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Sample records for electrochemical lithium insertion

  1. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.

    2012-02-27

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  2. Highly Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium, Accompanied With a Marked Color Change, Occuring in Microcrystalline Lithium Nickel Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Campet, G.; Portier, J.; Morel, B.; Ferry, D.; Chabagno, J. M.; Benotmane, L.; Bourrel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of lithium-nickel oxide, whose texture consists of microcrystallites with an average grain size of 50 Å, permit highly reversible electrochemical insertion of lithium ions in Li+ conducting electrolytes. Therefore, the corresponding materials would be of great interest for energy storage applications. In addition, the lithium insertion/extraction reactions in the nickel-based layers are accompanied with a marked color change, making these films of interest for the devel...

  3. High performance lithium insertion negative electrode materials for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channu, V.S. Reddy, E-mail: chinares02@gmail.com [SMC Corporation, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Rambabu, B. [Solid State Ionics and Surface Sciences Lab, Department of Physics, Southern University and A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Kumari, Kusum [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India); Kalluru, Rajmohan R. [The University of Southern Mississippi, College of Science and Technology, 730 E Beach Blvd, Long Beach, MS 39560 (United States); Holze, Rudolf [Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • LiCrTiO{sub 4} nanostructures were synthesized for electrochemical applications by soft chemical synthesis followed by annealing. • The presence of Cr and Ti elements are confirmed from the EDS spectrum. • Oxalic acid assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode shows higher specific capacity (mAh/g). - Abstract: Spinel LiCrTiO{sub 4} oxides to be used as electrode materials for a lithium ion battery and an asymmetric supercapacitor were synthesized using a soft-chemical method with and without chelating agents followed by calcination at 700 °C for 10 h. Structural and morphological properties were studied with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Particles of 50–10 nm in size are observed in the microscopic images. The presence of Cr and Ti is confirmed from the EDS spectrum. Electrochemical properties of LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode were examined in a lithium ion battery. The electrode prepared with oxalic acid-assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} shows higher specific capacity.This LiCrTiO{sub 4} is also used as anode material for an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor. The cell exhibits a specific capacity of 65 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. The specific capacity decreases with increasing current densities.

  4. Electrochemical study of lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, Jan; Mera, Gabriela; Nowak, Andrzej P.; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic synthesized by the thermal treatment of poly(diphenylsilylcarbodiimide) at three temperatures, namely 1100, 1300, and 1700 o C under 0.1 MPa Ar atmosphere. At lower synthesis temperatures, the material is X-ray amorphous, while at 1700 o C, the SiCN ceramic partially crystallizes. Anode materials prepared from these carbon-rich SiCN ceramics without any fillers and conducting additives were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometric charging/discharging. We found that the studied silicon carbonitride ceramics demonstrate a promising electrochemical behavior during lithium insertion/extraction in terms of capacity and cycling stability. The sample synthesized at 1300 o C exhibits a reversible capacity of 392 mAh g -1 . Our study confirms that carbon-rich SiCN phases are electrochemically active materials in terms of Li inter- and deintercalation.

  5. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.; McDowell, M. T.; Berla, L. A.; Nix, W. D.; Cui, Y.

    2012-01-01

    in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur

  6. Electrochemical lithium insertion in graphite containing dispersed tin-antimony alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, Denis; Nabais, Catarina; Mercier, Cedric [LCSM, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Nancy University, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Schneider, Raphael [LCPME, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, Nancy University, Faculte de Pharmacie, BP 80 403, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Willmann, Patrick [CNES, Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, 18, Avenue E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    Graphite/SnSb composites were prepared by solution-phase reduction of SnCl{sub 2} and SbCl{sub 5} in the presence of graphite powder using either t-BuONa-activated NaH or t-BuOLi-activated LiH. Crude and washed materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). Electrochemical lithium insertion was carried out in both types of composites using voltammetry or galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques. It appeared that graphite-SnSb composites prepared using t-BuOLi-activated LiH as reductant displayed the highest reversible capacity (ca. 500 mA h g{sup -1}). This phenomenon is likely in relation with a better dispersion and grafting of metal particles on graphite, as suggested by FEG-SEM and TEM analyses. However, such dispersion appeared to increase significantly the irreversible capacity. (author)

  7. Behavior of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO2)4(WO3)2m (m = 7 and 8) in the course of electrochemical lithium insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-de la Cruz, A.; Longoria Rodriguez, F.E.; Gonzalez, Lucy T.; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical lithium insertion process has been studied in the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m , where m = 7 and 8. Structural changes in the pristine oxides were followed as lithium insertion proceeded. Through potentiostatic intermittent technique the different processes which take place in the cathode during the discharge of the cell were analyzed. The nature of the bronzes Li x (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m formed was determined by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. These results have allowed establishing a correlation with the reversible/irreversible processes detected during the electrochemical lithium insertion

  8. Studies on electrochemical lithium insertion in isostructural titanium niobate and tantalate phases with shear ReO3 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritha, D.; Varadaraju, U.V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical lithium insertion into ReO 3 type phases TiNb 2 O 7 , TiTa 2 O 7 is feasible. • TiNb 2 O 7 exhibits good cycling behavior and high reversible capacity of 212 mAh g −1 . • TiTa 2 O 7 exhibits reversible capacity of 100 mAh g −1 . - Abstract: TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases are synthesized by solid-state reaction method and are investigated for electrochemical Li insertion/extraction. The electrochemical insertion of Li in these phases is characterized by both solid solution and two-phase regimes. The structure is stable toward Li insertion/extraction. The first cycle discharge capacity values are 307 mAh g −1 and 215 mAh g −1 in the voltage range of 3.0–1.0 V for TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases, respectively. The discharge capacities of TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 are 212 mAh g −1 and 100 mAh g −1 , respectively, after 20 cycles

  9. Chemical and electrochemical lithium insertion into ternary transition metal sulfides MMo[sub 2]S[sub 4] (M: V, Cr, Fe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffi, S.; Peraldo Bicelli, L. (Milan Polytechnic (Italy). Dept. of Applied Physical Chemistry CNR, Milan (Italy). Research Centre on Electrode Processes); Barriga, C.; Lavela, P.; Morales, J.; Tirado, J.L. (Cordoba Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica)

    1992-08-01

    The effects of lithium insertion in MMo[sub 2]S[sub 4] (M: V, Cr, Fe) have been studied by means of chemical and electrochemical insertion methods. The reaction has a topotactic character and a higher degree of lithium insertion was found for the compound FeMo[sub 2]S[sub 4] which has a greater unit cell volume. For this compound the changes in lattice parameters with lithium content are also more pronounced. The voltage composition curves show a smooth voltage decrease with a quasi-plateau located at around 1.3 V. For discharge at lithium content higher than 0.8, the voltage decreases quickly followed by an extended plateau below 1 V, a region where electrolyte decomposition may occur. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the electrochemical lithiated compounds show that the original monoclinic structure is maintained up to 0.8 e[sup -] per mole, buth with a significant change in the intensity of the peaks, indicative of an alteration of cation distribution for this degree of insertion. For high lithium content, such disorder promotes the collapse of the structure, resulting in the loss of long-range order of the material. (orig.).

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical sodium and lithium insertion properties of sodium titanium oxide with the tunnel type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunimitsu; Akimoto, Junji

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline sample of sodium titanium oxide Na2Ti4O9 with the tunnel-type structure was prepared by topotactic sodium extraction in air atmosphere from the as prepared Na3Ti4O9 sample. The starting Na3Ti4O9 compound was synthesized by solid state reaction at 1273 K in Ar atmosphere. The completeness of oxidation reaction from Na3Ti4O9 to Na2Ti4O9 was monitored by the change in color from dark blue to white, and was also confirmed by the Rietveld refinement using the powder X-ray diffraction data. The sodium deficient Na2Ti4O9 maintained the original Na2.08Ti4O9-type tunnel structure and had the monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/m, and the lattice parameters of a = 23.1698(3) Å, b = 2.9406(1) Å, c = 10.6038(2) Å, β = 102.422(3)°, and V = 705.57(2) Å3. The electrochemical measurements of thus obtained Na2Ti4O9 sample showed the reversible sodium insertion and extraction reactions at 1.1 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V vs. Na/Na+, and reversible lithium insertion and extraction reactions at around 1.4 V, 1.8 V, and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li+. The reversible capacity for the lithium cell was achieved to be 104 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle.

  11. Study of the lithium insertion-deinsertion mechanism in nanocrystalline γ-Fe2O3 electrodes by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintin, M.; Devos, O.; Delville, M.H.; Campet, G.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium intercalation hosts are a key point to the energy density of the largely used LiCoO 2 (even if of high cost and toxicity) as well as of manganese oxides which have been investigated most extensively. Iron oxides are attractive electrode materials for low-voltage rechargeable lithium batteries from both cost and environmental standpoints. However, search for iron oxides of conventional crystalline structures and micrometer particle sizes as lithium intercalation cathodes, has been greeted with disappointing results. Here we report on the synthesis, characterizations, electrochemical study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of a nanocrystalline γ-Fe 2 O 3 that simultaneously exhibits high lithium insertion capacity and good capacity retention upon cycling. These properties reveal thermodynamics of the nanocrystalline material inherently different from those of its microcrystalline counterpart. Moreover, EIS showed that the intercalation process of the lithium ion occurs according to two processes involving first the reduction of the surface Fe 3+ with concomitant charge neutralization by Li + ions onto the surface defects of the nanoparticle followed by the reduction of the core Fe 3+ with insertion of the Li + deeper in the particle

  12. Lithium Insertion in LixMn2O4, 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    The electrochemical lithium insertion properties of highly crystalline LixMn2O4 are investigated in the approximate lithium insertion range 0 ... of the lithium insertion/extraction reactions is better at the higher voltages (versus Li/Li+), and particularly at the 4 V plateau. The lithium insertion/extraction reaction at the 1 V plateau although essentially reversible is associated with a significant voltage hysteresis....

  13. Lithium-Ion (de)insertion reaction of Germanium thin-film electrodes : an electrochemical and in situ XRD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggetto, L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Germanium is a promising negative electrode candidate for lithium-ion thin-film batteries because of its very high theoretical storage capacity. When assuming full conversion of the material into the room-temperature equilibrium lithium saturated germanium phase, a theoretical capacity of or of

  14. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  15. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  16. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a

  17. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  19. Lithium insertion mechanism in SnS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre-Devos, I.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.; Lavela, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study lithium insertion in SnS 2 by means of 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Sn L I,III , and S K edges, and theoretical electronic structures (calculated in the density-functional theory framework). An insertion mechanism is derived according to the Li amount. It shows the influence of the SnS 2 -layered structure on the Sn reduction, particularly the possibility of an intermediate oxidation state between Sn IV and Sn II , which is not observed during Li insertion in three-dimensional sulfides

  20. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascon, J. M.; Murphy, D. W.

    1986-02-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo15Se19, which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In3Mo15Se19 and In2Mo15Se19, respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula LixMo15Se19. This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both LixMo15Se19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo15Se19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both LixMo15Se19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo15Se19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In2Mo15Se19 and In3Mo15Se19. We found that In2Mo15Se19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In3Mo15Se19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations.

  1. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Murphy, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo 15 Se 19 , which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 and In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 , respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 . This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo 15 Se 19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo 15 Se 19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In''Mo 15 Se 19 and In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 . We found that In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations

  2. In situ57Fe Moessbauer Investigation of Solid-State Redox Reactions of Lithium Insertion Electrodes for Advanced Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Ohzuku, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    A novel in situ electrochemical cell for 57 Fe Moessbauer measurements was developed in order to clarify the mechanisms of solid-state redox reactions in lithium insertion materials containing iron. Our in situ Moessbauer technique was successfully applied to the determination as to which transition metal ion was a redox center in the insertion electrodes, such as LiFe 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 , LiFeTiO 4 , or LiFe 0.25 Ni 0.75 O 2 , for the lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2010-09-08

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of lithium titanate spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger; Maire, Pascal [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Novak, Petr, E-mail: petr.novak@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-10-30

    Herein we describe electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of lithium titanate spinel as well as an easy method based on colorimetry to determine the lithium content of electrodes containing lithium titanate spinel as active material. Raman microspectrometry measurements have been performed to follow lithium insertion into and extraction from the active material, respectively. The Raman signals display a pronounced fading of intensity already at low levels of lithium intercalation and disappear at a SOC higher than {approx}10%. However, the colorimetric method can be used up to a SOC of 50%.

  5. Electrochemical insertion in solid media of alkali cations in carbonated host structures (polyacetylene, fullerene and graphite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemont, Sylvain

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the investigation of electrochemical insertion of alkali cations in different host carbon containing structures (polyacetylene, fullerene, graphite). After a recall of the main characteristics of the three considered compounds, the author reports a bibliographical survey, describes the different compounds which can be used as solid electrolytes and explains the choice of the studied compounds with respect to their phase diagrams, ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability range. He describes the experimental methods, discusses the results obtained by intercalation of alkali cations (Li + , Na + , K + ) in polyacetylene. He discusses the electrochemical and structural results obtained on intercalation compounds of lithium and sodium ions in fullerene. The structures of several phases have been obtained by electron diffraction. Preliminary studies of electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) are reported. The last part compares the results obtained on two types of graphite: pellets and spherules [fr

  6. A Simple Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Ultrathin Nickel Cobaltite Nanosheets for Electrochemical Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Youqi; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple microwave-assisted method to fabricate high-quality two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets with a geometrically graphene-like architecture. The unique large-area nanostructures represent an ultrahigh surface atomic ratio with almost all active elements exposed outside for surface-dependent electrochemical reaction processes. Experimental results reveal that the as-synthesized ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets show excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage application. The ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets could deliver a high first discharge capacity (1287.1 mAh g −1 ) with initial Coulombic efficiency of 80.0% at 200 mA g −1 current density. The reversible lithium storage capacity still retains at 804.8 mAh g −1 in the 100th cycle, suggesting a good cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets could be ascribed to the unique ultrathin 2D architecture, which could offer large exposed active surface with more lithium-insertion channels and significantly reduce lithium ion diffusion distance. The cost-efficient synthesis and excellent lithium storage properties make the 2D NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheets as a promising anode material for high-performance lithium ion batteries

  7. Lithium insertion into Fe 2(SO 4) 3 frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, A.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1989-05-01

    The two polymorphs of Fe 2(SO 4) 3 consist of framework structures built up of tetrahedra sharing corners with octahedra and vice versa. One is rhombohedral, the other is monoclinic. Two moles of lithium insert rapidly into both structures at room temperature. However, lithium insertion into the rhombohedral phase is topotactic without any change of symmetry of the framework, whereas the monoclinic modification is converted to an orthorombic Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 phase via a displacement transition; the existence of a two-phase region between Fe 2(SO 4) 3 and Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 results in a flat OCV of 3.6 V versus lithium, which is 600 mV higher than is found for Li xFFe 2(WO 4) 3 or Li xFe 2(MoO 4) 3. This difference is discussed in terms of the influence of the counter cation on the solid-state Fe {3+}/{2+} redox couple.

  8. Controllable synthesis of porous LiFePO4 for tunable electrochemical Li-insertion performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yingke; Wu, Guan; Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A templated freeze-drying method is developed to prepare the porous LiFePO 4 . • The pore size and porosity can be controlled by adjusting the conditions. • The effects of the porous properties on the Li-insertion performances are studied. • The optimized composite presents excellent specific capacity and rate capability. - Abstract: A templated freeze-drying method is developed to prepare the porous LiFePO 4 materials with the controlled pore size and porosity, by conveniently adjusting the size and content of the template in the precursor solution. The morphology and structure of the porous LiFePO 4 materials are characterized and the relavant electrochemical lithium-insertion performances are systematically studied. It’s found that the porous characteristics play a critical role in the lithium-ion intercalation processes and significantly affect the power capability of LiFePO 4 . The optimized porous LiFePO 4 material presents remarkable specific capacity (167 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C), rate capability (151 mAh g −1 at 1 C and 110 mAh g −1 at 10 C) and cycling stability (99.3% retention after 300 cycles at 1 C). These findings demonstrate that the electrochemical performance of the electrode material can be purposely tuned and remarkably improved by the rational design and introduction of the suitable pores, which open up new strategies for the synthesis of advanced porous materials for the lithium-ion power battery applications.

  9. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  10. Lattice vibrations of materials for lithium rechargeable batteries II. Lithium extraction-insertion in spinel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, C.M.; Camacho-Lopez, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lithiated spinel manganese oxides with various amounts of lithium have been prepared through solid-state reaction and electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation. Local structure of the samples are studied using Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We report vibrational spectra of lithiated manganese oxides Li x Mn 2 O 4 as a function of lithium concentration in the range 0.1≤x≤2.0. Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral results indicated multiple-phase reactions when the lithium content is modified in the spinel lattice. Lattice dynamics of lithiated spinel manganese oxides have been interpreted using either a classical factor-group analysis or a local environment model. The structural modifications have been studied on the basis of vibrations of LiO 4 tetrahedral and MnO 6 octahedral units when Li/Mn≤0.5, and LiO 4 , LiO 6 , and MnO 6 structural units when Li/Mn>0.5

  11. Insertion of Mono- vs. Bi- vs. Trivalent Atoms in Prospective Active Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Batteries: An ab Initio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym V. Kulish

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of active electrode materials is important for the development of advanced lithium and post-lithium batteries. Ab initio modeling can provide mechanistic understanding of the performance of prospective materials and guide design. We review our recent comparative ab initio studies of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and aluminum interactions with different phases of several actively experimentally studied electrode materials, including monoelemental materials carbon, silicon, tin, and germanium, oxides TiO2 and VxOy as well as sulphur-based spinels MS2 (M = transition metal. These studies are unique in that they provided reliable comparisons, i.e., at the same level of theory and using the same computational parameters, among different materials and among Li, Na, K, Mg, and Al. Specifically, insertion energetics (related to the electrode voltage and diffusion barriers (related to rate capability, as well as phononic effects, are compared. These studies facilitate identification of phases most suitable as anode or cathode for different types of batteries. We highlight the possibility of increasing the voltage, or enabling electrochemical activity, by amorphization and p-doping, of rational choice of phases of oxides to maximize the insertion potential of Li, Na, K, Mg, Al, as well as of rational choice of the optimum sulfur-based spinel for Mg and Al insertion, based on ab initio calculations. Some methodological issues are also addressed, including construction of effective localized basis sets, applications of Hubbard correction, generation of amorphous structures, and the use of a posteriori dispersion corrections.

  12. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  14. Structural and electrochemical study of the reaction of lithium with silicon nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    The structural transformations of silicon nanowires when cycled against lithium were evaluated using electrochemical potential spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling. During the charge, the nanowires alloy with lithium to form an amorphous Lix

  15. A fundamental approach to better understand the lithium insertion mechanisms in electrode materials; Une approche fondamentale pour mieux comprendre les mecanismes d`insertion du lithium dans les materiaux d`electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Branci, C.; Sarradin, J.; Jumas, J.C. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Physicochimie de la Matiere Condensee

    1996-12-31

    The development of rechargeable lithium batteries with a high mass capacity, made with non-toxic and low cost materials is an important industrial challenge. Morphological and structural modifications occurring in the electrode materials during charge-output cycles should not lower the electrochemical characteristics and the cycling properties of the battery. Thus the structure of electrode materials must be sufficiently deformable and stable to support the constraints linked with lithium intercalation and de-intercalation (ions and electrons absorption/extraction). The aim of this work is to explain some characteristics (mass capacity, ions and electrons mobility, cycling) using the relation between some mechanisms of lithium insertion (sites occupation, lattice reduction mods) and the nature of atoms and chemical bonds (covalence, ionicity). This approach is developed on 2-D models of crystallized and vitreous sulfur compounds (CdI{sub 2} type) with a large inter-sheet distance, and on 3-D spinel models with a huge number of vacant sites. The method is based on a correlation between experimental studies (XAFS, DX, Moessbauer, XPS) and theoretical calculations and on the electronic and electrochemical characteristics. The model proposed should allow to improve materials in a predictive way (type of substitution) or to imagine new materials. (J.S.) 15 refs.

  16. A fundamental approach to better understand the lithium insertion mechanisms in electrode materials; Une approche fondamentale pour mieux comprendre les mecanismes d`insertion du lithium dans les materiaux d`electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier-Fourcade, J; Branci, C; Sarradin, J; Jumas, J C [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Physicochimie de la Matiere Condensee

    1997-12-31

    The development of rechargeable lithium batteries with a high mass capacity, made with non-toxic and low cost materials is an important industrial challenge. Morphological and structural modifications occurring in the electrode materials during charge-output cycles should not lower the electrochemical characteristics and the cycling properties of the battery. Thus the structure of electrode materials must be sufficiently deformable and stable to support the constraints linked with lithium intercalation and de-intercalation (ions and electrons absorption/extraction). The aim of this work is to explain some characteristics (mass capacity, ions and electrons mobility, cycling) using the relation between some mechanisms of lithium insertion (sites occupation, lattice reduction mods) and the nature of atoms and chemical bonds (covalence, ionicity). This approach is developed on 2-D models of crystallized and vitreous sulfur compounds (CdI{sub 2} type) with a large inter-sheet distance, and on 3-D spinel models with a huge number of vacant sites. The method is based on a correlation between experimental studies (XAFS, DX, Moessbauer, XPS) and theoretical calculations and on the electronic and electrochemical characteristics. The model proposed should allow to improve materials in a predictive way (type of substitution) or to imagine new materials. (J.S.) 15 refs.

  17. The investigation on electrochemical reaction mechanism of CuF2 thin film with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yanhua; Xue Mingzhe; Zhou Yongning; Peng Shuming; Wang Xiaolin; Fu Zhengwen

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline CuF 2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition under room temperature. The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-deposited thin films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Reversible capacity of 544 mAh g -1 was achieved in the potential range of 1.0-4.0 V. A reversible couple of redox peaks at 3.0 V and 3.7 V was firstly observed. By using ex situ XRD and TEM techniques, an insertion process followed by a fully conversion reaction to Cu and LiF was revealed in the lithium electrochemical reaction of CuF 2 thin film electrode. The reversible insertion reaction above 2.8 V could provide a capacity of about 125 mAh g -1 , which makes CuF 2 a potential cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  18. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  19. Electrochemical reactivity of Co-Li2S nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongning; Wu, Changliang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Xiaojing; Fu, Zhengwen

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite thin film is reported by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the first time. Li 2 S-Co nanocomposite thin film is used as storing Li electrodes that have led to promising electrochemical activity and good electrochemical performance. The releasing Li process from the as-deposited Li 2 S-Co nanocomposite thin films is confirmed by the ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) measurements and may come from the decomposition of Li 2 S with and without the interaction of metal Co into CoS 2 and S. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite film electrode involving both the formation and decomposition of Li 2 S and the lithium extraction/insertion of CoS 2 after the initial charging process is proposed. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite in storage lithium materials

  20. Topotactic insertion of lithium in the layered structure Li4VO(PO4)2: The tunnel structure Li5VO(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Kishore, M.; Pralong, V.; Caignaert, V.; Malo, S.; Hebert, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2008-01-01

    A new V(III) lithium phosphate Li 5 VO(PO 4 ) 2 has been synthesized by electrochemical insertion of lithium into Li 4 VO(PO 4 ) 2 . This phase, which crystallizes in the space group I4/mcm, exhibits a tunnel structure closely related to the layered structure of Li 4 VO(PO 4 ) 2 and to the tunnel structure of VO(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 . The topotactic reactions that take place during lithium exchange and intercalation, starting from VO(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 and going to the final phase Li 5 VO(PO 4 ) 2 are explained on the basis of the flexible coordinations of V 4+ and V 3+ species. The electrochemical and magnetic properties of this new phase are also presented and explained on the basis of the structure dimensionality. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical synthesis of a new 3D V(III) lithium phosphate, Li 5 VO(PO 4 ) 2 . Starting from the 2D Li 4 VO(PO 4 ) 2 , the topotactic reaction that take place during lithium intercalation is explained on the basis of the flexible coordinations of V 4+ and V 3+ species

  1. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy. (author)

  2. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  3. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved

  4. Cycle aging studies of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Santarelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The cycle aging of a commercial 18650 lithium-ion battery with graphite anode and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide-based cathode at defined operating conditions is studied by regular electrochemical characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and post-mortem analysis.

  5. Preparation of the electrochemically formed spinel-lithium manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, Katsumi; Wada, Kohei; Kajiki, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akiko [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nara National College of Technology, 22 Yata-cho Yamotokoriyama, Nara 639-1080 (Japan); Ogumi, Zempachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    Electrochemically formed spinel-lithium manganese oxides were synthesized from manganese hydroxides prepared by a cathodic electrochemical precipitation from various concentrations of manganese nitrate solutions. Two types of manganese hydroxides were formed from diluted and concentrated Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions. Uniform and equi-sized disk shaped Mn(OH){sub 2} crystals of 0.2-5 {mu}m in diameter were obtained on a Pt substrate after the electrochemical precipitation from lower concentration of ranging from 2 mmol dm{sup -3} to 2 mol dm{sup -3} Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aq., while the grass blade-like precipitate which is ascribed to manganese hydroxide with 20-80 {mu}m long and 1-5 {mu}m wide were formed from concentrated Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aq. Both manganese hydroxides gave the electrochemically formed spinel-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} onto a Pt sheet, which is ready for electrochemical measurement, after calcination of the Li incorporated precipitate at 750 C without any additives. While the shape and size of the secondary particle frameworks (aggregates) of the electrochemically formed spinel-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be controlled by the electrolysis conditions, the nanostructured primary crystals of 200 nm in diameter were obtained in all cases except that the fiber-like nanostructured spinel-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals with 200 nm in diameter were obtained from concentrated Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aq. Though these two types of electrochemically formed spinel-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed well-shaped CVs even in higher scan rates, it would be suitable for high power density battery applications. These behaviors are assumed to be ascribed to the crystal size and shape of the processed spinel-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Electrochemical performance of CuNCN for sodium ion batteries and comparison with ZnNCN and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia-Barrio, A.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Klein, F.; Pinedo, R.; Lezama, L.; Janek, J.; Adelhelm, P.; Rojo, T.

    2017-11-01

    Transition metal carbodiimides (TMNCN) undergo conversion reactions during electrochemical cycling in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Micron sized copper and zinc carbodiimide powders have been prepared as single phase as confirmed by PXRD and IR and their thermal stability has been studied in air and nitrogen atmosphere. CuNCN decomposes at ∼250 °C into CuO or Cu while ZnNCN can be stable until 400 °C and 800 °C in air and nitrogen respectively. Both carbodiimides were electrochemically analysed for sodium and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical Na+ insertion in CuNCN exhibits a relatively high reversible capacity (300 mAh·g-1) which still indicates an incomplete conversion reaction. This incomplete reaction confirmed by ex-situ EPR analysis, is partly due to kinetic limitations as evidenced in the rate capability experiments and in the constant potential measurements. On the other hand, ZnNCN shows incomplete conversion reaction but with good capacity retention and lower hysteresis as negative electrode for sodium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of these materials is comparable to that of other materials which operate through displacement reactions and is surprisingly better in sodium ion batteries in comparison with lithium ion batteries.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 6Li MAS NMR Study of Lithium Insertion into Hydrothermally Prepared Li-Ti-O Spinel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtil, Petr; Dědeček, Jiří; Kostlánová, Tereza; Brus, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2004), A163-A166 ISSN 1099-0062 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0823 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lithium insertion * spinel * NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.271, year: 2004

  10. Electrochemical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibiting Layers Formed in a Defect from Lithium-Leaching Organic Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.; Meeusen, M.; Gonzalez Garcia, Y.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the electrochemical evaluation of protective layers generated in a coating defect from lithium-leaching organic coatings on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloys as a function of neutral salt spray exposure time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the electrochemical

  11. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms

  12. Insertion of lithium in Nb2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.C.M.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.; Castro, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electrode process during the reduction and oxidation of Nb sub(2) O sub(5) by cyclic voltametry was characterized. The surface analysis by X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy allowed characterize the surface processes, that happening during the insertion reaction. (author)

  13. Electrochemical Activity of Hydrothermally Synthesized Li-Ti-O Cubic Oxides towards Li Insertion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fattakhova, Dina; Krtil, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 9 (2002), s. 1224-1229 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lithium insertion * anatase electrodes * metal-oxides Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.330, year: 2002

  14. In situ NMR observation of the lithium extraction/insertion from LiCoO2 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Keiji; Murakami, Miwa; Takamatsu, Daiko; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently accepted to be one of the most suitable energy storage resources in portable electronic devices because of their high gravimetric and volumetric energy density. To understand the behavior of Li + ions on electrochemical lithium extraction/insertion process, we performed in situ 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements for LiCoO 2 cathode in a plastic cell battery, and the spectral evolutions of the 7 Li NMR signal of Li x CoO 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were well investigated. Very narrow solid solution region of Li x CoO 2 (∼0.99 ≤ x 2 signal at ∼0 ppm, which is related to the localized nature of the electronic spin of paramagnetic Co 4+ ion formed at the very early delithiation stage. With further decreasing the signal intensity of LiCoO 2 , a Knight-shifted signal corresponding to an electrically conductive Li x CoO 2 phase emerged at x = 0.97, which then monotonously decreased in intensity for x x CoO 2 . These observations acquired in situ fully confirm the earlier studies obtained in ex situ measurements, although the present study offers more quantitative information. Moreover, it was shown that the peak position of the NMR shift for Li x CoO 2 moved as a function of lithium content, which behavior is analogous to the change in its c lattice parameter. Also, the growth and consumption of dendritic/mossy metallic lithium on the counter electrode was clearly observed during the charge/discharge cycles

  15. Electrochemical reactivity of ilmenite FeTiO3, its nanostructures and oxide-carbon nanocomposites with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Tao; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical reactivity of the ball-milled ilmenite FeTiO 3 and ilmenite nanoflowers with lithium has been investigated. The electrode assembled with the ilmenite nanoflowers delivers better electrochemical performance than that of the milled material during charging and discharging in the potential range of 0.01 and 3 V vs. Li/Li + . The ilmenite nanoflowers demonstrate the capacity of ca. 650 mAh g −1 during the first discharge, and a reversible capacity of approximately 200 mAh g −1 in the course of the first 50 cycles. The possible reaction mechanism between ilmenite and lithium was studied using cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy. The first discharge involves the formation of an irreversible phase, which is either LiTiO 2 or LiFeO 2 . Subsequently, the extraction–insertion of lithium happens in a reversible manner. It was also observed that the lithium storage might be significantly improved if the electrode was prepared in the form of a nanocomposite of FeTiO 3 with carbon

  16. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  17. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  18. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  19. Semi-empirical master curve concept describing the rate capability of lithium insertion electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubner, C.; Seeba, J.; Liebmann, T.; Nickol, A.; Börner, S.; Fritsch, M.; Nikolowski, K.; Wolter, M.; Schneider, M.; Michaelis, A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple semi-empirical master curve concept, describing the rate capability of porous insertion electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, is proposed. The model is based on the evaluation of the time constants of lithium diffusion in the liquid electrolyte and the solid active material. This theoretical approach is successfully verified by comprehensive experimental investigations of the rate capability of a large number of porous insertion electrodes with various active materials and design parameters. It turns out, that the rate capability of all investigated electrodes follows a simple master curve governed by the time constant of the rate limiting process. We demonstrate that the master curve concept can be used to determine optimum design criteria meeting specific requirements in terms of maximum gravimetric capacity for a desired rate capability. The model further reveals practical limits of the electrode design, attesting the empirically well-known and inevitable tradeoff between energy and power density.

  20. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...... to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2)....

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  2. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  3. A model for electrochemical insertion limited by a phase transition process - eilpt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhoum N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with electrochemical insertion into a cathodic material. New results on modeling of the influence of a solid phase transformation on the shape of voltamograms are presented. The original experiments concern the insertion of sodium into carbon during the cathodic reduction of molten NaF at 1020 °C, but in the present manuscript emphasis on the theoretical aspects of the work is put. Phase transformations during electrochemical insertion are taken into account, with various values for parameters such as the thermodynamic biphase equilibrium potential, the compared diffusion and phase transformation kinetics, and the electrode thickness. The voltamograms calculated present very specific features; some of them have already been observed experimentally in literature.

  4. Comparative electrochemical sodium insertion/extraction behavior in layered NaxVS2 and NaxTiS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eungje; Sahgong, SunHye; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kim, Youngsik

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the electrochemical sodium insertion/extraction of Na x VS 2 , and Na x TiS 2 in the voltage range where either intercalation (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1) or displacement-conversion reaction (x > 1) occurs. Both Na x VS 2 and Na x TiS 2 showed good reversible capacities, as high as ∼160 mAh/g at an average voltage of ∼1.9 V vs. Na in the region for the intercalation reaction (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1). When sodium (Na) insertion was forced further to the x > 1 composition, Na x VS 2 exhibited the direct displacement-conversion reaction at 0.3 V vs. Na without further Na intercalation, which contrasted with the wider lithium intercalation range of 0 < x ≤ 2 for Li x VS 2 . The displacement-conversion reaction for Na x VS 2 (x > 1) was reversible with a specific capacity of above 200 mAh/g up to 15 cycles, but the displacement reaction for Na x TiS 2 (x > 1) was not observed

  5. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kandler A.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  7. Electrochemical study of nanometric Si on carbon for lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, Chil-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Duck-Jun; Kim, Ju-Seok; Jin, Bong-Soo; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Ki [Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol-Wan, E-mail: chdoh@keri.re.k [Sodiff Advanced Materials Co. Ltd, Youngju 750-080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical and thermochemical properties of a silicon-graphite composite anode for lithium ion batteries were evaluated. The electrochemical properties were varied by the condition of pretreatment. The electrochemical pretreatment of constant current (C/10) and constant potential for 24 h showed specific discharge and charge capacities of 941 and 781 mA h g{sup -1} to give a specific irreversible capacity of 161 mA h g{sup -1} and a coulombic efficiency of 83%. The initial cycle as the next cycle of pretreatment showed a specific charge capacity (Li desertion) of 698 mA h g{sup -1} and a coulombic efficiency of 95%. Coulombic efficiency at the fifth cycle was 97% to clear up almost all of the irreversible capacity. During the pretreatment cycle to the fourth cycle, the average specific charge capacity was 683 mA h g{sup -1} and the cumulative irreversible capacity was 264 mA h g{sup -1}. Exothermic heat values based on the specific capacity of the discharged (Li insertion) electrode of silicon-graphite composite for the temperature range of 50-300 {sup 0}C were 2.09 and 2.21 J mA{sup -1}h{sup -1} for 0 and 2 h as time of pretreatment in the case of just disassembled wet electrodes and 1.43 and 1.01 J mA{sup -1}h{sup -1} for 12 and 24 h as time of pretreatment in the case of dried electrodes, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical characteristics of bundle-type silicon nanorods as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Si Hieu; Lim, Jong Choo; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A metal-assisted chemical etching technique was performed on Si thin films. ► The etching process resulted in the formation of bundle-type Si nanorods. ► The morphology of Si electrodes closely relate to electrochemical characteristics. - Abstract: In order to prepare bundle-type silicon nanorods, a silver-assisted chemical etching technique was used to modify a 1.6 μm silicon thin film, which was deposited on Cu foil by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The bundle-type silicon nanorods on Cu foil were employed as anodes for a lithium secondary battery, without further treatment. The electrochemical characteristics of the pristine silicon thin film anodes and the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes are different from one another. The electrochemical performance of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes exceeded that of the pristine Si thin film anodes. The specific capacity of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes is much higher than 3000 mAh g −1 at the first charge (Li insertion) cycle. The coulombic efficiency of bundle-type silicon anodes was stable at more than 97%, and the charge capacity remained at 1420 mAh g −1 , even after 100 cycles of charging and discharging. The results from the differential voltage analysis showed a side reaction at around 0.44–0.5 V, and the specific potential of this side reaction decreased after each cycle. The apparent diffusion coefficients of the two anode types were in the range of 10 −13 –10 −16 cm 2 s −1 in the first cycle. In subsequent charge cycles, these values for the silicon thin film anodes and the silicon nanorod bundle anode were approximately 10 −12 –10 −14 and 10 −13 –10 −15 cm 2 s −1 , respectively.

  9. Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

    2012-08-21

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be α-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI).

  10. Layered titanium disilicide stabilized by oxide coating for highly reversible lithium insertion and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sa; Simpson, Zachary I; Yang, Xiaogang; Wang, Dunwei

    2012-09-25

    The discovery of new materials has played an important role in battery technology development. Among the newly discovered materials, those with layered structures are often of particular interest because many have been found to permit highly repeatable ionic insertion and extraction. Examples include graphite and LiCoO(2) as anode and cathode materials, respectively. Here we report C49 titanium disilicide (TiSi(2)) as a new layered anode material, within which lithium ions can react with the Si-only layers. This result is enabled by the strategy of coating a thin (lithium-ion storage capacity of TiSi(2) is a result of its layered structure is expected to have major fundamental and practical implications.

  11. Designer interphases for the lithium-oxygen electrochemical cell

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Wan, Charles Tai-Chieh; Al Sadat, Wajdi I.; Tu, Zhengyuan; Lau, Sampson; Zachman, Michael J.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li+ + 2e− + O2 ↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations. We create and study in-situ formation of solid-electrolyte interphases (SEIs) based on bromide ionomers tethered to a Li anode that take advantage of three powerful processes for overcoming the most stubborn of these challenges. The ionomer SEIs are shown to protect the Li anode against parasitic reactions and also stabilize Li electrodeposition during cell recharge. Bromine species liberated during the anchoring reaction also function as redox mediators at the cathode, reducing the charge overpotential. Finally, the ionomer SEI forms a stable interphase with Li, which protects the metal in high Gutmann donor number liquid electrolytes. Such electrolytes have been reported to exhibit rare stability against nucleophilic attack by Li2O2 and other cathode reaction intermediates, but also react spontaneously with Li metal anodes. We conclude that rationally designed SEIs able to regulate transport of matter and ions at the electrolyte/anode interface provide a promising platform for addressing three major technical barriers to practical Li-O2 cells.

  12. Designer interphases for the lithium-oxygen electrochemical cell

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-04-20

    An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li+ + 2e− + O2 ↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations. We create and study in-situ formation of solid-electrolyte interphases (SEIs) based on bromide ionomers tethered to a Li anode that take advantage of three powerful processes for overcoming the most stubborn of these challenges. The ionomer SEIs are shown to protect the Li anode against parasitic reactions and also stabilize Li electrodeposition during cell recharge. Bromine species liberated during the anchoring reaction also function as redox mediators at the cathode, reducing the charge overpotential. Finally, the ionomer SEI forms a stable interphase with Li, which protects the metal in high Gutmann donor number liquid electrolytes. Such electrolytes have been reported to exhibit rare stability against nucleophilic attack by Li2O2 and other cathode reaction intermediates, but also react spontaneously with Li metal anodes. We conclude that rationally designed SEIs able to regulate transport of matter and ions at the electrolyte/anode interface provide a promising platform for addressing three major technical barriers to practical Li-O2 cells.

  13. Graphene-supported SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by a solvothermal approach for an enhanced electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-04-13

    SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed on graphene nanosheets through a solvothermal approach using ethylene glycol as the solvent. The uniform distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The particle size of SnO2 was determined to be around 5 nm. The as-synthesized SnO2/graphene nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries, compared with bare graphene nanosheets and bare SnO2 nanoparticles. The SnO2/graphene nanocomposite electrode delivered a reversible lithium storage capacity of 830 mAh g-1 and a stable cyclability up to 100 cycles. The excellent electrochemical properties of this graphene-supported nanocomposite could be attributed to the insertion of nanoparticles between graphene nanolayers and the optimized nanoparticles distribution on graphene nanosheets.

  14. Study of lithium insertion in hard carbon made from cotton wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Emanuel; Eshkenazi, Victor; Rosenberg, Yuri

    Hard-carbon materials were made either by one-step or multi-step pyrolysis of cotton cloth between 700 and 1100°C. All carbons have been characterized by gas sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Two types of carbons have been obtained. One, made by multi-step pyrolysis, has the highest lithium reversible capacity [about 600 (mA h)/g] and two distinct voltage regions: a sloping one between 1.5 and about 0.1 V, called the high-voltage region (HVR), and a horizontal one between 0.1 and 0 V, called the low-voltage plateau (LVP). The other carbons made by the one-step process have only the HVR and less capacity [up to 470 (mA h)/g]. The influence of the current density and temperature on the capacity and degradation rate in both LVP and HVR was checked. We suggest that there are two different modes of lithium insertion: intercalation-like (on both sides of single graphene sheets) at lower potentials and chemical binding to edge carbon atoms at higher potentials vs. lithium reference electrode. A schematic model for lithiated carbon is proposed.

