularly imprinted polymers and sol-gel technique on inexpensive, portable and disposable screen printed carbon electrodes. Electrochemical impedimetric detection technique was employed to perform the label free detection of the target analyte on the designed MIP/sol-gel integrated platform. The selection of the target specific monomer by electrochemical impedimetric methods was consistent with the results obtained by the computational modelling method. The prepared electrochemical MIP/sol-gel based sensor exhibited a high recognition capability toward methidathion, as well as a broad linear range and a low detection limit under the optimized conditions. Satisfactory results were also obtained for the methidathion determination in waste water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of chloride ion concentration on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AM50 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of a silicate- and a phosphate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AM50 magnesium alloy obtained using a pulsed DC power supply was investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.1 M, 0.5 M and 1 M. The surface of the PEO coated specimens after 50 h of immersion/EIS testing was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of PEO coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solutions was significantly influenced by chloride ion concentration. The silicate-based coating was found to offer a superior corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate than the phosphate-based coatings in lower chloride ion concentration NaCl solutions (0.01 M and 0.1 M NaCl). On the other hand both these PEO coatings were found to be highly susceptible to localized damage, and could not provide an effective corrosion protection to Mg alloy substrate in solutions containing higher chloride concentrations (0.5 M and 1 M). The extent of localized damage was observed to be more with increase in chloride concentration in both the cases.

  2. Simple diazonium chemistry to develop specific gene sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Parra, M; García-Mendiola, T; González-Costas, J; González-Romero, E; Marín, A García; Pau, J L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2014-02-27

    A simple strategy for covalent immobilizing DNA sequences, based on the formation of stable diazonized conducting platforms, is described. The electrochemical reduction of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium salt onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in aqueous media gives rise to terminal grafted amino groups. The presence of primary aromatic amines allows the formation of diazonium cations capable to react with the amines present at the DNA capture probe. As a comparison a second strategy based on the binding of aminated DNA capture probes to the developed diazonized conducting platforms through a crosslinking agent was also employed. The resulting DNA sensing platforms were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The hybridization event with the complementary sequence was detected using hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride as electrochemical indicator. Finally, they were applied to the analysis of a 145-bp sequence from the human gene MRP3, reaching a detection limit of 210 pg μL(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Magnesium or Zinc on CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study and determine the effect of voltage increasing from 500 up to 650 VDC on chemical and electrochemical properties of the obtained porous coatings with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO processes, known also as micro arc oxidation (MAO. In the present paper, the chemical and electrochemical characterization of porous phosphate coatings enriched with magnesium or zinc on commercially pure (CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC-PEO obtained in electrolytes based on concentrated 85% analytically pure H3PO4 (98 g/mole acid with additions of 500 g·L−1 of zinc nitrate Zn(NO32∙6H2O or magnesium nitrate Mg(NO32∙6H2O, are described. These materials were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. It was found that the voltage of PEO process has influence on the chemical composition and thickness of the obtained porous coatings as well as on their electrochemical behavior. The higher the potential of PEO treatment, the higher the amount of zinc-to-phosphorus ratio for zinc enriched coatings was obtained, whereas in magnesium enriched coatings, the average amount of magnesium detected in PEO coating is approximately independent of the PEO voltages. Based on XPS studies, it was found out that most likely the top 10 nm of porous coatings is constructed of titanium (Ti4+, magnesium (Mg2+, zinc (Zn2+, and phosphates PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4− and/or P2O74−. On the basis of GDOES studies, a four-sub-layer model of PEO coatings is proposed. Analysis of the potentiodynamic corrosion curves allowed to conclude that the best electrochemical repeatability was noted for magnesium and zinc enriched coatings obtained at 575 VDC.

  4. One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegeya, Claude; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Hatert, Frédéric; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na+ and presence of vacancies in A(2)', Na+ and small amounts of Mn2+ in A(1), Mn2+ in M(1), 0.5 Mn2+ and Fe cations (Mn2+,Fe2+ and Fe3+) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na2Mn(Mn0.5Fe1.5)(PO4)3. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 h at 220 °C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220 °C for 6 h. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 h, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of the reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mA h g-1 for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99% during 50 cycles.