  15. Study on the electrochemical of the metal deposition from ionic liquids for lithium, titanium and dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Claudia A.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis was aimed to the characterization of electrochemically deposited film of lithium, titanium and dysprosium on Au(111) from different ionic liquids, finally dysprosium on neodymium-iron-boron magnate for industrial applications. The investigation of the deposits were performed using cyclic voltametry, in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy, electrochemical quartz microbalance, XPS and Auger electron spectroscopy. The sample preparation is described in detail. The deposition rate showed a significant temperature dependence.

  16. High-Resolution Tracking Asymmetric Lithium Insertion and Extraction and Local Structure Ordering in SnS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Huang, Yuan; Liao, Lei; Sutter, Peter; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, En-Ge

    2016-09-14

    In the rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the rate capability and energy efficiency are largely governed by the lithium ion transport dynamics and phase transition pathways in electrodes. Real-time and atomic-scale tracking of fully reversible lithium insertion and extraction processes in electrodes, which would ultimately lead to mechanistic understanding of how the electrodes function and why they fail, is highly desirable but very challenging. Here, we track lithium insertion and extraction in the van der Waals interactions dominated SnS2 by in situ high-resolution TEM method. We find that the lithium insertion occurs via a fast two-phase reaction to form expanded and defective LiSnS2, while the lithium extraction initially involves heterogeneous nucleation of intermediate superstructure Li0.5SnS2 domains with a 1-4 nm size. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Li0.5SnS2 is kinetically favored and structurally stable. The asymmetric reaction pathways may supply enlightening insights into the mechanistic understanding of the underlying electrochemistry in the layered electrode materials and also suggest possible alternatives to the accepted explanation of the origins of voltage hysteresis in the intercalation electrode materials.

  17. Lithium insertion in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, M{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Fe, Cr, Al, La) mixed oxides; Insertion du lithium dans les oxydes mixtes de V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, M{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Fe, Cr, Al, La)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, G.; Pecquenard, B.; Baffier, N. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l`Etat Solide; Soudan, P.; Farcy, J.; Pereira-Ramos, J.P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Ivry-sur-Seine (France). Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Catalyse et Synthese Organique

    1996-12-31

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} based compounds are interesting low potential materials for rechargeable cathodes of lithium electrochemical generators. However, the ionic conductivity and the reversibility of electrochemical cycling of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are limited by the possibilities of lithium insertion. This work shows that the doping of vanadium pentoxide by a M{sup 3+} trivalent transition element (M Fe, Al, Cr or La) allows to intercalate a more important amount of lithium and to improve the behaviour of the material during cycling. These materials of M{sub 0.11}V{sub 2}O{sub 5.16} formula are obtained by sol-gel synthesis. the electrochemical study of the Fe compound has shown that it is a mixed oxide with a behaviour similar to V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The maximum capacity is of about 2 F/mole in the case of Fe, Al and Cr compounds and of about 1.7 F/mole in the case of La. The structural evolution of the Fe compound has been followed during the chemical insertion of Li and the same succession of phases ({alpha}, {epsilon}, {delta} and {gamma}) is observed as in Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds but with a delay. The occurrence of the {gamma} phase, in particular, which is involved in recharging problems is delayed thanks to the (Fe-O){sub n} chains perpendicular to the (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub n} layers. Abstract only. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  18. Lithium insertion in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, M{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Fe, Cr, Al, La) mixed oxides; Insertion du lithium dans les oxydes mixtes de V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, M{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Fe, Cr, Al, La)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, G; Pecquenard, B; Baffier, N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l` Etat Solide; Soudan, P; Farcy, J; Pereira-Ramos, J P [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Ivry-sur-Seine (France). Laboratoire d` Electrochimie Catalyse et Synthese Organique

    1997-12-31

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} based compounds are interesting low potential materials for rechargeable cathodes of lithium electrochemical generators. However, the ionic conductivity and the reversibility of electrochemical cycling of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are limited by the possibilities of lithium insertion. This work shows that the doping of vanadium pentoxide by a M{sup 3+} trivalent transition element (M Fe, Al, Cr or La) allows to intercalate a more important amount of lithium and to improve the behaviour of the material during cycling. These materials of M{sub 0.11}V{sub 2}O{sub 5.16} formula are obtained by sol-gel synthesis. the electrochemical study of the Fe compound has shown that it is a mixed oxide with a behaviour similar to V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The maximum capacity is of about 2 F/mole in the case of Fe, Al and Cr compounds and of about 1.7 F/mole in the case of La. The structural evolution of the Fe compound has been followed during the chemical insertion of Li and the same succession of phases ({alpha}, {epsilon}, {delta} and {gamma}) is observed as in Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds but with a delay. The occurrence of the {gamma} phase, in particular, which is involved in recharging problems is delayed thanks to the (Fe-O){sub n} chains perpendicular to the (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub n} layers. Abstract only. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  19. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  20. Electrochemically active manganese oxides: structural modelling, modifications induced by thermal processing and photon insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripert, Michel

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to understand the mechanism of proton insertion into manganese dioxide. It comprised the performances of in situ discharges of two commercial samples in an electrochemical cell designed for this purpose. In order to characterise the structure of electrochemically active manganese dioxides, and particularly to elucidate the orthorhombic-hexagonal dilemma, the author proposes a crystalline-chemical approach which comprises the development of a unique structural model which takes the structure of all forms of electrochemically active manganese dioxides into account, and a numerical simulation of diffraction diagrams (X rays and neutrons) of these structures. The development of this modelling results in the development of a method which allows, from experimental diffraction diagrams, characteristic structural parameters of each sample of EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) or CMD (chemical manganese dioxide) to be obtained. Moreover, the observation of the structural evolution of the dioxide is possible by using in situ neutron diffraction. Reduction has been studied by using slow potential scanning voltammetry. By using these both techniques (neutron diffraction and voltammetry), it is possible to explain the structural mechanism of reduction of MnO_2 and to show the origin of the non-reversibility of the proton/MnO_2 system, to quantitatively explain the shape voltammetry curves, and to highlight experimentally for the first time the different sites of insertion of the proton

  1. Role of nanorods insertion layer in ZnO-based electrochemical metallization memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasa Simanjuntak, Firman; Singh, Pragya; Chandrasekaran, Sridhar; Juanda Lumbantoruan, Franky; Yang, Chih-Chieh; Huang, Chu-Jie; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2017-12-01

    An engineering nanorod array in a ZnO-based electrochemical metallization device for nonvolatile memory applications was investigated. A hydrothermally synthesized nanorod layer was inserted into a Cu/ZnO/ITO device structure. Another device was fabricated without nanorods for comparison, and this device demonstrated a diode-like behavior with no switching behavior at a low current compliance (CC). The switching became clear only when the CC was increased to 75 mA. The insertion of a nanorods layer induced switching characteristics at a low operation current and improve the endurance and retention performances. The morphology of the nanorods may control the switching characteristics. A forming-free electrochemical metallization memory device having long switching cycles (>104 cycles) with a sufficient memory window (103 times) for data storage application, good switching stability and sufficient retention was successfully fabricated by adjusting the morphology and defect concentration of the inserted nanorod layer. The nanorod layer not only contributed to inducing resistive switching characteristics but also acted as both a switching layer and a cation diffusion control layer.

  2. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon-Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min; Kim, Keon; Yi, Cheol-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  3. Electrochemically fabricated polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen coordination complex as high-performance lithium-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingkun; Kong, Qingyu; Zhu, Ying; Mao, Ya; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Wan, Meixiang; Chen, Liquan

    2011-12-23

    Current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies are all based on inorganic electrode materials, though organic materials have been used as electrodes for years. Disadvantages such as limited thermal stability and low specific capacity hinder their applications. On the other hand, the transition metal oxides that provide high lithium-storage capacity by way of electrochemical conversion reaction suffer from poor cycling stability. Here we report a novel high-performance, organic, lithium-storage material, a polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen (PPy-Co-O) coordination complex, with high lithium-storage capacity and excellent cycling stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopy and other physical and electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that this coordination complex can be electrochemically fabricated by cycling PPy-coated Co(3)O(4) between 0.0 V and 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that each cobalt atom coordinates with two nitrogen atoms within the PPy-Co coordination layer and the layers are connected with oxygen atoms between them. Coordination weakens the C-H bonds on PPy and makes the complex a novel lithium-storage material with high capacity and high cycling stability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Raman spectral and electrochemical studies of lithium/electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odziemkowski, M

    1922-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, corrosion potential-time transients and Normal Raman spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the lithium-lithium salt, organic solvent, interfacial region. An in-situ cutting technique was developed to expose lithium metal. In-situ optical and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to examine the morphology of the lithium electrode surface during exposure at open circuit and after anodic polarization. The main reaction product detected by in-situ Raman spectroscopy in the system/lithium/LiAsF[sub 6], tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte was polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). The conditions for the polymerization reaction in the presence of lithium metal have been determined. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) decomposition reaction mechanisms are discussed. Decomposition reaction products have been determined as arsenic (II) oxide, As[sub 2]O[sub 3] (arsenolite) and arsenious oxyfluoride AsF[sub 2]-O-AsF[sub 2]. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed a substantial shift of the corrosion potential towards positive values and only a moderate increase of anodic dissolution current for in-situ cut lithium metal. Corrosion potential-time merits have been measured. The following electrolytes have been investigated: LiAsF[sub 6], LiPF[sub 6], LiClO[sub 4], and Li(CF[sub 3]SO[sub 2])[sub 2]N in THF, 2Me-THF, and propylene carbonate (PC). The transients permit the ranking of the reactivity of the electrolytes. These measurements have shed light on understanding the stability of various stability and and solvents in contact with lithium. Compared to purified electrolytes, small amounts of water shift the corrosion potential towards even more positive values. Intensive anodic cycling of a Li electrode in unpurified LiAsF[sub 6]/THF electrolyte leads to the breakdown of a surface film/films. While at the open circuit potential (OCP), water in this same electrolyte leads to crack formation in the bulk lithium electrode.

  5. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC...

  6. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  7. Lithium Insertion in LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 at Room Temperature and at 125°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koksbang, R.; Fauteux, D.; Norby, P.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium insertion and deinsertion reactions have been carried out with LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 chemically andelectrochemically at room temperature and at 125°C. The electrochemical experiments were performed with a nonaqueousliquid electrolyte at room temperature and with a polymer electroly...... is close to 4Li/NaCr3O8 and 1.3Li/KCr3O8.Lithium ion diffusion coefficients are similar for the two compounds in the comparable composition range.Thermally, the fully lithiated compounds appear to be as stable as the pristine materials.......Lithium insertion and deinsertion reactions have been carried out with LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 chemically andelectrochemically at room temperature and at 125°C. The electrochemical experiments were performed with a nonaqueousliquid electrolyte at room temperature and with a polymer electrolyte....... At elevated temperatures, the isostructural compounds NaCr3O8 and KCr3O8 are able to accommodate morethan 4Li/MCr3O8. During this process, minor structural changes are observed. At room temperature, NaCr3O8 and KCr3O8also accommodate Li topotactically, but the maximum number of Li inserted per formula...

  8. Simulation of electrochemical behavior in Lithium ion battery during discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huo, Weiwei; Lin, Muyi; Zhao, Li

    2018-01-01

    An electrochemical Lithium ion battery model was built taking into account the electrochemical reactions. The polarization was divided into parts which were related to the solid phase and the electrolyte mass transport of species, and the electrochemical reactions. The influence factors on battery polarization were studied, including the active material particle radius and the electrolyte salt concentration. The results showed that diffusion polarization exist in the positive and negative electrodes, and diffusion polarization increase with the conducting of the discharge process. The physicochemical parameters of the Lithium ion battery had the huge effect on cell voltage via polarization. The simulation data show that the polarization voltage has close relationship with active material particle size, discharging rate and ambient temperature.

  9. Electrochemical performances of lithium ion battery using alkoxides of group 13 as electrolyte solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Masuda, Yuki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Wakihara, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Tris(methoxy polyethylenglycol) borate ester (B-PEG) and aluminum tris(polyethylenglycoxide) (Al-PEG) were used as electrolyte solvent for lithium ion battery, and the electrochemical property of these electrolytes were investigated. These electrolytes, especially B-PEG, showed poor electrochemical stability, leading to insufficient discharge capacity and rapid degradation with cycling. These observations would be ascribed to the decomposition of electrolyte, causing formation of unstable passive layer on the surface of electrode in lithium ion battery at high voltage. However, significant improvement was observed by the addition of aluminum phosphate (AlPO 4 ) powder into electrolyte solvent. AC impedance technique revealed that the increase of interfacial resistance of electrode/electrolyte during cycling was suppressed by adding AlPO 4 , and this suppression could enhance the cell capabilities. We infer that dissolved AlPO 4 components formed electrochemically stable layer on the surface of electrode

  10. Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of a Three-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery during Pulse Charge and Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic EIS is performed on a three-electrode pouch cell; • Charge transfer resistance during insertion is generally larger than that during deinsertion due to the surface concentration change; • An inductive behavior is revealed at low frequencies due to the violation of stationary condition in DEIS measurement; • Electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain are developed. • The model predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and the DC current. - Abstract: The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) of a three-electrode pouch type lithium-ion battery is measured using a series of sine wave perturbations super-imposed on pulse charge and discharge. The DEIS reveals noticeable differences between charge and discharge at frequencies corresponding to the charge transfer reaction. The charge transfer resistance during intercalation is generally found to be larger than that during deintercalation for the battery chemistry in this study. This result is mainly attributed to the decreased Li ion concentration in the electrolyte during intercalation. At low frequencies, an abnormal inductive behavior is also observed. Such abnormality is found to result from the violation of stationary condition, i.e. the state of the battery under pulse charge or discharge deviates significantly from its initial condition for the perturbation of low frequencies. To analytically define the stationary condition, we develop electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain, which describes the transport of lithium ions in both active particle and electrolyte phase and the interfacial charge transfer reactions at their interface. The lower frequency limit is a key parameter to ensure a quasistationary state during the DEIS measurement. An explicit formulation of the stationary condition predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and

  11. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  12. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2011-05-19

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Insertion of lead lithium eutectic mixture in RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 4.0 for Fusion Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Ashutosh; Allison, Brian; Hohorst, J.K.; Wagner, R.J.; Allison, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic and transport properties of lead lithium eutectic mixture have been inserted in RELAP/SCDAPSIM MOD 4.0 code. ► Code results are verified for a simple pipe problem with lead lithium eutectic mixture flowing in it. ► Code is calculating the inserted properties of lead lithium eutectic mixture to a fairly good agreement. - Abstract: RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 4.0 code was developed by Innovative System Software (ISS) for the analysis of nuclear power plants (NPPs) cooled by light water and heavy water. Later on the code was expanded to analyze the NPPs cooled by liquid metal, in this sequence: lead bismuth eutectic mixture, liquid sodium and lead lithium eutectic mixture (LLE) are inserted in the code. This paper focuses on the insertion of liquid LLE as a coolant for NPPs in the RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 4.0 code. Evaluation of the code was made for a simple pipe problem connected with heat structures having liquid LLE as a coolant in it. The code is predicting well all the thermodynamic and transport properties of LLE.

  15. Electrochemical properties of ether-based electrolytes for lithium/sulfur rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchasz, Céline; Leprêtre, Jean-Claude; Patoux, Sébastien; Alloin, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid electrolyte composition for lithium/sulfur secondary batteries. ► Carbonate-based electrolytes prove not to be compatible with the sulfur electrode. ► Poor electrochemical performances related to low polysulfide solubility. ► Increase in the discharge capacity using ether solvents with high solvating ability such as PEGDME. ► Evidence of DIOX polymerization during cycling. -- Abstract: The lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is a promising electrochemical system that has a high theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh g −1 . However, the system suffers from several drawbacks: poor active material conductivity, active material dissolution, and use of the highly reactive lithium metal electrode. In this study, we investigated the electrolyte effects on electrochemical performances of the Li/S cell, by acting on the solvent composition. As conventional carbonate-based electrolytes turned out to be unusable in Li/S cells, alternative ether solvents had to be considered. Different kinds of solvent structures were investigated by changing the ether/alkyl moieties ratio to vary the lithium polysulfide solubility. This allowed to point out the importance of the solvent solvation ability on the discharge capacity. As the end of discharge is linked to the positive electrode passivation, an electrolyte having high solvation ability reduces the polysulfide precipitation and delays the positive electrode passivation

  16. Low Li+ Insertion Barrier Carbon for High Energy Efficient Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Teck Leong; Xue, Jun Min

    2018-01-17

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is an attractive energy-storage device (ESD) that promises high energy density at moderate power density. However, the key challenge in its design is the low energy efficient negative electrode, which barred the realization of such research system in fulfilling the current ESD technological inadequacy due to its poor overall energy efficiency. Large voltage hysteresis is the main issue behind high energy density alloying/conversion-type materials, which reduces the electrode energy efficiency. Insertion-type material though averted in most research due to the low capacity remains to be highly favorable in commercial application due to its lower voltage hysteresis. To further reduce voltage hysteresis and increase capacity, amorphous carbon with wider interlayer spacing has been demonstrated in the simulation result to significantly reduce Li + insertion barrier. Hence, by employing such amorphous carbon, together with disordered carbon positive electrode, a high energy efficient LIC with round-trip energy efficiency of 84.3% with a maximum energy density of 133 Wh kg -1 at low power density of 210 W kg -1 can be achieved.

  17. Electrical insulation properties of RF-sputtered LiPON layers towards electrochemical stability of lithium batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Silva, Maria Manuela; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Alves, A.; Correia, M. R.; Gonçalves, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical stability, moderate ionic conductivity and low electronic conductivity make the lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte suitable for micro and nanoscale lithium batteries. The electrical and electrochemical properties of thin-film electrolytes can seriously compromise full battery performance. Here, radio-frequency (RF)-sputtered LiPON thin films were fabricated in nitrogen plasma under different working pressure conditions. With a slight decrease in ...

  18. Controllable synthesis of hollow bipyramid β-MnO(2) and its high electrochemical performance for lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Min; Qie, Long; Shao, Qing-Guo; Yuan, Li-Xia; Zhang, Wu-Xing; Huang, Yun-Hui

    2012-06-27

    Three types of MnO2 nanostructures, viz., α-MnO2 nanotubes, hollow β-MnO2 bipyramids, and solid β-MnO2 bipyramids, have been synthesized via a simple template-free hydrothermal method. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that the hollow β-MnO2 bipyramids exhibit the highest specific capacity and the best cyclability; the capacity retains 213 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles. XRD patterns of the lithiated β-MnO2 electrodes clearly show the expansion of lattice volume caused by lithiation, but the structure keeps stable during lithium insertion/extraction process. We suggest that the excellent performance for β-MnO2 can be attributed to its unique electrochemical reaction, compact tunnel-structure and hollow architecture. The hollow architecture can accommodate the volume change during charge/discharge process and improve effective diffusion paths for both lithium ions and electrons.

  19. Solvents effects on electrochemical characteristics of graphite fluoride-lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuatsu, W.; Hidekazu, T.; Rika, H.; Tsuyoshi, N.

    1982-11-01

    A study was made of the electrochemical characteristics of graphite fluoride-lithium batteries in various non-aqueous solvents. Two types of graphite fluorides (C/sub 2/F) /SUB n/ and (CF) /SUB n/ were used as cathode materials. The discharge characteristics of graphite fluorides were better in dimethylsulfoxide, ..gamma..-butyrolactone, propylene carbonate and sulfolane in that order. The relation between electrod potential of graphite fluoride and solvation energy of lithium ion with each solvent indicates that solvated lithium ion is intercalated into graphite fluoride layers by the electrode reaction. Both the difference in the overpotentials and in the rates of OCV recovery among these solvents further supports the proposed reaction mechanism.

  20. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Meatza, I. de [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Martin, M.I., E-mail: imartin@ietcc.csic.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Bengoechea, M. [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, I. [Dpto. I-D-i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Rabanal, M.E., E-mail: mariaeugenia.rabanal@uc3m.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  1. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Meatza, I. de; Martin, M.I.; Bengoechea, M.; Cantero, I.; Rabanal, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO 4 has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  2. Lithium-Ion Battery Power Degradation Modelling by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique as an alternative to the DC pulses technique for estimating the power capability decrease of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar ageing. Based on results obtained from calendar ageing tests performed...... at different conditions during one to two years, a generalized model that estimates the battery power capability decrease as function of the resistance Rs increase (obtained from EIS) was proposed and successfully verified....

  3. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

  4. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1983-01-04

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  5. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1981-10-20

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  6. The use of odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study lithium-based corrosion inhibition by active protective coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, M.; Visser, P.; Fernández Macía, L.; Hubin, A.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the study of the time-dependent behaviour of lithium carbonate based inhibitor technology for the active corrosion protection of aluminium alloy 2024-T3 is presented. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ORP-EIS) is selected as the electrochemical tool to study

  7. Synthesis of hollandite-type LixMnO2 by Li+ ion-exchange in molten salt and lithium insertion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Oshitari, Satoru; Ui, Koichi; Kumagai, Naoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Li + ion-exchange reaction of K + -type α-K 0.14 MnO 1.93 .nH 2 O containing different amounts of water molecules (n = 0-0.15) with a large (2 x 2) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO 3 -LiCl molten salt at 300 deg. C. The Li + ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The K + ions and the hydrogens of the water molecules in the (2 x 2) tunnels of α-MnO 2 were exchanged by Li + ions in the molten salt, resulting in the Li + -type α-MnO 2 containing different amounts of Li + ions and lithium oxide (Li 2 O) in the (2 x 2) tunnels with maintaining the original hollandite structure. The electrochemical properties and structural variation with initial discharge and charge-discharge cycling of the Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 samples have been investigated as insertion compounds in the search for new cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. The Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 samples provided higher capacities and higher Li + ion diffusivity than the parent K + -type materials on initial discharge and charge-discharge cyclings, probably due to the structural stabilization with the existence of Li 2 O in the (2 x 2) tunnels

  8. Electrochemical Performance of Electrospun carbon nanofibers as free-standing and binder-free anodes for Sodium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Juan; Shi, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Cheng-yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber webs were prepared by pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile. • The webs as binder-free and current collector-free electrodes for SIBs and LIBs. • Different layer spacing and pore size for Li and Na lead different electrochemical behavior. • Electrochemical performances of the electrodes were high. - Abstract: A series of hard carbon nanofiber-based electrodes derived from electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (PAN-CNFs) have been fabricated by stabilization in air at about 280 °C and then carbonization in N 2 at heat treatment temperatures (HTT) between 800 and 1500 °C. The electrochemical performances of the binder-free, current collector-free carbon nanofiber-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries are systematically investigated and compared. We demonstrate the presence of similar alkali metal insertion mechanisms in both cases, but just the differences of the layer spacing and pore size available for lithium and sodium ion lead the discharge capacity delivered at sloping region and plateau region to vary from the kinds of alkali elements. Although the anodes in sodium-ion batteries show poorer rate capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 275 mAh g −1 and similar cycling stability due to the conductive 3-D network, weakly ordered turbostratic structure and a large interlayer spacing between graphene sheets. The feature of high capacity and stable cycling performance makes PAN-CNFs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries

  9. Novel lithium titanate-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiyi, Li; Tengyuan, Chen; Beibei, Sun [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zaijun, Li [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhiquo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We developed a new Novel lithium titanate-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. The unique architecture creates fast electron transfer and rapid mass transport of electrolyte. The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performances for lithium-ion batteries, including high specific capacity, outstanding rate capability and intriguing cycling stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new LTO-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. • One graphene framework greatly improves the electrical conductivity of LTO crystal. • Another graphene framework enhances electrical conductivity of between LTO crystals and electrolyte transport. • The unique architecture creates big tap density, ultrafast electron transfer and rapid mass transport. • The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries. - ABSTRACT: The paper reported the synthesis of lithium titanate(LTO)-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks (G@LTO@G). Tetrabutyl titanate and graphene were dispersed in tertbutanol and heated to reflux state by microwave irradiation. Followed by adding lithium acetate to produce LTO precursor/graphene (p-LTO/G). The resulting p-LTO/G offers homogeneous morphology and ultra small size. All graphene sheets were buried in the spherical agglomerates composed of primitive particles through the second agglomeration. The p-LTO/G was calcined to LTO@graphene (LTO@G). To obtain G@LTO@G, the LTO@G was further hybridized with graphene. The as-prepared G@LTO@G shows well-defined three-dimensional structure and hierarchical porous distribution. Its unique architecture creates big tap density, fast electron transfer and rapid electrolyte transport. As a result, the G@LTO@G provides high specific capacity (175.2 mA h g{sup −1} and 293.5 mA cm{sup −3}), outstanding rate capability (155.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 10C) and intriguing cycling

  10. Effects of ion insertion on cycling performance of miniaturized electrochemical capacitor of carbon nanotubes array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Chang, Chuan-hua; Chiang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2014-10-24

    Capacity degradation and ion insertion of a miniaturized electrochemical capacitor are studied using ionic liquid [EMI] [TFSI] as the electrolyte. This capacitor is featured with two comb-like electrodes of vertical carbon nanotubes, ∼70 μm in height and 20 μm in interelectrode gap. We quantify the levels of ion insertion damage with Raman spectroscopy after the electrode experiences 120 consecutive voltammetric cycles to various potential limits. Distinct structural damage emerges due to [EMI] when the negative potential reaches -1.7 V, and those due to [TFSI] arise when the positive potential reaches 1.7 V vs. RHE. Judging from the peak broadenings, [EMI] is more detrimental than [TFSI]. When the voltage window ΔU is set as less than or equal to 2.8 V, both electrode potentials are within the two intercalation limits, little or no decay is observed in 10(4) charge/discharge cycles. When ΔU is 3.4 V, the positive potential exceeds the upper limit, but the negative potential stays within the lower limit, the cell capacitance decreases moderately. When ΔU increases to 3.8 V, both electrodes suffer from damages because of exceeding the intercalation limits. And the cell capacitance decreases substantially, even leading to a premature failure.

  11. Electrochemical zinc insertion into W18O49: Synthesis and characterization of new bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-de la Cruz, A.; Amador, U.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Garcia-Alvarado, F.

    2005-01-01

    Divalent zinc ions have been electrochemically inserted into W 18 O 49 , producing zinc bronzes. Under our experimental conditions, W 18 O 49 accepts zinc reversibly as a guest up to 0.9 ions per formula. The reaction seems to proceed through the formation of a solid solution in which the W-O framework of the parent oxide is maintained. The location of the Zn 2+ ions in the framework of W 18 O 49 has been determined by neutron diffraction on a chemically prepared sample having the composition Zn 0.34 W 18 O 49 . As a main result, we found that Zn prefers to insert in one of the four types of quadrangular tunnels. More precisely, it is displaced from the center to occupy a low coordination site. This result indicates that a significant covalent character exists in the Zn-O bond. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of Zn 0.36 W 18 O 49 projected along the b-axis

  12. The effects of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal characteristics of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to study the behaviors of Li-ion batteries. • Thick electrode battery (CEB) has high temperature response during discharge. • Thin electrode battery has a relative lower capacity fading rate. • Less heat is generated in thin electrode battery with even heat distribution. • CEBs underutilize active materials and stop discharge early at high rates. - Abstract: Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery, consisting of multiple electrochemical cells, is a complex system whose high electrochemical and thermal stability is often critical to the well-being and functional capabilities of electric devices. Considering any change in the specifications may significantly affect the overall performance and life of a battery, an investigation on the impacts of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal properties of lithium-ion battery cells based on experiments and a coupling model composed of a 1D electrochemical model and a 3D thermal model is conducted in this work. In-depth analyses on the basis of the experimental and simulated results are carried out for one cell of different depths of discharge as well as for a set of cells with different electrode thicknesses. Pertinent results have demonstrated that the electrode thickness can significantly influence the battery from many key aspects such as energy density, temperature response, capacity fading rate, overall heat generation, distribution and proportion of heat sources

  13. Ion-exchange synthesis and improved Li insertion property of lithiated H2Ti12O25 as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunimitsu Kataoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We successfully prepared the lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample by the H+/Li+ ion exchange synthetic technique in the molten LiNO3 at 270 °C using H2Ti12O25 as a starting compound. Chemical composition of the obtained lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample was determined to be H1.05Li0.35Ti12O25-δ having δ = 0.3 by ICP-AES and DTA-TG analyses. The H+/Li+ ion exchange was also confirmed by powder XRD, 1H-MAS NMR, and 7Li-MAS NMR measurements. Electrochemical Li insertion and extraction measurements revealed that the initial coulombic efficiency was improved from 88% in H2Ti12O25 to 93% in the lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample. In addition, superior capacity retention properties for the charge and discharge cycling performance and good charge rate capability of the present lithiated H2Ti12O25 were confirmed in the electrochemical measurements. Accordingly, the lithiated H2Ti12O25 is suggested to be one of the promising high-voltage and high-capacity oxide negative electrodes in advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  15. Equilibrium lithium-ion transport between nanocrystalline lithium-inserted anatase TiO2 and the electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Mulder, Fokko M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2011-12-23

    The power density of lithium-ion batteries requires the fast transfer of ions between the electrode and electrolyte. The achievable power density is directly related to the spontaneous equilibrium exchange of charged lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. Direct and unique characterization of this charge-transfer process is very difficult if not impossible, and consequently little is known about the solid/liquid ion transfer in lithium-ion-battery materials. Herein we report the direct observation by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of continuous lithium-ion exchange between the promising nanosized anatase TiO(2) electrode material and the electrolyte. Our results reveal that the energy barrier to charge transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface is equal to or greater than the barrier to lithium-ion diffusion through the solid anatase matrix. The composition of the electrolyte and in turn the solid/electrolyte interface (SEI) has a significant effect on the electrolyte/electrode lithium-ion exchange; this suggests potential improvements in the power of batteries by optimizing the electrolyte composition. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  17. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  18. Structure dependent electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered oxides in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Fang; Yao, Yuze; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Shi-Gang; Shao, Minhua

    2017-04-08

    Rational and precise control of the structure and dimension of electrode materials is an efficient way to improve their electrochemical performance. In this work, solvothermal or co-precipitation method is used to synthesize lithium-rich layered oxide materials of Li1.2Mn0.56Co0.12Ni0.12O2 (LLO) with various morphologies and structures, including microspheres, microrods, nanoplates, and irregular nanoparticles. These materials exhibit strong structure- dependent electrochemical properties. The porous hierarchical structured LLO microrods exhibit the best performance, delivering a discharge capacity of 264.6 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C with over 91% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 5 C, a high discharge capacity of 173.6 mAh g(-1) can be achieved. This work reveals the relationship between the morphologies and electrochemical properties of LLO cathode materials, and provides a feasible approach to fabricating robust and high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Electrochemical performances and capacity fading behaviors of activated carbon/hard carbon lithium ion capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Kai; Li, Chen; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-electrode pouch cell is used to investigate the capacity fading of AC/HC LIC. • the electrode potential swing is critical for the cycleability of a LIC cell. • Different capacity fading behaviors are discussed. • A large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 based on the total weight. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitor (LIC) is one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices, which offers rapid charging-discharging capability and long cycle life. We have fabricated LIC pouch cells using an electrochemically-driven lithium pre-doping method through a three-electrode pouch cell structure. The active materials of cathode and anode of LIC cell are activated carbon and pre-lithiated hard carbon, respectively. The electrochemical performances and the capacity fading behaviors of LICs in the voltage range of 2.0 − 4.0 V have been studied. The specific energy and specific power reach 73.6 Wh kg −1 and 11.9 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the active materials in both cathode and anode, respectively. Since the cycling performance is actually determined by hard carbon anode, the anode potential swings are emphasized. The capacity fading of LIC upon cycling is proposed to be caused by the increases of internal resistance and the consumption of lithium stored in anode. Finally, a large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a maximum specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 and a maximum specific power of 3.7 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the whole cell.

  20. MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Zhao, Hongbo; Bai, Yang; Guo, Junming; Su, Chang-Wei; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Two α-MnO2 crystals with caddice-clew-like and urchin-like morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method, and their structure and electrochemical performance are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cell cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the MnO2 prepared under acidic condition is urchin-like, while the one prepared under neutral condition is caddice-clew-like. The identical crystalline phase of MnO2 crystals is essential to evaluate the relationship between electrochemical performances and morphologies for lithium-ion battery application. In this study, urchin-like α-MnO2 crystals with compact structure have better electrochemical performance due to the higher specific capacity and lower impedance. We find that the relationship between electrochemical performance and morphology is different when MnO2 material used as electrochemical supercapacitor or as anode of lithium-ion battery. For lithium-ion battery application, urchin-like MnO2 material has better electrochemical performance.

  1. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, J., E-mail: jose.montero@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Guillén, C.; Herrero, J. [Department of Energy, Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 40, Ed. 42, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  2. Electrochemical performance of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite material as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Qiang [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Yang, Guan-Hua; Huang, You-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Xiong [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Qing-Yu, E-mail: liqingyu62@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we synthesized SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite anode composite material by a simple reflux method using SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O as tin source and modified graphite as carbon source. The as-obtained composite was investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and galvanostatic cycling tests. The results show that the composite has a wave-shaped fold structure and the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on it have an average size of about 50 nm. Compared to pure modified graphite, the SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite exhibits a better electrochemical performance with a reversible specific capacity of 581.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles, owing to high mechanical stress and elasticity of modified graphite could hinder the volume effect of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles during the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction process. All these favourable characters reveal that the composite is a great potential anode material in high-performance lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple synthetic method of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite as anode. • The as-prepared composite with layered structure alleviates the huge reunion of SnO{sub 2}. • The composite exhibits a good capacity retention rate of 85.8% after 25 cycles.

  3. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  4. Chemical, structural, and electrochemical characterization of 5 V spinel and complex layered oxide cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvannamalai Annamalai, Arun Kumar

    2007-12-01

    proton insertion and oxygen loss at deep lithium extraction due to the chemical instability arising from a overlap of the Co3+/4+:3d band on the top of the O2-:2p band. The irreversible oxygen loss during the first charge and the consequent reversible capacities of the solid solutions between Li[Li1/3Mn 2/3]O2 and Li[Co1-yNiy]O2 has been found to be determined by the amount of lithium in the transition metal layer of the O3 type layered structure. The lithium content in the transition metal layer is, however, sensitively influenced by the tendency of Ni 3+ to get reduced to Ni2+ and the consequent volatilization of lithium during synthesis. Moreover, high Mn4+ content causes a decrease in oxygen mobility and loss. In addition, the chemically delithiated samples were found to adopt either the parent O3 type structure or the new P3 or O1 type structures depending upon the composition and synthesis temperature of the parent samples and the proton content inserted into the delithiated sample. In essence, the chemical and structural stabilities and the electrochemical performance factors of the layered (1-z) Li[Li1/3 Mn2/3]O2 · (z) Li[Co1-yNi y]O2 solid solution cathodes are found to be maximized by optimizing the contents of the various ions.

  5. Improved electrochemical performance of natural honeycomb templated LiSbO3 as an anode in lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Mahanty, S.; Basu, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LiSbO 3 powders are synthesized by using honeycomb from natural beehive as template. → Agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped 40-80 nm particles. → Electrochemically active anode in lithium-ion coin cells. → Improved capacity retention and rate performance in templated LiSbO 3 . - Abstract: LiSbO 3 has been synthesized by wet-chemical route using natural honeycomb as template, followed by thermal treatment at 850 deg. C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirms a single phase material having an orthorhombic crystal structure with lattice parameters of a = 4.912 A, b = 8.679 A and c = 5.089 A. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that while conventional LiSbO 3 synthesized without using any template (C-LiSbO 3 ) consists of softly agglomerated clusters of bar-shaped multifaceted micrometer-sized grains (0.5-4.0 μm long and 0.5-1.0 μm wide), templated LiSbO 3 (T-LiSbO 3 ) consists of an agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped particles of sizes 40-80 nm. Electrochemical investigation in 2032 type coin cells vs Li/Li + shows that Li insertion in LiSbO 3 takes place at 0.78 V while Li extraction occurs in two stages at 1.1 and 1.4 V with initial capacities of 178 and 196 mAh g -1 for C-LiSbO 3 and T-LiSbO 3 respectively. While C-LiSbO 3 shows a drastic capacity fading retaining only 28% of initial capacity after 100 cycles, T-LiSbO 3 retains ∼48% of the initial capacity due to the faceted morphology of the nanoparticles.

  6. Microwave synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium manganese borate as cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Muslim, Arzugul; Su, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Nano structured LiMnBO3/C cathode materials are synthesized by a fast microwave solid-state reaction method using MnCO3, Li2CO3, H3BO3 and glucose as starting materials for the first time. The crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of LiMnBO3/C composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), raman spectroscopy (Ramon), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge-discharge tests. The result shows that not only monoclinic LiMnBO3/C but also hexagonal LiMnBO3/C cathode materials can be successfully synthesized by microwave solid-state method with power of 240 W in different time. Compared with h-LiMnBO3/C and mixed phase LiMnBO3/C, m-LiMnBO3/C displays lower charge-transfer resistance and the Warburg impedance, so it reveals a higher first discharge capacity of 156.3 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C within 1.8V-4.6 V, The value increases up to 173.2 mAh g-1 caused by the activation process. Even after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity of m-LiMnBO3/C still remains at 148.2 mAh g-1.

  7. The impact of surface composition on Tafel kinetics leading to enhanced electrochemical insertion of hydrogen in palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga; Hamm, Steven C.; Knies, David L.; Cantwell, Richard; McConnell, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Our previous work experimentally demonstrated the enhancement of electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium by modifying the chemical composition of the cathode surface with Pb, Pt and Bi, referred to as surface promoters. The experiment demonstrated that an optimal combination of the surface promoters led to an increase in hydrogen fugacity of more than three orders of magnitude, while maintaining the same current density. This manuscript discusses the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) to elucidate the thermodynamics and kinetics of observed enhancement of electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium. We present theoretical simulations that: (1) establish the elevation of hydrogen's chemical potential on Pb and Bi surfaces to enhance hydrogen insertion, (2) confirm the increase of a Tafel activation barrier that results in a decrease of the reaction rate at the given hydrogen overpotential, and (3) explain why the surface promoter's coverage needs to be non-uniform, namely to allow hydrogen insertion into palladium bulk while simultaneously locking hydrogen below the surface (the corking effect). The discussed DFT-based method can be used for efficient scanning of different material configurations to design a highly effective hydrogen storage system.

  8. Non-isothermal electrochemical model for lithium-ion cells with composite cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Suman; Patil, Rajkumar S.; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2015-06-01

    Transition metal oxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries offer high energy density and high voltage. Composites of these materials have shown excellent life expectancy and improved thermal performance. In the present work, a comprehensive non-isothermal electrochemical model for a Lithium ion cell with a composite cathode is developed. The present work builds on lithium concentration-dependent diffusivity and thermal gradient of cathode potential, obtained from experiments. The model validation is performed for a wide range of temperature and discharge rates. Excellent agreement is found for high and room temperature with moderate success at low temperatures, which can be attributed to the low fidelity of material properties at low temperature. Although the cell operation is limited by electronic conductivity of NCA at room temperature, at low temperatures a shift in controlling process is seen, and operation is limited by electrolyte transport. At room temperature, the lithium transport in Cathode appears to be the main source of heat generation with entropic heat as the primary contributor at low discharge rates and ohmic heat at high discharge rates respectively. Improvement in electronic conductivity of the cathode is expected to improve the performance of these composite cathodes and pave way for its wider commercialization.

  9. Structural and electrochemical study of the reaction of lithium with silicon nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2009-04-01

    The structural transformations of silicon nanowires when cycled against lithium were evaluated using electrochemical potential spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling. During the charge, the nanowires alloy with lithium to form an amorphous LixSi compound. At potentials <50 mV, a structural transformation occurs. In studies on micron-sized particles previously reported in the literature, this transformation is a crystallization to a metastable Li15Si4 phase. X-ray diffraction measurements on the Si nanowires, however, show that they are amorphous, suggesting that a different amorphous phase (LiySi) is formed. Lithium is removed from this phase in the discharge to form amorphous silicon. We have found that limiting the voltage in the charge to 70 mV results in improved efficiency and cyclability compared to charging to 10 mV. This improvement is due to the suppression of the transformation at low potentials, which alloys for reversible cycling of amorphous silicon nanowires. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploration of artificial neural network [ANN] to predict the electrochemical characteristics of lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthiban, Thirumalai; Ravi, R.; Kalaiselvi, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630006 (India)

    2007-12-31

    CoO anode, as an alternate to the carbonaceous anodes of lithium-ion cells has been prepared and investigated for electrochemical charge-discharge characteristics for about 50 cycles. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are useful in estimating battery performance, has been deployed for the first time to forecast and to verify the charge-discharge behavior of lithium-ion cells containing CoO anode for a total of 50 cycles. In this novel approach, ANN that has one input layer with one neuron corresponding to one input variable, viz., cycles [charge-discharge cycles] and a hidden layer consisting of three neurons to produce their outputs to the output layer through a sigmoid function has been selected for the present investigation. The output layer consists of two neurons, representing the charge and discharge capacity, whose activation function is also the sigmoid transfer function. In this ever first attempt to exploit ANN as an effective theoretical tool to understand the charge-discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells, an excellent agreement between the calculated and observed capacity values was found with CoO anodes with the best fit values corresponding to an error factor of <1%, which is the highlight of the present study. (author)

  11. Thermo-electrochemical model for forced convection air cooling of a lithium-ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wei; Somasundaram, Karthik; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.; Yap, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupled thermal-electrochemical model for a Li-ion battery module resolving every functional layer in all cells. • Parametric analysis of forced convection air cooling of Li-ion battery module with a detailed multi-scale model. • Reversing/reciprocating airflow for Li-ion battery module thermal management provides uniform temperature distribution. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for safe and reliable operation of lithium-ion battery systems. In this study, a one-dimensional thermal-electrochemical model of lithium-ion battery interactively coupled with a two-dimensional thermal-fluid conjugate model for forced convection air cooling of a lithium-ion battery module is presented and solved numerically. This coupled approach makes the model more unique and detailed as transport inside each cell in the battery module is solved for and thus covering multiple length and time scales. The effect of certain design and operating parameters of the thermal management system on the performance of the battery module is assessed using the coupled model. It is found that a lower temperature increase of the battery module can be achieved by either increasing the inlet air velocity or decreasing the distance between the cells. Higher air inlet velocity, staggered cell arrangement or a periodic reversal airflow of high reversal frequency results in a more uniform temperature distribution in the module. However, doing so increases the parasitic load as well as the volume of the battery module whence a trade-off should be taken into account between these parameters.