  5. The PhoBR two-component system regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia in response to phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006) is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR) quorum sensing (QS) system. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which phosphate limitation controls biosynthesis of two antibiotic secondary metabolites, prodigiosin and carbapenem, in Serratia 39006. Results We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU, believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. Phosphate limitation also activated secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006. In addition, a pstS mutation resulted in upregulation of rap. Rap, a putative SlyA/MarR-family transcriptional regulator, shares similarity with the global regulator RovA (regulator of virulence) from Yersina spp. and is an activator of secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006. We demonstrate that expression of rap, pigA-O (encoding the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon) and smaI are controlled via PhoBR in Serratia 39006. Conclusion Phosphate limitation regulates secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006 via multiple inter-linked pathways, incorporating transcriptional control mediated by three important global regulators, PhoB, SmaR and Rap. PMID:19476633

  6. The PhoBR two-component system regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia in response to phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006 is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR quorum sensing (QS system. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which phosphate limitation controls biosynthesis of two antibiotic secondary metabolites, prodigiosin and carbapenem, in Serratia 39006. Results We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU, believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. Phosphate limitation also activated secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006. In addition, a pstS mutation resulted in upregulation of rap. Rap, a putative SlyA/MarR-family transcriptional regulator, shares similarity with the global regulator RovA (regulator of virulence from Yersina spp. and is an activator of secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006. We demonstrate that expression of rap, pigA-O (encoding the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon and smaI are controlled via PhoBR in Serratia 39006. Conclusion Phosphate limitation regulates secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006 via multiple inter-linked pathways, incorporating transcriptional control mediated by three important global regulators, PhoB, SmaR and Rap.

  7. Removal of phosphate from solution by adsorption and precipitation of calcium phosphate onto monohydrocalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shintaro; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2012-10-15

    The sorption behavior and mechanism of phosphate on monohydrocalcite (CaCO(3)·H(2)O: MHC) were examined using batch sorption experiments as a function of phosphate concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures, and reaction times. The mode of PO(4) sorption is divisible into three processes depending on the phosphate loading. At low phosphate concentrations, phosphate is removed by coprecipitation of phosphate during the transformation of MHC to calcite. The sorption mode at the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations is most likely an adsorption process because the sorption isotherm at the conditions can be fitted reasonably with the Langmuir equation. The rapid sorption kinetics at the conditions is also consistent with the adsorption reaction. The adsorption of phosphate on MHC depends strongly on ionic strength, but slightly on temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of MHC obtained from the regression of the experimental data to the Langmuir equation are higher than those reported for stable calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) in any conditions. At high phosphate concentrations, the amount of sorption deviates from the Langmuir isotherm, which can fit the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations. Speciation-saturation analyses of the reacted solutions at the conditions indicated that the solution compositions which deviate from the Langmuir equation are supersaturated with respect to a certain calcium phosphate. The obtained calcium phosphate is most likely amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)·xH(2)O). The formation of the calcium phosphate depends strongly on ionic strength, temperature, and reaction times. The solubility of MHC is higher than calcite and aragonite because of its metastability. Therefore, the higher solubility of MHC facilitates the formation of the calcium phosphates more than with calcite and aragonite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of Ionic Liquids in Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra V. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are salt that exist in the liquid phase at and around 298 K and are comprised of a bulky, asymmetric organic cation and the anion usually inorganic ion but some ILs also with organic anion. ILs have attracted much attention as a replacement for traditional organic solvents as they possess many attractive properties. Among these properties, intrinsic ion conductivity, low volatility, high chemical and thermal stability, low combustibility, and wide electrochemical windows are few. Due to negligible or nonzero volatility of these solvents, they are considered “greener” for the environment as they do not evaporate like volatile organic compounds (VOCs. ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, lubricants, plasticizers, solvent, lithium batteries, solvents to manufacture nanomaterials, extraction, gas absorption agents, and so forth. Besides a brief discussion of the introduction, history, and properties of ILs the major purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview on the advantages of ILs for the synthesis of conducting polymer and nanoparticle when compared to conventional media and also to focus on the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on IL/composite modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed.