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of high performance polyhedron sphere like lithium manganese oxide for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglei; Wei, Xiuge; Chang, Zhaorong; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Shangguan, Enbo; Chang, Kun; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance at both 25 °C and 55 °C. - Highlights: • Polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance. • The polyhedron sphere-like structure spinel LiMn 2 O 4 suppresses the dissolution of manganese ions. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 has high diffusion coefficient of Li + . - Abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) is successfully synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C. For comparison, LiMn 2 O 4 materials with nanorod and octahedron structures are also obtained from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor at temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively. The galvanostatic charge–discharge result shows that the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance at high rate and high temperature. After 100 cycles at 5 C, this electrode is able to maintain 94% of its capacity at 25 °C and 81% at 55 °C. This is attributed to that the polyhedron sphere-like spinel LiMn 2 O 4 can suppress the dissolution of manganese ions. Based on Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample has the lowest BET surface area, largest diffusion coefficient of Li + and least charge transfer resistance. This study provides an insight into the capacity fading of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes and the polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 can be a promising material for lithium ion batteries

  13. Electrochemical-thermal Modeling to Evaluate Active Thermal Management of a Lithium-ion Battery Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahiraei, Farid; Fartaj, Amir; Nazri, Gholam-Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in hybrid electric and full electric vehicles (HEV and EV). In HEV, thermal management is a strict requirement to control the batteries temperature within an optimal range in order to enhance performance, safety, reduce cost, and prolong the batteries lifetime. The optimum design of a thermal management system depends on the thermo-electrochemical behavior of the batteries, operating conditions, and weight and volume constraints. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of various operating and design parameters on the thermal performance of a battery module consisted of six building block cells. An electrochemical-thermal model coupled to conjugate heat transfer and fluid dynamics simulations is used to assess the effectiveness of two indirect liquid thermal management approaches under the FUDC driving cycle. In this study, a novel pseudo 3D electrochemical-thermal model of the battery is used. It is found that the cooling plate thickness has a significant effect on the maximum and gradient of temperature in the module. Increasing the Reynolds number decreases the average temperature but at the expense of temperature uniformity. The results show that double channel cooling system has a lower maximum temperature and more uniform temperature distribution compared to a single channel cooling system.

  14. Effect of Ce addition on the mechanical and electrochemical properties of a lithium battery shell alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junchao; Ding, Dongyan; Xu, Xinglong; Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ce-free and Ce-containing Al–Cu–Mn–Fe–Mg alloy. • TEM, tensile and electrochemical characterization of the alloys. • Ce element greatly affects the precipitation of the alloy. • Ce element had great impact on the tensile strength and corrosion potential of the alloys. - Abstract: Due to severe application environment lithium battery shell of new-energy automotives requires increasing demands for using high performance aluminum alloys. In the present work, effect of Ce addition on the microstructure, tensile and electrochemical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn–Mg–Fe alloy were investigated through using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile tests and electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the addition of Ce element could promote the precipitation of second phases. With addition of 0.36% Ce, high melting point Al 8 Cu 4 Ce phase and many Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 particles could be found. In addition, the precipitation of conventionally dominant phase of Al 2 Cu could be suppressed in alloy. The Ce addition was found to result in enhanced tensile strength and improved corrosion resistance

  15. Electrochemical performance of arc-produced carbon nanotubes as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shubin; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Okotrub, A.V.; Bulusheva, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of etching process on the morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of arc-produced multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were systematically investigated by TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that the etched CNTs exhibited four times higher reversible capacity than that of raw CNTs, and possessed excellent cyclability with almost 100% capacity retention after 30 cycles. The kinetic properties of three kinds of CNTs electrodes involving the pristine (CNTs-1), etched (CNTs-2) as well as etch-carbonized samples (CNTs-3) were characterized via ac impedance measurement. It was indicated that, after 30 cycles the exchange current density i 0 of etched CNTs ((7.6-7.8) x 10 -3 A cm -2 ) was higher than that of the raw CNTs (5.9 x 10 -3 A cm -2 ), suggesting the electrochemical activity of CNTs was enhanced by the etching treatment. The storage characteristics of the CNTs electrodes at room temperature and 50 o C were particularly compared. It was found that the film resistance on CNTs electrode generally tended to become large with the elongation of storage time, especially storage at high temperature. In comparison with CNTs-1 and CNTs-3, CNTs-2 exhibited more distinctly increase of film resistance, which is related with the surface properties

  16. Effect of Ce addition on the mechanical and electrochemical properties of a lithium battery shell alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ding, Dongyan, E-mail: dyding@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Xinglong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua [Huafon NLM Al Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201506 (China); Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong [Shanghai Huafon Materials Technology Institute, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ce-free and Ce-containing Al–Cu–Mn–Fe–Mg alloy. • TEM, tensile and electrochemical characterization of the alloys. • Ce element greatly affects the precipitation of the alloy. • Ce element had great impact on the tensile strength and corrosion potential of the alloys. - Abstract: Due to severe application environment lithium battery shell of new-energy automotives requires increasing demands for using high performance aluminum alloys. In the present work, effect of Ce addition on the microstructure, tensile and electrochemical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn–Mg–Fe alloy were investigated through using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile tests and electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the addition of Ce element could promote the precipitation of second phases. With addition of 0.36% Ce, high melting point Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Ce phase and many Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} particles could be found. In addition, the precipitation of conventionally dominant phase of Al{sub 2}Cu could be suppressed in alloy. The Ce addition was found to result in enhanced tensile strength and improved corrosion resistance.

  17. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  18. Effect of calcium on the electrochemical behavior of lithium anode in LiOH aqueous solution used for lithium–water battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziyan; Chen Kanghua; Ni Erfu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of minor addition of calcium to lithium anode on the electrochemical behavior of lithium anode in 4 M LiOH at 30 °C temperature is investigated by hydrogen collection, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate is marginally reduced with increasing calcium content. Addition of calcium to lithium mainly inhibits the anodic process. Minor addition of calcium to lithium slightly reduced the discharge current of lithium anode. Minor addition of calcium to lithium anode marginally enhances the hydrogen inhibition of lithium by the formation of calcium hydride combined with LiOH and LiOH·H 2 O formed on the anode surface.

  19. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium-Rich LiFePO4 Cathode Synthesized by Solid-State Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaiah, P.; Hussain, O. M.; Zhu, Jinghui; Qiu, Yejun

    2017-08-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (Li x FePO4) is synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The structural, electrical and electrochemical properties are studied in detail. It is found that the increment of lithium concentration (up to x = 1.05) does not affect the structure of LiFePO4 but improves its electrical conductivity as well as electrochemical performance. Surface morphological studies exhibited the formation of rod-like nanoparticles with small size. Electric and dielectric properties are also investigated over a frequency range of 1 Hz-1 MHz at different temperatures. The conductivity increased with increasing temperature, which follows the Arrhenius relation with the activation energy of about 0.31 eV. And the electrochemical tests found that the Li1.05FePO4 cathode possessed improved discharge capacity with better cycling performance.

  20. Al2O3-coated porous separator for enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al2O3-coated separator with developed porous channels is prepared by coating Al2O3 polymer solution on routine separator. The batteries with Al2O3-coated separator exhibited a reversible capacity of as high as 593 mAh g-1 at the rate of 0.2 C after 50th charge/discharge cycle. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the reduced charge transfer resistance after the introduction of Al2O3 coating layer. Besides, the Al2O3 coating layer, acting as a physical barrier for polysulfides, can effectively prevent polysulfides shuttling between the cathode and the anode. We believe that the Al2O3-coated separator is promising in the lithium sulfur battery applications. - Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 -coated separator is used as the separator of lithium sulfur battery. • The cell with Al 2 O 3 -coated separator exhibits excellent cycling stability and high rate capability. • Al 2 O 3 -coated separator is promising in the lithium sulfur battery applications. - Abstract: In this paper, Al 2 O 3 -coated separator with developed porous channels is prepared to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur batteries. It is demonstrated that the Al 2 O 3 -coating layer is quite effective in reducing shuttle effect and enhancing the stability of the sulfur electrode. The initial discharge capacity of the cell with Al 2 O 3 -coated separator can reach 967 mAh g −1 at the rate of 0.2 C. After 50th charge/discharge cycle, this cell can also deliver a reversible capacity of as high as 593.4 mAh g −1 . Significantly, the charge-transfer resistance of the electrode tends to be reducing after using Al 2 O 3 -coated separator. The improved cell performance is attributed to the porous architecture of the Al 2 O 3 -coating layer, which serves as an ion-conducting skeleton for trapping and depositing dissolved sulfur-containing active materials, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X

  1. Electrochemical reaction of lithium with orthorhombic bismuth tungstate thin films fabricated by radio-frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Sun Ke; Yu Le; Fu Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 thin films with fast deposition rate have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrodes in rechargeable thin film lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 113 μAh/cm 2 -μm is obtainable for Bi 2 WO 6 film electrode with good capacity reversibility. A multiple-center reactive mechanism associated with both Bi 3+ /Bi 0 and W 6+ /W x+ (x 2 WO 6 electrochemical performance with those of Bi 2 O 3 and WO 3 thin films. A possible explanation about smooth capacity loss of Bi 2 WO 6 after long-term cycling is suggested from the incomplete reaction of Bi component. The advantages of Bi 2 WO 6 thin films over the singer-center Bi 2 O 3 or WO 3 thin films are shown in both the aspects of volumetric capacity and cycling life.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in lithium ion battery cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been widely utilized as an experimental method for understanding the internal mechanisms and aging effect of lithium ion battery. However, the impedance interpretation still has a lot of difficulties. In this study, a multi-physics based EIS simulation approach is developed to study the cycling effect on the battery impedance responses. The SEI film growth during cycling is coherently coupled with the complicated charge, mass and energy transport processes. The EIS simulation is carried out by applying a perturbation voltage on the electrode surface, and the numerical results on cycled cells are compared with the corresponding experimental data. The effect of electrical double layer, electrode open circuit potential as well as the diffusivity of binary electrolyte are simulated on battery impedance responses. The influence of different SEI growth rate, thermal conditions and charging-discharging rate during cycling are also studied. This developed method can be potentially utilized for interpretation and analysis of experimental EIS results

  3. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  4. Li Insertion Into Li-Ti-O Spinels: Voltammetric and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtil, Petr; Fattakhova, Dina

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 9 (2001), s. A1045-A1050 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Li insertion * impedance spectroscopy * Frumkin insertion isotherm Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2001

  5. Temperature-dependent electrochemical heat generation in a commercial lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Garimella, Srinivas; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer from inherent thermal limitations (i.e., capacity fade and thermal runaway); thus, it is critical to understand heat generation experienced in the batteries under normal operation. In the current study, reversible and irreversible electrochemical heat generation rates were measured experimentally on a small commercially available C/LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery designed for high-rate applications. The battery was tested over a wide range of temperatures (10-60 °C) and discharge and charge rates (∼C/4-5C) to elucidate their effects. Two samples were tested in a specially designed wind tunnel to maintain constant battery surface temperature within a maximum variation of ±0.88 °C. A data normalization technique was employed to account for the observed capacity fade, which was largest at the highest rates. The heat rate was shown to increase with both increasing rate and decreasing temperature, and the reversible heat rate was shown to be significant even at the highest rate and temperature (7.4% at 5C and 55 °C). Results from cycling the battery using a dynamic power profile also showed that constant-current data predict the dynamic performance data well. In addition, the reversible heat rate in the dynamic simulation was shown to be significant, especially for charge-depleting HEV applications.

  6. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can provide surface area for the deposition of Li{sub 2}S and Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}. ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g{sup −1}, and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm{sup −2}. Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process.

  7. Empirical Modeling of Lithium-ion Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, Ehsan; Farhad, Siamak; Scott, William; Mastali, Mehrdad; Gimenez, Leonardo E.; Fowler, Michael; Fraser, Roydon A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two commercial Lithium-ion batteries are studied through HPPC and EIS tests. • An equivalent circuit model is developed for a range of operating conditions. • This model improves the current battery empirical models for vehicle applications • This model is proved to be efficient in terms of predicting HPPC test resistances. - ABSTRACT: An empirical model for commercial lithium-ion batteries is developed based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. An equivalent circuit is established according to EIS test observations at various battery states of charge and temperatures. A Laplace transfer time based model is developed based on the circuit which can predict the battery operating output potential difference in battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles at various operating conditions. This model demonstrates up to 6% improvement compared to simple resistance and Thevenin models and is suitable for modeling and on-board controller purposes. Results also show that this model can be used to predict the battery internal resistance obtained from hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests to within 20 percent, making it suitable for low to medium fidelity powertrain design purposes. In total, this simple battery model can be employed as a real-time model in electrified vehicle battery management systems

  8. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH 4 /SiH 4 mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH 4 and SiH 4 precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy Resources, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do, 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH{sub 4} and SiH{sub 4} precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium.

  10. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrova, E. V.; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  11. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kang; Wang, Shengping; Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al 2 O 3 can provide surface area for the deposition of Li 2 S and Li 2 S 2 . ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g −1 , and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm −2 . Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrova, E. V., E-mail: east@mail.ioffe.ru; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  13. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical behavior of carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko; Yamada, Yuto; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Within this study we report on the impact of the pyrolysis temperature on the structural and electrochemical properties of the poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide) derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic. Materials pyrolysed at 800 °C and 1300 °C, SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300, are found amorphous. Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the increase in ordering of the free carbon phase with increasing pyrolysis temperature which leads to lower capacity recovered by SiCN 1300. Significant hysteresis is found for materials pyrolysed at 800 °C during electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction. This feature is attributed to much higher hydrogen content in SiCN 800 sample. An aging of SiCN 800 reflected by a change of elemental composition upon contact to air and a strong film formation are attenuated at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Single particle microelectrode investigation on SiCN 800 and SiCN 1300 clarify different electrochemical behavior of the materials. Much lower charge transfer resistance of SiCN 1300 in comparison to SiCN 800 explains better high currents electrochemical performance. Lithium ions diffusion coefficient Dmin ranges from 3.2 10-9 cm2s-1 to 6.4 10-11 cm2s-1 and is independent on the potential.

  14. Low hydrogen containing amorphous carbon films - Growth and electrochemical properties as lithium battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V.; Masarapu, Charan; Wei, Bingqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 130 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Karabacak, Tansel [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Teki, Ranganath [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Amorphous carbon films were deposited successfully on Cu foils by DC magnetron sputtering technique. Electrochemical performance of the film as lithium battery anode was evaluated across Li metal at 0.2 C rate in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The discharge curves showed unusually low irreversible capacity in the first cycle with a reversible capacity of {proportional_to}810 mAh g{sup -1}, which is at least 2 times higher than that of graphitic carbon. For the first time we report here an amorphous carbon showing such a high reversibility in the first cycle, which is very much limited to the graphitic carbon. The deposited films were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and step profilometer for the structural and surface properties. The hydrogen content of the synthesized films was studied using residual gas analysis (RGA). The low hydrogen content and the low specific surface area of the synthesized amorphous carbon film are considered responsible for such a high first cycle columbic efficiency. The growth mechanism and the reasons for enhanced electrochemical performance of the carbon films are discussed. (author)

  15. Low hydrogen containing amorphous carbon films-Growth and electrochemical properties as lithium battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V.; Karabacak, Tansel; Masarapu, Charan; Teki, Ranganath; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wei, Bingqing

    Amorphous carbon films were deposited successfully on Cu foils by DC magnetron sputtering technique. Electrochemical performance of the film as lithium battery anode was evaluated across Li metal at 0.2 C rate in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The discharge curves showed unusually low irreversible capacity in the first cycle with a reversible capacity of ∼810 mAh g -1, which is at least 2 times higher than that of graphitic carbon. For the first time we report here an amorphous carbon showing such a high reversibility in the first cycle, which is very much limited to the graphitic carbon. The deposited films were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and step profilometer for the structural and surface properties. The hydrogen content of the synthesized films was studied using residual gas analysis (RGA). The low hydrogen content and the low specific surface area of the synthesized amorphous carbon film are considered responsible for such a high first cycle columbic efficiency. The growth mechanism and the reasons for enhanced electrochemical performance of the carbon films are discussed.

  16. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  17. Parallelized Genetic Identification of the Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of a well predicted model can be used as health characteristics for Lithium-ion battery. This article reports a parallelized parameter identification of the thermal-electrochemical model, which significantly reduces the time consumption of parameter identification. Since the P2D model has the most predictability, it is chosen for further research and expanded to the thermal-electrochemical model by coupling thermal effect and temperature-dependent parameters. Then Genetic Algorithm is used for parameter identification, but it takes too much time because of the long time simulation of model. For this reason, a computer cluster is built by surplus computing resource in our laboratory based on Parallel Computing Toolbox and Distributed Computing Server in MATLAB. The performance of two parallelized methods, namely Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD and parallel FOR loop (PARFOR, is investigated and then the parallelized GA identification is proposed. With this method, model simulations running parallelly and the parameter identification could be speeded up more than a dozen times, and the identification result is batter than that from serial GA. This conclusion is validated by model parameter identification of a real LiFePO4 battery.

  18. Comparison of Lithium-Ion Anode Materials Using an Experimentally Verified Physics-Based Electrochemical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujian Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are in search of parameters inside Li-ion batteries that can be utilized to control their external behavior. Physics-based electrochemical model could bridge the gap between Li+ transportation and distribution inside battery and battery performance outside. In this paper, two commercially available Li-ion anode materials: graphite and Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO were selected and a physics-based electrochemical model was developed based on half-cell assembly and testing. It is found that LTO has a smaller diffusion coefficient (Ds than graphite, which causes a larger overpotential, leading to a smaller capacity utilization and, correspondingly, a shorter duration of constant current charge or discharge. However, in large current applications, LTO performs better than graphite because its effective particle radius decreases with increasing current, leading to enhanced diffusion. In addition, LTO has a higher activation overpotential in its side reactions; its degradation rate is expected to be much smaller than graphite, indicating a longer life span.

  19. Conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 slurry in the lithium slurry battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caimei; Chen, Yongchong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Lithium slurry battery is a new type of energy storage technique which uses the slurry of solid active materials, conductive additions and liquid electrolyte as the electrode. The proportion of conductive addition and the active material has significant influence on the conductivity and electrochemical performance of the slurry electrode. In the present work, slurries with different volume ratios of LiFePO4 (LFP) and Ketjenblack (KB) were investigated by the electrochemical workstation and charge-discharge testing system (vs. Li/Li+). Results show that the conductivity of the slurry increases linearly with the addition of KB, and the measured specific capacity of the slurry reaches its theoretical value when the volume ratio of KB to LFP is around 0.2. Based on this ratio, a slurry battery with higher loading of LFP (19.1 wt.% in the slurry) was tested, and a specific capacity of 165 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 and 102 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2 was obtained for LFP.

  20. Observation of crystalline changes of titanium dioxide during lithium insertion by visible spectrum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Park, Jongseok; Park, Soomin; Bae, Seongjun; Yoo, Young Geun; Han, Jeong Woo; Yi, Jongheop

    2017-05-24

    Real-time analysis of changes in the atomic environment of materials is a cutting edge technology that is being used to explain reaction dynamics in many fields of science. Previously, this kind of analysis was only possible using heavy nucleonic equipment such as XANES and EXAFS, or Raman spectroscopy on a moderate scale. Here, a new methodology is described that can be used to track changes in crystalline developments during complex Li insertion reactions via the observation of structural color. To be specific, the changes in atomic crystalline and nanostructure are shown during Li insertion in a complex TiO 2 polymorph. Structural color corresponds to the refractive indices of materials originating from their atomic bonding nature and precise wave interferences in accordance with their nanostructure. Therefore, this new analysis simultaneously reveals changes in the nanostructure as well as changes in the atomic bonding nature of materials.

  1. Preparation of lithium indium oxide via a rheological phase route and its electrochemical characteristics in LiOH and Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Qing [Department of Chemistry and Environment Science of Yangtze Normal University, 408100 Chongqing (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Wu, Xing-Fa [Department of Chemistry and Environment Science of Yangtze Normal University, 408100 Chongqing (China)

    2010-01-15

    Submicrometer-sized lithium indium oxide (LiInO{sub 2}) powder via a rheological phase method using trilithium citrate tetra hydrate (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Li{sub 3}O{sub 7} . 4H{sub 2}O) and indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been prepared in this work for the first time. The optimal pyrolyzing temperature range to prepare crystalline LiInO{sub 2} is between 650 and 900 C, which was confirmed by thermal gravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis of the precursor and X-ray diffraction analysis. The pure phase LiInO{sub 2} sample obtained has a uniform particle morphology and submicrosize, which was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical studies show that a new pair of cathodic and anodic peaks at 0.23 and 0.38 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode) was obviously observed from the cyclic voltammetry curve of LiInO{sub 2} in 1 M LiOH solution, indicating a battery characteristic of the material in this electrolyte. While in 1 M Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, the sample presents a supercapacitive characteristic within the same potential range. The reasons for different electrochemical behaviors in these two electrolytes can be attributed to the fact that the reaction of lithium ion insertion/extraction into/out of a LiInO{sub 2} electrode takes place in the bulk material in LiOH electrolyte solution, whereas it takes place on the electrode/electrolyte interface for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte case. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Evaluation of Three- and Two-Dimensional Organohalide Perovskites and Their Influence on the Reversibility of Lithium Intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel; Suto, Yusaku; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly Carolina; Miura, Akira; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Jaramillo, Franklin

    2018-04-02

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently been investigated in a variety of applications, including solar cells, light emitting devices (LEDs), and lasers because of their impressive semiconductor properties. Nevertheless, the perovskite structure has the ability to host extrinsic elements, making its application in the battery field possible. During the present study, we fabricated and investigated the electrochemical properties of three-dimensional (3D) methylammonium lead mixed-halide CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3- x Br x and two-dimensional (2D) propylammonium-methlylammonium lead bromide (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 hybrid perovskite thin films as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. These electrodes were obtained by solution processing at 100 °C. CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 achieved high discharge/charge capacities of ∼500 mA h g -1 /160 mA h g -1 that could account also for other processes taking place during the Li intercalation. It was also found that bromine plays an important role for lithium intercalation, while the new 2D (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 with a layered structure allowed reversibility of the lithium insertion-extraction of 100% with capacities of ∼375 mA h g -1 in the form of a thin film. Results suggest that tuning the composition of these materials can be used to improve intercalation capacities, while modification from 3D to 2D layered structures contributes to improving lithium extraction. The mechanism of the lithium insertion-extraction may consist of an intercalation mechanism in the hybrid material accompanying the alloying-dealloying process of the Li x Pb intermetallic compounds. This work contributes to revealing the relevance of both composition and structure of potential hybrid perovskite materials as future thin film electrode materials with high capacity and compositional versatility.

  3. Porous Co3O4 nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Haoxin

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co 3 O 4 nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance

  4. A regenerative electrochemical biosensor for mercury(II) by using the insertion approach and dual-hairpin-based amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jing; Ling, Yu; Gao, Zhong Feng; Lei, Jing Lei; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dual-hairpin structure as a signal amplifier is label-free and handy. • The strategy uses the insertion approach to improve the hybridization efficiency. • This biosensor has a low detection limit (28 pM) for detection of Hg 2+ . • This biosensor can be easily regenerated by using L-cysteine. - Abstract: A simple and effective biosensor for Hg 2+ determination was investigated. The novel biosensor was prepared by the insertion approach that the moiety-labeled DNA inserted into a loosely packed cyclic-dithiothreitol (DTT) monolayer, improving the hybridization efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of two biosensors (single-hairpin and dual-hairpin structure DNA modified electrodes) used for Hg 2+ detection indicated that the dual-hairpin modified electrode had a larger electron transfer resistance change (ΔR ct ). Consequently, the dual-hairpin structure was used as a signal amplifier for the preparation of a selective Hg 2+ biosensor. This biosensor exhibited an excellent selectivity toward Hg 2+ over Cd 2+ , Pd 2+ , Co 2+ etc. Also, a linear relation was observed between the ΔR ct and Hg 2+ concentrations in a range from 0.1 nM to 5 μM with a detection limit of 28 pM under optimum conditions. Moreover, the biosensor can be reused by using L-cysteine and successfully applied for detecting Hg 2+ in real samples

  5. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a facile synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots (LTO/N,S-GQDs). The unique architecture and the introduction of N,S-GQDs create both ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. The as-prepared LTO/N,S-GQDs anode provides prominent advantage of specific capacity, high-rate performance and cycle stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots hybrid • The synthesis creates a crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO • The unique architecture achieves to maximize the rate performance and enhance the power density • Introduction of N,S-GQDs greatly enhances the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity • The hybrid anode provides an excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries - ABSTRACT: The paper reported a facile synthesis of lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots(LTO/N,S-GQDs). Tetrabutyl titanate was dissolved in tertbutanol and heated to refluxing state by microwave irradiation. Then, lithium acetate was added into the mixed solution to produce LTO precursor. The precursor was hybridized with N,S-GQDs in ethanol. Followed by drying and thermal annealing at 500 °C in Ar/H_2 to obtain LTO/N,S-GQDs. The synthesis creates fully crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO crystals. The unique architecture achieves to maximize the high-rate performance and enhance the power density. More importantly, the introduction of N,S-GQDs don't almost influence on the electrolyte transport, but greatly improve the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity. The LTO/N,S-GQDs anode exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery. The specific discharge capacity is 254.2 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 126.5 mAh g"−"1 at 10C. The capacity remains 96.9% at least after 2000 cycles

  6. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO3 and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukeun; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Song, Huesup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 . - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO 3 was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO 3 nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li + /Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO 3 after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li 5.5 WO 3 ) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO 3 particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of silicon nanosheets by DC arc discharge for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuhong; Xue, Fanghong; Huang, Hao; Liu, Chunjing; Yu, Jieyi; Sun, Yuejun; Dong, Xinglong; Cao, Guozhong; Jung, Youngguan

    2014-06-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin silicon nanosheets (Si NSs) were synthesized by DC arc discharge method and investigated as anode material for Li-ion batteries. The 2D ultrathin characteristics of Si NSs is confirmed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average size of Si NSs is about 20 nm, with thickness less than 2.5 nm. The characteristic Raman peak of Si NSs is found to have an appreciable (20 nm) shift to low frequency, presumably due to the size effect. The synergistic effects of Ar(+) and H(+) lead to 2D growth of Si NSs under high temperature and energy. Electrochemical analyses reveal that Si NSs anode possesses stable cycling performance and fast diffusion of Li-ions with insertion/extraction processes. Such Si NSs might be a promising candidate for anode of Li-ion batteries.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  9. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  10. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  11. Effects of synthetic parameters on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Tingfeng; Dai Changsong; Gao Kun; Hu Xinguo

    2006-01-01

    The spinel lithium manganese oxide cathode materials were prepared by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method at 623-1073 K in air. The effects of pH value, raw material, synthesis temperature and time on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). XRD data results strongly suggest that the synthesis temperature is the dominating factors of the formation of spinel phase, and spinel lithium manganese oxide powder with various crystallites size can be obtained by controlling the sintering time. CV shows that spinel lithium manganese oxide powder formed about 973 K presents the best electrochemical performance with well separated two peaks and the highest peak current. Charge-discharge test indicates that spinel lithium manganese oxide powders calcined at higher temperatures have high discharge capacity and capacity loss, and sintered at lower temperatures has low discharge capacity and high capacity retention

  12. Effects of synthetic parameters on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Tingfeng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: tfyihit@hit.edu.cn; Dai Changsong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao Kun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu Xinguo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-11-30

    The spinel lithium manganese oxide cathode materials were prepared by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method at 623-1073 K in air. The effects of pH value, raw material, synthesis temperature and time on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). XRD data results strongly suggest that the synthesis temperature is the dominating factors of the formation of spinel phase, and spinel lithium manganese oxide powder with various crystallites size can be obtained by controlling the sintering time. CV shows that spinel lithium manganese oxide powder formed about 973 K presents the best electrochemical performance with well separated two peaks and the highest peak current. Charge-discharge test indicates that spinel lithium manganese oxide powders calcined at higher temperatures have high discharge capacity and capacity loss, and sintered at lower temperatures has low discharge capacity and high capacity retention.

  13. Graphene derived carbon confined sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries: Electrochemical impedance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Aswathi; Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano; Shaijumon, Manikoth M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-derived carbon (GDC) with distinctive porosity characteristics are prepared. • Effect of micro-/mesoporosity of GDC for improved Li-S battery performance is studied. • Impedance studies reveal insights into Li-S redox reactions and capacity fading phenomena. - Abstract: Sulfur nanocomposites are prepared by using graphene derived carbon (GDC), with controlled porosity characteristics, as confining matrix and are studied as efficient cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. To understand the effect of micro-/mesoporosity in porous carbon for the effective encapsulation of sulfur and polysulfides towards improved Li-S battery performance, two different GDC samples with controlled porosity characteristics, one with predominantly micropores (GDC-1) and a surface area of 1970 m 2 g −1 and the other with a surface area of 3239 m 2 g −1 , having more or less equal contribution of micro- and mesopores (GDC-2), are used to synthesize nanocomposite sulfur electrodes following melt diffusion process. Electrochemical studies are carried out by using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra collected at different depth of discharge (DOD) in the first cycle as well as upon cycling give valuable insights into the Li-S redox reactions and capacity fading phenomena in these electrodes. The impedance response of GDC-S electrodes suggests a detrimental effect of the mesopores, where insoluble reaction products can easily accumulate, resulting in the loss of active material leading to capacity fading of Li-S cells.

  14. Electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel attempt of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. → The first discharge capacity was approximately 1256 mAh g -1 and at the end of 20th cycling the capacity was 610 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C rate. → Coulombic efficiency of Super P carbon black electrode was maintained about 84% at the end of cycling. - Abstract: A new approach to investigate upon the electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black anode material is attempted and compared with conventional mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The prepared Super P carbon black electrodes are characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The assembled 2032-type coin cells are electrochemically characterized by ac impedance spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric methods. The electrochemical performance of charge and discharge was analyzed using a battery cycler at 0.1 C rate and cut-off potentials of 1.20 and 0.01 V vs. Li/Li + . The electrochemical test illustrates that the discharge capacity corresponding to Li intercalation into the Super P carbon black electrode is higher and coulombic efficiency is maintained approximately 84% at the end of the 20th cycling at room temperature.

  15. Structural and Electrochemical Study of Vanadium-Doped TiO2 Ramsdellite with Superior Lithium Storage Properties for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Hoelzel, Markus; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Kuhn, Alois

    2016-04-04

    Titanium-oxide-based materials are considered attractive and safe alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. In particular, the ramsdellite form TiO2 (R) is known for its superior lithium-storage ability as the bulk material when compared with other titanates. In this work, we prepared V-doped lithium titanate ramsdellites with the formula Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 (0≤x≤0.5) by a conventional solid-state reaction. The lithium-free Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds, in which the ramsdellite framework remains virtually unaltered, are easily obtained by a simple aqueous oxidation/ion-extraction process. Neutron powder diffraction is used to locate the Li channel site in Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds and to follow the lithium extraction by difference-Fourier maps. Previously delithiated Ti1-x Vx O2 ramsdellites are able to insert up to 0.8 Li(+) per transition-metal atom. The initial gravimetric capacities of 270 mAh g(-1) with good cycle stability under constant current discharge conditions are among the highest reported for bulk TiO2 -related intercalation compounds for the threshold of one e(-) per formula unit. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of organic carbonate based electrolyte solutions at lithium metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, R; Novak, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The oxidative decomposition of carbonate based electrolyte solutions at practical lithium metal oxide composite electrodes was studied by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry. For propylene carbonate (PC), CO{sub 2} evolution was detected at LiNiO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite electrodes. The starting point of gas evolution was 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at LiNiO{sub 2}, whereas at LiCoO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} evolution was only observed above 4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In addition, various other volatile electrolyte decomposition products of PC were detected when using LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O4, and carbon black electrodes. In ethylene carbonate / dimethyl carbonate, CO{sub 2} evolution was only detected at LiNiO{sub 2} electrodes, again starting at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  18. On the use of voltammetric methods to determine electrochemical stability limits for lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georén, Peter; Lindbergh, Göran

    In previous studies a novel amphiphilic co-polymer was developed for use in lithium-ion batteries. In order to evaluate the electrochemical stability of that electrolyte and compare it with others, a voltammetric method was applied on a set of electrolytes with different salts, solvents and polymers. However, initially the voltammetric methodology was studied. Platinum was found to be the most suited electrode material, experiencing no significant interfering reactions and a proper diffusion-controlled kinetic behaviour when sweep rate was varied. Furthermore, the influence on the voltammograms of adding water traces to the electrolytes was studied. It could be established that the oxidation peak around 3.8 V versus Li was related to water reactions. It was concluded that quantitative voltage values of the stability limits were difficult to assess using voltammetry. On the other hand, the method seemed well suited for comparison of electrolytes and to investigate the influences of electrolyte components on the stability. The voltammetric results varied little between the different electrolytes evaluated and the anodic and cathodic limits, as defined here, were in the range of 1 and 4.5 V vs. Li, respectively. Although the novel polymer did not affect the stability limit significantly it seemed to promote the breakdown reaction rate in all electrolytes tested. Furthermore, the use of LiTFSI salt reduced the stability window.

  19. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane composite nanofibrous separator with electrochemical performance for high power lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainab, Ghazala [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Xianfeng, E-mail: wxf@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Yu, Jianyong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Zhai, Yunyun; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Xiao, Ke [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Bin, E-mail: binding@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for high performance require separators with auspicious reliability and safety. Keeping LIBs reliability and safety in view, microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polyurethane (PU) nonwoven composite separator have been developed by electrospinning technique. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN/PU separator were characterized. Improved ionic conductivity up to 2.07 S cm{sup −1}, high mechanical strength (10.38 MPa) and good anodic stability up to 5.10 V are key outcomes of resultant membranes. Additionally, high thermal stability displaying only 4% dimensional change after 0.5 h long exposure to 170 °C in an oven, which could be valuable addition towards the safety of LIBs. Comparing to commercialized polypropylene based separators, resulting membranes offered improved internal short-circuit protection function, offering better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention under same observation conditions. These fascinating characteristics endow these renewable composite nonwovens as promising separators for high power LIBs battery. - Highlights: • The PAN/PU based separators were prepared by multi-needle electrospinning technique. • The electrospun separators displays good mechanical properties and thermal stability. • These separators exhibit good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection. • Nanofibrous composite nonwoven possesses stable cyclic performance which give rise to acceptable battery performances.

  20. Electrochemical studies of ferrocene in a lithium ion conducting organic carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoire, Cormac O.; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a detailed study of the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) to ferrocenium ion (Fc + ) in the non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte composed of a solution of 1 M LiPF 6 in 1:1 EC:EMC solvent mixture. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the Fc 0 /Fc + redox couple is reversible in this highly concentrated electrolyte. The ferrocene and ferrocenium ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from these results. In addition, the electron transfer rate constant (k 0 ) and the exchange current density for the oxidation of ferrocene were determined. A comparison of the kinetic data obtained from the two electrochemical techniques appears to show that the data from the RDE experiments are more reliable because they are collected under strict mass transport control. A Tafel slope of c.a. 79 mV/decade and a transfer coefficient α of 0.3 obtained from analysis of the RDE data for ferrocene oxidation suggest that the structure of the activated complex is closer to that of the oxidized specie due to strong interactions with the carbonate solvents. The experiments reported here are relevant to the study of redox reagents for the chemical overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4/C for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Wang, Jiazhao; Yin, Shengyu; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shengfu; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Shiquan

    2015-03-01

    LiFePO4/C was prepared through a facile rheological phase reaction method by using Fe3(PO4)2, Li3PO4 · 8H2O, and glucose as reactants. The LiFePO4/C samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of the samples were investigated. The results show that the LiFePO4/C samples have single-phase olivine-type structure, and their particles feature a spherical shape. The carbon coating on the particles of LiFePO4 is about 1.8% of the LiFePO4/C by weight. The particle size was distributed from 0.2 to 1 µm. The initial discharge capacity of LiFePO4/C reached 154 mA h/g at 0.1 C. The retained discharge capacity of LiFePO4/C was 152.9 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. The LiFePO4/C also showed better cycling performance than that of the bare LiPeO4 at a higher charge/discharge rate (1 C). The LIFePO4/C prepared in this way could be a promising cathode material for lithium ion battery application.

  2. Electrochemical Modeling and Performance of a Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Layered Transition-Metal Oxide Positive Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Dennis W.; Abraham, Daniel P; Lu, Wenquan; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Bettge, Martin; Jansen, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    The impedance of a lithium- and manganese-rich layered transition-metal oxide (MR-NMC) positive electrode, specifically Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2, is compared to two other transition-metal layered oxide materials, specifically LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and Li1.05(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.95O2 (NMC). A more detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study is conducted on the LMR-NMC electrode, which includes a range of states-of-charge (SOCs) for both current directions (i.e. charge and discharge) and two relaxation times (i.e. hours and one hundred hours) before the EIS sweep. The LMR-NMC electrode EIS studies are supported by half-cell constant current and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) studies. Two types of electrochemical models are utilized to examine the results. The first type is a lithium ion cell electrochemical model for intercalation active material electrodes that includes a complex active material/electrolyte interfacial structure. In conclusion, the other is a lithium ion half-cell electrochemical model that focuses on the unique composite structure of the bulk LMR-NMC materials.

  3. Na insertion into nanocrystalline Li4Ti5O12 spinel: An electrochemical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Pitňa Lásková, Barbora; Klementová, Mariana; Kavan, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 245, AUG 2017 (2017), s. 505-511 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06511S; GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Na insertion * Li4Ti5O12 * nanocrystalline Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  4. A regenerative electrochemical biosensor for mercury(II) by using the insertion approach and dual-hairpin-based amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Jing; Ling, Yu; Gao, Zhong Feng [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lei, Jing Lei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Hong Qun, E-mail: luohq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Nian Bing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The dual-hairpin structure as a signal amplifier is label-free and handy. • The strategy uses the insertion approach to improve the hybridization efficiency. • This biosensor has a low detection limit (28 pM) for detection of Hg{sup 2+}. • This biosensor can be easily regenerated by using L-cysteine. - Abstract: A simple and effective biosensor for Hg{sup 2+} determination was investigated. The novel biosensor was prepared by the insertion approach that the moiety-labeled DNA inserted into a loosely packed cyclic-dithiothreitol (DTT) monolayer, improving the hybridization efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of two biosensors (single-hairpin and dual-hairpin structure DNA modified electrodes) used for Hg{sup 2+} detection indicated that the dual-hairpin modified electrode had a larger electron transfer resistance change (ΔR{sub ct}). Consequently, the dual-hairpin structure was used as a signal amplifier for the preparation of a selective Hg{sup 2+} biosensor. This biosensor exhibited an excellent selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} over Cd{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} etc. Also, a linear relation was observed between the ΔR{sub ct} and Hg{sup 2+} concentrations in a range from 0.1 nM to 5 μM with a detection limit of 28 pM under optimum conditions. Moreover, the biosensor can be reused by using L-cysteine and successfully applied for detecting Hg{sup 2+} in real samples.