  9. Microwave synthesis of copper network onto lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for improved electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te, E-mail: cthsieh@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Liu, Juan-Ru [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Juang, Ruey-Shin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Herein reported is an efficient microwave-assisted (MA) approach for growing Cu network onto LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) powders as cathode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The MA approach is capable of depositing highly-porous Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. The electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LFP cathodes are well characterized by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu network acts as the key role in improving the specific capacity, rate capability, electrode polarization, as compared to fresh LFP cathode without the Cu coating. The EIS incorporated with equivalent circuit reveals that the completed Cu network obviously suppresses the charge transfer resistance. This result can be attributed to the fact that the Cu network ensures the LFP crystals to get electron easily, alleviating the electrode polarization in view of one-dimensional Li{sup +} ion mobility in the olivine crystals. Based on the analysis of Randles plots, the relatively higher Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient reflects the more efficient Li{sup +} pathway in the LFP powders through the aid of porous Cu network. - Highlights: • An efficient route was used to prepare Cu/LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) hybrid as cathode material. • The Cu/LFP cathodes exhibit an improved performance as compared to fresh LFP one. • The microwave approach can deposit Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. • The Cu network ensures LFP to get electrons, alleviating electrode polarization.

  10. Microwave synthesis of copper network onto lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for improved electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Liu, Juan-Ru; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Herein reported is an efficient microwave-assisted (MA) approach for growing Cu network onto LiFePO 4 (LFP) powders as cathode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The MA approach is capable of depositing highly-porous Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. The electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LFP cathodes are well characterized by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu network acts as the key role in improving the specific capacity, rate capability, electrode polarization, as compared to fresh LFP cathode without the Cu coating. The EIS incorporated with equivalent circuit reveals that the completed Cu network obviously suppresses the charge transfer resistance. This result can be attributed to the fact that the Cu network ensures the LFP crystals to get electron easily, alleviating the electrode polarization in view of one-dimensional Li + ion mobility in the olivine crystals. Based on the analysis of Randles plots, the relatively higher Li + diffusion coefficient reflects the more efficient Li + pathway in the LFP powders through the aid of porous Cu network. - Highlights: • An efficient route was used to prepare Cu/LiFePO 4 (LFP) hybrid as cathode material. • The Cu/LFP cathodes exhibit an improved performance as compared to fresh LFP one. • The microwave approach can deposit Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. • The Cu network ensures LFP to get electrons, alleviating electrode polarization

  11. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  12. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  13. Electrochemical biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosnier, Serge

    2015-01-01

    "This is an excellent book on modern electrochemical biosensors, edited by Professor Cosnier and written by leading international experts. It covers state-of-the-art topics of this important field in a clear and timely manner."-Prof. Joseph Wang, UC San Diego, USA  "This book covers, in 13 well-illustrated chapters, the potential of electrochemical methods intimately combined with a biological component for the assay of various analytes of biological and environmental interest. Particular attention is devoted to the description of electrochemical microtools in close contact with a biological cell for exocytosis monitoring and to the use of nanomaterials in the electrochemical biosensor architecture for signal improvement. Interestingly, one chapter describes the concept and design of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells. Each topic is reviewed by experts very active in the field. This timely book is well suited for providing a good overview of current research trends devoted to electrochemical...

  14. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jingquan; Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J.; Yang, Wenrong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis

  15. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingquan, E-mail: jliu@qdu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yang, Wenrong, E-mail: wenrong.yang@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of a PEDOT-Manganese Oxide Composite, and Its Application to Electrochemical Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, A.

    2016-01-01

    Stable and transparent aqueous dispersions of a hybrid organic-inorganic composite, are prepared by electrochemically doping Manganese Oxide into Polyethylendioxythiophene (PEDOT). Films deposited from the PEDOT-MnOx dispersions, are characterized by means of electrical and optical measurements, and by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations. The PEDOT-MnOx composite is then used to modify one of the gold electrodes of a simple electrochemical cell, in which Nafion is used as a solid electrolyte. The cell is characterized using time domain electrical measurements. It is found that distinguishable redox peaks arise in the current-voltage loops of the cell, as nanomolar amounts of either acetic acid and ammonia, are added to the deionized water into which the cell is immersed. The intensity of such current peaks, is linearly related to the concentration of the analytes, in the nanomolar range of concentrations. (paper)

  17. Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the availability of high affinity and specific bioreceptors and their great capabilities in terms of sensitivity and stability imparted by nanostructuring the electrode surface with different carbon nanomaterials have led to the development of new electrochemical biosensing strategies that have flourished as interesting alternatives to conventional methodologies for clinical diagnostics. This paper briefly reviews the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites as electrode modifiers to construct efficient electrochemical sensing platforms for diagnosis. The review provides an updated overview of some selected examples involving attractive amplification and biosensing approaches which have been applied to the determination of relevant genetic and protein diagnostics biomarkers. PMID:28035946