  5. Hydrogen-bonding-mediated synthesis of atomically thin TiO2 films with exposed (001) facets and applications in fast lithium insertion/extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Yang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Wei; Zhao, Yanfei; Yu, Bo; Xu, Huanjun; Ma, Zhishuang; Hao, Leiduan; Chen, Dechao; Miao, Shiding; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-10-05

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials show high specific surface area (SA) of high energy (HE) facets, imparting a significant improvement in their performances. Herein we report a novel route to synthesize TiO2 nanofilms (NFs) with atomic thickness (lithium insertion/extraction, demonstrating foreseeable applications in the energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  7. Enhanced electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode using the carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) as novel binder in lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Wang, Daxiong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-10-13

    Novel water-based binder CMC-Li is synthesized using cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li as a binder is reported. Electrochemical properties of batteries cathodes based on commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and CMC-Li as a water-soluble binder are investigated. CMC-Li is a novel lithium-ion binder. Compare with conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, and the battery with CMC-Li as the binder retained 97.8% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 176 mAh g(-1), which is beyond the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrate that the LFP electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has the highest rate capability, follow closely by that using PVDF binder. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free and excellent stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new lithium-ion battery internal temperature on-line estimate method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. G.; Sun, Z. C.; Wei, X. Z.; Dai, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    The power battery thermal management problem in EV (electric vehicle) and HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) has been widely discussed, and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) is an effective experimental method to test and estimate the status of the battery. Firstly, an electrochemical-based impedance matrix analysis for lithium-ion battery is developed to describe the impedance response of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Then a method, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, has been proposed to estimate the internal temperature of power lithium-ion battery by analyzing the phase shift and magnitude of impedance at different ambient temperatures. Respectively, the SoC (state of charge) and temperature have different effects on the impedance characteristics of battery at various frequency ranges in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experimental study. Also the impedance spectrum affected by SoH (state of health) is discussed in the paper preliminary. Therefore, the excitation frequency selected to estimate the inner temperature is in the frequency range which is significantly influenced by temperature without the SoC and SoH. The intrinsic relationship between the phase shift and temperature is established under the chosen excitation frequency. And the magnitude of impedance related to temperature is studied in the paper. In practical applications, through obtaining the phase shift and magnitude of impedance, the inner temperature estimation could be achieved. Then the verification experiments are conduced to validate the estimate method. Finally, an estimate strategy and an on-line estimation system implementation scheme utilizing battery management system are presented to describe the engineering value.

  9. Electrochemical-mechanical coupled modeling and parameterization of swelling and ionic transport in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Daniel; Hanselmann, Nina; Arzberger, Arno; Reinshagen, Holger; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    The intercalation and aging induced volume changes of lithium-ion battery electrodes lead to significant mechanical pressure or volume changes on cell and module level. As the correlation between electrochemical and mechanical performance of lithium ion batteries at nano and macro scale requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, physical modeling accounting for chemical and mechanical phenomena during operation is very useful for the battery design. Since the introduced fully-coupled physical model requires proper parameterization, this work also focuses on identifying appropriate mathematical representation of compressibility as well as the ionic transport in the porous electrodes and the separator. The ionic transport is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetric pouch cells comprising LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode, graphite anode and polyethylene separator. The EIS measurements are carried out at various mechanical loads. The observed decrease of the ionic conductivity reveals a significant transport limitation at high pressures. The experimentally obtained data are applied as input to the electrochemical-mechanical model of a prismatic 10 Ah cell. Our computational approach accounts intercalation induced electrode expansion, stress generation caused by mechanical boundaries, compression of the electrodes and the separator, outer expansion of the cell and finally the influence of the ionic transport within the electrolyte.

  10. Effect of Nickel Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Yao, Shanshan; Hou, Jinli; Jing, Maoxiang; Qian, Xinye; Shen, Xiangqian; Xiang, Jun; Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Conventional lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from severe capacity fade, which is induced by low electron conductivity and high dissolution of intermediated polysulfides. Recent studies have shown the metal (Pt, Au, Ni) as electrocatalyst of lithium polysulfides and improved the performance for lithium sulfur batteries. In this work, we present the nickel coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) as additive materials for elemental sulfur positive electrodes for lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries. Compared with MWNTs, the obtained Ni-MWNTs/sulfur composite cathode demonstrate a reversible specific capacity approaching 545 mAh after 200 cycles at a rate of 0.5C as well as improved cycling stability and excellent rate capacity. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact the MWNTs shows a vital role on polysulfides adsorption and nickel has a catalytic effect on the redox reactions during charge–discharge process. Meanwhile, the Ni-MWNTs is a good electric conductor for sulfur cathode.

  11. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV 3 O 8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g -1 at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g -1 , respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V 4+ ) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV 3 O 8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV 3 O 8 without detectable V 4+ (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of amorphous carbon-coated Sn Sb particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Tian, Wenhuai; Liu, Xiaohe; Yang, Rong; Li, Xingguo

    2007-12-01

    The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles. The as-prepared composite materials show much improved electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries compared with Sn-Sb alloy and carbon alone. This amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particle is extremely promising anode materials for lithium secondary batteries and has a high potentiality in the future use.

  13. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  14. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  15. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Gil [Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam [Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Huesup, E-mail: hssong@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3} with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO{sub 3} nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3} was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li{sub 5.5}WO{sub 3}) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO{sub 3} particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Structural and electrochemical properties of SnO nanoflowers as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wang, Fengping; Zhao, Hailei; Rafique, M. Yasir; Wang, Jie; Li, Quanshui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Novel self-assembled highly hierarchical SnO nanoflowers with acute edge petals have been successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal growth method using SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O and KOH as precursors. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results show that the flower-like SnO architectureis in the range 4–7 μm. Furthermore, Raman modes at A 1g = 212 and B 1g = 114 cm −1 further testify to the existence of nanotetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical results suggest that synthesized SnO nanoflowers are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  17. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  18. Effect of covalently bonded polysiloxane multilayers on the electrochemical behavior of graphite electrode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Qinmin; Jiang, Yinghua [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Polysiloxane multilayers were covalently bonded to the surface of natural graphite particles via diazonium chemistry and silylation reaction. The as-prepared graphite exhibited excellent discharge-charge behavior as negative electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. The improvement in the electrochemical performance of the graphite electrodes was attributed to the formation of a stable and flexible passive film on their surfaces. It was also revealed that the chemical compositions of the multilayers exerted influence on the electrochemical behavior of the graphite electrodes. The result of this study presents a new strategy to the formation of elastic and strong passive film on the graphite electrode via molecular design. Owing to the diversity of polysilxoane multilayers, this method also enables researchers to control the surface chemistries of carbonaceous materials with flexibility. (author)

  19. Investigation of the electrochemically active surface area and lithium diffusion in graphite anodes by a novel OsO4 staining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffmann, Lukas; Birkenmaier, Claudia; Müller, Marcus; Bauer, Werner; Mitsch, Tim; Feinauer, Julian; Krämer, Yvonne; Scheiba, Frieder; Hintennach, Andreas; Schleid, Thomas; Schmidt, Volker; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries generally consist of graphite-based active materials. In order to realize batteries with a high current density and therefore accelerated charging processes, the intercalation of lithium and the diffusion processes of these carbonaceous materials must be understood. In this paper, we visualized the electrochemical active surface area for three different anode materials using a novel OsO4 staining method in combination with scanning electron microscopy techniques. The diffusion behavior of these three anode materials is investigated by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique measurements. From those we determine the diffusion coefficient with and without consideration of the electrochemical active surface area.

  20. Fabrication of lithium titanate/graphene composites with high rate capability as electrode materials for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Rong, E-mail: xuerongsmile@qq.com; Yan, Jingwang, E-mail: yanjw@dicp.ac.cn; Jiang, Liang, E-mail: jiangliang@dicp.ac.cn; Yi, Baolian, E-mail: blyi@dicp.ac.cn

    2015-06-15

    A lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12})/graphene composite (LTO/graphene) is fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. Graphite oxide is dispersed in an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and tetrabutyl titanate followed by heat treatment in H{sub 2}/Ar. The LTO/graphene composite with reduced aggregation and improved homogeneity is investigated as an anode material for electrochemical capacitors. Electron transport is improved by the conductive graphene network in the insulating Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles. The charge transfer resistance at the particle/electrolyte interface is reduced from 83.1 Ω to 55.4 Ω. The specific capacity of LTO/graphene composite is 126 mAh g{sup −1} at 20C. The energy density and power density of a hybrid electrochemical supercapacitor with a LTO/graphene negative electrode and an activated carbon positive electrode are 120.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.5 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, which is comparable to that of conventional electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The LTO/graphene composite fabricated by the one-pot sol–gel method is a promising anode material for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors. - Highlights: • A Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene composite was fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. • The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene composite showed a reduced aggregation and an improved homogeneity. • The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene based hybrid supercapacitor exhibited higher energy and power densities.

  1. Fabrication of lithium titanate/graphene composites with high rate capability as electrode materials for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Rong; Yan, Jingwang; Jiang, Liang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    A lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 )/graphene composite (LTO/graphene) is fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. Graphite oxide is dispersed in an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and tetrabutyl titanate followed by heat treatment in H 2 /Ar. The LTO/graphene composite with reduced aggregation and improved homogeneity is investigated as an anode material for electrochemical capacitors. Electron transport is improved by the conductive graphene network in the insulating Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles. The charge transfer resistance at the particle/electrolyte interface is reduced from 83.1 Ω to 55.4 Ω. The specific capacity of LTO/graphene composite is 126 mAh g −1 at 20C. The energy density and power density of a hybrid electrochemical supercapacitor with a LTO/graphene negative electrode and an activated carbon positive electrode are 120.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.5 kW kg −1 , respectively, which is comparable to that of conventional electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The LTO/graphene composite fabricated by the one-pot sol–gel method is a promising anode material for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors. - Highlights: • A Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene composite was fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. • The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene composite showed a reduced aggregation and an improved homogeneity. • The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene based hybrid supercapacitor exhibited higher energy and power densities

  2. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0 ... for capacity losses in lithium ion cells and lithium-alloy cells....

  3. Aligned TiO₂ nanotube/nanoparticle heterostructures with enhanced electrochemical performance as three-dimensional anode for lithium-ion microbatteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Keyu; Guo, Min; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao

    2014-11-14

    A novel TiO₂ three-dimensional (3D) anode with an aligned TiO₂ nanotube/nanoparticle heterostructure (TiO₂ NTs/NPs) is developed by simply immersing as-anodized TiO₂ NTs into water and further crystallizing the TiO₂ NTs by post-annealing. The heterostructure, with its core in a tubular morphology and with both the outer and inner surface consisting of nanoparticles, is confirmed by FESEM and TEM. A reversible areal capacity of 0.126 mAh · cm(-2) is retained after 50 cycles for the TiO₂ NTs/NPs heterostructure electrode, which is higher than that of the TiO₂ NTs electrode (0.102 mAh · cm(-2) after 50 cycles). At the current densities of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mA · cm(-2), the areal capacities are 0.142, 0.127, 0.117, 0.110, 0.104 and 0.089 mAh · cm(-2), respectively, for the TiO₂ NTs/NPs heterostructure electrode compared to the areal capacities of 0.123, 0.112, 0.105, 0.101, 0.094 and 0.083 mAh · cm(-2), respectively, for the the TiO₂ NTs electrode. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique microstructure of the TiO₂ NTs/NPs heterostructure electrode with the TiO₂ NT core used as a straight pathway for electronic transport and with TiO₂ NP offering enhanced surface areas for facile Li+ insertion/extraction. The results described here inspire a facile approach to fabricate a 3D anode with an enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion microbattery applications.

  4. Electrochemical and safety characteristics of TiP2O7–graphene nanocomposite anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Mathew, Vinod; Anh, Ly Tuan; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a co-precipitation synthesis of TiP 2 O 7 –graphene (10 wt%) nanocomposite and pure TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles for the use as an advanced anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology of the compounds are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and field-emission transmission electron microscopy techniques. The electrochemical performances were evaluated in coin type Li-ion test cells. This TiP 2 O 7 –graphene nanocomposite displayed superior Li-ion battery performance with a large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability at a current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 . At an elevated current density of 6.4 mA cm −2 , the nanocomposite anode delivered a capacity of 98.4 mAh g −1 , which is much higher than that of pure TiP 2 O 7 (0.56 mAh g −1 ). The impressive electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the high surface area nanoparticles in conjunction with the good electronic conductivity of graphene. The graphene nanosheets not only provide an electronically conducting network, but also tend to prevent the aggregation of the high surface area TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles. Further, the graphene nanosheets can act as buffer layers to accommodate the volume change during the Li-ion insertion/extraction processes in the TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles.

  5. High-performance lithium-rich layered oxide materials: Effects of chelating agents on microstructure and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingjun; Xu, Ming; Chen, Zhaoyong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhu, Huali; Wu, Chun; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms and effects of three typical chelating agents, namely glucose, citric acid and sucrose on the sol-gel synthesis process, electrochemical degradation and structural evolution of 0.5Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.5LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 (LLMO) materials are systematically compared for the first time. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate that the sample synthesized from sucrose owns well structure, homogenous distribution, low Ni 3+ concentration and good surface structural stability during cycling, respectively. Electrochemical tests further prove that the LLMO material obtained from sucrose maintains 258.4 mAh g −1 with 94.8% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the exceptional complexing mechanism of sucrose, compared to those of the glucose and citric acid. Namely, one mole sucrose can be hydrolyzed into two different monosaccharides and further chelates three M (Li, Ni, Co and Mn) ions to form a more uniform ion-chelated matrix during sol-gel process. This discovery is an important step towards understanding the selection criterion of chelating agents for sol-gel method, that chelating agent with excellent complexing capability is beneficial to the distribution, structural stability and electrochemical properties of advanced lithium-rich layered materials

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Fe-doped V6O13 as Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped V6O13 was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method after preparing precursor in order to improve the discharge capacity and cycle performance of V6O13 cathode material at high-lithium state. XRD, SEM and XPS were employed to characterize the phase, morphology and valence of the Fe-doped V6O13. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance was analyzed and researched. Different morphologies and electrochemical performances of Fe-doped V6O13 were obtained via doping different contents of Fe3+ ion. The sample 0.02 presented the largest thickness of nanosheets (the thickness of 600-900nm and clearance between layers. The Fe-doped V6O13 has a better electrochemical performance than that of pure V6O13. The sample 0.02 exhibits the best electrochemical performance, the initial discharge specific capacity is 433mAh·g-1 and the capacity retention is 47.1% after 100 cycles.

  7. Electrochemical characteristics of TiS/sub 2/, ZrSe/sub 2/ and VSe/sub 2/ in secondary lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuki, Y; Inada, R; Tanuma, S; Yamanaka, S; Kamimura, H

    1981-08-01

    The layered transition metal dichalcogenides of TiS/sub 2/, ZrSe/sub 2/ and VSe/sub 2/ were found to react reversibly with lithium in electrochemical cells. The energy densities of these cathode materials were determined to be 500, 240 and 250 W.h/kg for one lithium intercalation per unit cell, respectively, and 420 W.h/kg for two lithium intercalation per unit cell of VSe/sub 2/. It was found for ZrSe/sub 2/ that more than two lithium ions per unit cell can be intercalated in the first discharge when the cell temperature is increased to 60/sup 0/C, while one lithium ion can be intercalated at 20/sup 0/C. 5 refs.

  8. Results from a Novel Method for Corrosion Studies of Electroplated Lithium Metal Based on Measurements with an Impedance Scanning Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based on lithium difluoro(oxalato borate (LiDFOB and lithium hexafluorophosphate, both salts being dissolved in solvent blends of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy images of electrodeposited lithium were also consulted. The results of the EQCM experiments were supported by AC impedance measurements and clearly showed two different corrosion mechanisms caused by the different salts and the formed SEIs. The observed mass decrease of the quartz sensor of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte is not smooth, but rather composed of a series of abrupt mass fluctuations in contrast to that of the lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte. After each slow decrease of mass a rather fast increase of mass is observed several times. The slow mass decrease can be attributed to a consolidation process of the SEI or to the partial dissolution of the SEI leaving finally lithium metal unprotected so that a fast film formation sets in entailing the observed fast mass increases.

  9. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  10. Study on lithium migration for electrochemical treatment of concrete affected by alkali-silica reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, L.M.S.; Copuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major durability problems in concrete and affects many structures worldwide. Nevertheless, currently, there are no definite treatments to stop it once it has star ted. Lithium is known to have beneficial effects on ASR. Indeed, the use of lithium-based

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES POTENTIALLY STREAMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Halutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models in the electrical parameters of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries are developed. The developed model parameters (discharge mode are identified out of family of discharging curve. By using of the parameters of this model we get the numerically model of lithium-ion battery.

  12. New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Minghao; Alvarado, Judith; Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Lu, Bingyu; Bouwer, James; Xu, Wu [Energy; Xiao, Jie [Energy; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy; Liu, Jun [Energy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-11-02

    Lithium metal has been considered as the “holy grail” anode material for rechargeable batteries though the dendritic growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) have crippled its practical use for decades. Its high chemical reactivity and low stability make it difficult to explore the intrinsic chemical and physical properties of the electrochemically deposited lithium (EDLi) and its accompanied solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). To prevent the dendritic growth and enhance the electrochemical reversibility, it is crucial to understand the nano- and meso- structures of EDLi. However, Li metal is very sensitive to beam damage and has low contrast for commonly used characterization techniques such as electron microscopy. Inspired by biological imaging techniques, this work demonstrates the power of cryogenic (cryo)- electron microscopy to reveal the detailed structure of EDLi and the SEI composition at the nano scale while minimizing beam damage during imaging. Surprisingly, the results show that the nucleation dominated EDLi (five minutes at 0.5 mA cm-2) is amorphous while there is some crystalline LiF present in the SEI. The EDLi grown from various electrolytes with different additives exhibits distinctive surface properties. Consequently, these results highlight the importance of the SEI and its relationship with the CE. Our findings not only illustrate the capabilities of cryogenic microscopy for beam (thermal)-sensitive materials, but it yields crucial structural information of the EDLi evolution with and without electrolyte additives.

  13. Preparation and electrochemical performance of bramble-like ZnO array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Junfeng; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ruan, Xiongfei; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiangni; Xu, Manzhang

    2015-01-01

    A bramble-like ZnO array with a special three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure was successfully fabricated on Zn foil through a facile two-step hydrothermal process. A possible growth mechanism of the bramble-like ZnO array was proposed. In the first step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nucleus of Zn(OH) 4 2− generated by the zinc atoms and OH − ions fold together preferentially along the positive polar (0001) to form the needle-like ZnO array. In the second step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nuclei of Zn(OH) 4 2− adjust their posture to keep their c-axes vertical to the perching sites due to the sufficient environmental force and further grow preferentially along the (0001) direction so as to form bramble-like ZnO array. The electrochemical properties of the needle- and bramble-like ZnO arrays as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared. The results show that the bramble-like ZnO material exhibits much better lithium storage properties than the needle-like ZnO sample. Reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance of the bramble-like ZnO material were investigated

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of nanosized LiFeO2 particles with a layered rocksalt structure for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Masaaki; Tomita, Hiroki; Kubota, Kei; Ido, Hidekazu; Kanno, Ryoji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 40-nm-sized O3-LiFeO 2 exhibits higher discharge capacities and rate characteristics than 400-nm-sized O3-LiFeO 2 . ► The cation disorder of Li and Fe ions might have affected the electrochemical activity of the O3-LiFeO 2 nanoparticles. ► A phase change from a layered structure to a cubic structure during electrochemical cycling. ► The new cubic phase allowed a stable electrochemical reaction between 4.5 and 1.0 V. -- Abstract: Layered rocksalt-type LiFeO 2 particles (O3-LiFeO 2 ) with average particle sizes of ca. 40 and 400 nm were synthesized by an ion exchange reaction from α-NaFeO 2 precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the formation of nanosized O3-LiFeO 2 . 40-nm LiFeO 2 exhibited a higher discharge capacity (115 mAh g −1 ) than 400-nm LiFeO 2 (80 mAh g −1 ), and also had better rate characteristics. The downsizing effect and cation disorder between the lithium and iron layers may have improved the electrochemical activity of the LiFeO 2 particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation indicated a phase transition from O3-LiFeO 2 to a cubic lattice system during the electrochemical process. The cubic lithium iron oxide exhibited stable electrochemical reactions based on the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ /Fe 0 redox couples at voltages between 4.5 and 1.0 V. The discharge capacities of 40-nm LiFeO 2 were ca. 115, 210, and 390 mAh g −1 under cutoff voltages of 4.5–2.0 V, 4.5–1.5 V, and 4.5–1.0 V, respectively.

  15. Enhanced electrochemical properties of vanadium-doped titanium niobate as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Ma, Chenxiang; Du, Chenqiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhe; Qu, Deyang; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Vanadium-doped TiNb 2 O 7 (TNO) samples have been investigated as novel anode active materials for application in lithium-ion batteries. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The XRD results indicate that V-doping expands the lattice parameters of TiNb 2 O 7 samples and facilitates the enhanced lithium ion diffusion. SEM and TEM results show that lattice expansion caused by V-doping doesn’t significantly change the particle size distribution of TiNb 2 O 7 samples. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 anode material displays a highly reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. The initial discharge capacities of TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 are 298.48 mAh g −1 and 171.99 mAh g −1 at 0.3C and 10C, respectively, indicating that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 material can be utilized as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  17. Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhang, Baofeng; Chen, Yanjun; He, Shengnan

    2018-02-01

    The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g-1 at 25mA g-1 current density from 1.5 V to 4.8 V. Also, it maintains a higher capacity (201 mA h g-1) than F-free Li2MnSiO4 (145 mA h g-1) after 50 cycles.

  18. Effect of the capacity design of activated carbon cathode on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Wang, Chengyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MCMB with the optimal pre-lithiation capacity as negative electrode in LIC. • The capacity design of cathode affects the electrochemical performance of LIC. • The optimal designed capacity of positive electrode has been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) anode. The effect of AC cathode capacity design on the electrochemical performance of LIC is investigated by the galvanostatic charging-discharging and electrochemical impedance tests. As the designed capacity of AC positive electrode is lower than 50 mAh g −1 , the working potential of negative electrode is always in the low and stable plateau, which is conductive to the sufficient utilization and the working potential stability of positive electrode. When the designed capacity of positive electrode is higher than 50 mAh g −1 , the instability of negative electrode directly causes the reduced utilization and shortened working potential range of the positive electrode, which is responsible for the capacity attenuation and cycle performance deterioration of LIC. The positive electrode capacity design can realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC50 exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 92.3 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 5.5 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention of 97.0 % after 1000 cycles. The power density and cycle performance of LIC can be further improved by reducing the AC positive electrode designed capacity

  19. Effect of pre-lithiation degrees of mesocarbon microbeads anode on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MCMB with different pre-lithiation capacity as negative electrode in LIC. • Pre-lithiation improves the electrochemical performance of LIC. • The optimal pre-lithiation capacity has been proposed. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitors are assembled with pre-lithiated mesocarbon microbeads (LMCMB) anode and activated carbon (AC) cathode. The effect of pre-lithiation degrees on the crystal structure of MCMB electrode and the electrochemical capacitance behavior of LIC are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the charge-discharge test of three-electrode cell. The structure of graphite still maintained when the pre-lithiation capacity is less than 200 mAh g −1 , phase transition takes place with the increase of pre-lithiation capacity from 250 mAh g −1 to 350 mAh g −1 . Pre-lithiation degrees of MCMB anode greatly affect the charge-discharge process and behavior, which impact on the electrochemical performance of LIC. The LIC with pre-lithiation capacity of 300 mAh g −1 has the optimal electrochemical performance. The energy density of LIC300 is up to 92.3 Wh kg −1 , the power density as high as 5.5 kW kg −1 and the capacity retention is 97.0% after 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from the appropriate pre-lithiation capacity of negative electrode. The appropriate pre-lithiation ensures the working voltage of negative electrode in low and relative stable charge-discharge platform corresponding to the mutual phase transition from the second stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 12 ) to the first stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 6 ). The stable charge-discharge platform of negative electrode is conductive to the sufficient utilization of AC positive electrode

  20. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research

  1. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of

  2. Preparation of nano-porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high electrochemical performances by a co-precipitation method for 5 V lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoling; Li, Hongliang; Li, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is prepared by co-precipitation method. The results of scanning electron microscopy show that the sample has a nano-porous structure. Charge-discharge tests show that the synthesized product exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high initial discharge capacity of 129.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and a preferably capacity retention of 96.5% after 200 cycles. The superior performance of the synthesized product is attributed to its nano-porous structure. The nanoparticle reduces the path of Li+ diffusion and increases the reaction sites for lithium insertion/extraction, the pores provide room to buffer the volume changes during charge-discharge.

  3. Lithium-deficient Li YMn2O4 spinels (0.9 ≤ Y < 1): Lithium content, synthesis temperature, thermal behaviour and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Laura; Perez-Revenga, M. Luz; Rojas, Rosa M.; Rojo, Jose M.; Amarilla, J. Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-deficient Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels (LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 ) with nominal composition (0.9 ≤ Y 2 O 3 and LiNO 3 at temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C to 850 deg. C. X-ray diffraction data show that LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels are obtained as single phases in the range Y = 0.975-1 at 700 deg. C and 750 deg. C. Morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy shows that the particle size of LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels increases on decreasing the Li-content. The influence of the Li-content and the synthesis temperature on the thermal and electrochemical behaviours has been systematically studied. Thermal analysis studies indicate that the temperature of the first thermal effect in the differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric (TG) curves, T C1 , linearly increases on decreasing the Li-content. The electrochemical properties of LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels, determined by galvanostatic cycling, notably change with the synthesis conditions. So, the first discharge capacity, Q disch. , at C rate increases on rising the Li-content and the synthesis temperature. The sample Li 0.975 Mn 2 O 4 synthesized at 700 deg. C has a Q disch. = 123 mAh g -1 and a capacity retention of 99.77% per cycle. This LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 sample had the best electrochemical characteristics of the series

  4. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  5. Influence of surfactants on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the tin oxide anode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Hui, E-mail: sunyanhui0102@163.com [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dong, Pei-Pei; Liu, Shan; Nan, Jun-Min [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • CTAB and SDS alter the formation of SnO{sub 2} from nanosheets to nanocubes during oxalate precipitation. • The CTAB concentration affects the SnO{sub 2} crystal growth direction, morphology and size. • The SnO{sub 2} anode synthesized using CTAB exhibited superior electrochemical performance. • Proposed a mechanism of influence of surfactant on SnO{sub 2} in the precipitation and annealing process. - Abstract: Different SnO{sub 2} micro–nano structures are prepared by precipitation using a surfactant-assisted process. The surfactants, such as cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), can change the crystal growth direction and microstructure of SnO{sub 2} primary and secondary particles. Larger SnO{sub 2} nanosheets were synthesized without surfactant, and micro-fragments composed of small nanospheres or nanocubes were synthesized using CTAB and SDBS. The CTAB-assisted process resulted in smaller primary particles and larger specific surface area and larger pore volume, as a lithium-ion-battery anode that exhibits superior electrochemical performance compared to the other two anodes. Further investigation showed that the concentration of CTAB had a substantial influence on the growth of the crystal face, morphology and size of the SnO{sub 2} secondary particles, which influenced the electrochemical performance of the anode. A simple mechanism for the influence of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphology and size in the precipitation and annealing process is proposed.

  6. The preparation and electrochemical performances of LiFePO4-multiwalled nanotubes composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan

    2010-01-01

    LiFePO 4 -MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) composite cathode materials were prepared by mixing LiFePO 4 and MWCNTs in ethanol followed by heat-treatment at 500 deg. C for 5 h. The structural, morphology and electrochemical performances of LiFePO 4 -MWCNTs composite materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge cycle tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicated that MWCNTs adding improved the electronic conductivity, the discharge capacity, cycle stability and lithium ion diffusion kinetics of LiFePO 4 , but MWCNTs adding did not charge the orthorhombic olivine-type structure of LiFePO 4 . In all these prepared LiFePO 4 with x wt.% MWCNTs (x = 4, 7, 10) composites, 7 wt.% MWCNTs adding composite cathode shows the best electrochemical performance, which gets an initial discharge capacity of 152.7 mAh g -1 at 0.18 C discharge rates with capacity retention ratio of 97.77% after 100 cycles.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of 1D core-shell Si/TiO2 nanotubes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Damian; Mallet, Jeremy; Thomas, Shibin; Nemaga, Abirdu Woreka; Michel, Jean; Guery, Claude; Molinari, Michael; Morcrette, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    Silicon negative electrode for lithium ion battery was designed in the form of self-organized 1D core-shell nanotubes to overcome shortcomings linked to silicon volume expansion upon lithiation/delithiation typically occurring with Si nanoparticles. The negative electrode was formed on TiO2 nanotubes in two step electrochemical synthesis by means of anodizing of titanium and electrodeposition of silicon using ionic liquid electrolytes. Remarkably, it was found that the silicon grows perpendicularly to the z-axis of nanotube and therefore its thickness can be precisely controlled by the charge passed in the electrochemical protocol. Deposited silicon creates a continuous Si network on TiO2 nanotubes without grain boundaries and particle-particle interfaces, defining its electrochemical characteristics under battery testing. In the core-shell system the titania nanotube play a role of volume expansion stabilizer framework holding the nanostructured silicon upon lithiation/delithiation. The nature of Si shell and presence of titania core determine stable performance as negative electrode tested in half cell of CR2032 coin cell battery.

  8. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li"+/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t_L_i"+) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Quanxin; Peng, Fangwei; Li, Ruhong; Yin, Shibo; Dai, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials (Li_1_._2Mn_0_._5_6Ni_0_._1_6Co_0_._0_8O_2) were successfully synthesized via a two-step synthesis method. • The effects of calcination temperature on the cathode materials were researched in detail. • A well-crystallized layered structure was obtained as the calcination temperature increased. • The samples calcined in a range of 850–900 °C exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials (Li_1_._2Mn_0_._5_6Ni_0_._1_6Co_0_._0_8O_2 (LLMO)) were synthesized via a two-step synthesis method involving co-precipitation and high-temperature calcination. The effects of calcination temperature on the cathode materials were studied in detail. Structural and morphological characterizations revealed that a well-crystallized layered structure was obtained at a higher calcination temperature. Electrochemical performance evaluation revealed that a cathode material obtained at a calcination temperature of 850 °C delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 266.8 mAh g"−"1 at a 0.1 C rate and a capacity retention rate of 95.8% after 100 cycles as well as excellent rate capability. Another sample calcinated at 900 °C exhibited good cycling stability. It is concluded that the structural stability and electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials were strongly dependent on calcination temperatures. The results suggest that a calcination temperature in a range of 850–900 °C could promote electrochemical performance of this type of cathode materials.

  10. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Quanxin; Peng, Fangwei; Li, Ruhong; Yin, Shibo; Dai, Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A series of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials (Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.56}Ni{sub 0.16}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized via a two-step synthesis method. • The effects of calcination temperature on the cathode materials were researched in detail. • A well-crystallized layered structure was obtained as the calcination temperature increased. • The samples calcined in a range of 850–900 °C exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials (Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.56}Ni{sub 0.16}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 2} (LLMO)) were synthesized via a two-step synthesis method involving co-precipitation and high-temperature calcination. The effects of calcination temperature on the cathode materials were studied in detail. Structural and morphological characterizations revealed that a well-crystallized layered structure was obtained at a higher calcination temperature. Electrochemical performance evaluation revealed that a cathode material obtained at a calcination temperature of 850 °C delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 266.8 mAh g{sup −1} at a 0.1 C rate and a capacity retention rate of 95.8% after 100 cycles as well as excellent rate capability. Another sample calcinated at 900 °C exhibited good cycling stability. It is concluded that the structural stability and electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials were strongly dependent on calcination temperatures. The results suggest that a calcination temperature in a range of 850–900 °C could promote electrochemical performance of this type of cathode materials.

  11. Nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite as anode for lithium ion batteries with improved low temperature electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yong; Ben, Liubin; Zhan, Yuanjie; Huang, Xuejie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-Sn embedded in interlayers of expanded graphite is fabricated. • The graphene/nano-Sn/graphene stacked structure promotes cycling stability of Sn. • The Sn/EG shows improved low temperature electrochemical performance. • Chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG are obtained by GITT. • The Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite. - Abstract: Metallic tin (Sn) used as anode material for lithium ion batteries has long been proposed, but its low temperature electrochemical performance has been rarely concerned. Here, a Sn/C composite with nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite (Sn/EG) is synthesized. The nano-Sn particles (∼30 nm) are uniformly distributed in the interlayers of expanded graphite forming a tightly stacked layered structure. The electrochemical performance of the Sn/EG, particularly at low temperature, is carefully investigated compared with graphite. At -20 °C, the Sn/EG shows capacities of 200 mAh g −1 at 0.1C and 130 mAh g −1 at 0.2C, which is much superior to graphite (<10 mAh g −1 ). EIS measurements suggest that the charge transfer impedance of the Sn/EG increases less rapidly than graphite with decreasing temperatures, which is responsible for the improved low temperature electrochemical performance. The Li-ion chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG obtained by GITT are an order of magnitude higher at room temperature than that at -20 °C. Furthermore, the Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite in the asymmetric charge/discharge measurements, which shows great promise for the application in electric vehicles charged at low temperature.

  12. Hierarchical architecture of ReS_2/rGO composites with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Fei; Chen, Yuanfu; Zheng, Binjie; He, Jiarui; Li, Qian; Wang, Xinqiang; Lin, Jie; Zhou, Jinhao; Yu, Bo; Li, Pingjian; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ReS_2/rGO composites have been synthesized by a facile one-pot method. • The ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit hierarchical architecture. • The ReS_2/rGO composites deliver better electrochemical performances than ReS_2. • The enhanced performance is due to porous and conductive structure of ReS_2/rGO. - Abstract: Rhenium disulfide (ReS_2), a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, has attracted more and more attention due to its unique anisotropic electronic, optical, mechanical properties. However, the facile synthesis and electrochemical property of ReS_2 and its composite are still necessary to be researched. In this study, for the first time, the ReS_2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites have been synthesized through a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit a hierarchical, interconnected, and porous architecture constructed by nanosheets. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized ReS_2/rGO composites deliver a large initial capacity of 918 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2 C. In addition, the ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit much better electrochemical cycling stability and rate capability than that of bare ReS_2. The significant enhancement in electrochemical property can be attributed to its unique architecture constructed by nanosheets and porous structure, which can allow for easy electrolyte infiltration, efficient electron transfer, and ionic diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene with high electronic conductivity can provide good conductive passageways. The facile synthesis approach can be extended to prepare other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors for energy storage and catalytic application.

  13. Temperature dependence of electrochemical properties of cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)–lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide–N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetjen, Morten; Kim, Guk-Tae; Joost, Mario; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solid-state electrolyte for lithium batteries. ► Polymer electrolyte with improved mechanical properties by cross-linking. ► Enhanced performance of polymer electrolytes using water- and air-stable ionic liquids as co-salts. ► Polymer electrolyte with high rate capability at moderate temperatures. - Abstract: An advanced electrochemical characterization of cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), prepared by a solvent-free hot-pressing process, is reported. Ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability window and limiting current measurements were performed as a function of the temperature by using both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic techniques. Additionally, the lithium cycleability was evaluated with respect to its dependence on both the operating temperature and the current density by using a new multi-rate Li-stripping-plating procedure. The results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of higher operating temperatures on the rate-capability, without major degradation of the electrochemical stability of the SPE. All-solid-state lithium metal polymer batteries (LMPBs), comprising a lithium metal anode, the cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolyte and a LiFePO 4 composite cathode, were manufactured and investigated in terms of the interdependencies of the delivered capacity, operating temperature and discharge rate. The results prove quite exceptional delivered capacities both at medium current densities at ambient temperatures and even more impressive capacities above 160 mAh g −1 at high discharge rates (1 C) and temperatures above 60 °C.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOZHONG ZHOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Uniform hierarchical Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles were synthesised successfully by L-cysteine hydrochloride-assisted solvothermal treatment, and were then characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the synthesised Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge−discharge technique, respectively. This material was found to exhibit a high initial charge specific capacity of 803 mA h g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1, a good cyclability of 614 mA h g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1 after 30 cycles, and a good rate capability of 400 mA h g-1 at a rate of 500 mA g-1 when evaluated as an electrode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composite lithium ion battery electrode with unique stability and high electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mengyuan; Liu Chunling; Shi Meirong; Dong Wensheng

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites with different compositions are synthesized by a simple solution polymerization using inexpensive raw materials followed by pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. The nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites are characterized using various analytic techniques. The results show that the electrochemical performances of the composites are strongly dependent on their structure and composition. Among these composites the Sn-Co-C-1 with a weight composition of Sn 0.31 Co 0.09 C 0.6 exhibits high reversible capacity and excellent cycleability when used as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. This composite is composed of SnCo 2 , SnCo, Sn and amorphous carbon, and the nanoparticles of SnCo 2 , SnCo and Sn are uniformly dispersed into the amorphous carbon matrix, the average diameter of these metal nanoparticles is 8.44 nm.

  16. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion diffusion in Li4FeSbO6 studied by first principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mingzhen; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Hui; Chen, Yuanzheng; Guo, Chunsheng; Gan, Liyong

    2017-10-01

    Due to the high capacity, Li-rich materials Li2MO3 (M = transition metal) have attracted considerable attention as the next generation of Li-ion batteries. Li4FeSbO6 is a new Li-rich layered oxide material with antiferromagnet honeycomb structure. In this work, the electrochemical behavior, charging process and oxygen stability of LixFeSbO6 (0 ≤ xextracted, the charge compensation is mainly contributed by the oxygen atoms through analyzing the Bader charges of each element. In addition, oxygen evolution reactions will occur in LixFeSbO6 (x ≤ 1.5), which will decay the capacities during cycling process. Finally, we calculated that the lithium ion can diffuse in a three-dimensional pathway with the activation barriers from 0.36 eV to 0.67 eV.

  17. Novel Pyrrolinium-based Ionic Liquids for Lithium Ion Batteries: Effect of the Cation on Physicochemical and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Tae; Kwon, Oh Min; Mun, Junyoung; Oh, Seung M.; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Young Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the most promising energy conversion/storage systems, but the low thermal stability of the current electrolytes in LIBs should be improved to expand their potential applications. To enhance the safety properties of LIBs, novel pyrrolinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were proposed as an alternative electrolyte to the current carbonate electrolyte, which have some task-specific functional groups, i.e., a planar C=N double bond, a C-O ether linkage, and no unstable C-H bond, designed to improve their electrochemical performances as well as the physicochemical properties. As a result, the pyrrolinium-based ILs exhibited much improved physicochemical and electrochemical properties compared to those of the known ILs. Among the prepared ILs, N-allyl-2-methoxypyrrolinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (A(OMe)Pyrl-FSI, 4) showed the high ionic conductivity (10.2 mS cm −1 ), the very good cycling performance (99.3% of retention ratio after 50 cycles) with a LiFePO 4 electrode, and the much improved lithium ion transference number (0.19). IL 4 also had the remarkable rate capability at 5 C-rate with the retention ratio of 81.2% (124.8 mA h g −1 ), compared to the initial discharge capacity of 153.7 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C-rate. In addition, both their high thermal stability and non-flammability were also confirmed.

  18. Electrochemical studies of calcium-lithium alloys in thionyl chloride electrolyte systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.; Fritts, D. H.

    The corrosion of the calcium anode in the calcium thionyl chloride cell has been a persistent problem, which has kept this otherwise attractive couple from use. Investigations of cells with anodes made from calcium/calcium-lithium alloys are reported. These anodes were chosen in hopes of obtaining synergistic results, namely a stable anode surface film vs. pure calcium, and a higher melting point than lithium anodes. Results indicate that some degree of synergism does exist, but that the surface film is not sufficiently stable to protect the anode from continuous corrosion. It is concluded that the stability problem is one of a mechanical shedding of the film which occurs independent of lithium content. Also, a change in the electrolyte salt is the most promising approach to the calcium corrosion problem.