  18. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  19. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of nano-sized hydrogen phosphate-imprinted polymer in acetonitrile/water mixture and its use as a recognition element of hydrogen phosphate selective all-solid state potentiometric electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Atayi, Khalil

    2018-02-01

    Herein, a new recipe is introduced for the preparation of hydrogen phosphate ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nano-IIP) in acetonitrile/water (63.5:36.5) using phosphoric acid as the template. The nano-IIP obtained was used as the recognition element of a carbon paste potentiometric sensor. The IIP electrode showed a Nernstian response to hydrogen phosphate anion; whereas, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based electrode had no considerable sensitivity to the anion. The presence of both methacrylic acid and vinyl pyridine in the IIP structure, as well as optimization of the functional monomers-template proportion, was found to be important to observe the sensing capability of the IIP electrode. The nano-IIP electrode showed a dynamic linear range of 1 × 10 -5 -1 × 10 -1  mol L-1, Nernstian slope of 30.6 ± (0.5) mV decade -1 , response time of 25 seconds, and detection limit of 4.0 × 10 -6  mol L -1 . The utility of the electrodes was checked by potentiometric titration of hydrogen phosphate with La 3+ solution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a H(+)-dependent phosphate transporter gene from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Tao; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate transporters (PTs), as entry points for phosphorus (P) in organisms, are involved in a number of P nutrition processes such as phosphate uptake, transport, and transfer. In the study, a PT gene 1632 bp long (named BePT) was cloned, identified, and functionally characterized from Boletus edulis. BePT was expected to encode a polypeptide with 543 amino acid residues. The BePT polypeptide belonged to the major facilitator superfamily and showed a high degree of sequence identity to the Pht1 family. A topology model revealed that BePT exhibited 12 transmembrane helices, divided into two halves, and connected by a large hydrophilic loop in the middle. A yeast mutant complementation analysis suggested that BePT was a functional PT which mediated orthophosphate uptake of yeast at micromolar concentrations. Green fluorescent protein-BePT fusion proteins expressed were extensively restricted to the plasma membrane in BePT transformed yeast, and its activity was dependent on electrochemical membrane potential. In vitro, quantitative PCR confirmed that the expression of BePT was significantly upregulated at lower phosphorus availability, which may enhance phosphate uptake and transport under phosphate starvation. Our results suggest that BePT plays a key role in phosphate acquisition in the ectomycorrhizal fungus B. edulis. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  3. Quantitative Label-Free Cell Proliferation Tracking with a Versatile Electrochemical Impedance Detection Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Claudia; Carminati, M; Heiskanen, Arto

    2012-01-01

    optimal detection strategies. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to monitor and compare adhesion of different cell lines. HeLa cells and 3T3 fibroblasts have been cultured for 12 hours on interdigitated electrode arrays integrated into a tailor-made cell culture platform. Both......Since the use of impedance measurements for label-free monitoring of cells has become widespread but still the choice of sensing configuration is not unique though crucial for a quantitative interpretation of data, we demonstrate the application of a novel custom multipotentiostat platform to study...... vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configuration approaches have been used and compared on the same cell populations....

  4. A CMOS analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhichao; Chen Min; Xiao Jingbo; Chen Jie; Liu Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a complimentary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors. The chip includes a digital configuration circuit, which can communicate with an external microcontroller by employing an I 2 C interface bus, and thus is highly programmable. Digital correlative double samples technique and an incremental sigma–delta analog to digital converter (Σ–Δ ADC) are employed to achieve a new proposed system architecture with double samples. The chip has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process with high-precision and high-linearity performance occupying an area of 1.3 × 1.9 mm 2 . Sample solutions with various phosphate concentrations have been detected with a step concentration of 0.01 mg/L. (paper)

  5. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultra-sensitive detection of ibuprofen (IBP) by electrochemical aptasensor using the dendrimer-quantum dot (Den-QD) bioconjugate as an immobilization platform with special features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: m.roushani@ilam.ac.ir; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2017-06-01

    This study describes a high-performance electrochemical aptasensor which is employed to detect Ibuprofen (IBP) as a painkiller drug by using a novel platform as an integrated sensing interface. In order to make the aptasensor, the Den-QD bioconjugate was immobilized on the surface of a GC electrode and followed the Apt was incubated on this surface. The incubation of the IBP on the aptasensor surface and the formation of the Apt/IBP complex, led to a hindered electron transfer reaction on the sensing surface, which decreased the peak current of the redox probe. Under the optimum condition, the assay had two dynamic ranges with a detection limit down to 333 fM. The developed aptasensor reliably detects IBP in a real sample. Our results demonstrated that the proposed strategy has many advantages and the Den-QD bioconjugate may become a promising nanocomposite for the electrochemical sensing applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of an ultrasensitive electrochemical nanotool based on target-including conformational switching of an Apt. • The covalent attachment of a 5'-NH2-3'-AgNPs terminated Apt on the surface of a GCE electrode with CdTe QDs. • The use of CdTe QDs as a platform and the elimination of antibodies or enzymes are the advantages of this aptasensor.

  7. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 μmol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 μmol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreysa, G.; Juettner, K.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings encompass 40 conference papers belonging to the following subject areas: Baseline and review papers; electrochemical fuel cells; batteries: Primary and secondary cells; electrochemical, regenerative systems for energy conversion; electrochemical hydrogen generation; electrochemistry for nuclear power plant; electrochemistry for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; energy efficiency in electrochemical processes. There is an annex listing the authors and titles of the poster session, and compacts of the posters can be obtained from the office of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Abteilung Tagungen. (MM) [de

  9. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte

  10. In vitro degradation and electrochemical corrosion evaluations of microarc oxidized pure Mg, Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; He, Siyu; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Siqi; Dong, Pan; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2015-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic coatings were fabricated on pure magnesium (Mg) and self-designed Mg-0.6Ca, Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloys by microarc oxidation (MAO). The coating formation, growth and biomineralization mechanisms were discussed. The coating degradability and bioactivity were evaluated by immersion tests in trishydroxymethyl-aminomethane hydrochloric acid (Tris-HCl) buffer and simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions, respectively. The coatings and corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The electrochemical workstation was used to investigate the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of substrates and coatings. Results showed that Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy exhibits the highest mechanical strength and electrochemical corrosion resistance among the three alloys. The MAO-coated Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy has the potential to be served as a biodegradable implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Sensing of Methamphetamine by a Specific Aptamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mashinchian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is a simple and highly sensitive technique that can be used for evaluation of the aptamer-target interaction even in a label-free approach. Methods: To pursue the effectiveness of EIS, in the current study, the folding properties of specific aptamer for methamphetamine (METH (i.e., aptaMETH were evaluated in the presence of METH and amphetamine (Amph. Folded and unfolded aptaMETH was mounted on the gold electrode surface and the electron charge transfer was measured by EIS. Results: The Ret of methamphetamine-aptaMETH was significantly increased in comparison with other folding conditions, indicating specific detection of METH by aptaMETH. Conclusion: Based on these findings, methamphetamine-aptaMETH on the gold electrode surface displayed the most interfacial electrode resistance and thus the most folding situation. This clearly indicates that the aptaMETH can profoundly and specifically pinpoint METH; as a result we suggest utilization of this methodology for fast and cost-effective identification of METH.

  12. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venarusso, Luna B.; Tammeveski, Kaido; Maia, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN) 6 3- redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN) 6 3- , pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD + , and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD + and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  13. A silicon-based electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive, specific, label-free and real-time DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Su, Shao; Wei, Xinpan; Zhong, Yiling; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    We herein present a new kind of silicon-based electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticles-decorated silicon wafer (AuNPs@Si) as a high-performance electrode, which is facilely prepared via in situ AuNPs growth on a silicon wafer. Particularly significantly, the resultant electrochemical sensor is efficacious for label-free DNA detection with high sensitivity due to the unique merits of the prepared silicon-based electrode. Typically, DNA at remarkably low concentrations (1–10 fM) could be readily detected without requiring additional signal-amplification procedures, which is better than or comparable to the lowest DNA concentration ever detected via well-studied signal-amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors. Moreover, the silicon-based sensor features high specificity, allowing unambiguous discrimination of single-based mismatches. We further show that real-time DNA assembly is readily monitored via recording the intensity changes of current signals due to the robust thermal stability of the silicon-based electrode. The unprecedented advantages of the silicon-based electrochemical sensor would offer new opportunities for myriad sensing applications. (paper)