  19. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  20. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  1. Electrochemical behavior of sebaconitrile as a cosolvent in the formulation of electrolytes at high potentials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanini-Maury, Elise; Światowska, Jolanta; Chagnes, Alexandre; Zanna, Sandrine; Tran-Van, Pierre; Marcus, Philippe; Cassir, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of new high potential electrolyte containing sebaconitrile in LiPF 6 /EC:DMC or LiBF 4 was studied on glassy carbon and LiCoO 2 , LiCoPO 4 as positive electrode materials. The increase of sebaconitrile concentration in EC:DMC electrolyte provides better electrolyte stability at higher potentials on glassy carbon as observed by cyclic voltammetry. Promising electrochemical results showing good reversibility and insertion/deinsertion efficiency have been also obtained on LiCoPO 4 electrode cycled up to 5.3 V vs Li + /Li as upper potential limit. However, the cycling of LiCoPO 4 at higher potential (6 V vs Li + /Li) shows lower reversibility and efficiency of insertion/deinsertion process due to the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at high potentials. The surface analysis performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of a surface layer induced by electrolyte degradation on both types of positive electrodes, which hinder the Li diffusion. The layer composition and morphology vary as a function of electrolyte composition and type of electrode

  2. Common features of electrochemical kinetics of the lithium electrode in different electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churikov, A.V.; L'vov, A.L.; Gamayunova, I.M.; Shirokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of Li-electrode in LiAlCl 4 solutions in thienyl chloride and LiBF 4 solutions in γ-butyrolactone is studied as well as Li-electrode with Li 2 CO 3 protected film in LiClO 4 solution in mixed solvent (propylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane). Common regularities of Li-electrode electrochemical kinetic are discussed. Methods of electrode impedance spectroscopy and pulse voltametry are used for investigations

  3. Improving reversible capacities of high-surface lithium insertion materials – the case of amorphous TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapathy, S.; Basak, S.; Lefering, A.; Rogers, E.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Wagemaker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we

  4. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    .e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

  5. Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2018-04-16

    Although the rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have extremely high theoretical specific energy, the practical application of these batteries is still limited by the instability of their carbon-based air-electrode, Li metal anode, and electrolytes towards reduced oxygen species. Here we demonstrate a simple one-step in-situ electrochemical pre-charging strategy to generate thin protective films on both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) air-electrode and Li metal anode simultaneously under an inert atmosphere. Li-O2 cells after such pre-treatment demonstrate significantly extended cycle life of 110 and 180 cycles under the capacity-limited protocol of 1000 mAh g-1 and 500 mAh g-1, respectively, which is far more than those without pre-treatment. The thin-films formed from decomposition of electrolyte during in-situ electrochemical pre-charging process in an inert environment can protect both CNTs air-electrode and Li metal anode prior to conventional Li-O2 discharge/charge cycling where reactive reduced oxygen species are formed. This work provides a new approach for protections of carbon-based air-electrode and Li metal anode in practical Li-O2 batteries, and may also be applied to other battery systems.

  6. Preparation and electrochemical performances of cubic shape Cu2O as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.Q.; Tu, J.P.; Huang, X.H.; Yuan, Y.F.; Chen, X.T.; Mao, F.

    2007-01-01

    Cubic and star-shaped crystalline Cu 2 O particles were synthesized by reducing the copper citrate complex solution with glucose. The microstructure and morphology of the Cu 2 O were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the Cu 2 O as anode materials for lithium ion batteries were measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The as-synthesized Cu 2 O particles were 1-2 μm with narrow distribution and the shape of Cu 2 O particles had an effect on the electrochemical properties. The cubic Cu 2 O particles delivered a higher reversible discharge capacity (390 mAh g -1 ) than the star-shaped Cu 2 O, and also exhibited good cyclability. The star-shaped Cu 2 O particles presented poor cyclability due to pulverization and deterioration after cycling, but the morphology of the cubic Cu 2 O particles was stable even after 50 cycles

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of surface-modified nano-sized core/shell tin particles for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Meyer, Hinrich-Wilhelm; Placke, Tobias; Winter, Martin; Oehl, Nikolas; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Tin is able to lithiate and delithiate reversibly with a high theoretical specific capacity, which makes it a promising candidate to supersede graphite as the state-of-the-art negative electrode material in lithium ion battery technology. Nevertheless, it still suffers from poor cycling stability and high irreversible capacities. In this contribution, we show the synthesis of three different nano-sized core/shell-type particles with crystalline tin cores and different amorphous surface shells consisting of SnO x and organic polymers. The spherical size and the surface shell can be tailored by adjusting the synthesis temperature and the polymer reagents in the synthesis, respectively. We determine the influence of the surface modifications with respect to the electrochemical performance and characterize the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nano-sized tin particles by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical performance is investigated by constant current charge/discharge cycling as well as cyclic voltammetry. (paper)

  8. NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhijie; Xiang, Junxiang; Zhao, Benliang [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qu, Yan [The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213145 (China); Xiang, Bin, E-mail: binxiang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A core-shell structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by rGO is synthesized by a PDDA assisted method. • Cushion effect of the rGO coating enhances the structure integrity. • Performance of the composites during cycling are improved remarkably compared to the pure nanobelts. - Abstract: Recently, layered transition metal chalcogenides (LTMCs) have attracted great attention as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, the volume expansion and structure instability of LTMCs during the lithiation and delithiation process still remains challenging. Herein, we report NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced-graphene oxide (NbSe{sub 3}@rGO) utilized as buffer layers with enhanced electrochemical performance. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to probe features of the NbSe{sub 3}@rGO. The NbSe{sub 3}@rGO nanobelts as anode exhibit a discharge capacity of 300 mAh/g at the current density of 100 mAh/g after 250 cycles, several times higher than pure NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts. The improved electrochemical performance of NbSe{sub 3}@rGO is attributed to a buffer effect from the rGO, cushioning the volume-change-induced strain effect on the structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts during cycling.

  9. A novel method for identification of lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit model parameters considering electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jinling; Yuan, Shifei; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel parameter identification method for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) considering the electrochemical properties. An improved pseudo two-dimension (P2D) model is established on basis of partial differential equations (PDEs), since the electrolyte potential is simplified from the nonlinear to linear expression while terminal voltage can be divided into the electrolyte potential, open circuit voltage (OCV), overpotential of electrodes, internal resistance drop, and so on. The model order reduction process is implemented by the simplification of the PDEs using the Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform, Pade approximation, etc. A unified second order transfer function between cell voltage and current is obtained for the comparability with that of ECM. The final objective is to obtain the relationship between the ECM resistances/capacitances and electrochemical parameters such that in various conditions, ECM precision could be improved regarding integration of battery interior properties for further applications, e.g., SOC estimation. Finally simulation and experimental results prove the correctness and validity of the proposed methodology.

  10. Electrochemical properties of SnO2/carbon composite materials as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Zhao Hailei; Liu Xiaotong; Wang Jing; Wang Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SnO 2 /carbon powders with a cauliflower-like particle structure were synthesized. → Post-annealing can improve the electrochemical properties of SnO 2 /C composite. → The 500 deg. C-annealed SnO 2 /C shows the best electrochemical performance. → The lithium ion diffusion coefficients of the SnO 2 /C electrodes were calculated. - Abstract: SnO 2 /carbon composite anode materials were synthesized from SnCl 4 .5H 2 O and sucrose via a hydrothermal route and a post heat-treatment. The synthesized spherical SnO 2 /carbon powders show a cauliflower-like micro-sized structure. High annealing temperature results in partial reduction of SnO 2 . Metallic Sn starts to emerge at 500 deg. C. High Sn content in SnO 2 /carbon composite is favorable for the increase of initial coulombic efficiency but not for the cycling stability. The SnO 2 /carbon annealed at 500 deg. C exhibits high specific capacity (∼400 mAh g -1 ), stable cycling performance and good rate capability. The generation of Li 2 O in the first lithiation process can prevent the aggregation of active Sn, while the carbon component can buffer the big volume change caused by lithiation/delithiation of active Sn. Both of them make contribution to the better cycle stability.

  11. Electrochemical properties of SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite materials as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao Hailei, E-mail: hlzhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Lab of New Energy Materials and Technologies, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Xiaotong; Wang Jing; Wang Chunmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > SnO{sub 2}/carbon powders with a cauliflower-like particle structure were synthesized. > Post-annealing can improve the electrochemical properties of SnO{sub 2}/C composite. > The 500 deg. C-annealed SnO{sub 2}/C shows the best electrochemical performance. > The lithium ion diffusion coefficients of the SnO{sub 2}/C electrodes were calculated. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite anode materials were synthesized from SnCl{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O and sucrose via a hydrothermal route and a post heat-treatment. The synthesized spherical SnO{sub 2}/carbon powders show a cauliflower-like micro-sized structure. High annealing temperature results in partial reduction of SnO{sub 2}. Metallic Sn starts to emerge at 500 deg. C. High Sn content in SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite is favorable for the increase of initial coulombic efficiency but not for the cycling stability. The SnO{sub 2}/carbon annealed at 500 deg. C exhibits high specific capacity ({approx}400 mAh g{sup -1}), stable cycling performance and good rate capability. The generation of Li{sub 2}O in the first lithiation process can prevent the aggregation of active Sn, while the carbon component can buffer the big volume change caused by lithiation/delithiation of active Sn. Both of them make contribution to the better cycle stability.

  12. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  13. Synthesis of bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites and their electrochemical properties for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhou, Chengkun; Huang, Lei; Wang, Xiwen; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Bi 2 S 3 /reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal route and exhibited an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability as anode material of lithium ion battery. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets that not only buffer the large volume changes during the alloy/dealloy reaction of Li and Bi, but also provide a highly conductive network for rapid electron transport in electrode during electrochemical reaction. -- Highlights: •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites were in situ prepared by one-pot hydrothermal route. •The Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles are homogeneous dispersion on the RGO sheets. •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO exhibits excellent cycling stability and high rate capability. •This work will also of interest for supercapacitor and solar cells. -- Abstract: A simple one-pot hydrothermal route was developed to synthesize bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites (Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites) in this work. The morphology and crystalline structure of the obtained products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that graphite oxide (GO) sheets were in situ reduced to a certain extent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation indicated that the Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles, with a size of 80–100 nm in length, are anchored on RGO sheets. Electrochemical tests show the Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composite exhibits an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability compared to pure Bi 2 S 3 particles prepared by a similar route in the absence of GO. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets

  14. Lithium salt with a super-delocalized perfluorinated sulfonimide anion as conducting salt for lithium-ion cells: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Hongbo; Cheng, Xiaorong; Zheng, Liping; Cheng, Pengfei; Feng, Wenfang; Nie, Jin; Armand, Michel; Huang, Xuejie; Zhou, Zhibin

    2015-11-01

    Lithium salt with a super-delocalized imide anion, namely (trifluoromethane(S-trifluoromethanesulfonylimino)sulfonyl) (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CF3SO(=NSO2CF3)2]-), [sTFSI]-), has been prepared and studied as conducting salt for Li-ion cells. The fundamental physicochemical and electrochemical properties of neat Li[sTFSI] and its carbonate-based liquid electrolyte have been characterized with various chemical and electrochemical tools. Li[sTFSI] shows a low melting point at 118 °C, and is thermally stable up to 300 °C without decomposition on the spectra of differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-TG-MS). The electrolyte of 1.0 M (mol dm-3) Li[sTFSI] in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl-methyl-carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v) containing 0.3% water does not show any hydrolytic decomposition on the spectra of 1H and 19F NMR, after storage at 85 °C for 10 days. The conductivities of 1.0 M Li[sTFSI]-EC/EMC (3:7, v/v) are slightly lower than those of Li[(CF3SO2)2N] (LiTFSI), but higher than those of Li[(C2F5SO2)2N] (LiBETI). The electrochemical behavior of Al foil in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte has been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is illustrated that Al metal does not corrode in the high potential region (3-5 V vs. Li/Li+) in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte. On Pt electrode, the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte is highly resistant to oxidation (ca. 5 V vs. Li/Li+), and is also resistant to reduction to allow Li deposition and stripping. The applicability of Li[sTFSI] as conducting salt for Li-ion cells has been tested using graphite/LiCoO2 cells. It shows that the cell with Li[sTFSI] displays better cycling performance than that with LiPF6.

  15. Electrochemical evaluation of the a carbon-paste electrode modified with spinel manganese(IV) oxide under flow conditions for amperometric determination of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A.; Martin, Cibely S.; Bergamini, Marcio F.; Bocchi, Nerilso; Teixeira, Marcos F.S.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. This paper describes the amperometric determination of lithium ions using carbon-paste electrode modified with spinel manganese(IV) oxide under flow conditions. Systematic investigations were made to optimize the experimental parameters for lithium sensor by flow injection analysis. The detection was based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III) to Mn(IV) at the surface of the electrode and consequently the lithium ions extraction into the spinel structure. An operating potential of 0.50 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/3 KCl mol/L) was exploited for amperometric monitoring. The amperometric signal was linearly dependent on the lithium ions concentration over the range 4.0 x 10 -5 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 . The equilibrium constant of insertion/extraction of the lithium ion in the spinel structure, apparent Gibbs energy of insertion, and surface coverage of the electrode with manganese oxide, were calculated by peak charge (Q) in different concentration under flow conditions. Considering selectivity, the peak charge of the sensor was found to be linearly dependent on the ionic radius of the alkaline and earth-alkaline cations.

  16. Electrochemical reaction mechanisms under various charge-discharge operating conditions for Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 in a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takamatsu, Daiko; Gunji, Akira; Feng, Xiaoliang; Furutsuki, Sho; Okumura, Takefumi; Terada, Shohei; Tamura, Kazuhisa

    2018-06-01

    The potential in each state of charge (SOC) during charging of Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 is higher than that during discharging. In other words, the potential hysteresis occurs between charging and discharging. Furthermore, the potential in each SOC changes according to the charge-discharge operating conditions, indicating that the charge-discharge reaction mechanism is also affected. To clarify the effect of charge-discharge operating conditions on the electrochemical reaction, Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 was charged and discharged under various charge-discharge operating ranges, and open-circuit potential (OCP), crystal structure, and oxidation states of the transition metals were evaluated by electrochemical measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). These results indicate that OCP, lattice parameters, and oxidation states of the transition metals of Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 in each SOC are not constant. The XRD results indicate that two phases, namely, LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2-like and Li2MnO3-like, exist in Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2. For the LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2-like phase, the relationship between OCP, lattice parameters, and oxidation states of the transition metals in each SOC is not affected by the charge-discharge operating conditions, indicating that extraction and insertion of lithium ions for the LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2-like phase progresses at almost the same potential. Although the extraction and insertion of lithium ions for the Li2MnO3-like phase progresses at almost the same potential in the low-SOC region, the OCP and lattice parameter in each SOC in the high-SOC region are not constant. Therefore, the extraction of lithium ions from the Li2MnO3-like phase in the high-SOC region causes the potential hysteresis of Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2.

  17. Electrochemical insertion of magnesium ions into V2O5 from aprotic electrolytes with varied water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2004-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of V2O5 has been studied in propylene carbonate (PC)-containing magnesium perchlorate [Mg(ClO4)2] electrolytes in view of their application as positive electrode in the rechargeable magnesium batteries. V2O5 exhibited good properties in hosting magnesium ions and its electrochemical performance depended on the amount of H2O in the electrolytes. The highest first discharge specific capacities of V2O5 electrode was up to 158.6 mAh/g in 1 mol dm(-3) Mg(ClO4)2 + 1.79 mol dm(-3) H2O/PC electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charging-discharging tests showed that a reasonable amount of H2O in the electrolyte solution facilitated the electrochemical performance of V2O5 electrodes.

  18. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Biomass-Derived Nanoporous Carbon/Sulfur Composites Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Nitrogen Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Wang, Dabin; Yi, Guanghai; Xu, Zhigang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    A two-step method with high-efficiency is developed to prepare nitrogen doped activated carbons (NACs) with high surface area and nitrogen content. Based on the method, series of NACs with similar surface area and pore texture but different nitrogen content and nitrogen group species are successfully prepared. The influence of nitrogen doping on electrochemical performance of carbon/sulfur composites cathode is studied deeply under the conditions of similar surface area and pore texture. It presents the directly experimental demonstration that both nitrogen content and nitrogen group species play crucial roles on electrochemical performance of carbon/sulfur composites cathode. NAC/sulfur composites show the much improved cycling performance, which is about 3.5 times as that of nitrogen free carbon. Improved electrochemical performance is due to synergistic effects between nitrogen content and effective nitrogen groups, which enables effective trapping of lithium polysulfides within carbon framework. Besides, it is found that oxygen groups exist in carbon materials obviously influence electrochemical performance of cathode, which could be ignored in most of studies. Based on above, it can be concluded that enhanced chemisorption to lithium polysulfides by functional groups modification is the effective route to improve the electrochemical performance of Li-S battery.

  19. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes and electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Development of a new measuring method for electrochemical investigations on electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM); Elektrochemische Charakterisierung von Elektrolyten und Elektroden fuer Lithium-Ionen-Batterien. Entwicklung einer neuen Messmethode fuer elektrochemische Untersuchungen an Elektroden mit der EQCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosbauer, Dominik Johann

    2010-11-09

    In this work the conductivities of four different lithium salts, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB, and LiBOB in the solvent mixture EC/DEC (3/7) were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of eight ionic liquids (ILs) as additives on the conductivity and electrochemical stability of lithium salt-based electrolytes was studied. The investigated salts were the well-known lithium LiPF6 and LiDFOB. Conductivity studies were performed over the temperature range (238.15 to 333.15) K. The electrochemical stabilities of the solutions were determined at aluminum electrodes. The salt solubility of LiBF4 and LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) was measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a method developed in our group. Moreover, a method to investigate interactions between the electrolyte and electrode components with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was developed. First, investigations of corrosion and passivation effects on aluminum with different lithium salts were performed and masses of deposited products estimated. Therefore, the quartzes were specially prepared with foils. Active materials of cathodes, in this work lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), were also investigated with the EQCM by a new method. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden die Leitfaehigkeiten von vier unterschiedlichen Salzen, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB und LiBOB in dem Loesemittelgemisch EC/DEC (3/7) untersucht. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von acht Ionischen Fluessigkeiten (ILs) als Additive fuer Lithium-Elektrolyte auf die elektrochemische Stabilitaet und die Leitfaehigkeit studiert. Die untersuchten Salze waren LiPF6 und LiDFOB. Die Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen wurden in einem Temperaturbereich von (238,15 bis 333,15) K durchgefuehrt. Die elektrochemischen Stabilitaeten der Elektrolyte fanden an Aluminium statt. Mit einer an der Arbeitsgruppe entwickelten neuen Methode wurden zudem die Salzloeslichkeiten von LiBF4 und LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) mit der Quarzmikrowaage (QCM) bestimmt. Weiterhin wurden

  20. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanocoils and hollow graphite fibers as anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyong; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Wang, Guizhen; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Peng; Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Lang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) have been used as anode materials for preparation of lithium ion batteries. As pure carbon material without any chemical modification, the graphitized CNCs anode exhibited larger capacities with good Coulombic efficiency, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the hollow graphite fibers (HGFs) anode. The excellent performance of the CNCs was possibly ascribed to the special structure and the high degree of graphitization. As a result, the CNCs anode exhibited high reversible capacity of 385.5 mA h g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1, 104.7% reversible capacity retention after 105 cycles, and superior reversible capability of 177.4 mA h g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This result indicated that CNCs could be an attractive choice as anode material for high-energy density and high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  1. In situ stress measurements during electrochemical cycling of lithium-rich cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Leah; Li, Juchuan; James, Christine; Qi, Yue; Dudney, Nancy; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2017-10-01

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides (Li1+xM1-xO2, M = Ni, Mn, Co) are attractive cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity. However, they suffer from structural changes that lead to substantial voltage fade. In this study, we use stress as a novel way to track irreversible changes in Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.125Co0.125O2 (LR-NMC) cathodes. A unique and unpredicted stress signature is observed during the first delithiation. Initially, a tensile stress is observed, consistent with volume contraction from lithium removal, however, the stress reverses and becomes compressive with continued charging beyond 4 V vs Li/Li+, indicating volume expansion; this phenomenon is present in the first cycle only. This irreversible stress during delithiation is likely to be at least partially due to oxygen loss and the resulting cation rearrangement. Raman spectroscopy provides evidence of the layered-to-spinel phase transition after cycling in the LR-NMC films, as well as recovery of the original spectra upon re-annealing in an oxygen environment.

  2. Structural, physical and electrochemical characteristics of a vanadium oxysulfide, a cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, G.; Tchangbédji, G.; Deniard, P.; Prouzet, E.

    A vanadium oxysulfide is obtained by a reaction between water solutions of a vanadyl salt and sodium sulfide at room temperature. After drying under mild conditions, the formulation of this phase is V 2O 3S·3H 2O. Thermogravimetric analyses show that it is not possible to remove completely water without losing sulfur. This is in agreement with proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiments which prove that water molecules are tightly bonded to vanadium. Magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements allow to define the oxidation states of vanadium and sulfur, (IV) and (-II) respectively. From extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the vanadium K edge and infrared spectroscopy, the local structure around vanadium can be defined as a distorted octahedron, with a vanadyl bond and an opposite sulfur atom. Magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on chemically lithiated compounds show a complex charge transfer from lithium to the host structure upon lithium intercalation. If it appears that vanadium atoms are reduced, a possible role of sulfur atoms in the redox process has to be considered. Cycling tests of lithium batteries whose positive consists of oxysulfide are promising with 70 cycles under a regime of {C}/{8}, without noticeable loss in capacity of 120 Ah/kg.

  3. The influence of carrier density and doping type on lithium insertion and extraction processes at silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, W.; Lotty, O.; Glynn, C.; Geaney, H.; Holmes, J.D.; O’Dwyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Li + insertion and extraction characteristics at n-type and p-type Si(100) electrodes with different carrier density and doping type are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and constant current measurements. The insertion and extraction potentials are demonstrated to vary with cycling and the occurrence of an activation effect is shown in n-type electrodes where the charge capacity and voltammetric currents are found to be much higher than p-type electrodes. A rate-dependent redox process influenced by the surface region electronic density, which influences the magnitude of cyclic voltammetry current is found at Si(100) surface regions during Li insertion and extraction. At p-type Si(100) surface regions, a thin, uniform film forms at lower currents, while also showing a consistently high (>70%) Coulombic efficiency for Li extraction. The p-type Si(100) surface region does not undergo crack formation after deintercalation and the amorphization was demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman scattering demonstrate that highly doped n-type Si(100) retains Li as a silicide and converts to an amorphous phase as a two-step phase conversion process. The findings show the succinct dependence of Li insertion and extraction processes for uniformly doped Si(100) single crystals and how the doping type and its effect on the semiconductor-solution interface dominate Li insertion and extraction, composition, crystallinity changes and charge capacity

  4. Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide nanosheets assembled on carbon nanotubes for long-life lithium storage: Unusual electrochemical behaviors and ascending capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodan, E-mail: xiaodan_li@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Wu, Gaoxiang, E-mail: wgxjimmy@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chen, Jiewei, E-mail: kzscjw@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chongqing Materials Research Institute, Chongqing 400707 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wei.li@inl.int [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Wang, Tianyue, E-mail: 1355796015@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Jiang, Bing, E-mail: BingJiang@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); He, Yue, E-mail: 947667748@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide coated on carbon nanotubes were synthesized. • This anode material has unusual electrochemical behaviors compared to typical MoS{sub 2}. • It exhibits noticable ascending trends in capacity and superior rate performance. • The ascending performance can effectively extend the circulation life of batteries. - Abstract: Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide (LCMS, Mo:S = 1:2.75) nanosheets synthesized by a facile and low temperature solvothermal method is now reported. The as-prepared LCMS anode material is composited of MoS{sub 2} layers mixed with amorphous MoS{sub 3}, which leads to an unusual electrochemical process for lithium storage compared to typical MoS{sub 2} anode. The existence of MoS{sub 3} and Mo (VI) provide strong adsorption and binding sites for polar polysulphides, which compels abundant sulfur to turn into new-formed MoS{sub 3} rather than diffuse into electrolyte. To fully utilize this novel electrochemical process, LCMS is decorated on carbon nanotubes, obtaining well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. As electrode material for lithium storage, CNTs@LCMS exhibits a noticable ascending trend in capacity from 820 mA h g{sup −1} to 1350 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} during 130 cycles. The persistent ascending capacity is ascribed to the increasing lithium storage caused by new-formed MoS{sub 3}, combined with the reduced volume change benifiting from well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. Furthermore, the ascending performance is proved to be able to effectively extend the circulation life (up to 200%) for lithium-ion batteries by mathematical modeling and calculation. Accordingly, the CNTs@LCMS composite is a promising anode material for long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Electrochemical performance of mixed crystallographic phase nanotubes and nanosheets of titania and titania-carbon/silver composites for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shyamal K.; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbon wired TiO 2 nanotubes as anode for lithium ion batteries. → Mixed phase nanotubes show higher energy and power density than titania nanosheets. → Lithium storage and phase stabilization influenced by morphology of carbon coating. - Abstract: The role of homogeneity in ex situ grown conductive coatings and dimensionality in the lithium storage properties of TiO 2 is discussed here. TiO 2 nanotube and nanosheet comprising of mixed crystallographic phases of anatase and TiO 2 (B) have been synthesized by an optimized hydrothermal method. Surface modifications of TiO 2 nanotube are realized via coating the nanotube with Ag nanoparticles and amorphous carbon. The first discharge cycle capacity (at current rate = 10 mA g -1 ) for TiO 2 nanotube and nanosheet were 355 mAh g -1 and 225 mAh g -1 , respectively. The conductive surface coating stabilized the titania crystallographic structure during lithium insertion-deinsertion processes via reduction in the accessibility of lithium ions to the trapping sites. The irreversible capacity is beneficially minimized from 110 mAh g -1 for TiO 2 nanotubes to 96 mAh g -1 and 57 mAh g -1 respectively for Ag and carbon modified TiO 2 nanotubes. The homogeneously coated amorphous carbon over TiO 2 renders better lithium battery performance than randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles coated TiO 2 due to efficient hopping of electrons.

  6. Electrochemical improvement of low-temperature petroleum cokes by chemical oxidation with H2O2 for their use as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concheso, A.; Santamaria, R.; Menendez, R.; Jimenez-Mateos, J.M.; Alcantara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of non-graphitized petroleum cokes has been improved by mild oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, a procedure used for the first time in these materials. For this purpose, various carbonisation temperatures and H 2 O 2 treatments were tested. For low sulfur content cokes, the aqueous oxidative treatment significantly increases the capacity values above 372 mAh/g during the first cycles. In contrast, cokes with a sulfur content of ca. 5%, did not shown a real improvement. The former results have been interpreted in terms of an effective oxidation of the particles surface, which removes unorganized carbon, where lithium can be irreversibly trapped. Moreover, a stable and less resistive passivating layer grows during the first discharge of lithium, as revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, chemical procedures, as mild oxidation, open an interesting field of research for the improvement of disordered carbons as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

  7. Effects of low-pressure nitrogen plasma treatment on the surface properties and electrochemical performance of the polyethylene separator used lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Li, Chi-Heng; Liu, Yu-Shuan; Sung, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the surface transition of the polyethylene (PE) separator used in lithium-ion batteries treated by low-pressure nitrogen plasma discharge. The nitrogen-plasma-treated PE separator was characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the lithium ion batteries fabricated with the nitrogen-plasma-treated separator was also evaluated. Results showed that polar functionalization groups were induced on the PE surface by the nitrogen plasma discharge, causing the surface to become hydrophilic. The increases in surface wettability and surface free energy result in electrolyte retention improvement. Moreover, the nitrogen plasma-treated PE separator leads to superior performance in lithium-ion battery assembly.

  8. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hannah Elise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  9. Electrochemical investigation of electrochromic devices based on NiO and WO3 films using different lithium salts electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Youxiu; Chen, Mu; Liu, Weiming; Li, Lei; Yan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •ECDs based on NiO and WO 3 films using different electrolytes were fabricated. •Effect of different electrolytes on films and ECDs was investigated. •Applied voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 electrodes in an ECD was studied. •Voltage distribution on films was unbalanced and associated with electrolyte. •Films have different impedance behavior in different states and electrolytes. -- Abstract: Electrochromic devices (ECDs) with different liquid electrolytes were fabricated using NiO film as counter electrode, WO 3 film as working electrode. The effect of liquid electrolytes containing different lithium salts (LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 , LiTFSI) on films and ECDs was investigated, such as transmittance change, charge density, memory effect and cyclic stability. Films or ECDs using LiPF 6 electrolyte have excellent electrochromic properties but low cyclic stability, compared with LiClO 4 and LiTFSI electrolytes. In order to deeply understand the effect of electrolyte on films and devices, the voltage distribution of films based on an analog cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured and analyzed in different lithium salts electrolytes. Results show that voltage distribution and EIS characteristics of films have obvious difference in liquid LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 and LiTFSI electrolytes. Voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 films is unbalanced and the impedance of films in bleached and colored states is different in the same electrolyte.

  10. Analysis of a Mathematical Model of Lithium-Sulfur Cells Part III: Electrochemical Reaction Kinetics, Transport Properties and Charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaznavi, Mahmoudreza; Chen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The discharge behavior of Li-S cells in wide range of exchange current densities of electrochemical reactions is studied. • Among all reduction reactions, 1/2 S 8(l) +e − ⇌1/2 S 8 2− and 1/2 S 2 2− +e − ⇌2S 2− play the most important role in capacity performance. • Low diffusion increases the precipitation of polysulfides in separator which may block the anode surface. • Large solubility of Li 2 S is needed for the model to be able to simulate the charging process. - Abstract: Sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model of a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery was performed by investigating the response of the model to variation of the exchange current densities, diffusion coefficients, and cathode thickness over a wide range; the results of the analysis were used to explain the some aspects of the behavior of the system which may be seen in experiments. In particular, among all the exchange current densities, the exchange current density of the elemental sulfur reduction has the most significant effect on the discharge capacity of the cell. The variation of the diffusion coefficients was also analyzed, providing information on the non-uniformity of precipitants in the cell after discharge. An optimum cathode thickness was presented to gain the highest capacity of the cell. Finally, the simulation of charging was studied, showing that the model needs a large solubility product of di-lithium sulfide to be able to simulate the charge process of a cell

  11. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  12. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V., E-mail: soghomon@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  14. In situ 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy used to study lithium insertion in c-Mg2Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldon, L.; Ionica, C. M.; Lippens, P. E.; Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reactions of Li with c-Mg 2 Sn have been investigated by in situ Moessbauer spectroscopy of 119 Sn and X-ray diffraction. The lithiation transforms initially c-Mg 2 Sn part into Li x Mg 2 Sn alloy (x 2 MgSn ternary alloy. In situ Moessbauer spectroscopy provides valuable information on local environment of tin and swelling behavior and cracking of the particles during discharge and charge processes.

  15. Preparation and electrochemical performance of copper foam-supported amorphous silicon thin films for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haixia; Cheng Fangyi; Zhu Zhiqiang; Bai Hongmei; Tao Zhanliang; Chen Jun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Amorphous Si thin films have been deposited on copper foam substrate by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. → The as-prepared Si/Cu films with interconnected 3-dimensional structure are employed as anode materials of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, showing that the electrode properties are greatly affected by the deposition temperature. → The film electrode deposited at an optimum temperature of 300 deg. C delivers a specific capacity of ∼2900 mAh/g and a coulombic efficiency above 95% at charge/discharge current density of 0.2C after 30 cycles. → The Li + diffusion coefficiency in copper foam-supported Si thin films is determined to be 2.36 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s. → The combination of rf magnetron sputtering and cooper foam substrate is an efficient route to prepare amorphous Si films with high capacity and cyclability due to the efficient ionic diffusion and interface contact with a good conductive current collector. - Abstract: Amorphous Si thin films, which have been deposited on copper foam by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering, are employed as anode materials of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared Si thin films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries with the as-prepared Si films as the anode materials is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements. The results show that the electrode properties of the prepared amorphous Si films are greatly affected by the deposition temperature. The film electrode deposited at an optimum temperature of 300 deg. C can deliver a specific capacity of ∼2900 mAh/g and a coulombic efficiency above 95% at charge/discharge current density of 0.2C after 30 cycles. The Li + diffusion coefficiency in copper foam-supported Si thin films is determined to be 2.36 x 10 -9 cm

  16. Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Eric; Lindbergh, Göran; Zenkert, Dan; Leijonmarck, Simon; Kjell, Maria Hellqvist

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 μW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

  17. Multistage leaching of metals from spent lithium ion battery waste using electrochemically generated acidic lixiviant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, N J; Adamek, N; Cheng, K Y; Haque, N; Bruckard, W; Kaksonen, A H

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (leaching with the graphite electrolyte solution improved leach yields overall, but the electrodes corroded over time. Though yields obtained with both electrolyte leach solutions were low when compared to the 4 M HCl control, there still remains potential to optimise the conditions for the generation of the acidic anolyte solution and the solubilisation of valuable metals from the LIB waste. A preliminary value proposition indicated that the process has the potential to be economically feasible if leach yields can be improved, especially based on the value of recoverable cobalt and lithium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical performance of Fe3O4 micro flower as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Anggara, Dika; Susanti, Diah; Subhan, Achmad; Sudaryanto

    2018-04-01

    Graphite is generally employed in commercial lithium ion batteries which has a specific capacity of 372 mAh/g. In this study, graphite is replaced with carbon-coated magnetite (Fe3O4/C) which has large theoretical specific capacity of 926 mAh/g, environmental friendly, and low cost production. The synthesis of Fe3O4/C is carried out by hydrothermal method with reacting FeCl3 and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at temperature variation of 160, 170 and 180°C. The following process is heated by calcination at temperature variations 450, 500 and 550°C. XRD and SEM results show that the as-prepared Fe3O4/C powder has a single phase of Fe3O4 and morphology micro-flowers like with size between 700 nm - 3 µm. CV test results show redox reaction occurs in the voltage range between 0.21-0.85 V and 1.68-1.81 V. The highest specific discharge capacity is obtained 644 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal of 170°C and temperature calcination of 550°C. This result shows that Fe3O4/C has a high potential as anode material for lithium ion battery.

  19. Effect of the synthesis method on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical characteristics of α-Fe2O3 anodes for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzunov, I.; Klissurski, D.; Uzunova, S.; Aleksandrova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the synthesis method and temperature on some structural characteristics and electrochemical behaviour was investigated for samples of α-Fe 2 O 3 prepared from different precursors. The phase composition, morphology and crystallinity of the obtained materials were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behaviour of the synthesized samples was studied within voltage range 0.01-2.5V and various current densities. The electrochemical behaviour of the obtained active anode materials was found to depend mostly on the ratio between mean particle size (MPS) and mean coherent domain size (MCDS). It was found that the ratio depends on the synthesis method and calcination temperature. By optimization of the synthesis processes α-Fe 2 O 3 was prepared with optimal microstructure and particle size, a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. (authors)

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of nano-sized Co-Sn alloy anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianchao; Zhao Hailei; Wang Jing; Wang Jie; Chen Jingbo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys were synthesized by hydrothermal route. → Li 2 O and CoSn can buffer the large volume change associated with lithiation of Sn. → A two-step reaction mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed. - Abstract: Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys with a certain amount of Sn oxides used as potential anode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by hydrothermal route. The effects of hydrothermal conditions and post annealing on the phase compositions and the electrochemical properties of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis and galvanostatic cycling tests. Prolonging the dwelling time at the same hydrothermal temperature can increase the content of Sn oxides, which will lead to a high initial irreversible capacity loss but a better cycling stability owing to the buffer effect of irreversible product Li 2 O. Heat-treatment can increase the crystallinity and cause the presence of a certain amount of inert CoSn component, which both have positive impact on the cycling stability of Co-Sn electrode. By comparison with the lithiation/delithiation processes of metal Sn, a two-step mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed.

  1. Octahedral core–shell cuprous oxide/carbon with enhanced electrochemical activity and stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Chen, Zhewei; Wang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Core–shell octahedral Cu 2 O/C is prepared by a one-step method. • Carbon shell is amorphous and uniformly decorated at the Cu 2 O octahedral core. • Core–shell Cu 2 O/C exhibits markedly enhanced capability and reversibility. • Carbon shell provides fast ion/electron transfer channel. • Core–shell structure is stable during cycling. - Abstract: Core–shell Cu 2 O/C octahedrons are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with the help of carbonization of glucose, which reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I) at low temperature and further forms carbon shell coating at high temperature. SEM and TEM images indicate that the carbon shell is amorphous with thickness of ∼20 nm wrapping the Cu 2 O octahedral core perfectly. As anode of lithium ion batteries, the core–shell Cu 2 O/C composite exhibits high and stable columbic efficiency (98%) as well as a reversible capacity of 400 mAh g −1 after 80 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel core–shell structure, in which the carbon shell reduces the electrode polarization and promotes the charge transfer at active material/electrolyte interface, and also acts as a stabilizer to keep the octahedral structure integrity during discharge–charge processes

  2. Environment-friendly cathodes using biopolymer chitosan with enhanced electrochemical behavior for use in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, K; Subburaj, T; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Won Jong; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-04-22

    The biopolymer chitosan has been investigated as a potential binder for the fabrication of LiFePO4 cathode electrodes in lithium ion batteries. Chitosan is compared to the conventional binder, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Dispersion of the active material, LiFePO4, and conductive agent, Super P carbon black, is tested using a viscosity analysis. The enhanced structural and morphological properties of chitosan are compared to the PVDF binder using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the LiFePO4 electrode with the chitosan binder is observed to have a high ionic conductivity and a smaller increase in charge transfer resistance based on time compared to the LiFePO4 electrode with the PVDF binder. The electrode with the chitosan binder also attains a higher discharge capacity of 159.4 mAh g(-1) with an excellent capacity retention ratio of 98.38% compared to the electrode with the PVDF binder, which had a discharge capacity of 127.9 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention ratio of 85.13%. Further, the cycling behavior of the chitosan-based electrode is supported by scrutinizing its charge-discharge behavior at specified intervals and by a plot of dQ/dV.

  3. Electrochemical performance and safety features of high-safety lithium ion battery using novel branched additive for internal short protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuhan; Lee, Meng-Lun; Wang Fuming; Yang, Chang-Rung; Chu, Peter P.J.; Yau, Shueh-Lin; Pan, Jing-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-phenylmaleimide-containing branched oligomer has been employed as an additive in lithium cells. ► The branched oligomer additive enhances safety and cycling performance of Li ion battery. ► The highest temperature of branched oligomer-containing battery was only 85 °C in the nail penetration test. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) as additive in Li-ion batteries to increase the safety performance by reducing the probability of batteries suffering an internal short circuit. In the nail penetration test, a LiCoO 2 /MCMB full battery with N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) showed a significant improvement in thermal stability and was able to restrain the temperature of the battery at about 85 °C. Furthermore, we found that N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) contained battery revealed better cycling and electrochemical performance, compared with the battery with bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO3) in the electrolyte. The improvement might result from the favorable ionic conductivity, Li ion mobility and lower resistance in the battery. This additive can meet the cycling performance and safety requirements for Li-ion batteries.

  4. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances of hollow graphene spheres as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ran-Ran; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Bai, Li-Zhong; Yao, Ning-Na; Xu, Li

    2014-07-01

    The hollow graphene oxide spheres have been successfully fabricated from graphene oxide nanosheets utilizing a water-in-oil emulsion technique, which were prepared from natural flake graphite by oxidation and ultrasonic treatment. The hollow graphene oxide spheres were reduced to hollow graphene spheres at 500°C for 3 h under an atmosphere of Ar(95%)/H2(5%). The first reversible specific capacity of the hollow graphene spheres was as high as 903 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mAh g-1. Even at a high current density of 500 mAh g-1, the reversible specific capacity remained at 502 mAh g-1. After 60 cycles, the reversible capacity was still kept at 652 mAh g-1 at the current density of 50 mAh g-1. These results indicate that the prepared hollow graphene spheres possess excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage. The high rate performance of hollow graphene spheres thanks to the hollow structure, thin and porous shells consisting of graphene sheets.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of ZnMn_2O_4 anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Shiquan; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnMn_2O_4 nanoparticles were prepared through the rheological phase reaction method (R-ZMO) or the mixed solvothermal method(M-ZMO). The particles of M-ZMO were clustered together to form uniform microspheres morphology. The M-ZMO behaved higher reversible capacity and better cycle performance than that of R-ZMO. - Highlights: • ZnMn_2O_4 nanoparticles were prepared through the rheological phase reaction method (R-ZMO) or the mixed solvothermal method (M-ZMO). • The M-ZMO behaved higher reversible capacity and better cycle performance than that of R-ZMO. • The morphology and cell parameters of ZnMn_2O_4 are important effects on its electrochemical properties. • The diffusion coefficient of Li"+ in M-ZMO is beneficial for M-ZMO to be used an anode. - Abstract: The precursors of ZnMn_2O_4 were synthesized by different methods (the rheological phase reaction method or the mixed solvothermal method). The precursors were heat-treated at a suitable temperature to obtain the expected product (ZnMn_2O_4). The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the samples were also investigated. The results show that ZnMn_2O_4 was synthesized successfully. The particles of ZnMn_2O_4 were irregular quasi-spheres with sizes of about 50 nm. The ZnMn_2O_4 nanoparticles synthesized through the mixed solvothermal method were clustered together to form microspheres about 1 μm in diameter. The electrochemical testing results showed that the ZnMn_2O_4 synthesized through the mixed solvothermal method featured higher reversible capacity and better cycling performance than the sample synthesized by the rheological phase reaction method. The ZnMn_2O_4 synthesized through the mixed solvothermal method could be a promising anode material for lithium ion battery application.

  6. Electrochemical performance of NCM/LFP/Al composite cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Ehsan; Ghorbanzadeh, Milad; Riahifar, Reza; Hadavi, S. M. M.

    2018-05-01

    The LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NCM) was synthesized via conventional solution combustion synthesis method. Different amounts of LiFePO4 (10, 20 and 30 wt%) were added to NCM via the ball milling technique to improve electrochemical performance including discharge capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability. The LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/LiFePO4 containing 20 wt% LiFePO4 was considered as the optimum composition according to the electrochemical results and SEM images. The Al powder was added to optimum LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2/LiFePO4-0.2 composite through planetary ball mill to enhance the conductivity of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/LiFePO4-0.2. The LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/LiFePO4-0.2/Al composite cathodes provide better electrochemical performance compared to pure LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes. The results indicate that by addition of 20 wt% of LiFePO4, the internal resistance of the electrode as well as the charge transfer resistance are reduced. Due to the strong P–O bond of the PO4 in LiFePO4, side reactions between the active electrode and electrolyte is prevented. In addition, according to weakness of the Ionic conductivity in solid electrolyte, in this paper aluminum powders added to the electrode for resolving this problem.

  7. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Leroux, F.; Sigala, C.; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y. [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (1insertion of lithium and can be used as negative electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  8. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D; Leroux, F; Sigala, C; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (1insertion of lithium and can be used as negative electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  9. Degradation Mechanisms of Electrochemically Cycled Graphite Anodes in Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep

    This research is aimed at developing advanced characterization methods for studying the surface and subsurface damage in Li-ion battery anodes made of polycrystalline graphite and identifying the degradation mechanisms that cause loss of electrochemical capacity. Understanding microstructural aspects of the graphite electrode degradation mechanisms during charging and discharging of Li-ion batteries is of key importance in order to design durable anodes with high capacity. An in-situ system was constructed using an electrochemical cell with an observation window, a large depth-of-field digital microscope and a micro-Raman spectrometer. It was revealed that electrode damage by removal of the surface graphite fragments of 5-10 mum size is the most intense during the first cycle that led to a drastic capacity drop. Once a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer covered the electrode surface, the rate of graphite particle loss decreased. Yet, a gradual loss of capacity continued by the formation of interlayer cracks adjacent to SEI/graphite interfaces. Deposition of co-intercalation compounds, LiC6, Li2CO3 and Li2O, near the crack tips caused partial closure of propagating graphite cracks during cycling and reduced the crack growth rate. Bridging of crack faces by delaminated graphite layers also retarded crack propagation. The microstructure of the SEI layer, formed by electrochemical reduction of the ethylene carbonate based electrolyte, consisted of ˜5-20 nm sized crystalline domains (containing Li2CO3, Li2O 2 and nano-sized graphite fragments) dispersed in an amorphous matrix. During the SEI formation, two regimes of Li-ion diffusion were identified at the electrode/electrolyte interface depending on the applied voltage scan rate (dV/dt). A low Li-ion diffusion coefficient ( DLi+) at dV/dt microscopic information to the electrochemical performance, novel Li2CO3-coated electrodes were fabricated that were durable. The SEI formed on pre-treated electrodes reduced

  10. New Techniques for Thermo-electrochemical Analysis of Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William; Ardebili, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was achieved: Replicated the numerical assessment performed by Chen et. al. (2005). Displayed the ability of Thermal Desktop to be coupled with thermo-electrochemical analysis techniques. such that the local heat generated on the cells is a function of the model itself using logic blocks and arrays. Differences in the TD temperature vs. depth of discharge profiles and Chen's was most likely due to differences in two primary areas: Contact regions and conductance values. Differences in density and specific heat values. center dot The model results are highly dependent on the accuracy of the material properties with respect to the multiple layers of an individual cell.

  11. Electrochemical studies of CNT/Si–SnSb nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadharseni, P. [Department of Physics, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638402 (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Reddy, M.V., E-mail: phymvvr@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Nalini, B., E-mail: lalin99@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore 641043 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114 (India); Pillai, B.C.; Kalpana, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chowdari, B.V.R. [Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Si added SnSb and CNT exhibits very low particle size of below 30 nm • A strong PL quenching due to the addition of Si to SnSb. • Electrochemical studies show CNT added SnSb shows good capacity retention. - Abstract: Nano-structured SnSb, SnSb–CNT, Si–SnSb and Si–SnSb–CNT alloys were synthesized from metal chlorides of Sn, Sb and Si via reductive co-precipitation technique using NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The as prepared compounds were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of the compounds were characterized by galvanostatic cycling (GC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Si–SnSb–CNT compound shows a high reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g{sup −1}. However, the rapid capacity fading was observed during cycling. In contrast, SnSb–CNT compound showed a high reversible capacity of 568 mAh g{sup −1} at 30th cycles with good cycling stability. The improved reversible capacity and cyclic performance of the SnSb–CNT compound could be attributed to the nanosacle dimension of SnSb particles and the structural advantage of CNTs.

  12. Microwave synthesis of copper network onto lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for improved electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te, E-mail: cthsieh@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Liu, Juan-Ru [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Juang, Ruey-Shin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Herein reported is an efficient microwave-assisted (MA) approach for growing Cu network onto LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) powders as cathode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The MA approach is capable of depositing highly-porous Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. The electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LFP cathodes are well characterized by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu network acts as the key role in improving the specific capacity, rate capability, electrode polarization, as compared to fresh LFP cathode without the Cu coating. The EIS incorporated with equivalent circuit reveals that the completed Cu network obviously suppresses the charge transfer resistance. This result can be attributed to the fact that the Cu network ensures the LFP crystals to get electron easily, alleviating the electrode polarization in view of one-dimensional Li{sup +} ion mobility in the olivine crystals. Based on the analysis of Randles plots, the relatively higher Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient reflects the more efficient Li{sup +} pathway in the LFP powders through the aid of porous Cu network. - Highlights: • An efficient route was used to prepare Cu/LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) hybrid as cathode material. • The Cu/LFP cathodes exhibit an improved performance as compared to fresh LFP one. • The microwave approach can deposit Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. • The Cu network ensures LFP to get electrons, alleviating electrode polarization.

  13. Analogy between electrochemical behaviour of thick silicon granular electrodes for lithium batteries and fine soils micromechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, B.P.N.; Gaubicher, J.; Lestriez, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the influence of the distribution and the shape of the carbon conductive additives on the cyclability of thick silicon based composite electrodes. Results pinpoint the influence of carbon additives is not only to play on the electronic conductivity but also to play on the micromechanics (stress distribution) of the composite films. The lack of correlation between electrochemical performance and the macroscopic electronic conductivity of the pristine electrodes and the observation of repeated drops and jumps in capacity during cycling brought us to make an analogy between the silicon composite electrodes and cohesive granular materials such as fine soils media. Considering the collective mechanical behavior of a stack of silicon particles upon repeated volume variations shed a novel understanding to the electrochemical behavior of composite electrodes based on silicon and alloying materials and tells us how critically important is the design at the different scales (the particle, a few particles, the composite electrode, the cell) to engineer the mechanical stress and strain and improve cycle life

  14. Microwave synthesis of copper network onto lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for improved electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Liu, Juan-Ru; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Herein reported is an efficient microwave-assisted (MA) approach for growing Cu network onto LiFePO 4 (LFP) powders as cathode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The MA approach is capable of depositing highly-porous Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. The electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LFP cathodes are well characterized by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu network acts as the key role in improving the specific capacity, rate capability, electrode polarization, as compared to fresh LFP cathode without the Cu coating. The EIS incorporated with equivalent circuit reveals that the completed Cu network obviously suppresses the charge transfer resistance. This result can be attributed to the fact that the Cu network ensures the LFP crystals to get electron easily, alleviating the electrode polarization in view of one-dimensional Li + ion mobility in the olivine crystals. Based on the analysis of Randles plots, the relatively higher Li + diffusion coefficient reflects the more efficient Li + pathway in the LFP powders through the aid of porous Cu network. - Highlights: • An efficient route was used to prepare Cu/LiFePO 4 (LFP) hybrid as cathode material. • The Cu/LFP cathodes exhibit an improved performance as compared to fresh LFP one. • The microwave approach can deposit Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. • The Cu network ensures LFP to get electrons, alleviating electrode polarization

  15. Type I Clathrates as Novel Silicon Anodes: An Electrochemical and Structural Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas A.; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Baggetto, Lo?c; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Ellis?Terrell, Carol; Miller, Michael A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Chan, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon clathrates contain cage?like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. An electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8Al y Si46?y as the anode material for lithium?ion batteries is presented here. Postcycling characterization with nuclear magnetic resonance and X?ray diffraction shows no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li (?1 Li/Si) into the clathrate structure. The observed properties ...

  16. Electrochemical performance of high specific capacity of lithium-ion cell LiV3O8//LiMn2O4 with LiNO3 aqueous solution electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingshu; Zheng Qingyang; Wang Fei; Dai Weimin; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, the electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. → The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. → In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. The results indicate that these two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and no hydrogen or oxygen produced, moreover, intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions occurred within the range of electrochemical stability of water. The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries.

  17. Co-estimation of state-of-charge, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries based on a high-fidelity electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; Jiang, Jiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The numerical solution for an electrochemical model is presented. • Trinal PI observers are used to concurrently estimate SOC, capacity and resistance. • An iteration-approaching method is incorporated to enhance estimation performance. • The robustness against aging and temperature variations is experimentally verified. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as enabling energy storage in many industrial fields. Accurate modeling and state estimation play fundamental roles in ensuring safe, reliable and efficient operation of lithium-ion battery systems. A physics-based electrochemical model (EM) is highly desirable for its inherent ability to push batteries to operate at their physical limits. For state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the continuous capacity fade and resistance deterioration are more prone to erroneous estimation results. In this paper, trinal proportional-integral (PI) observers with a reduced physics-based EM are proposed to simultaneously estimate SOC, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a numerical solution for the employed model is derived. PI observers are then developed to realize the co-estimation of battery SOC, capacity and resistance. The moving-window ampere-hour counting technique and the iteration-approaching method are also incorporated for the estimation accuracy improvement. The robustness of the proposed approach against erroneous initial values, different battery cell aging levels and ambient temperatures is systematically evaluated, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of birnessite-type layered manganese oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Kanaya, Taku; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Layered manganese dioxide (MnO 2) films intercalated with Li +, Na + or Mg 2+ ions were synthesized by a one-step electrochemical method. The electrodeposition was potentiostatically performed by applying an anodic potential of 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in an aqueous MnSO 4 solution containing a perchlorate salt of the cation. The electrodeposited oxide films have a birnessite-type layered structure with alkali cations and water molecules between manganese oxide layers. The galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments performed in 1 M LiPF 6-DME/PC solution indicated that the Mg 2+-intercalated MnO 2 electrode exhibits an initial discharge capacity as large as 140 mAh g -1 and it shows a better capacity retention during cycling as compared with the Li +- or Na +-intercalated MnO 2 electrode.

  20. Improving Reversible Capacities of High-Surface Lithium Insertion Materials – The Case of Amorphous TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, Swapna [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Basak, Shibabrata [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Lefering, Anton; Rogers, Edith [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny W. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Wagemaker, Marnix, E-mail: m.wagemaker@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-11-28

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO{sub 2} by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature, and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO{sub 2} sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO{sub 2} when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nano-structured electrode materials.

  1. Improving Reversible Capacities of High-Surface Lithium Insertion Materials – The Case of Amorphous TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Basak, Shibabrata; Lefering, Anton; Rogers, Edith; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO 2 by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature, and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO 2 sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO 2 when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nano-structured electrode materials.

  2. Electrochemical behavior of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.24} and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62} inorganic–organic Brannerites in lithium and sodium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández de Luis, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.fernandez@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ponrouch, Alexandre, E-mail: aponrouch@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Rosa Palacín, M., E-mail: rosa.palacin@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Karmele Urtiaga, M., E-mail: karmele.urtiaga@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Arriortua, María I., E-mail: maribel.arriortua@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    The performance of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} (MnV) and its [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.16} (MnBpy) and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62}(MnBpy0.5) hybrid derivative compounds was investigated against sodium and lithium counter electrodes. For MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} stable capacities of 850 mAh/g were achieved in lithium cells, the best value reported so far. The whole capacity is ascribed to a conversion reaction in which the amorphization of the compounds takes place. No significant differences in the capacities for the inorganic compound and the hybrid ones were observed. Interestingly, the potential hysteresis decreases in the hybrid compounds. The difference between Li and Na cell capacity most probably comes from the difference of standard potential of the two redox couples Li{sup +}/Li and Na{sup +}/Na of about ca. 0.3 V leading to an incomplete conversion reaction and thus lowers capacity in the case of Na cells. The Raman and IR ex-situ experiments after cycling indicate that the bipyridine organic ligands are completely decomposed during the electrochemical testing. The IR studies in MnV inorganic and MnBpy and MnBpy0.5 hybrid electrodes after the electrochemical cycling, suggest that the SEI formation and bipyridine degradation give rise to different aliphatic compounds. - Graphical abstract: The electrochemical performance of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.16} and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62} against sodium and lithium counter electrodes give rise to the structural collapse of the initial compounds. The IR and Raman studies show that the Bpy organic ligand is completely decomposed during the during the electrochemical testing. However, after the amorphization stable capacities as high as 850 mAh/g for lithium cells were achieved. - Highlights: • We test the lithium and sodium insertion in hybrid brannerites. • Capacities as large as 850 mAh/g were obtained

  3. Unique effect of mechanical crushing on the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in carbons of different morphologies; Effet unique du broyage mecanique sur l`intercalation electrochimique du lithium dans des carbones de morphologies differentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salver-Disma, F.; Tarascon, J.M. [Universite de Picardie, 80 - Amiens (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium ion batteries use an oxide as a positive electrode and a carbon material as a negative electrode. The performances of carbon electrodes have rapidly evolved during the last years thanks to the substitution of soft carbons of Conoco or MCMB-2510 type by graphites (F-399, MCMB-2528) and then by hard carbons. These high capacity carbons (700 mAh/g) have higher service life and volume capacity than graphites but their irreversible losses are greater (>20%). In this work, materials with similar electrochemical performances are prepared by mechanical crushing. Mechanical crushing allows to obtain a wide range of carbon materials with various morphologies, specific surfaces and levels of disorder. The formation of the passivation film is directly linked with the surface of materials. A reaction scheme of the reversible and irreversible capacities has been defined and has permitted to obtain compounds with reversible capacities of 720 mAh/g (2 lithium for 6 carbon). (J.S.)

  4. Unique effect of mechanical crushing on the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in carbons of different morphologies; Effet unique du broyage mecanique sur l`intercalation electrochimique du lithium dans des carbones de morphologies differentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salver-Disma, F; Tarascon, J M [Universite de Picardie, 80 - Amiens (France)

    1997-12-31

    Lithium ion batteries use an oxide as a positive electrode and a carbon material as a negative electrode. The performances of carbon electrodes have rapidly evolved during the last years thanks to the substitution of soft carbons of Conoco or MCMB-2510 type by graphites (F-399, MCMB-2528) and then by hard carbons. These high capacity carbons (700 mAh/g) have higher service life and volume capacity than graphites but their irreversible losses are greater (>20%). In this work, materials with similar electrochemical performances are prepared by mechanical crushing. Mechanical crushing allows to obtain a wide range of carbon materials with various morphologies, specific surfaces and levels of disorder. The formation of the passivation film is directly linked with the surface of materials. A reaction scheme of the reversible and irreversible capacities has been defined and has permitted to obtain compounds with reversible capacities of 720 mAh/g (2 lithium for 6 carbon). (J.S.)

  5. Superior lithium-ion insertion/extraction properties of a novel LiFePO4/C/graphene material used as a cathode in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenyuan; Zhao, Mingshu; Shen, Junfang; Zhao, Suixin; Song, Xiaoping

    2017-09-28

    Herein, olivine LiFePO 4 covered with graphene and carbon layers is prepared via a sol-gel method, followed by calcination, and the resultant composite is used as a cathode material in aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (ARLBs). The phase structure and morphology of the composite are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and specific surface area analysis (BET). The ARLB system is fabricated using LiFePO 4 /C/graphene as the cathode and a zinc anode in 1 mol L -1 ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O and saturated LiNO 3 aqueous solution without dissolved oxygen, which delivers a capacity of 153 mA h g -1 at 0.5C rate. Even at a 50C rate, it maintains a capacity of 95 mA h g -1 after 200 cycles. The excellent rate capabilities show that this cathode material exhibits good electrochemical performance and this novel ARLB has great potential in the fields of energy storage and high power sources.

  6. High Thermal Gradient in Thermo-electrochemical Cells by Insertion of a Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Waqar; Said, Suhana Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Hashim, Nur Awanis; Hasnan, Megat Muhammad Ikhsan Megat; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where ‘x’ defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ΔT (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm-2 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells.

  7. Electrochemical performance of LiMSnO4 (M=Fe, In) phases with ramsdellite structure as anodes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Kishore, M.V.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2004-01-01

    LiMSnO 4 (M=Fe, In) compounds were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method and the electrochemical studies were carried out vs. lithium metal. Lithium is reversibly intercalated and deintercalated in LiFeSnO 4 with a constant capacity of ∼90mAh/g. In situ X-ray diffraction data show that ramsdellite structure is stable for lithium intercalation and deintercalation in LiFeSnO 4 . Galvanostatic discharge/charge of LiFeSnO 4 in the voltage window 0.05-2.0V shows a reversible capacity of ∼100mAh/g. The observed capacity in LiFeSnO 4 is due to the two processes involving alloying/dealloying of Li 4.4 Sn and formation/decomposition of Li 2 O. In contrast, the new isotypic oxide LiInSnO 4 does not exhibit any lithium intercalation due to the absence of mixed valence for indium. Its reversible capacity is strongly dependent on the voltage window. LiInSnO 4 exhibits severe capacity fading on cycling in the voltage window 0.05-2.0V, but shows a stable capacity of ∼90mAh/g in the voltage range 0.75-2.0V

  8. High Lithium Insertion Voltage Single-Crystal H2 Ti12 O25 Nanorods as a High-Capacity and High-Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Li; Shan, Zizhao; Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Zhifang; Liang, Jingjing; Yang, Gaoli; Xue, Junmin

    2018-01-10

    H 2 Ti 12 O 25 holds great promise as a high-voltage anode material for advanced lithium-ion battery applications. To enhance its electrochemical performance, control of the crystal orientation and morphology is an effective way to cope with slow Li + -ion diffusion inside H 2 Ti 12 O 25 with severe anisotropy. In this report, Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 nanorods, prepared from Na 2 CO 3 and anatase TiO 2 in molten NaCl medium, were used as a precursor in the synthesis of long single-crystal H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods with reactive facets. The as-prepared H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods with a diameter of 100-200 nm showed higher charge (extraction) specific capacity and better rate performance than previously reported systems. The reversible capacity of H 2 Ti 12 O 25 was 219.8 mAh g -1 at 1C after 100 cycles, 172.1 mAh g -1 at 10C, and 144.4 mAh g -1 at 20C after 200 cycles; these values are higher than those of H 2 Ti 12 O 25 prepared by the conventional soft-chemical method. Moreover, the as-prepared H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods exhibited superior cycle stability with more than 94 % retention of capacity with nearly 100 % coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles at 1C. On the basis of the above results, long single-crystal H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods synthesized in molten NaCl with outstanding electrochemical characteristics hold a significant amount of promise for hybrid electric vehicles and energy-storage systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization and electrochemical performance of lithium-active titanium dioxide inlaid LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 material prepared by lithium residue-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingjun; Chen, Zhaoyong; Song, Liubin; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Huali; Gong, Li; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTiO 2 -inlaid LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 is prepared by lithium residue-assisted method. • The unique inlaid architecture inherits the advantages of coating and doping. • LiTiO 2 inlaying enhances the pristine at high cyclability and rate properties. • Excess LiTiO 2 modification results in low Li + diffusion coefficient. • The 3 mol% LiTiO 2 inlaid sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance. - Abstract: The lithium residues are consumed as raw materials to in-situ synthesize the LiTiO 2 -inlaid LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 composites. The effects of various LiTiO 2 contents on the morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 materials are investigated in detail. Energy dispersive spectrometer mapping, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis confirm that the spherical particles of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 are completely coated by crystalline LiTiO 2 phase; X-ray diffraction, cross-section SEM and corresponding EDS results indicate that Ti ions are also doped into the bulk LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 with gradient distribution. Electrochemical tests show that the LiTiO 2 -inlaid samples exhibit excellent reversible capacity, enhanced cyclability, superior lithium diffusion coefficient and rate properties. Specially, the 3 mol% LiTiO 2 inlaid sample maintains 153.7 mA h g −1 with 94.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles between 2.7–4.4 V at 1 C, take 30% advantage than that of the pristine one (118.2 mA h g −1 ). This improvement can be attributed to the removal of lithium residues and suitable LiTiO 2 inlaying. The absence of lithium residue is helpful to retard the decomposition of LiPF 6 . While, suitable LiTiO 2 inlaying can protect the bulk from directly contacting the electrolyte, buffer the volume change of core and shell during cycles, increase the surface electronic conductivity and offer a 3D path for Li + diffusion from the bulk to

  10. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with Li-Ni-Co-Mn oxide positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 was applied as a promising material to the all-solid-state lithium cells using the 80Li 2 S.19P 2 S 5 .1P 2 O 5 (mol%) solid electrolyte. The cell showed the first discharge capacity of 115 mAh g -1 at the current density of 0.064 mA cm -2 and retained the reversible capacity of 110 mAh g -1 after 10 cycles. The interfacial resistance was observed in the impedance spectrum of the all-solid-state cell charged to 4.4 V (vs. Li) and the transition metal elements were detected on the solid electrolyte in the vicinity of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by the TEM observations with EDX analyses. The electrochemical performance was improved by the coating of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 particles with Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 film. The interfacial resistance was decreased and the discharge capacity was increased from 63 to 83 mAh g -1 at 1.3 mA cm -2 by the coating. The electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 was compared with that of LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 and LiNiO 2 in the all-solid-state cells. The rate capability of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 was lower than that of LiCoO 2 . However, the reversible capacity of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 at 0.064 mA cm -2 was larger than that of LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 and LiNiO 2 .

  11. SnCo–CMK nanocomposite with improved electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Lingxing [College of Environment Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Deng, Cuilin; Zheng, Cheng; Qiu, Heyuan [Institute of Advanced Energy Materials, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Qian, Qingrong, E-mail: qrqian@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Environment Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Chen, Qinghua [College of Environment Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Wei, Mingdeng, E-mail: wei-mingdeng@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Energy Materials, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was synthesized using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. • Ultrafine SnCo nanoparticles distribute both inside and outside of mesopore channels. • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite is an alternative anode material for Li-ion intercalation. • A high reversible capacity of 562 mAh g{sup −1} is maintained after 60 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Abstract: In the present work, SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was successfully synthesized for the first time via a simple nanocasting route by using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. The nanocomposite was then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) respectively. Furthermore, the SnCo–CMK nanocomposite exhibited large reversible capacities, excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. A large reversible capacity of 562 mA h g{sup −1} was obtained after 60 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} which is attributed to the structure of ‘meso-nano’ SnCo–CMK composite. This unique structure ensures the intimate contact between CMK and SnCo nanoparticles, buffers the large volume expansion and prevents the aggregation of the SnCo nanoparticles during cycling, leading to the excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability.

  12. Electrochemical Performance of Iron Diphosphide/Carbon Tube Nanohybrids in Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Chunde; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kaibin; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • Dehydrogenated FeP 2 /C nanohybrids were fabricated via a facile annealing process. • The nanohybrids as anode in LIB show excellent cycling stability and rate capability. • C-hybrid promotes buffering volume change and increasing electroconductibility. • The process can be applied for the fabrication of many more TMPs and nanohybrids. -- Abstract: Phosphorous-rich phase iron diphosphide/carbon tube (FeP 2 /C) nanohybrids, which are synthesized via a pyrolysis process and composed of heterostructures of orthorhombic FeP 2 with conical carbon tubes, have been identified as a new anode in lithium-ion batteries. After an annealing treatment to eliminate the excessive hydrogen elements in the carbon tubes, the FeP 2 /C nanohybrids display good reversible capacity, long cycle life, and excellent rate capability. Specifically, the annealed hybrids exhibit a discharge capacity of 602 mA h g −1 on the second cycle and a discharge capacity of 435 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C (0.137 A g −1 ). Meanwhile, these annealed hybrids exhibit excellent rate capability, such as a reversible capability of 510 mA h g −1 , 440 mA h g −1 , 380 mA h g −1 , 330 mA h g −1 and 240 mA h g −1 at 0.25C, 0.5C, 1C, 2.5C and 5C, respectively

  13. Electrochemical Properties of Boron-Doped Fullerene Derivatives for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parveen; Kim, Ki Chul; Jang, Seung Soon

    2018-03-19

    The high electron affinity of fullerene C 60 coupled with the rich chemistry of carbon makes it a promising material for cathode applications in lithium-ion batteries. Since boron has one electron less than carbon, the presence of boron on C 60 cages is expected to generate electron deficiency in C 60 , and thereby to enhance its electron affinity. By using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the redox potentials and electronic properties of C 60 and C 59 B. We have found that doping C 60 with one boron atom results in a substantial increase in redox potential from 2.462 V to 3.709 V, which was attributed to the formation of an open shell system. We also investigated the redox and electronic properties of C 59 B functionalized with various redox-active oxygen containing functional groups (OCFGs). For the combination of functionalization with OCFGs and boron doping, it is found that the enhancement of redox potential is reduced, which is mainly attributed to the open shell structure being changed to a closed-shell one. Nevertheless, the redox potentials are still higher than that of pristine C 60 . From the observation that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of closed-shell OCFG- functionalized C 59 B is correlated well with the redox potential, it was confirmed that the spin state is crucial to be considered to understand the relationship between electronic structure and redox properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influence of operational condition on lithium plating for commercial lithium-ion batteries – Electrochemical experiments and post-mortem-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Shafiei Sabet, Pouyan; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigation of lithium plating to support reliable system integration. •Influence of operational conditions at low temperature on lithium plating. •Comparison of different lithium-ion battery technologies. •Large differences in low-temperature behaviour for different technologies. •Post-mortem analysis reveals inhomogeneous deposition of metallic lithium. -- Abstract: The lifetime and safety of lithium-ion batteries are key requirements for successful market introduction of electro mobility. Especially charging at low temperature and fast charging, known to provoke lithium plating, is an important issue for automotive engineers. Lithium plating, leading both to ageing as well as safety risks, is known to play a crucial role in system design of the application. To gain knowledge of different influence factors on lithium plating, low-temperature ageing tests are performed in this work. Commercial lithium-ion batteries of various types are tested under various operational conditions such as temperature, current, state of charge, charging strategy as well as state of health. To analyse the ageing behaviour, capacity fade and resistance increase are tracked over lifetime. The results of this large experimental survey on lithium plating provide support for the design of operation strategies for the implementation in battery management systems. To further investigate the underlying degradation mechanisms, differential voltage curves and impedance spectra are analysed and a post-mortem analysis of anode degradation is performed for a selected technology. The results confirm the deposition of metallic lithium or lithium compounds in the porous structure and suggest a strongly inhomogeneous deposition over the electrode thickness with a dense deposition layer close to the separator for the considered cell. It is shown that this inhomogeneous deposition can even lead to loss of active material. The plurality of the investigated technologies

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heai-Ku [Department of Chemical Engineering, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Seop, E-mail: surfkm@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on Ni foam were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. • When RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam was used as the anode material, initial capacity was improved from 276 mAh/g to 494 mAh/g with retention rate of 47.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl{sub 3} solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO{sub 4} (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ruthenium oxide (RuO_2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on Ni foam were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. • When RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam was used as the anode material, initial capacity was improved from 276 mAh/g to 494 mAh/g with retention rate of 47.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO_2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl_3 solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO_4 (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  17. Solvothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of Li2MnSiO4/C cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan-Chao; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Zhai, Peng-Yuan; Li, Fang; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C nanocomposite has been synthesized by the solvothermal method. • The particles of Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C are much smaller and more uniform. • The presence of Ni improves discharge capacity of Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C cathode material. • The initial discharge capacity of Ni-modified Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C is 274.5 mAh g −1 at 25 °C. - Abstract: Orthorhombic structure Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C with Pmn2 1 space group is synthesized by the solvothermal method. Carbon coating and Ni 2+ doping are used to improve the electronic conductivity and the cycling performance of Li 2 MnSiO 4 cathode material, respectively. The particles of Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C are much smaller and more uniform than those of Li 2 MnSiO 4 due to the carbon coating. It is shown that Ni 2+ has been reduced into metal Ni during the synthesis process. The synthesized Ni-modified Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C (denoted as (LMS@Ni)/C) cathode material exhibits better electrochemical performance in comparison with Li 2 MnSiO 4 /C, attributing to higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient as well as electronic conductivity. The initial discharge capacity of (LMS@Ni)/C is 274.5 mA h g −1 and the reversible capacity after 20 cycles is 119.8 mA h g −1 at 25 °C

  18. Properties and electrochemical behaviors of AuPt alloys prepared by direct-current electrodeposition for lithium air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Li, Da; Zhu, Yiming; Chen, Miaomiao; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    AuPt catalyst has a prospective application in a lithium air battery because of its bi-function on catalyzing Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) and Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER). Electrodeposition is an in-situ convenient technology for catalyst preparation without chemical residue. In an acid electrolyte, AuPt alloy catalysts were electrodeposited on carbon paper. The effect of main salt concentration, electrodeposition time and current density were studied by deposit micromorphology observation, structure analyses and composition testing. Catalytic abilities of AuPt alloys were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ionic liquid of EMI-TFSI/Li-TFSI [1- Ethyl - 3- methylimidazolium–bis (trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide/lithium–bis (trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide]. The electrochemical behaviors of Au, Pt and AuPt deposits were also measured. An optimized direct-current electrodeposition process of getting high active AuPt catalyst is concluded, which is an aqueous solution containing 6.7∼10 mmol · L −1 HAuCl 4 , 10∼13.3 mmol · L −1 H 2 PtCl 6 and 0.5 mol · L −1 H 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte, current density of 20mA · cm −2 and electrodeposition time of 8∼34 s. The co-deposition of AuPt alloy is an irregular co-deposition controlled by diffusion, while gold atoms enter the platinum’s crystal lattice in the structure of AuPt alloy. The increase of the concentration of H 2 PtCl 6 in the electrolyte, the extension of the electrodeposition time or the raise of the current density can improve the content of Pt in the deposit. The clusters’ diameters of AuPt catalysts decrease to 150∼250 nm by adjusting current densities during electrodeposition

  19. Analysis of lithium deinsertion/insertion in Li{sub y}FePO{sub 4} with a simple mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delacourt, C., E-mail: charles.delacourt@u-picardie.fr [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, CNRS UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne (France); Safari, M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, CNRS UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne (France)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > An analysis of the onsets of charge/discharge curves of Li{sub y}FePO{sub 4} is performed by means of a mathematical model. > It reveals a dependence of the apparent 'particle radius' on the current density. > The mosaic model, introduced some years ago for lithium insertion/deinsertion in Li{sub y}FePO{sub 4}, is invoked to account for this unusual dependence. - Abstract: The onset of experimental galvanostatic charge/discharge data of Li{sub y}FePO{sub 4} at low current density and at room temperature is analyzed using a single-particle mathematical model. The model contains only two adjustable parameters, namely one related to solid-state diffusion in the active particle and another one related to the surface resistance of the particle. The analysis reveals that these two parameters depend on the current density in a similar manner, meaning that there exists a correlation between them. An immediate consequence is that the onset of the experimental charge/discharge curves is properly modeled with the particle radius as a unique parameter depending on the current density. Hypotheses are made to shed light on this unusual dependence.

  20. Electrochemical performance of polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite cathodes in lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh K.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) composite cathode materials were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole onto the surface of pure SVO particles. Electrochemical characterization was carried out by performing galvanostatic discharge, pulse discharge and ac-impedance experiments. The composite electrode exhibited better performance than pristine SVO in all the experiments. The composite electrodes yielded a higher discharge capacity and a better pulse discharge capability when compared to the pristine SVO electrode. The pulse discharge and ac-impedance studies indicated that PPy forms an effective conductive network on the SVO surface and thereby reduces the particle-to-particle contact resistance and facilitates the interfacial charge transfer kinetics. To determine the thermal stability of the composite cathode, galvanostatic discharge and ac-impedance experiments were performed at different temperatures. The capacity increased with temperature due to enhanced charge transfer kinetics and low mass transfer limitations. The peak capacity was obtained at 60 °C, after which the performance degraded with any further increase in temperature.

  1. Electrochemical performance of polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite cathodes in lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh K.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) composite cathode materials were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole onto the surface of pure SVO particles. Electrochemical characterization was carried out by performing galvanostatic discharge, pulse discharge and ac-impedance experiments. The composite electrode exhibited better performance than pristine SVO in all the experiments. The composite electrodes yielded a higher discharge capacity and a better pulse discharge capability when compared to the pristine SVO electrode. The pulse discharge and ac-impedance studies indicated that PPy forms an effective conductive network on the SVO surface and thereby reduces the particle-to-particle contact resistance and facilitates the interfacial charge transfer kinetics. To determine the thermal stability of the composite cathode, galvanostatic discharge and ac-impedance experiments were performed at different temperatures. The capacity increased with temperature due to enhanced charge transfer kinetics and low mass transfer limitations. The peak capacity was obtained at 60 C, after which the performance degraded with any further increase in temperature. (author)

  2. An improved theoretical electrochemical-thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiribavandpour, Parisa; Shen, Weixiang; Mu, Daobin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    A theoretical electrochemical thermal model combined with a thermal resistive network is proposed to investigate thermal behaviours of a battery pack. The combined model is used to study heat generation and heat dissipation as well as their influences on the temperatures of the battery pack with and without a fan under constant current discharge and variable current discharge based on electric vehicle (EV) driving cycles. The comparison results indicate that the proposed model improves the accuracy in the temperature predication of the battery pack by 2.6 times. Furthermore, a large battery pack with four of the investigated battery packs in series is simulated in the presence of different ambient temperatures. The simulation results show that the temperature of the large battery pack at the end of EV driving cycles can reach to 50 °C or 60 °C in high ambient temperatures. Therefore, thermal management system in EVs is required to maintain the battery pack within the safe temperature range.

  3. Preparation and electrochemical properties of mesoporous NiCo2O4 double-hemisphere used as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Huang, Guo Yong; Sun, Hongyu; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Mou, Qinyao; Zhang, Hongmei

    2018-06-19

    NiCo 2 O 4 is a potential anode material for lithium ion battery due to its many advantages, such as high theoretical capacitance, low cost, and good electrochemical activity. In this study, mesoporous NiCo 2 O 4 double-hemisphere (3-5 μm) with high surface area (270.68 m 2 ·g -1 ) and excellent electrochemical performances has been synthesized through a facile precipitation method followed with thermal treatment process. The prepared NiCo 2 O 4 is pure phase and can be indexed as a face-centered-cubic with a typical spinel structure. Electrochemical tests show the prepared material has high specific capacities (910 mAh·g -1 at 100 mA·g -1 ), excellent cyclicity (908  mAh·g -1 at 100 mA·g -1 after 60 cycles) and remarkable high rate performance (after 100 cycles, 585 mAh·g -1 at 400 mAh·g -1 , 415 mAh·g -1 at 800 mAh·g -1 and 320 mAh·g -1 at 1600 mAh·g -1 with coulombic efficiencies of almost 100%). The excellent performances of prepared NiCo 2 O 4 are mainly caused by the unique double-hemisphere structure, which has large surface area, gives material more opportunity to contact with electrolyte and facilitates lithium ion spreading into the material along the radical direction, resulting in a promising application for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of electrochemical performance of graphene sheets, expanded graphite and natural graphite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Li-Zhong; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Tai-Ming; Xie, Wei-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Ming; Shen, Zeng-Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene sheets (GSs), expanded graphite (EG) and natural graphite (NG) were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. • The reversible capacity of GS electrode was almost twice that of EG electrode and three times that of NG electrode. • The first-cycle coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of NG were much bigger than those of GSs and EG. • GS and EG electrodes exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties. -- Abstract: Three kinds of carbon materials, i.e., graphene sheets (GSs), expanded graphite (EG) and natural graphite (NG) were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries via scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of GS electrode were 1130 and 636 mA h g −1 at the current densities of 0.2 and 1 mA cm −2 , respectively, which were almost twice those of EG electrode and three times those of NG electrode. The first-cycle coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of NG were much bigger than those of GSs and EG. The notable capacity fading observed in GSs and EG may be ascribed to the disorder-induced structure instability. The larger voltage hysteresis in GS and EG electrodes was not only related to the surface functional groups, but also to the active defects in GSs and EG, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of GSs, EG and NG electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. GS and EG electrodes exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process

  5. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanghui, Wu; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H 2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m −1 , which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m −1 ). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains

  6. Synthesis of hollandite-type Li yMn 1- xCo xO 2 (x = 0-0.15) by Li + ion-exchange in molten salt and the electrochemical property for rechargeable lithium battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Naoaki; Oshitari, Satoru; Komaba, Shinichi; Kadoma, Yoshihiro

    The Li + ion-exchange reaction of K +-type α-K 0.14MnO 1.93·0.18H 2O and its Co-doped α-K 0.14(Mn 0.85Co 0.15)O 1.96·0.21H 2O with a large (2 × 2) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO 3/LiCl molten salt at 300 °C. The Li + ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopic measurements. Almost all the K + ions and the hydrogens of water molecules in the (2 × 2) tunnel of α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped one were exchanged by Li + ions in the molten salt, resulting in Li +-type α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped one containing Li + ions as well as Li 2O (lithium oxide) in the (2 × 2) tunnel with maintaining the original hollandite structure. The electrochemical properties including charge-discharge cycling of the Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped samples have been investigated as insertion compounds in the search for new cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. The Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped samples provided higher capacities than the K +-type parent materials on initial discharge and charge-discharge cyclings, probably due to the structural stabilization with the existence of Li 2O in the (2 × 2) tunnels.

  7. Graphene-supported SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by a solvothermal approach for an enhanced electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed on graphene nanosheets through a solvothermal approach using ethylene glycol as the solvent. The uniform distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The particle size of SnO2 was determined to be around 5 nm. The as-synthesized SnO2/graphene nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries, compared with bare graphene ...

  8. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of polyaniline/MoO3 nanobelt composite for lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Varishetty Madhu; Chen, Wen; Murakami, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal method was introduced for the synthesis of MoO 3 nanobelts and polyaniline (PANI)/MoO 3 nanobelt composites. The structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. We can see the presence of polyaniline on the MoO 3 nanobelts surface in the TEM pictures as shown in Fig. (a). The pure MoO 3 nanobelts exhibit the initial specific capacity 276 mAhg −1 , whereas PANI/MoO 3 nanobelt composite shows little low initially 228 mAhg −1 after that it has more stabilized specific capacity with increasing cycle numbers as shown in Fig. (b). The cyclic voltammograms of the PANI/MoO 3 nanobelt composite show better cyclic performance compared to pure MoO 3 nanobelts. The electrochemical impedance spectres were studied for both the pure and PANI/MoO 3 samples at 2.0 and 3.5 potentials. The role of the PANI polymeric component of the composite material seems to be the stabilization of the specific capacity due to probable homogeneous distribution of the induced stress during cycling. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Hydrothermal synthesis of MoO 3 , PANI/MoO 3 nanobelts. ► Samples were characterised by XRD, FTIR, DSC, SEM, TEM, CV and impedance. ► MoO 3 nanobelts cathode battery shows initial specific capacity 276 mAhg −1 . ► PANI/MoO 3 nanobelts show initial specific capacity 228 mAhg −1 but high stability. ► PANI/MoO 3 sample studies by impedance at the potentials of 2.0 and 3.5 V. -- Abstract: The MoO 3 nanobelts and polyaniline (PANI)/MoO 3 nanobelt composite were synthesized using hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermo

  9. Synthesis of TiO2 by electrochemical method from TiCl4 solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO 2 is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO 2 gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO 2 crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO 2 powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO 2 have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO 2 particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO 2 powders was TiCl 4 in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO 2 particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase

  10. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the change in the local environment of the structure during the cycling process. Two systems are included in this work, including iron fluorides and Cu-containing materials. A comparison study has been performed on FeF3 and FeF2. Different discharge reaction mechanisms are clarified for each compound, and possible phase transitions are proposed as well. As for the Cu-containing systems, three compounds were chosen with different anions: CuS, CuO and CuF2. The reaction mechanisms are studied by 63Cu, 7Li and

  11. Silver-coated LiVPO4F composite with improved electrochemical performance as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Yang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nano-structured LiVPO4F/Ag composite cathode material has been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel route. The structural and physical properties, as well as the electrochemical performance of the material are compared with those of the pristine LiVPO4F. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that Ag particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of LiVPO4F without destroying the crystal structure of the bulk material. An analysis of the electrochemical measurements show that the Ag-modified LiVPO4F material exhibits high discharge capacity, good cycle performance (108.5 mAh g-1 after 50th cycles at 0.1 C, 93% of initial discharge capacity) and excellent rate behavior (81.8 mAh g-1 for initial discharge capacity at 5 C). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results reveal that the adding of Ag decreases the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of LiVPO4F cathode. This study demonstrates that Ag-coating is a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of the pristine LiVPO4F for lithium-ion batteries cathode material.