  14. Novel Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-12-01

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor for H2O2 was developed based on an Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized using a simple and cost effective approach with an electrochemically active biofilm. The optical, structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite were examined by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and their electrochemical performance was analyzed by CV, differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Ag@TiO2 nanocomposite modified GCE (Ag@TiO2/GCE) displayed excellent performance towards H2O2 sensing at -0.73 V in the linear response range from 0.83 μM to 43.3 μM, within a detection limit and sensitivity of 0.83 μM and ~65.2328±0.01 μA μM(-1) cm(-2), respectively. In addition, Ag@TiO2/GCE exhibited good operational reproducibility and long term stability. © 2013.

  15. Application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric substrate for alkaline phosphatase determination in human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical assay of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer solution the ALP enzymatic hydrolysis product of AAP was ascorbic acid (AA, which was an electro-active substance and had a sensitive differential pulse voltammetric (DPV oxidative response on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at +380 mV (versus Ag/AgCl, so the activity of ALP could be monitored voltammetrically of the oxidative peak current of AA. The electrochemical behaviours of AA were carefully studied and the AA standard solution could be measured by DPV method in the linear range from 10.0 to 1000.0 μmol/L with the detection limit of 8.0 μmol/L. The optimal conditions for ALP enzymatic reaction and the voltammetric detection were optimized. Under the optimal conditions the calibration curve for ALP assay exhibited a linear range from 0.4 to 2000.0 U/L with a detection limit of 0.3 U/L. This proposed method was further applied to determine the ALP content in healthy human serum and the results were in good agreement with the traditional p-nitrophenyl phosphate spectrophotometric method. The kinetic constants of enzymatic reaction were also investigated with the apparent kinetic constant Km as 2.77 mmol/L and the maximum velocity Vmax as 0.33 mol/min.

  16. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie, E-mail: hujie@tyut.edu.cn [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); Lian, Kun, E-mail: liankun@tyut.edu.cn [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); School of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Suzhou & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor was fabricated by using palladium (Pd) nanoparticle functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs). - Highlights: • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures and Pd nanoparticles are prepared using electrochemical methods. • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid films are used as supports and co-catalysts for Pd nanoparticles. • The Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structure based sensor shows an ultra-high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor exhibits excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  17. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor was fabricated by using palladium (Pd) nanoparticle functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs). - Highlights: • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures and Pd nanoparticles are prepared using electrochemical methods. • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid films are used as supports and co-catalysts for Pd nanoparticles. • The Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structure based sensor shows an ultra-high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor exhibits excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  18. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  19. Thermal-Responsive Polymers for Enhancing Safety of Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Thermal runway constitutes the most pressing safety issue in lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors of large-scale and high-power density due to risks of fire or explosion. However, traditional strategies for averting thermal runaway do not enable the charging-discharging rate to change according to temperature or the original performance to resume when the device is cooled to room temperature. To efficiently control thermal runaway, thermal-responsive polymers provide a feasible and reversible strategy due to their ability to sense and subsequently act according to a predetermined sequence when triggered by heat. Herein, recent research progress on the use of thermal-responsive polymers to enhance the thermal safety of electrochemical storage devices is reviewed. First, a brief discussion is provided on the methods of preventing thermal runaway in electrochemical storage devices. Subsequently, a short review is provided on the different types of thermal-responsive polymers that can efficiently avoid thermal runaway, such as phase change polymers, polymers with sol-gel transitions, and polymers with positive temperature coefficients. The results represent the important development of thermal-responsive polymers toward the prevention of thermal runaway in next-generation smart electrochemical storage devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%, lowest free acid (6 % and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.

  2. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide composite as high performance electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourian, Hazhir; Salimi, Abdollah; Firoozi, Somayeh; Korani, Aazam; Soltanian, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One pot hydrothermal synthesis used for preparing of ZrO 2 NPs reduced graphene oxide. • Electrocatalytic activity of ZrO 2 /rGO improved in compared to ZrO 2 based C- materials. • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO modified GCE was used for electrocatalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 . • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO/GCE shows excellent ability to simultaneous detection of AA,UA and DP. • With immobilization of GOX onto ZrO 2 NPs/rGO a sensitive glucose biosensor fabricated. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of zirconium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide composite (ZrO 2 -rGO) and its application as a novel architecture for electrochemical sensing and biosensing purposes. ZrO 2 -rGO hybrid is synthesized through a simple one-step hydrothermal route, where the reduction of GO and the in-situ generation of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) occurred simultaneously. Characterization of the resultant hybrid material using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy clearly indicated the homogeneous dispersion of ZrO 2 NPs with particle sizes of ∼5 nm on rGO sheets. The potential application of ZrO 2 -rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ZrO 2 -rGO/GC) for electroanalytical purposes was demonstrated by using several important electroactive compounds as representative examples (i.e., O 2 , hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), glucose, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)). Electrochemical control experiments by using different composites of ZrO 2 /graphite, ZrO 2 /Active Carbon and ZrO 2 electrodeposited on activated GC electrode revealed that the ZrO 2 -rGO composite possessed superior electrocatalytic activitiy towards the catalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 at more reduced overpotentials. The linear range of H 2 O 2 concentration was from 0.10 to 1340 μM with the detection limit of 20 nM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, via immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme onto the

  3. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  5. Electrochemical sensing of ammonium ion at the water/1,6-dichlorohexane interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José A; Silva, F; Pereira, Carlos M

    2012-01-15

    In this work, ion transfer and facilitated ion transfer of ammonium ion by a lipophilic cyclodextrin is investigated at the water/1,6-dichlorohexane micro-interface, using electrochemical approaches (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry). The association constant has been obtained for the complex between ammonium ion and the cyclodextrin. Experimental conditions for the analytical determination of ammonium ion were established and a detection limit of 0.12 μM was obtained. The amperometric sensor gave a current response proportional to the ammonium ion concentration in the range from 4.2 to 66 μM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I

    2013-06-10

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates\\' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle\\'s equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Asif I; Syaifudin, A R Mohd; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Yu, P L; Al-Bahadly, I H; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Kosel, Juergen; Liao, Tai-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle's equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  9. Effects of education on low-phosphate diet and phosphate binder intake to control serum phosphate among maintenance hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : For phosphate control, patient education is essential due to the limited clearance of phosphate by dialysis. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials about dietary and phosphate binder education have been scarce. Methods : We enrolled maintenance hemodialysis patients and randomized them into an education group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 22. We assessed the patients' drug compliance and their knowledge about the phosphate binder using a questionnaire. Results : The primary goal was to increase the number of patients who reached a calcium-phosphorus product of lower than 55. In the education group, 36 (75.0% patients achieved the primary goal, as compared with 16 (72.7% in the control group (P = 0.430. The education increased the proportion of patients who properly took the phosphate binder (22.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.087, but not to statistical significance. Education did not affect the amount of dietary phosphate intake per body weight (education vs. control: -1.18 ± 3.54 vs. -0.88 ± 2.04 mg/kg, P = 0.851. However, the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio tended to be lower in the education group (-0.64 ± 2.04 vs. 0.65 ± 3.55, P = 0.193. The education on phosphate restriction affected neither the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score (0.17 ± 4.58 vs. -0.86 ± 3.86, P = 0.363 nor the level of dietary protein intake (-0.03 ± 0.33 vs. -0.09 ± 0.18, P = 0.569. Conclusion : Education did not affect the calcium-phosphate product. Education on the proper timing of phosphate binder intake and the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio showed marginal efficacy.

  10. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2 among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  11. para-Sulfonatocalix[6]arene-modified silver nanoparticles electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode: preparation and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yinghui; Li, Chunya; Li, Haibing

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, a new electrochemical sensor, based on modified silver nanoparticles, was fabricated using one-step electrodeposition approach. The para-sulfonatocalix[6]arene-modified silver nanoparticles coated on glassy carbon electrode (pSC(6)-Ag NPs/GCE) was characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The pSC(6) as the host are highly efficient to capture organophosphates (OPs), which dramatically facilitates the enrichment of nitroaromatic OPs onto the electrochemical sensor surface. The combination of the host-guest supramolecular structure and the excellent electrochemical catalytic activities of the pSC(6)-Ag NPs/GCE provides a fast, simple, and sensitive electrochemical method for detecting nitroaromatic OPs. In this work, methyl parathion (MP) was used as a nitroaromatic OP model for testing the proposed sensor. In comparison with Ag NPs-modified electrode, the cathodic peak current of MP was amplified significantly. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the simultaneous determination of MP. Under optimum conditions, the current increased linearly with the increasing concentration of MP in the range of 0.01-80microM, with a detection limit of 4.0nM (S/N=3). The fabrication reproducibility and stability of the sensor is better than that of enzyme-based electrodes. The possible underlying mechanism is discussed.