  12. Electrochemical performance of a rechargeable lithium battery containing a Li Mn{sub 2} O{sub 4} cathode; Desempenho eletroquimico de uma bateria recarregavel de litio com catodo de LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Fabio A.; Ferracin, Luiz C.; Brazuna, Priscila R.; Bocchi, Nerilso [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisas em Eletroquimica

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of a rechargeable lithium battery, containing a Li Mn{sub 2} O{sub 4} cathode obtained from the {epsilon}-Mn O{sub 2}, through measurements of galvanostatic charge and discharge. The cathode presented a satisfactory electrochemical performance with charge capacity of approximately 110 m A h g{sup -1}. The Teflon electrochemical cell presented satisfactory results only for the initial charge and discharge cycles.

  13. Physico-Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticulate NiO/C Composites for High Performance Lithium and Sodium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iturrondobeitia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticulate NiO and NiO/C composites with different carbon proportions have been prepared for anode application in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Structural characterization demonstrated the presence of metallic Ni in the composites. Morphological study revealed that the NiO and Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed in the matrix of amorphous carbon. The electrochemical study showed that the lithium ion batteries (LIBs, containing composites with carbon, have promising electrochemical performances, delivering specific discharge capacities of 550 mAh/g after operating for 100 cycles at 1C. These excellent results could be explained by the homogeneity of particle size and structure, as well as the uniform distribution of NiO/Ni nanoparticles in the in situ generated amorphous carbon matrix. On the other hand, the sodium ion battery (NIB with the NiO/C composite revealed a poor cycling stability. Post-mortem analyses revealed that this fact could be ascribed to the absence of a stable Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI or passivation layer upon cycling.

  14. Vinylene carbonate and tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite hybrid additives to improve the electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide/graphite cells at 60 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bonjae; Lee, Jeongmin; Lee, Yongwon; Kim, Jun Ki; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The combination of tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite and vinylene carbonate improves the electrochemical performance of lithium manganese oxide/graphite cells at 60 °C. •Removal of hydrogen fluoride and water by tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite suppresses manganese dissolution from lithium manganese oxide. -- Abstract: The organophosphorus compounds tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (TMSP) and vinylene carbonate (VC) have been considered for use as functional additives to improve the electrochemical performance of Li 1.1 Mn 1.86 Mg 0.04 O 4 (LMO)/graphite full cells. Our investigation reveals that the combination of VC and TMSP as additives enhances the cycling properties and storage performance of full cells at 60 °C. The unique functions of the TMSP additive in the VC electrolyte are investigated via ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The TMSP additive effectively eliminates trace water and hydrogen fluoride (HF) and produces a protective film on the LMO cathode that alleviates manganese dissolution at 60 °C

  15. A transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model with modified boundary conditions and Padé approximation for Li-ion battery: Part 1. lithium concentration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    To guarantee the safety, high efficiency and long lifetime for lithium-ion battery, an advanced battery management system requires a physics-meaningful yet computationally efficient battery model. The pseudo-two dimensional (P2D) electrochemical model can provide physical information about the lithium concentration and potential distributions across the cell dimension. However, the extensive computation burden caused by the temporal and spatial discretization limits its real-time application. In this research, we propose a new simplified electrochemical model (SEM) by modifying the boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations, which significantly facilitates the analytical solving process. Then to obtain a reduced order transfer function, the Padé approximation method is adopted to simplify the derived transcendental impedance solution. The proposed model with the reduced order transfer function can be briefly computable and preserve physical meanings through the presence of parameters such as the solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficients (Ds&De) and particle radius. The simulation illustrates that the proposed simplified model maintains high accuracy for electrolyte phase concentration (Ce) predictions, saying 0.8% and 0.24% modeling error respectively, when compared to the rigorous model under 1C-rate pulse charge/discharge and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) profiles. Meanwhile, this simplified model yields significantly reduced computational burden, which benefits its real-time application.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical properties of nanocable-like Nb2O5/surface-modified carbon nanotubes composites for anode materials in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chongfu; Xiang, Kaixiong; Zhu, Yirong; Chen, Xianhong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Han

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The acid pretreatment for CNTs is a key factor to fabricate nanocable-like Nb 2 O 5 /SMCNTs composites. •The polar functional groups can induce the symmetrical growth of Nb 2 O 5 nanoparticitles on the surface of SMCNTs. •SMCNTs can provide sufficient conductive contacts for composites and abundant active sites for electrochemical reaction. -- Abstract: Uniform nanocable-like Nb 2 O 5 /surface-modified carbon nanotubes (SMCNTs) composites for anode materials in lithium ion batteries were synthesized by hydrothermal method. It was indicated that Nb 2 O 5 nanoparticles were tightly and uniformly cultivated on carbon nanotubes when CNTs were pretreated with concentrated H 2 SO 4 . As a result, Nb 2 O 5 /SMCNTs composite materials showed remarkable electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. It delivered a high reversible capacity of 441 mA h g −1 cycled at the current density of 40 mA g −1 after 100 cycles and an excellent rate capacity of 185 mA h g −1 at the high current density of 5000 mA g −1 after 200 cycles.

  17. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  18. The Surface Coating of Commercial LiFePO4 by Utilizing ZIF-8 for High Electrochemical Performance Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Qi, CongYu; Hao, ZhenDong; Wang, Hao; Jiu, JinTing; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    The requirement of energy-storage equipment needs to develop the lithium ion battery (LIB) with high electrochemical performance. The surface modification of commercial LiFePO4 (LFP) by utilizing zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) offers new possibilities for commercial LFP with high electrochemical performances. In this work, the carbonized ZIF-8 (CZIF-8) was coated on the surface of LFP particles by the in situ growth and carbonization of ZIF-8. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that there is an approximate 10 nm coating layer with metal zinc and graphite-like carbon on the surface of LFP/CZIF-8 sample. The N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm suggests that the coating layer has uniform and simple connecting mesopores. As cathode material, LFP/CZIF-8 cathode-active material delivers a discharge specific capacity of 159.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C and a discharge specific energy of 141.7 mWh g-1 after 200 cycles at 5.0C (the retention rate is approximate 99%). These results are attributed to the synergy improvement of the conductivity, the lithium ion diffusion coefficient, and the degree of freedom for volume change of LFP/CZIF-8 cathode. This work will contribute to the improvement of the cathode materials of commercial LIB.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries based on the control-oriented electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.

  20. Facile preparation and electrochemical characterization of poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine)-modified separator as a self-activated potential switch for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Lu, Shigang; Ai, Xinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A potential-sensitive separator is prepared by incorporating an electroactive poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine) (PMOTPA) into the micropores of a commercial porous polyolefin film. • This separator can be used as an internal and self-actuating voltage control device to provide overcharge protection for LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 lithium ion batteries. • This type of the separators works reversibly and has no any discernable impact on the battery performances. -- Abstract: A potential-sensitive separator is prepared by incorporating an electroactive poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine) (PMOTPA) into the micropores of a commercial porous polyolefin film and tested as an internal voltage control device for overcharge protection of LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 lithium ion batteries. The experimental results demonstrate that the PMOTPA polymer embedded in the separator can be electrochemically p-doped at overcharged voltages into an electrically conductive state, producing an internal conducting bypass for shunting the charge current to maintain the charge voltage of LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells at a safety value less than 2.6 V, thus protecting the cell from voltage runaway. Since this type of the separators works reversibly and has no any discernable impact on the battery performances, it may offer a self-protection mechanism for development of safer lithium ion batteries

  1. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  2. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Wu Lijuan; Li Zhaohui; Lei Gangtie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiao Qizhen, E-mail: qizhenxiao2004@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang Ping [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2011-06-01

    Highlights: > A simple electrospinning method has been developed to fabricate Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers. > Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. > A stable and reversible capacity of over 227 mAh g{sup -1} is achieved at a rate of 0.1 C. > Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} anode exhibits good cycle performance and high rate capability. - Abstract: Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers are synthesized by thermally treating electrospun Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}/LiOAc/TBT/PVP fibers and utilized as an energy storage material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The material is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results show that the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers have an average diameter of 200 nm. Electrochemical properties of the material are evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that as-prepared Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has a high specific discharge capacity of 227.6 mAh g{sup -1} at the 2nd cycle. Its electrochemical performance at subsequent cycles shows good cycling capacity and rate capability. The obtained results thus strongly support that the electrospinning method is an effective method to prepare Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} anode material with higher capacity and rate capability.

  4. Synthesis of One Dimensional Li2MoO4 Nanostructures and Their Electrochemical Performance as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Yanming; Dong, Youzhong; Fan, Qinghua; Kuang, Quan; Liang, Zhiyong; Lin, Xinghao; Han, Wei; Li, Qidong; Wen, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • One dimensional Li 2 MoO 4 nanostructures including nanorods and nanotubes have been successfully fabricated via a simple sol-gel method firstly. • Possible crystal formation mechanisms are proposed for these one dimensional Li 2 MoO 4 nanostructures. • These one dimensional Li 2 MoO 4 nanostructure electrode materials present outstanding rate abilities and cycle capabilities in electrochemical performance compared to the carbon-free powder sample when evaluated as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries. • The carbon-coated Li 2 MoO 4 nanotube electrode improves the charging/discharging capacities of graphite even after applying 60 cycles at very high current density. - Abstract: One dimensional Li 2 MoO 4 nanostructures including nanorods and nanotubes have been successfully fabricated via a simple sol-gel method adding Li 2 CO 3 and MoO 3 powders into distilled water with citric acid as an assistant agent and carbon source. Our experimental results show that the formation of the one dimensional nanostructure morphology is evaporation and crystallization process with self-adjusting into a rod-like hexagonal cross-section structure, while the citric acid played an important role during the formation of Li 2 MoO 4 nanotubes under the acidic environment by capping, stabilizing the {1010} facet of Li 2 MoO 4 structure and controlling the concentration of H + (pH value) of the aqueous solution. Finally, basic electrochemical performance of these one dimensional Li 2 MoO 4 nanostructures including nanorods and nanotubes evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are discussed, for comparison, the properties of carbon-free powder sample synthesized by solid-state reaction are also displayed. Experimental results show that different morphology and carbon-coating on the surface have an important influence on electrochemical performance

  5. Influence of particle size and fluorination ratio of CFx precursor compounds on the electrochemical performance of C–FeF2 nanocomposites for reversible lithium storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Breitung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematical studies of the electrochemical performance of CFx-derived carbon–FeF2 nanocomposites for reversible lithium storage are presented. The conversion cathode materials were synthesized by a simple one-pot synthesis, which enables a reactive intercalation of nanoscale Fe particles in a CFx matrix, and the reaction of these components to an electrically conductive C–FeF2 compound. The pretreatment and the structure of the utilized CFx precursors play a crucial role in the synthesis and influence the electrochemical behavior of the conversion cathode material. The particle size of the CFx precursor particles was varied by ball milling as well as by choosing different C/F ratios. The investigations led to optimized C–FeF2 conversion cathode materials that showed specific capacities of 436 mAh/g at 40 °C after 25 cycles. The composites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction measurements, electron energy loss spectroscopy and TEM measurements. The electrochemical performances of the materials were tested by galvanostatic measurements.

  6. Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performance of CuO in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by using a spray pyrolysis method, copper acetate as precursor and stainless steel as substrate. The textural and structural properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed thorough coating of the substrate and thickness of 450-1250 nm; the average particle size as determined from the AFM images ranged from 30 to 160 nm. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of CuO alone and the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cu 2+ as the main oxidation state on the surface. The films were tested as electrodes in lithium cells and their electrochemical properties evaluated from galvanostatic and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) measurements. The discharge STEP curves exhibited various peaks consistent with the processes CuO Cu 2 O Cu and with decomposition of the electrolyte, a reversible process in the light of the AFM images. The best electrode exhibited capacity values of 625 Ah kg -1 over more than 100 cycles. This value, which involves a CuO Cu reversible global reaction, is ca. 50% higher than that reported for bulk CuO. The nanosize of the particles and the good adherence of the active material to the substrate are thought to be the key factors accounting for the enhanced electrochemical activity found

  7. In situ electrochemical creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets with favorable performance as a high tap density anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qian; Sha, Yujing; Zhao, Bote; Chen, Yubo; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide nanosheets in situ electrochemical generated from commercial LiCoO_2. • TEM indicates creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from coarse layered LiCoO_2_. • Coarse-type LiCoO_2 with high tap density shows promising anode performance. • Optimizing weight ratio of LiCoO_2 in electrode, a high capacity was achieved. - Abstract: Cobalt oxides are attractive alternative anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve the performance of conversion-type anode materials such as cobalt oxides, well dispersed and nanosized particulate morphology is typically required. In this study, we describe the in situ electrochemical generation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from commercial micrometer-sized LiCoO_2 oxide as an anode material for LIBs. The electrode material as prepared was analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by a constant current galvanostatic discharge–charge test. The material shows a high tap density and promising anode performance in terms of capacity, rate performance and cycling stability. A capacity of 560 mA h g"−"1 is still achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 by increasing the amount of additives in the electrode to 40 wt%. This paper provides a new technique for developing a high-performance conversion-type anode for LIBs.

  8. Electrochemical performance of a hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with a graphite anode preloaded from lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, C.; Lota, G.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.; Frackowiak, E.; Béguin, F.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid LiC capacitor combining a lithium-ion battery type (graphite) electrode and an electrical double-layer (activated carbon) one has been developed by preloading graphite from 2 mol L −1 lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) organic electrolyte. The graphite intercalation compound was formed by applying ca. 10 successive charge/self-discharge pulses. The optimized hybrid device operates in the voltage range from 1.5 to 4.2 V and displays 60% higher gravimetric capacitance than an electric double-layer (EDL) capacitor using the same activated carbon for both electrodes. As a result, the energy density reaches 80 Wh kg −1 , which is four times higher than the value for the EDL capacitor with the same total mass of carbon.

  9. Optimization of Charging Strategy by Prevention of Lithium Deposition on Anodes in high-energy Lithium-ion Batteries – Electrochemical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Kasper, Michael; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the capacity fade of commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with NCA cathodes and graphite anodes quantitatively for different temperatures and charging strategies. For standard constant current / constant voltage (CC-CV) charging, the aging rate for cells cycled at 0.5C is increased with decreasing temperature in the range of 25 °C to 0 °C. Interestingly, no accelerated aging is observed for CC-CV charging in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C at 0.5C. The observed behavior indicates lithium deposition on anodes for temperatures up to ∼25 °C and is further investigated by reconstruction of anode and cathode from the commercial 18650-type cells into full cells with an additional lithium metal reference electrode. The reconstruction method is scrutinized regarding its validity. Measurements with the reconstructed cells at 25 °C reveal the quantitative dependency of the anode potential vs. Li/Li"+ from the charge C-rate and cell voltage. This allows deriving charging strategies involving strictly positive anode potentials to avoid lithium deposition and preventing the corresponding capacity fade.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of ZnO/MnO2 sea urchin-like sleeve array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Yuan, Y.F.; Wang, L.K.; Ni, H.L.; Zhu, H.L.; Yang, J.L.; Gui, J.S.; Chen, Y.B.; Guo, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    MnO 2 is electrodeposited onto ZnO nanorod array grown on Ni foil, forming a binder-free ZnO/MnO 2 composited electrode. XRD, EDS, SEM and TEM are used to analyze the phase and microstructure of this composite. Burr-like MnO 2 nanoflakes grows on ZnO nanorod array, the top of the composite is hollow and at the bottom exists ZnO large block core as an internal support, forming ZnO/MnO 2 sea urchin-like sleeve array. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, ZnO/MnO 2 sleeve array exhibits higher discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency, better rate performance and cycling stability than single ZnO nanorod array or directly electrodepsited MnO 2 , and the composite effect is very remarkable. After 100 cycles, the discharge capacity of ZnO/MnO 2 still reaches 1259 mA h g −1 , and coulombic efficiency surpasses 98%, higher than those of ZnO nanorod array (111 mA h g −1 ) and directly electrodeposited MnO 2 (507 mA h g −1 ). The improvement of the electrochemical performances is due to the unique sea urchin-like sleeve array architecture. MnO 2 burr tube shell structure leads to high electrochemical activity while the internal ZnO core support ensures good structure stability. The gradually opening of sea urchin-like sleeve during the cycling further enhances the electrochemical activity of MnO 2 , stabilizing and increasing electrochemical performances of the ZnO/MnO 2 composite

  11. Hierarchical architecture of ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fei; Chen, Yuanfu, E-mail: yfchen@uestc.edu.cn; Zheng, Binjie; He, Jiarui; Li, Qian; Wang, Xinqiang; Lin, Jie; Zhou, Jinhao; Yu, Bo; Li, Pingjian; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites have been synthesized by a facile one-pot method. • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit hierarchical architecture. • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites deliver better electrochemical performances than ReS{sub 2}. • The enhanced performance is due to porous and conductive structure of ReS{sub 2}/rGO. - Abstract: Rhenium disulfide (ReS{sub 2}), a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, has attracted more and more attention due to its unique anisotropic electronic, optical, mechanical properties. However, the facile synthesis and electrochemical property of ReS{sub 2} and its composite are still necessary to be researched. In this study, for the first time, the ReS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites have been synthesized through a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit a hierarchical, interconnected, and porous architecture constructed by nanosheets. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites deliver a large initial capacity of 918 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.2 C. In addition, the ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit much better electrochemical cycling stability and rate capability than that of bare ReS{sub 2}. The significant enhancement in electrochemical property can be attributed to its unique architecture constructed by nanosheets and porous structure, which can allow for easy electrolyte infiltration, efficient electron transfer, and ionic diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene with high electronic conductivity can provide good conductive passageways. The facile synthesis approach can be extended to prepare other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors for energy storage and catalytic application.

  12. Re-entrant lithium local environments and defect driven electrochemistry of Li- and Mn-rich Li-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fulya; Long, Brandon R; Croy, Jason R; Gallagher, Kevin G; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Key, Baris

    2015-02-18

    Direct observations of structure-electrochemical activity relationships continue to be a key challenge in secondary battery research. (6)Li magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can quantitatively characterize local lithium environments on the subnanometer scale that dominates the free energy for site occupation in lithium-ion (Li-ion) intercalation materials. In the present study, we use this local probe to gain new insights into the complex electrochemical behavior of activated 0.5(6)Li2MnO3·0.5(6)LiMn(0.5)Ni(0.5)O2, lithium- and manganese-rich transition-metal (TM) oxide intercalation electrodes. We show direct evidence of path-dependent lithium site occupation, correlated to structural reorganization of the metal oxide and the electrochemical hysteresis, during lithium insertion and extraction. We report new (6)Li resonances centered at ∼1600 ppm that are assigned to LiMn6-TM(tet) sites, specifically, a hyperfine shift related to a small fraction of re-entrant tetrahedral TMs (Mn(tet)), located above or below lithium layers, coordinated to LiMn6 units. The intensity of the TM layer lithium sites correlated with tetrahedral TMs loses intensity after cycling, indicating limited reversibility of TM migrations upon cycling. These findings reveal that defect sites, even in dilute concentrations, can have a profound effect on the overall electrochemical behavior.

  13. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} by electrochemical method from TiCl{sub 4} solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian, E-mail: adriannur@staff.uns.ac.id; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur [Research Group of Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO{sub 2} is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO{sub 2} gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO{sub 2} crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO{sub 2} powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO{sub 2} have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO{sub 2} particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO{sub 2} powders was TiCl{sub 4} in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase.

  14. Electrochemical state and internal variables estimation using a reduced-order physics-based model of a lithium-ion cell and an extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzel, KD; Aldrich, LL; Trimboli, MS; Plett, GL

    2015-03-15

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the present value of electrochemical internal variables in a lithium-ion cell in real time, using readily available measurements of cell voltage, current, and temperature. The variables that can be estimated include any desired set of reaction flux and solid and electrolyte potentials and concentrations at any set of one-dimensional spatial locations, in addition to more standard quantities such as state of charge. The method uses an extended Kalman filter along with a one-dimensional physics-based reduced-order model of cell dynamics. Simulations show excellent and robust predictions having dependable error bounds for most internal variables. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C/carbon nanosphere composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinlong; Kang, Xiaochun; Hu, Lin; Gong, Xue; He, Daping; Peng, Tao; Mu, Shichun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The Li 2 FeSiO 4 /C/CNS was prepared by effective double-carbon composite route. •The CNS as the conductivity belt connects the Li 2 FeSiO 4 /C particles. •The samples have a high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance. -- Abstract: Li 2 FeSiO 4 /C/carbon nanosphere (CNS) composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were synthesized by a simple hydro-chemical method. The double-carbon structural design of glucose pyrolysis-carbon (C) and CNS improved electrochemical performance of the composite where the CNS can build conductivity belts to connect the Li 2 FeSiO 4 /C particles and to favor electronic transmission. The exchange current density and the diffusion coefficient of lithium ions with the composite were 0.208 mA cm −2 and 1.06E−11 cm 2 S −1 , respectively, which were much larger than that of conventional Li 2 FeSiO 4 /C composite cathode materials (i = 0.131 mA cm −2 , D Li = 4.69E−12 cm 2 S −1 ). The electrochemical test results showed that the discharge capacity of 164.7 mA h g −1 could be obtained, and especially, after 60 cycles, 98.4% of the initial discharge capacity remained at 0.1 C of galvanostatic discharge in the potential range of 1.5–4.8 V (vs. Li/Li + ). In addition, the discharge capacity of 92.4 mA h g −1 at 5 C was easily recovered to 159.8 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C

  16. Studies on the lithium ion diffusion coefficients of electrospun Nb2O5 nanostructures using galvanostatic intermittent titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.V.; Jose, R.; Le Viet, A.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Chowdari, B.V.R.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pseudo-hexagonal (H), orthorhombic (O), and monoclinic (M) Nb 2 O 5 phases were prepared by electrospunning. • They were characterized by SEM, Galvanostatic and Impedance techniques. • D Li values by GITT for H-, O-, and M-Nb 2 O 5 are in the range, 10 −17 –10 −16 , 10 −15 –10 −14 , and 10 −13 –10 −12 cm 2 s −1 , respectively. - Abstract: We have studied the Li-diffusion coefficient values of electrospun Nb 2 O 5 nanofibers and nanonuggets for lithium batteries. In brief, Nb 2 O 5 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by sintering at temperatures range 500–1100 °C for 1 h in air to obtain pseudo-hexagonal, orthorhombic (O), and monoclinic (M) Nb 2 O 5 phases. Electrochemical properties were evaluated by galvanostatic technique at room temperature. The H-, O- and M-Nb 2 O 5 polymorphs delivered discharge capacities (at second cycle) of 152, 189 and 242 (±5) mA h g −1 , respectively. The lithium diffusion coefficients (D Li ) are calculated using galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques carried at room temperature. The evaluated D Li values by GITT for H-, O-, and M-Nb 2 O 5 phases are in the range 10 −17 –10 −16 , 10 −15 –10 −14 , and 10 −13 –10 −12 cm 2 s −1 , respectively, in the voltage range 1.0–2.6 V vs. Li. D Li evaluated by EIS gave similar trend in the values but with a difference of one order higher magnitude

  17. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic lithium garnets particulate reinforced PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Samson Ho-Sum; He, Kang-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zha, Jun-Wei; Kamruzzaman, Md; Ma, Robin Lok-Wang; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K.Y.; Chung, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries are proposed to have ultimate safety and higher power and energy densities over conventional lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolytes. The Li ion conductivity and interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes are the major bottleneck of the development of all-solid-state batteries for practical uses. Here, we reported a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of uniform distributed Li ion conducting Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO) fillers in PEO/LiClO 4 matrix. The EO:Li + ratio of 15:1 is being used to achieve lower interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes through the melting process. The composite electrolyte is fabricated by simple solution casting method, which is more advantageous comparing with high temperature sintering or sol-gel method used in the fabrication of ceramic electrolytes. The composite electrolyte exhibits good Li ion conductivity of 4.8 × 10 −4 Scm −1 at 60 °C and excellent interfacial stability against Li metal. The all-solid-state lithium battery using this composite electrolyte shows a specific capacity of 140mAhg −1 and an unprecedentedly high capacity retention of 83% after 500 cycles at 60 °C and the rate of 1C. It is concluded that good electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability and contact as well as fast Li ion conductivity obtained by the addition of active garnet particulates to PEO/LiClO 4 matrix are essential criteria for good charge/discharge performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhong; Tian Wenhuai; Liu Xiaohe; Yang Rong; Li Xingguo

    2007-01-01

    The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles. The as-prepared composite materials show much improved electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries compared with Sn-Sb alloy and carbon alone. This amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particle is extremely promising anode materials for lithium secondary batteries and has a high potentiality in the future use. - Graphical abstract: The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of SnCo alloy shells on orderly rod-shaped Cu current collectors as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Fangwei; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: meszhanghui@zju.edu.cn; Qi, Yue; Wang, Jiazheng; Du, Ning; Yang, Deren

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •Nanostructured SnCo/Cu electrodes have been successfully fabricated. •A simple electrodeposition approach was employed. •The Cu arrays offer large surface area and improve electronic/ionic conductivity. •The electrodes show improved performance as anode for Li-ion batteries. •The improved performance was attributed to the nanostructured current collectors. -- Abstract: In this article, we report a two-step electrodeposition method for the synthesis of Cu/SnCo core–shell rod-shaped arrays as anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, the arrayed Cu nanorods with diameters of 200 nm were fabricated on a Cu foil through an electrodeposition method with alumina oxide membrane (AAO) as the template. Secondly, the SnCo alloy shells were subsequently electrodeposited on the surface of the rod-shaped Cu arrays to form the hybrid nanostructures. These hybrid electrodes delivered the enhanced cyclic performance and high rate capability serving as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The improved electrochemical performance might be attributed to the large surface-to-volume area, sufficient buffering space, and high electronic conductivity associated with these 3-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  20. Electrochemical behavior of current collectors for lithium batteries in non-aqueous alkyl carbonate solution and surface analysis by ToF-SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Sasaki, Yusuke; Sakurada, Shuhei; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Several metals (Cu, Fe, Al, Ti, and Cr) as current collector for lithium-ion battery were investigated to understand their electrochemical behavior and passivation process in a non-aqueous alkyl carbonate solution containing LiPF 6 salt. From cyclic voltammetric study, it was found that Cu and Fe metals were dissolved into the electrolyte below 4 V vs. Li/Li + . Alternatively, Al and Ti were stable up to 5 V vs. Li/Li + . Their scratched surfaces at 5 V vs. Li/Li + were polarized in a transient mode and it was found that the surfaces were passivated during the polarization test. Formed passive film was composed of two hybrid layers: outer layer by metal (Al and Ti) fluoride and inner by metal oxide, as confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Presence of HF in the electrolyte was indispensible to form the metal fluoride layer on the oxide layer. The outer fluoride layer would protect the inner oxide layer and metal substrate from HF attack, bringing about satisfactory corrosion resistance under lithium-ion battery environment.

  1. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle, high porosity (69.77%, and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake. It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1 than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1 was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Jung, Hyun; Gnerlich, Markus; Baron, Sergio; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    We report the first successful demonstration of an optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensing platform for the in situ characterization of electrochemically induced reversible mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes. The platform consists of an array of flexible membranes with a reflective surface on one side and a thin-film LIB electrode on the other side. The membranes deflect due to the active battery material volume change caused by lithium intercalation (expansion) and extraction (contraction). This deflection is monitored using the Fabry–Perot optical interferometry principle. The active material volume change causes high internal stresses and mechanical degradation of the electrodes. The stress evolution observed in a silicon thin-film electrode incorporated into this MEMS platform follows a ‘first elastic, then plastic’ deformation scheme. Understanding of the internal stresses in battery electrodes during discharge/charge is important for improving the reliability and cycle lifetime of LIBs. The developed MEMS platform presents a new method for in situ diagnostics of thin-film LIB electrodes to aid the development of new materials, optimization of electrode performance, and prevention of battery failure. (paper)

  3. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  4. Ultrasmall Tin Nanodots Embedded in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Electrochemical Application as Highly Stable Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Ruoling; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sn-based metal-organic-framework (MOF) is prepared. • Ultrasmall tin nanodots (2–3 nm) are embedded in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. • The Sn/C composite anode shows high capacity and ultralong cycle life. - Abstract: This work reports a facile metal-organic-framework based approach to synthesize Sn/C composite, in which ultrasmall Sn nanodots with typical size of 2–3 nm are uniformly embedded in the nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (denoted as Sn@NPC). The effect of thermal treatment and nitrogen doping are also explored. Owing to the delicate size control and confined volume change within carbon matrix, the Sn@NPC composite can exhibit reversible capacities of 575 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1091 mAh g −1 ) after 500 cycles at 0.2 A g −1 and 507 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1077 mAh g −1 ) after 1500 cycles at 1 A g −1 . The excellent long-life electrochemical stability of the Sn@NPC anode has been mainly attributed to the uniform distribution of ultrasmall Sn nanodots and the highly-conductive and flexible N-doped carbon matrix, which can effectively facilitate lithium ion/electron diffusion, buffer the large volume change and improve the structure stability of the electrode during repetitive cycling with lithium ions.

  5. Carbonized polydopamine coated single-crystalline NiFe2O4 nanooctahedrons with enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials in a lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zhang, Tong; Qu, Yue; Tian, Ge; Yue, Huijuan; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiFe 2 O 4 @ NCweresuccessfullyfabricatedviaasubsequentcarbonizationofpolydopamine.(*) A nanocomposite containing 20% mass fraction of dopamine exhibited enhanced lithium ion battery performance with high reversible cycle capacity and good rate retention performance. - Highlights: • NiFe 2 O 4 nanooctahedrons were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • A phase formation mechanism was studied by time-dependent experiments. • NiFe 2 O 4 with N-doped carbon shell was fabricated via carbonization of polydopamine. • NiFe 2 O 4 @NC 20 showed the best rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: Combining nanostructure engineering with conductive carbonaceous material is a promising strategy to obtain high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, spinel NiFe 2 O 4 nanooctahedrons were initially synthesized at a low temperature without further annealing. We investigated the phase formation mechanism by time-dependent experiments. Next, octahedral NiFe 2 O 4 with a nitrogen-doped carbon shell (NiFe 2 O 4 @NC) were successfully fabricated via a subsequent carbonization of polydopamine (PDA). We systematically varied the dopamine content in the NiFe 2 O 4 /carbon nanocomposites and found that a nanocomposite containing 20% mass fraction of dopamine exhibited enhanced lithium ion battery performance with high reversible cycle capacity and good rate retention performance compared with the pure material. Remarkably, the hybrid nanocomposite delivered a high reversible capacity of 1297 mAh g −1 even after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Additionally, a high capacity of 1204 mAh g −1 was retained at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 after 300 cycles. This improvement in electrochemical performance is attributed to the enhanced structural stability and electrical conductivity caused by the carbon layer, and is supported by TEM and EIS measurements.

  6. “Double-Sandwich-Like” CuS@reduced graphene oxide as an Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wei, Hengma; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jiawei; Ding, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuS@reduced graphene oxide displays excellent electrochemical behavior as an anode material for Lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: The CuS@reduced graphene oxide (CSG) was synthesized and used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). CuS nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via a hydrothermal method. The rGO nanosheets in the CSG hydrids can improve the electrical conductivity and structure stability of CSG. The LIB with a CSG anode displays excellent performance, with a first discharge capacity up to 851 mAh/g, a reversible capacity of 648.1 mAh/g in the initial cycle, and an enhanced cyclic performance with a discharge capacity of 710.7 mAh/g at the 100 th cycle, which corresponds to 114.3% of the theoretical value of CSG and 83.5% of the first discharge capacity accompanied by an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99.1% at a current density of 0.2 C, which is much larger than (close to 4.5 times) that with a pure CuS anode at the 100 th cycle (159.7 mAh/g). This phenomenon can be attributed to the synergistic action of CuS nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets in the “double-sandwich-like” CSG hybrids. These results indicate that CSG is an excellent anode material and has promising prospects in lithium ion batteries applications

  7. Phosphidation of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles and their electrochemical and biocompatible superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Mi Ru; Nam, Ki Min; Lee, Youngmin; Song, Kyeongse; Park, Joon T; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2011-11-07

    Phosphidated-Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) shows high capacity with a significantly enhanced kinetics opening new possibilities for ultra-fast charge/discharge of lithium rechargeable batteries. The in vitro cytotoxicity test proves its fabulous cell viability, indicating that the toxicity problem of nanoparticles can be also solved by phosphidation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Electrochemical Hydrogen Oxidation in Toluene/LiCB11Me12: H2 as a Surrogate for Lithium Metal?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Kaleta, Jiří; Michl, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2016), s. 332-336 ISSN 2196-0216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19213S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemistry * hydrogen * lithium Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.136, year: 2016

  9. A novel porous tubular Co3O4: Self-assembly and excellent electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Cun; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    Herein, the novel porous tubular Co3O4 was successfully prepared by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly process using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. It is very noteworthy that the formation and self-assembly of Co3O4 nanoparticles occur simultaneously. The as-synthesized porous tubular structure with average outer diameter of 2.2 μm is orderly self-assembled by numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles with diameter of 50-150 nm. The specific surface area of typical product is 24.6 m2 g-1 by the BET method, and the majority diameter of pores is about 67 nm. In addition, the effects of different Co2+ concentration on the morphology and electrochemical performance of the products were explored. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the typical sample shows a high reversible specific capacity (1053 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1), remarkable cycling performance and a good rate capability of 727 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current density of 500 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous tubular structure. With these outstanding performances, the as-prepared Co3O4 may be an outstanding candidate anode material for LIBs.

  10. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leon D; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J; Atwood, Robert C; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO 2 to U metal in LiCl-KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO 2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO 2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems.

  11. Chemical vs. electrochemical extraction of lithium from the Li-excess Li(1.10)Mn(1.90)O4 spinel followed by NMR and DRX techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, S; Sobrados, I; Tonti, D; Amarilla, J M; Sanz, J

    2014-02-21

    Lithium extraction from the Li-excess Li1.10Mn1.90O4 spinel has been performed by chemical and electrochemical methods in aqueous and in organic media, respectively. De-lithiated samples have been investigated by XRD, SEM, TG, (7)Li and (1)H MAS-NMR techniques. The comparative study has allowed demonstrating that the intermediate de-intercalated samples prepared during the chemical extraction by acid titration are similar to those prepared by the electrochemical way in a non-aqueous electrolyte. LiMn2O4 based spinel with a tailored de-lithiation degree can be prepared as a single phase by controlling the pH used in chemical extraction. (7)Li MAS-NMR spectroscopy has been used to follow the influence of the manganese oxidation state on tetra and octahedral Li-signals detected in Li-extracted samples. The oxidation of Mn(III) ions goes parallel to the partial dissolution of the spinel, following Hunter's mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a generalized chemical reaction has been proposed to explain the formation of intermediate Li(+) de-intercalated samples during acid treatment in aqueous media. By the (1)H MAS NMR study, no evidence of Li-H topotactic exchange in the bulk of the acid treated material was found.

  12. Electrochemical performance of 2D polyaniline anchored CuS/Graphene nano-active composite as anode material for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Bahadur, Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Zhou, Kebin; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad

    2017-09-15

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is a revolutionary step in the electric energy storage technology for making green environment. In the present communication, a LIB anode material was constructed by using graphene/polyaniline/CuS nanocomposite (GR/PANI/CuS NC) as a high-performance electrode. Initially, pure covellite CuS nanoplates (NPs) of the hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal route and then GR/PANI/CuS NC was fabricated by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of CuS NPs and graphene nanosheets (GR NSs) as host matrix. GR/PANI/CuS NC-based LIB has shown the superior reversible current capacity of 1255mAhg -1 , a high cycling stability with more than 99% coulombic efficiency over 250 cycles even at a high current density of 5Ag -1 , low volume expansion, and excellent power capabilities. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry analysis were used to investigate electrochemical properties. The electrochemical test proves that GR/PANI/CuS NC is promising anode material for LIB. The crystal phases and purity of the GR/PANI/CuS NC were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to examine the morphology, size, chemical composition, and phase structure of the synthesized GR/PANI/CuS NC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. EG-Assisted Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Ultrathin Carbon-Coated LiMnPO4 Nanoplates as Cathodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin carbon-coated LiMnPO4 (ULMP/C nanoplates were prepared through an ethylene glycol- (EG- assisted pyrolysis method. Different from most of LiMnPO4/C works, the obtained ULMP/C possessed relatively small particle size (less than 50 nm in thickness and preferable carbon coating (~1 nm in thickness, 2 wt.%. As a reference, LiMnPO4/C (LMP/C composites were also fabricated via the traditional hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry (CV were performed to characterize the crystalline phase, morphology, structure, carbon content, and electrochemical behaviors of samples. The electrochemical performance of bare and carbon-coated LiMnPO4 was evaluated as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. As a result, the obtained ULMP/C nanoplates demonstrated much higher reversible capacities (110.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C and rate performances than pure LMP and LMP/C composites. This facile and efficient EG-assisted pyrolysis method can enlighten us on exploiting advanced routes to modify active materials with ultrathin and homogeneous carbon layers.

  14. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO4 and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 and carbon-coated LiFePO4 (C-LiFePO4 cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO4 and C-LiFePO4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO4 where as in case of C-LiFePO4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C-LiFePO4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.

  15. Preparation of 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures and their electrochemical properties in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qing; Chen, Yuejiao; Yang, Ting; Lei, Danni; Zhang, Guanhua; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-01-01

    3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures have been synthesized by a simple ethanolamine (EA)-mediated self-assembly route and subsequent calcination process. The synthesized β-Ni(OH) 2 precursors annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C exhibit similar morphology by scanning electron microscopy and different crystallinity, surface area, and pore distribution via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The electrochemical properties indicate that the synthesized NiO hierarchical architectures annealed at 300 °C show the best electrochemical performance, which presents a reversible specific capacity of 713 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 after 40 cycles. With varying the rate from 100 to 1000 mA g −1 , the capacity still remains 580 mAh g −1 at 500 mA g −1 after 18 cycles and resumes to 470 mAh g −1 at the same rate after 30 cycles. The above results indicate that the 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures are promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries

  16. Site-specific transition metal occupation in multicomponent pyrophosphate for improved electrochemical and thermal properties in lithium battery cathodes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana A; Kim, Heejin; Cho, Woosuk; Lim, Soo Yeon; Song, Hannah; Lee, Jung Woo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-07-18

    As an attempt to develop lithium ion batteries with excellent performance, which is desirable for a variety of applications including mobile electronics, electrical vehicles, and utility grids, the battery community has continuously pursued cathode materials that function at higher potentials with efficient kinetics for lithium insertion and extraction. By employing both experimental and theoretical tools, herein we report multicomponent pyrophosphate (Li(2)MP(2)O(7), M = Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)) cathode materials with novel and advantageous properties as compared to the single-component analogues and other multicomponent polyanions. Li(2)Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)P(2)O(7) is formed on the basis of a solid solution among the three individual transition-metal-based pyrophosphates. The unique crystal structure of pyrophosphate and the first principles calculations show that different transition metals have a tendency to preferentially occupy either octahedral or pyramidal sites, and this site-specific transition metal occupation leads to significant improvements in various battery properties: a single-phase mode for Li insertion/extraction, improved cell potentials for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (raised by 0.18 eV) and Co(2+)/Co(3+) (lowered by 0.26 eV), and increased activity for Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) with significantly reduced overpotential. We reveal that the favorable energy of transition metal mixing and the sequential redox reaction for each TM element with a sufficient redox gap is the underlying physical reason for the preferential single-phase mode of Li intercalation/deintercalation reaction in pyrophosphate, a general concept that can be applied to other multicomponent systems. Furthermore, an extremely small volume change of ~0.7% between the fully charged and discharged states and the significantly enhanced thermal stability are observed for the present material, the effects unseen in previous multicomponent battery materials.

  17. Controllable growth of MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Q.Q., E-mail: zjxqq@hdu.edu.cn; Ji, Z.G.

    2016-07-15

    Tailored design/fabrication of hierarchical porous advanced electrodes is of great importance for developing high-performance power sources. Herein, we report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres. Interestingly, the obtained MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres are composed of interconnected secondary thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the resultant MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1125.9 mAh g{sup −1} and good cycle capability (916.6 mAh g{sup −1} at 200 mA g{sup −1} up to 400 cycles), as well as enhanced rate performance. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous composite architecture with fast transportation of ion/electron and good strain accommodation during the lithiation/delithiation reaction. Our research may pave the way for construction of other high-performance metal sulfides electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. - Graphical abstract: We report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres composed of interconnected thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for LIBs, MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers enhanced electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • We prepared MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres via a facile solvothermal method. • The microsphere consists of interconnected nanoflake and an amorphous carbon layer. • The MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres show high capacity and good rate performance.