  12. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  13. Quantum Dot Nanotoxicity Investigations Using Human Lung Cells and TOXOR Electrochemical Enzyme Assay Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Tony; Seddon, Brian; O'Connor, Andrew; McClean, Siobhán; Singh, Baljit; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Fuku, Xolile; Dempsey, Eithne

    2017-01-27

    Recent studies have suggested that certain nanomaterials can interfere with optically based cytotoxicity assays resulting in underestimations of nanomaterial toxicity. As a result there has been growing interest in the use of whole cell electrochemical biosensors for nanotoxicity applications. Herein we report application of an electrochemical cytotoxicity assay developed in house (TOXOR) in the evaluation of toxic effects of mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MSA capped CdTe QDs), toward mammalian cells. MSA capped CdTe QDs were synthesized, characterized, and their cytotoxicity toward A549 human lung epithelial cells investigated. The internalization of QDs within cells was scrutinized via confocal microscopy. The cytotoxicity assay is based on the measurement of changes in cellular enzyme acid phosphatase upon 24 h exposure to QDs. Acid phosphatase catalyzes dephosphorylation of 2-naphthyl phosphate to 2-naphthol (determined by chronocoulometry) and is indicative of metabolic activity in cells. The 24 h IC50 (concentration resulting in 50% reduction in acid phosphatase activity) value for MSA capped CdTe QDs was found to be 118 ± 49 μg/mL using the TOXOR assay and was in agreement with the MTT assay (157 ± 31 μg/mL). Potential uses of this electrochemical assay include the screening of nanomaterials, environmental toxins, in addition to applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and health sectors.

  14. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  15. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  16. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  17. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  18. Origin of the different behavior of some platinum decorated nanocarbons towards the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, A.; Leonardi, S.G.; Bonavita, A.; Fazio, E.; Stelitano, S.; Neri, G.; Neri, F.; Santangelo, S.

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of different platinum-decorated nanocarbons (Pt@C) towards the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) was investigated. Three different types of nanocarbons were considered: i) carbon black, ii) dahlia-like carbon nanohorns and iii) carbon nanotubes, which included both commercial (single-wall and multi-wall) and laboratory prepared (multi-wall) samples. Shape and size distribution of the platinum nanoparticles and morphology of the nanocarbons were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Their nanostructure was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, while elemental composition of the samples and chemical bonding states were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior towards H_2O_2 oxidation was evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry modifying the working screen-printed carbon electrode surface with the prepared Pt@C nanocomposites. Data obtained suggest that the size and dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles play a key role in increasing the sensitivity towards H_2O_2 detection. Thanks to the presence of smaller and more dispersed platinum particles and of a greater amount of platinum hydroxide, acting as intermediary in the H_2O_2 oxidation process, Pt@dahlia-like carbon nanohorns result to be the most promising platform for the development of H_2O_2 electrochemical sensors. - Highlights: • Different nanocarbons are decorated with Pt nanoparticles by wet impregnation method. • Pt@C-based hybrids are tested as active materials for sensing of hydrogen peroxide. • Sensor based on Pt@dahlia-like carbon nanohorns is the most performing device. • The origin of the different electrochemical behaviour is investigated. • Pt@C sensing performances are correlated with their structural and surface properties.

  19. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Fabrication of flexible and disposable carbon paste-based electrodes and their electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasomayajula, Lavanya; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2008-03-01

    The paper describes a disposable electrochemical biosensor for glucose monitoring. The sensor is based on carbon paste immobilized with glucose oxidase and upon screen printed electrodes. The sensor has been tested effectively for the blood glucose levels corresponding to normal (70 to 99 mg/dL or 3.9 to5.5 mmol/L), pre-diabetic (100 to 125 mg/dL or 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) and diabetic (>126 mg/dL or 7.0 mmol/L). The calibration curve and the sensitivity of the sensor were measured.