  18. Preparation of submicrocrystal LiMn2O4 used Mn3O4 as precursor and its electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Yin; Yu, Fu-Da; Xue, Yuan; Ke, Ke; Li, Fang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Spinal LiMn 2 O 4 particles synthesized at 800 °C for 12 h has the best crystallinity with a submicron size and smallest cation disorder, resulting in a superior capacity retention ratio of 90.4% after 200 cycles at 1 °C at room temperature, which possesses an initial capacity of 106.8 mA h/g. - Highlights: • High purity spinel LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from industrial grade raw materials. • LiMn 2 O 4 prepared by optimal conditions has the smallest cation mixing. • Optimized LiMn 2 O 4 has the highest initial capacity with 112.9 mA h/g. • Capacity retention of optimized LiMn 2 O 4 is 90.4% after 200 cycles at 1 °C. - Abstract: Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 has been synthesized by solid state reaction with industrial grade Mn 3 O 4 and Li 2 CO 3 as precursors without purification, and its electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery has been investigated by CR2025 coin cell. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the size of LiMn 2 O 4 particles grow up with increasing temperature of calcination, and the sample synthesized at 800 °C for 12 h has the best crystallinity with a submicron size. It can deliver initial capacity of 112.9 mA h/g with capacity retention ratio of 89.1% after 200 cycles at charge/discharge rate of 1 C. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) also show that it has the highest electrochemical activity and lowest charge transfer impedance

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin-doped MoS{sub 2} (Sn/MoS{sub 2}) composites for lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Min, Feixia; Luo, Zhaohui; Wang, Shiquan, E-mail: wsqhao@126.com [Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Teng, Fei [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (China); Li, Guohua [Zhejiang University of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Feng, Chuanqi [Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China)

    2016-12-15

    SnO{sub 2}-MoO{sub 3} composites were synthesized by using (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}·4H{sub 2}O and SnCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O as raw materials through a simple solvothermal method followed by pyrolysis. Tin-doped MoS{sub 2} (Sn/MoS{sub 2}) flowers have been synthesized by a solvothermal method followed with annealing in Ar(H{sub 2}) atmosphere, with SnO{sub 2}-MoO{sub 3}, thioacetamide (TAA), and urea as starting materials. The doping and the content of Sn-doping play crucial roles in the morphology and electrochemical performance of the MoS{sub 2}. As anode materials for lithium ion battery (LIB), all Sn/MoS{sub 2} composites exhibit both higher reversible capacity and better cycling performance at current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, compared with MoS{sub 2} without Sn doping. The achieved discharge capacity for Sn/MoS{sub 2} composites is above 1000 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. The doping of metal Sn in MoS{sub 2} can improve the conductivity of MoS{sub 2} and significantly enhance its electrochemical properties. The good electrochemical performance suggests that the Sn/MoS{sub 2} composite could be a promising candidate as a novel anode material for LIB application. Our present work provides a new approach to the fabrication of anode materials for LIB applications.

  20. Characterization of polyelectrolytes and lithium salts for electrochemical energy storage devices using novel measurement systems; Charakterisierung von Polyelektrolyten und Lithiumsalzen fuer elektrochemische Energiespeicher unter Verwendung neu entwickelter Messsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Benedikt

    2013-04-08

    In the first part of this work, three imidazolium-based ionic liquid monomers with polymerizable vinyl groups and the resulting polyelectrolytes have been synthesized and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the purity of the materials. Besides comprehensive monomer and polymer analytics, electrical impedance spectroscopy was carried out to obtain information about the ion conducting properties of the three systems under investigation: poly(3-ethyl-1-vinylimidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P1), poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P2) and poly(1-butyl-3-methyl-2-(4-vinylphenethyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P3). The pure polymers, which are bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (N(Tf)2) anion conductors, exhibit room-temperature conductivities of the order of 10-8 S/cm in the best case. The anion conduction mechanism is strongly influenced by the length of the spacer group between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium cations attached to the side chain. In polymers P1 and P2 with short spacer groups, intra- and inter-cation hopping of the N(Tf)2 anions can be distinguished below the glass transition temperature, while this is not possible in the case of polymer P3 with longer spacer groups. Furthermore, we have studied several mixtures of the best conducting polymer P2 with LiN(Tf)2, zwitterions and monomeric ionic liquid. While the zwitterions were capable of compensating for the conductivity drop due to Li salt addition, the addition of monomeric IL as plasticizer leads to a considerable conductivity enhancement without a significant loss of mechanical stability. In the second part of this work, three lithium salts, lithium bis(pentafluorophenyl)amide LiN(Pfp)2, lithium pentafluorophenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and lithium pentafluorophenyl-nonafluorobutyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Nf) were characterized with respect to their thermal and electrochemical

  1. Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical performance used as anodes of structural lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mengjie; Wang, Shubin; Yu, Yalin; Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Boming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carboxyl functionalized CF is acquired by simple chemical oxidation method. • These CF have preserved the tensile strength, better electrochemical properties. • The presence of H_3PO_4 prevented the turbostratic carbon from over-oxidization. • There CF can be used as anodes of multifunctional structural battery. • The preservation and improvement is result from the hindered over-oxidization. - Abstract: Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical properties were acquired through a simple chemical oxidation method, and the proposed underlying mechanism was verified. The surface of carboxyl functionalizing carbon fibers is necessary in acquiring functional groups on the surface of carbon fibers to further improve the thermal, electrical or mechanical properties of the fibers. Functionalization should preserve the tensile strength and electrochemical properties of carbon fibers, because the anodes of structural batteries need to have high strength and electrochemical properties. Functionalized with mixed H_2SO_4/HNO_3 considerably reduced the tensile strength of carbon fibers. By contrast, the appearance of H_3PO_4 preserved the tensile strength of functionalized carbon fibers, reduced the dispersion level of tensile strength values, and effectively increased the concentration of functional acid groups on the surface of carbon fibers. The presence of phosphoric acid hindered the over-oxidation of turbostratic carbon, and consequently preserved the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The increased proportion of turbostratic carbon on the surface of carbon fibers concurrently enhanced the electrochemical properties of carbon fibers.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of core/shell structured carbon coated silicon powders for lithium ion battery negative electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Çetinkaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface of nano silicon powders were coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolysis of polyacronitrile (PAN polymer. Microstructural characterization of amorphous carbon coated silicon powders (Si-C were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thickness of carbon coating is defined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Elemental analyses of Si-C powders were performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Structural and phase characterization of Si-C composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Produced Si-C powders were prepared as an electrode on the copper current collector and electrochemical tests were carried out using CR2016 button cells at 200 mA/g constant current density. According to electrochemical test results, carbon coating process enhanced the electrochemical performance by reducing the problems stem from volume change and showed 770 mAh/g discharge capacity after 30 cycles.

  4. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  5. Polypyrrole-coated α-LiFeO2 nanocomposite with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-jia; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Li, Hui-jun

    2013-01-01

    A conducting α-LiFeO 2 -polypyrrole (α-LiFeO 2 -PPy) nanocomposite material was prepared by the chemical polymerization method as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The porous α-LiFeO 2 was prepared via the microwave hydrothermal method and a post-annealing. The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements showed that the α-LiFeO 2 nanoparticles were coated with PPy. The polypyrrole coating improves the reversible capacity and cycling stability (104 mAh g −1 at 0.1C after 100 cycles) for lithium-ion batteries. Even at the high rate of 10C, the electrode showed more than 40% of the capacity at low rate (0.1C)

  6. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  7. Interdispersed amorphous MnO{sub x}-carbon nanocomposites with superior electrochemical performance as lithium-storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Juchen; Wang, Chunsheng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Qing; Zachariah, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-02-22

    The realization of manganese oxide anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by inferior cycle stability, rate capability, and high overpotential induced by the agglomeration of manganese metal grains, low conductivity of manganese oxide, and the high stress/strain in the crystalline manganese oxide structure during the repeated lithiation/delithiation process. To overcome these challenges, unique amorphous MnO{sub x}-C nanocomposite particles with interdispersed carbon are synthesized using aerosol spray pyrolysis. The carbon filled in the pores of amorphous MnO{sub x} blocks the penetration of liquid electrolyte to the inside of MnO{sub x}, thus reducing the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase and lowering the irreversible capacity. The high electronic and lithium-ion conductivity of carbon also enhances the rate capability. Moreover, the interdispersed carbon functions as a barrier structure to prevent manganese grain agglomeration. The amorphous structure of MnO{sub x} brings additional benefits by reducing the stress/strain of the conversion reaction, thus lowering lithiation/delithiation overpotential. As the result, the amorphous MnO{sub x}-C particles demonstrated the best performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries to date. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  9. Performance of titanium dioxide-based cathodes in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, W.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Neat, R.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    Performance data on two polymorphs of titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) operating in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell at 120 C are presented. On the first discharge lithium ions can be electrochemically inserted into both forms to an approximate composition LiTiO[sub 2]. However, only the rutile material cycles with a significant capacity ([proportional to] 0.5 Li/TiO[sub 2]) with an average cell voltage of 1.73 V corresponding to a theoretical energy density of [proportional to] 290 W h kg[sup -1]. Our results are in contrast to earlier work reported on the intercalation of lithium into these phases at room temperature, where only the anatase form was found to intercalate lithium. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the rutile form undergoes a structural change during the first discharge resulting in the formation of a hexagonal form of LiTiO[sub 2].

  10. Electrochemical characterization of a LiV3O8-polypyrrole composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Fanghua; Liu Li; Yang Zhenhua; Wang Xingyan; Chen Quanqi; Wang Xianyou

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite has been synthesized successfully. → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows better cycling behavior and rate capability than LiV 3 O 8 . → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows lower electrochemical resistance than LiV 3 O 8 . - Abstract: LiV 3 O 8 -Polypyrrole (LiV 3 O 8 -PPy) composite has been chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the surface of LiV 3 O 8 using ferric chloride as oxidizing agent. The electrochemical properties of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite were systematically investigated using a variety of electrochemical methods. The LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite electrode exhibited better cycling behavior and superior rate capability as compared with the bare LiV 3 O 8 electrode. Cyclic voltammetry corroborated the galvanostatic cycling tests, with the composite cathode material showing better reversibility than bare material. Finally, fitting the impedance results to an equivalent circuit indicated that the enhanced electrochemical performances of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite resulted from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  11. Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical performance used as anodes of structural lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu, Yalin; Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Boming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carboxyl functionalized CF is acquired by simple chemical oxidation method. • These CF have preserved the tensile strength, better electrochemical properties. • The presence of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prevented the turbostratic carbon from over-oxidization. • There CF can be used as anodes of multifunctional structural battery. • The preservation and improvement is result from the hindered over-oxidization. - Abstract: Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical properties were acquired through a simple chemical oxidation method, and the proposed underlying mechanism was verified. The surface of carboxyl functionalizing carbon fibers is necessary in acquiring functional groups on the surface of carbon fibers to further improve the thermal, electrical or mechanical properties of the fibers. Functionalization should preserve the tensile strength and electrochemical properties of carbon fibers, because the anodes of structural batteries need to have high strength and electrochemical properties. Functionalized with mixed H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3} considerably reduced the tensile strength of carbon fibers. By contrast, the appearance of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} preserved the tensile strength of functionalized carbon fibers, reduced the dispersion level of tensile strength values, and effectively increased the concentration of functional acid groups on the surface of carbon fibers. The presence of phosphoric acid hindered the over-oxidation of turbostratic carbon, and consequently preserved the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The increased proportion of turbostratic carbon on the surface of carbon fibers concurrently enhanced the electrochemical properties of carbon fibers.

  12. Enhanced electrochemical performance of CoMoO4 nanorods/reduced graphene oxide as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Haonan; Luo, Yazi; Mei, Lin; Guo, Di; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile, green and large scale synthesis method. • CoMoO 4 nanorods possess small diameter (about 40∼60 nm in width and 1.5∼2 μm in length) and uniformly distributed on reduced graphene oxide. • CoMoO 4 nanorods/reduced graphene oxide composite delivered high initial discharge capacity (1496 mA h g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 ), and good cycling (628 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles) and rate performance (a reversible capacity of 372 mA h g −1 at the rate of 5 A g −1 ). - Abstract: CoMoO 4 nanorods with small diameter (about 40∼60 nm in width and 1.5∼2 μm in length) uniformly distributed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets were synthesized via a facile, green wet chemical method. The as-prepared CoMoO 4 /rGO composite was studied as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1496 mA h g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , and good cycling (628 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles) and rate performance (a reversible capacity of 372 mA h g −1 at the rate of 5 A g −1 ). The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the small diameter of the synthesized CoMoO 4 nanorods and the presence of rGO nanosheets, making it a promising candidate for next generation anode material of rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heai-Ku [Department of Chemical Engineering, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae Young [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Seop, E-mail: surfkm@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite synthesized on Ni foam without any binder. • This composite was directly applied as anode material of Li secondary batteries. • Showed the highest initial (2420 mAh/g) and discharging (2092 mAh/g) capacity. • This material achieved a retention rate of 86.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite were synthesized and applied as the anode materials in lithium secondary batteries. CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite were grown via chemical vapor deposition method with iron-copper catalysts. Mesoporous SiO{sub 2} materials were prepared by sol–gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammoniumchloride as the template. Ethylene was used as the carbon source and passes into a quartz reactor of a tube furnace heated to 600 °C, and the temperature was maintained at 600 °C for 10 min to synthesize CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite. The electrochemical characteristics of the as-prepared CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite as the anode of lithium secondary batteries were investigated using a three-electrode cell. In particular, the mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites synthesized without binder after depositing mesoporous SiO{sub 2} on Ni foam showed the highest charging and discharging capacity and retention rate. The initial capacity (2420 mAh/g) of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites decreased to 2092 mAh/g after 30 cycles at a retention rate of 86.4%.

  14. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries by deconvolution of electrochemical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Balasundaram; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Balaya, Palani

    2017-09-01

    The individual physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries namely solid-state diffusion and charge transfer polarization are difficult to be tracked by impedance spectroscopy due to simultaneous contributions from cathode and anode. A deeper understanding of various polarization processes in lithium-ion batteries is important to enhance storage performance and cycle life. In this context, the polarization processes occurring in cylindrical 18650 cells comprising different cathodes against graphite anode (LiNi0.2Mn0.2Co0.6O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2vs. graphite and LiFePO4vs. graphite) are investigated by deconvolution of impedance spectra across various states of charge. Further, cathodes and anodes are extracted from the investigated 18650-type cells and tested in half-cells against Li-metal as well as in symmetric cell configurations to understand the contribution of cathode and anode to the full cells of various battery chemistries studied. Except for the LiFePO4vs. graphite cell, the polarization resistance in graphite of other cells are found to be higher than those of the investigated cathodes, proving that the polarization in lithium-ion battery is largely influenced by the graphitic anode. Furthermore, the charge transfer polarization resistance encountered by the cathodes investigated in this work is found to be a strong function of the states of charge.

  15. Facile fabrication of composited Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with high electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are successfully prepared through one step dealloying of Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 alloy at room temperature. This hierarchical flower-like structure with consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Combined with the specific hierarchical flower-like architecture and the synergistic effect exerted by Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits enhanced performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anode. - Highlights: • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are easily prepared by one step dealloying method. • The nanoflowers consist of packed regular nanoslices with interconnected voids. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers deliver higher discharge capacity than Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers show lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. - Abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with controllable components are simply fabricated through one step etching of the Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 ternary alloy. The as-made hierarchical flower-like structure with interconnected voids consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Based on the simple dealloying strategy the target metals are directly converted to uniform nanocomposite composed of Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 species. With the unique hierarchical flower-like structure and the synergistic effects between Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits higher performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than that of pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anodes. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposite deliver much higher discharge capacity and lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 anode material also shows an excellent cycling stability at the high rate of 1500 mA g"−"1 with outstanding rate capability. With the advantages of simple preparation and excellent electrochemical performance, Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers manifest great application potential as

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nano-sized Ag_4Sn particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Oehl, Nikolas; Fromm, Olga; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, sub 10 nm sized intermetallic Ag_4Sn particles are prepared via an aqueous synthesis route in order to improve the electrochemical performance of pure Sn nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis are used to investigate the morphology, crystal structure and particle surface of the as prepared Ag_4Sn nanoparticles. In addition, galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements are carried out to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the particles. Upon lithiation and de-lithiation a phase transformation from Ag_4Sn to Ag_3Sn is observed, which has not been reported so far. The intermetallic nanoparticle-based anode delivers a specific de-lithiation capacity of 460 mAhg"−"1 for more than 150 cycles.

  17. Combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model for large prismatic lithium-ion batteries in real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohammed; Sweity, Haitham; Fleckenstein, Matthias; Habibi, Saeid

    2017-08-01

    Real-time prediction of the battery's core temperature and terminal voltage is very crucial for an accurate battery management system. In this paper, a combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model is developed for large prismatic cells. The proposed model consists of three sub-models, an electrochemical model, heat generation model, and thermal model which are coupled together in an iterative fashion through physicochemical temperature dependent parameters. The proposed parameterization cycles identify the sub-models' parameters separately by exciting the battery under isothermal and non-isothermal operating conditions. The proposed combined model structure shows accurate terminal voltage and core temperature prediction at various operating conditions while maintaining a simple mathematical structure, making it ideal for real-time BMS applications. Finally, the model is validated against both isothermal and non-isothermal drive cycles, covering a broad range of C-rates, and temperature ranges [-25 °C to 45 °C].

  18. A Finite Strain Model of Stress, Diffusion, Plastic Flow and Electrochemical Reactions in a Lithium-ion Half-cell

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Allan F.; Guduru, Pradeep R.; Sethuraman, Vijay A.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate the continuum field equations and constitutive equations that govern deformation, stress, and electric current flow in a Li-ion half-cell. The model considers mass transport through the system, deformation and stress in the anode and cathode, electrostatic fields, as well as the electrochemical reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. It extends existing analyses by accounting for the effects of finite strains and plastic flow in the electrodes, and by exploring in deta...

  19. Electrochemical characterization of LiFePO{sub 4}/poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-multi walled carbon nanotube composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van Hiep; Wang, Wan Lin; Jin, En Mei; Gu, Hal-Bon, E-mail: hbgu@chonnam.ac.kr

    2013-08-25

    Highlights: •LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS–MWCNT successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method. •LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) shows the best electrochemical performances. •PSS stacks and forms a layer about 3–6 nm around the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. •The electronic conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) is 6.3 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. -- Abstract: LiFePO{sub 4} is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries and is prepared by a hydrothermal method. However, its practical application is limited due to its poor conductivity. In order to improve the electronic conductivity, we added poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in LiFePO{sub 4}. In the results, PSS stacks and forms a layer about 3–6 nm around the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. MWCNT provides pathways for electron transport. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic discharge testing results indicate that LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS–MWCNT composite exhibits higher discharge capacity than pure LiFePO{sub 4}. LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) shows the best discharge capacity of 144 mAh g{sup −1} at 2nd cycle, and high electronic conductivity of 6.3 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}.

  20. One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Oxyhydroxy-Fluoride Rods and Research on the Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-ion Batteries and Sodium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Gao, Zhan; Wang, Dake; Hao, Qiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yongkun; Tang, Kaibin

    2015-12-01

    Titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride, TiO0.9(OH)0.9F1.2 · 0.59H2O rods with a hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) structure, was synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, and component of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatograph, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, and so on. Different rod morphologies which ranged from nanoscale to submicron scale were simply obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. With one-dimension channels for Li/Na intercalation/de-intercalation, the electrochemical performance of titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) was also studied. Electrochemical tests revealed that, for LIBs, titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride exhibited a stabilized reversible capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) at 25 mA g(-1) up to 120 cycles in the electrode potential range of 3.0-1.2 V and 140 mAh g(-1) at 250 mA g(-1) up to 500 cycles, especially; for SIBs, a high capacity of 100 mAh g(-1) was maintained at 25 mA g(-1) after 115 cycles in the potential range of 2.9-0.5 V.

  1. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  2. Electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 modified by pressure-pulsed chemical vapor infiltration in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianling; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Naga, Kazuhisa; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Using the pressure-pulsed chemical vapor infiltration (PCVI) technique, pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) films were deposited on the surface of LiFePO 4 particles for cathode material of lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of the original LiFePO 4 and PCVIed LiFePO 4 materials was evaluated using a three electrodes cell by galvanostatic charging/discharging at 25, 40 and 55 deg. C, respectively. Morphology and structure of LiFePO 4 were analyzed by SEM, XRD and Raman. The resulting carbon contents at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 5000 pulses were 2.7, 4.7, 9.5, 15.1 and 19.4%, respectively and these samples were abbreviated as 500P, 1000P, 2000P, 3000P and 5000P, respectively. All the PCVIed samples exhibited excellent rate performance. The tendency was more and more obvious with the increase of the current densities. The specific capacities of 500P, 1000P and 2000P were maintained at 117, 124 and 132 mAh g -1 , respectively, which were 120.8, 264.7 and 29.47% larger than those of corresponding original LiFePO 4 , respectively, at a 5C rate at 55 deg. C. The EIS measurement showed that electrochemical reaction resistance (R ct ) of PCVIed LiFePO 4 were obviously decreased, indicating a fast kinetics compared to the original LiFePO 4 . The cycle ability of the 2000P sample was tested at 25 deg. C and C/2 rate. The cell was cycled for 150 cycles and no obviously capacity fade was observed. Its specific capacity of 115 mAh g -1 at 150th cycle is 1.7 times higher than that of original LiFePO 4

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Electrochemical Impedance of Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Measurement of Charge-discharge Curves by Wavelet Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Shitanda, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Wavelet transformation (WT) was used to obtain electrochemical impedance (EI) from time domain data. • Complex Morlet mother wavelet was employed to transform current and voltage time series from time domain to frequency domain. • An analytical method to determine EI of LIRB at arbitrary state of charge was proposed. • EI of LIRB was determined at arbitrary state of charge without stopping galvanostatic polarization for charge and discharge. - Abstract: A new analytical method was developed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) at an arbitrary state of charge (SOC). Wavelet transformation (WT) is one of the waveform analysis methods, which allows the determination of frequency domain data as a function of time. The frequency domain data are obtained by convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data via the WT. A complex Morlet mother wavelet is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The time series data of input current and output voltage signals are recorded by superimposing the double pulse current as an input signal to constant charge current for the charge of LIRB without stopping galvanostatic polarization. The double pulse current is composed of symmetrical positive and negative square waves. In this case, the SOC of LIRB is not affected by the input signal because the total amount of charge calculated from double pulse current is 0C. The impedance spectrum of LIRB at SOC 25% is determined in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz during charge/discharge cycles without stopping galvanostatic polarization for the charge/discharge.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe_3O_4@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge; Yan, Dongwei; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe_3O_4 particles are encapsulated by HKUST-1 to form core-shell microspheres composite. • The composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances as a novel anode. • The typical approach can be used to prepare some novel electrode materials. - Abstract: The Fe_3O_4@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe_3O_4@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1, the reversible capacity of Fe_3O_4@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g"−"1, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe_3O_4 counterpart (696 mAh g"−"1). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g"−"1 (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g"−"1), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g"−"1. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe_3O_4 as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu_3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)_2 (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Dongwei, E-mail: dwyan@iccas.ac.cn [Advance Technology & Materials Co. Ltd., China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, No. 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are encapsulated by HKUST-1 to form core-shell microspheres composite. • The composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances as a novel anode. • The typical approach can be used to prepare some novel electrode materials. - Abstract: The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g{sup −1}, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} counterpart (696 mAh g{sup −1}). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g{sup −1} (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g{sup −1}), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g{sup −1}. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu{sub 3}(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate){sub 2} (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  6. Electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} modified by pressure-pulsed chemical vapor infiltration in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianling [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yachigusa 1247, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan)], E-mail: lijianling@metall.ustb.edu.cn; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Naga, Kazuhisa; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yachigusa 1247, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan)

    2007-09-25

    Using the pressure-pulsed chemical vapor infiltration (PCVI) technique, pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) films were deposited on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles for cathode material of lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of the original LiFePO{sub 4} and PCVIed LiFePO{sub 4} materials was evaluated using a three electrodes cell by galvanostatic charging/discharging at 25, 40 and 55 deg. C, respectively. Morphology and structure of LiFePO{sub 4} were analyzed by SEM, XRD and Raman. The resulting carbon contents at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 5000 pulses were 2.7, 4.7, 9.5, 15.1 and 19.4%, respectively and these samples were abbreviated as 500P, 1000P, 2000P, 3000P and 5000P, respectively. All the PCVIed samples exhibited excellent rate performance. The tendency was more and more obvious with the increase of the current densities. The specific capacities of 500P, 1000P and 2000P were maintained at 117, 124 and 132 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively, which were 120.8, 264.7 and 29.47% larger than those of corresponding original LiFePO{sub 4}, respectively, at a 5C rate at 55 deg. C. The EIS measurement showed that electrochemical reaction resistance (R{sub ct}) of PCVIed LiFePO{sub 4} were obviously decreased, indicating a fast kinetics compared to the original LiFePO{sub 4}. The cycle ability of the 2000P sample was tested at 25 deg. C and C/2 rate. The cell was cycled for 150 cycles and no obviously capacity fade was observed. Its specific capacity of 115 mAh g{sup -1} at 150th cycle is 1.7 times higher than that of original LiFePO{sub 4}.

  7. Effects of Nickel Particle Size and Graphene Support on the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium/Dissolved Polysulfide Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosavati, Negar; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K.Y. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodes with different nano size Ni particles are prepared. • The electrocatalytic effect of Ni nanoparticle sizes is investigated. • The graphene supported Ni nanoparticle is synthesized. • The effect of the graphene support to the anchor Ni nanoparticle is investigated. • Ni/graphene electrode exhibits remarkably enhanced discharge capacity. - Abstract: The electrocatalytic effect of nickel (Ni) nanoparticle sizes on the lithium polysulfide conversion reactions in dissolved lithium sulfur battery configuration is investigated. The Ni particles of 20 nm with the higher cathode surface area show a superior capacity of 1066 mAh g −1 sulfur compared to Ni particles of 40 and 100 nm for the first cycle. In addition, to further improve the capacity retention and discharge capacity of the cell, the effect of the graphene support on Ni nanoparticle dispersion and cycling performance is investigated. The results show a significant improvement in the discharge capacity compared to the other electrodes. This could be explained by the homogeneous distribution of Ni nanoparticle within the carbon matrix, which suppress the agglomeration and surface area loss of the Ni nanoparticle after cycling; as well as a synergetic effect of graphene structure and Ni nanoparticle.

  8. Effect of transition metal composition on electrochemical performance of nickel-manganese-based lithium-rich layer-structured cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hiroaki.konishi.yj@hitachi.com; Gunji, Akira; Feng, Xiaoliang; Furutsuki, Sho

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the effect of transition metal composition on the electrochemical properties of Li-rich layer-structured cathode materials, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 0.8−x}O{sub 2} (x=0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.4) were synthesized, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. As nickel content x increased in Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 0.8−x}O{sub 2} (x=0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.4), charge-discharge capacities at a low C-rate (0.05 C) decreased. The results obtained by dQ/dV curves indicate that, as the nickel content increased, the discharge capacity below 3.6 V greatly decreased, but that above 3.6 V increased. As the C-rate of the discharge process increased, the discharge reaction of Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 0.8−x}O{sub 2} (x=0.2) below 3.6 V greatly decreased. In contrast, that above 3.6 V slightly decreased. This indicates that the discharge reaction above 3.6 V exhibits higher rate performance than that below 3.6 V. For the high-nickel-content cathodes, the ratio of the discharge capacity above 3.6 V to the total discharge capacity was high. Therefore, they exhibited high rate performance. - Graphical abstract: Figure shows the discharge curves of Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 0.8−x}O{sub 2} (x=0.2 and 0.3) within potential range of 2.5−4.6 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) at 0.05 and 3 C. At low C-rate (0.05 C), the discharge capacity of high-nickel-content cathode (Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}) was less than that of low-nickel-content cathode (Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 2}); however, the discharge potential and capacity of Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} was higher than those of Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 2} at high C-rate (3 C). This means that the increase in Ni/Mn ratio was effective in improving rate-performance.

  9. Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors evaluated under high temperature and high voltage stress using redox stable electrolytes and additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Delp, Samuel A.; Yan, Jin; Cao, Ben; Zheng, Jim P.; Jow, T. Richard; Read, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) were investigated for high power, moderate energy density applications for operation in extreme environments with prolonged cycle-life performance. The LICs were assembled as three-layered pouch cells in an asymmetric configuration employing Faradaic pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and non-Faradaic ion adsorption-desorption activated carbon (AC) cathodes. The capacity retention was measured under high stress conditions, while the design factor explored was electrolyte formulation using a set of carbonates and electrolyte additives, with a focus on their stability. The LIC cells were evaluated using critical performance tests under the following high stress conditions: long-term voltage floating-cycling stability at room temperature (2.2-3.8 V), high temperature storage at 3.8 V, and charge voltages up to 4.4 V. The rate performance of different electrolytes and additives was measured after the initial LIC cell formation for a 1C-10C rate. The presence of vinylene carbonate (VC) and tris (trimethylsilyl) phosphate (TMSP) were found to be essential to the improved electrochemical performance of the LIC cells under all testing conditions.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe3O4@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge; Yan, Dongwei; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-05-01

    The Fe3O4@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe3O4@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1, the reversible capacity of Fe3O4@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g-1, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe3O4 counterpart (696 mAh g-1). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g-1 (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g-1), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g-1. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe3O4 as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2 (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  11. Facile synthesis of the N-doped graphene/nickel oxide with enhanced electrochemical performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chuanning, E-mail: yangcn1988@outlook.com [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Qing, Yongquan; An, Kai [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Zhang, Zefei; Wang, Linshan [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: csliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids with a hierarchical structure have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal route assisted by microwave treatment. The as-obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO electrodes exhibit an enhanced electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity can reach 1737 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1}. Significantly, the nanocomposites anodes also display a relatively high reversible capacity of 1095 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.3 A g{sup -1} after 100 cycles. Herein, the nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO possesses electrodes enormous potential as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids have been successfully synthesized. • Microwave treatment may enhance conductivity and capacity of electrodes. • The hierarchical structure will help to improve the stability of the electrodes. • The reversible capacity of electrodes can reach 1095 mAh g{sup -1} over 100 cycles.

  12. A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}: Self-assembly and excellent electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Cun; Xie, Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.com; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared by a simple, eco-friendly and turning waste into treasure method using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. • The formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. • The unique Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} tubular structure with many pores could accelerate electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion transport, as well as accommodate the volume change during the charge and discharge progress. • Significant electrochemical performance of porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been observed. - Abstract: Herein, the novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was successfully prepared by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly process using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. It is very noteworthy that the formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. The as-synthesized porous tubular structure with average outer diameter of 2.2 μm is orderly self-assembled by numerous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameter of 50–150 nm. The specific surface area of typical product is 24.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} by the BET method, and the majority diameter of pores is about 67 nm. In addition, the effects of different Co{sup 2+} concentration on the morphology and electrochemical performance of the products were explored. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the typical sample shows a high reversible specific capacity (1053 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}), remarkable cycling performance and a good rate capability of 727 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a high specific current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous tubular structure. With these outstanding performances, the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} may be an outstanding candidate anode material for LIBs.

  13. Influence of the lithium salt electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of copper/LiFePO4 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trócoli, Rafael; Morales, Julián; Franger, Sylvain; Santos-Peña, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of the electrolyte salt, LiPF 6 or LiClO 4 , on the electrochemical properties of copper/LiFePO 4 composites. We found a different stability voltage window for the two electrolytes that was remarkably wide for LiPF 6 . Also, copper addition is commonly accepted to increase electrode conductivity, which is beneficial for electrochemical purposes. However, copper is always oxidised to a variable extent depending on the particular electrolyte during the charge phase. Oxidation of the electrolyte solvent (especially with LiClO 4 ) was also observed during the first charge. In the first cycle, copper was more or less efficiently removed from the electrode surface. In subsequent cycles, however, these phenomena failed to occur (LiPF 6 ) or were weaker (LiClO 4 ). In all these configurations, iron is partially dissolved, to an extent dependent on the amount of copper present in the composite and differing with the particular electrolyte used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allowed us to identify the process taking place close to 3.6 V in LiPF 6 configuration: Fe(II) from the composites are oxidised and irreversibly complexed by the joint action of HF formed from LiPF 6 and water traces and Cu(I) formed upon charging. Our hypothesis accurately explains the results observed in terms of charge/discharge profiles, capacities provided and capacities evolution upon cycling. Also, our test results testify to the importance of using low contents of copper in the composites and the good properties of LiPF 6 as electrolyte solvent.

  14. Preparation and enhanced electrochemical properties of nano-sulfur/poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) cathode material for lithium/sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Linlin; Zhang Shichao; Zhang Lan; Sun, Mingming; Wang Weikun

    2010-01-01

    Poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) (PPyA) copolymer nanofibers were prepared by chemical oxidation method with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) as template, and the nano-sulfur/poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) (S/PPyA) composite material in lithium batteries was achieved via co-heating the mixture of PPyA and sublimed sulfur at 160 deg. C for 24 h. The component and structure of the materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD, and SEM. PPyA with nanofiber network structure was employed as a conductive matrix, adsorbing agent and firm reaction chamber for the sulfur cathode materials. The nano-dispersed composite exhibited a specific capacity up to 1285 mAh g -1 in the initial cycle and remained 866 mAh g -1 after 40 cycles.

  15. Layered lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Horikawa, Kumi; Fujiyosi, Minako; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    We report the approach to overcome the deterrents of the hexagonal Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N as potential insertion anode for lithium ion batteries: the rapid capacity fading upon long cycles and the fully Li-rich state before cycling. Research reveals that the appropriate amount of Co substituted by Cu can greatly improve the cycling performance of Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N. It is attributed to the enhanced electrochemical stability and interfacial comparability. However, doped Cu leads to a slightly decreased capacity. High energy mechanical milling (HEMM) was found to effectively improve the reversible capacity associated with the electrochemical kinetics by modifying the active hosts' morphology characteristics. Moreover, the composite based on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) and Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N was developed under HEMM. The composite demonstrates a high first cycle efficiency at 100% and a large reversible capacity of ca. 450 mAh g -1 , as well as a stable cycling performance. This work may contribute to a development of the lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium ion batteries

  16. Electrochemical lithiation performance and characterization of silicon-graphite composites with lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium polyacrylate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Ji; Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Son, Jin-Young; Cui, Yi-Tao; Oji, Hiroshi; Kogure, Akinori; Harada, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Sumihisa; Aoki, Yasuhito; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-02-07

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAH), which is a water soluble polycarboxylic acid, is neutralized by adding different amounts of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and ammonia (NH4OH) aqueous solutions to fix neutralization degrees. The differently neutralized polyacid, alkali and ammonium polyacrylates are examined as polymeric binders for the preparation of Si-graphite composite electrodes as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The electrode performance of the Si-graphite composite depends on the alkali chemicals and neutralization degree. It is found that 80% NaOH-neutralized polyacrylate binder (a pH value of the resultant aqueous solution is ca. 6.7) is the most efficient binder to enhance the electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation performance of the Si-graphite composite electrode compared to that of conventional PVdF and the other binders used in this study. The optimum polyacrylate binder highly improves the dispersion of active material in the composite electrode. The binder also provides the strong adhesion, suitable porosity, and hardness for the composite electrode with 10% (m/m) binder content, resulting in better electrochemical reversibility. From these results, the factors of alkali-neutralized polyacrylate binders affecting the electrode performance of Si-graphite composite electrodes are discussed.

  17. Lithium intercalation into layered LiMnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitins, G.; West, Keld

    1997-01-01

    Recently Armstrong and Bruce(1) reported a layered modification of lithium manganese oxide, LiMnO2, isostructural with LiCoO2. LiMnO2 obtained by ion exchange from alpha-NaMnO2 synthesized in air is characterized by x-ray diffraction and by electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium...... in a series of voltage ranges between 1.5 and 4.5 V relative to a lithium electrode. During cycling voltage plateaus at 3.0 and 4.0 V vs. Li develop, indicating that the material is converted from its original layered structure to a spinel structure. This finding is confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Contrary...... to expectations based on thermodynamics, insertion of larger amounts of lithium leads to a more complete conversion. We suggest that a relatively high mobility of manganese leaves Li and Mn randomly distributed in the close-packed oxygen lattice after a deep discharge. This isotropic Mn distribution can...

  18. POWER AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR AND SPACE-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM Delivery Order 0018: Single Ion Conducting Solid-State Lithium Electrochemical Technologies (Task 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    a mathematical equation relates the cathode reaction reversible electric potential to the lithium content of the cathode electrode. Based on the...Transport of Lithium in the Cell Cathode Active Material The Nernst -Einstein relation linking the lithium-ion mass diffusivity and its ionic...transient, isothermal and isobaric conditions. The differential model equation describing the lithium diffusion and accumulation in a spherical, active

  19. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  20. Real-Time XRD Studies of Li-O2 Electrochemical Reaction in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunseob; Yilmaz, Eda; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of electrochemical process in rechargeable Li-O2 battery has suffered from lack of proper analytical tool, especially related to the identification of chemical species and number of electrons involved in the discharge/recharge process. Here we present a simple and straightforward analytical method for simultaneously attaining chemical and quantified information of Li2O2 (discharge product) and byproducts using in situ XRD measurement. By real-time monitoring of solid-state Li2O2 peak area, the accurate efficiency of Li2O2 formation and the number of electrons can be evaluated during full discharge. Furthermore, by observation of sequential area change of Li2O2 peak during recharge, we found nonlinearity of Li2O2 decomposition rate for the first time in ether-based electrolyte.

  1. Electrochemical performance of Si@TiN composite anode synthesized in a liquid ammonia for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Jiguo; Wang, Wei [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiao, Shuqiang, E-mail: sjiao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou, Jungang; Huang, Kai [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, Hongmin, E-mail: hzhu@metall.ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-10-15

    High-efficiency Si@TiN composite anode was synthesized by a homogeneous reduction reaction in the liquid ammonia, then calcinated at 950 Degree-Sign C for 2 h in vacuum. The crystal structure and morphology of the obtained in-situ coated composites were characterized by XRD, FESEM. The results showed that the micron-sized Si particles were almost coated by the TiN nanoparticles with the average size of 50 nm, while the morphology of Si@TiN composite was almost unchanged over 50 discharge-charge cycles. The electrochemical performances of Si@TiN composite anode were studied by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The CV curves showed that the two redox peaks remained stable and were attributed to the alloying/dealloying process of Li with active Si particles. It could be seen from the EIS curves that the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) for fresh was larger than that for the 50th cycle, which was mainly because the electrons and Li ions conducted on the electrode surface more difficultly for fresh. The cycle stability of the as-prepared Si@TiN composite anode was investigated, with the result showing that the cycling performance was stable and optimal at a rate of 0.2 C. The initial charge capacity was as high as 3226.99 mAh g{sup -1}, which was kept as 467.02 mAh g{sup -1} over 50 cycles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si@TiN composite anode was synthesized in-situ in a liquid ammonia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of TiN nanoparticles was about 50 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The initial charge capacity was as high as 3226.99 mAh g{sup -1}.

  2. Progress on the development of H-concentration probes in eutectic lead-lithium: Synthesis and characterization of electrochemical sensor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llivina, L.; Colominas, S. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Industrial Engineering Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Dynamic tritium concentration measurement in lithium-lead eutectic (17% Li-83% Pb) is of major interest for a reliable tritium testing program in ITER TBM and for an experimental proof of tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium-lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM). In this work, the following compounds have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes: BaCeO{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed at different hydrogen concentrations at 500 Degree-Sign C. In this campaign, a fixed and known hydrogen pressure has been used in the reference electrode. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaCeO{sub 3}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} exhibited quite stable output potential and its value was quite close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation less than 100 mV). Unstable measurement was obtained using BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a solid state electrolyte in the sensor.

  3. Electrochemical Investigation of Natural Ore Molybdenite (MoS2) as a First-Hand Anode for Lithium Storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijie; Tang, Honghu; Ge, Peng; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Jiahui; Zhang, Chenyang; Hou, Hongshuai; Sun, Wei; Ji, Xiaobo

    2018-02-21

    Considering serious pollution from the traditional chemical synthesis process, the resource-rich, clean, and first-hand electrode materials are greatly desired. Natural ore molybdenite (MoS 2 ), as the low-cost, high-yield, and environmental-friendly natural source, is investigated as a first-hand anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with chemosynthetic pure MoS 2 , natural molybdenite provides an ordered ion diffusion channel more effectively owing to its excellent characteristics, containing well-crystalline, large lattice distance, and trance dopants. Even at a large current density of 2.0 A g -1 , a natural molybdenite electrode employing a carboxymethyl cellulose binder displays an initial charge capacity of 1199 mA h g -1 with a capacity retention of 72% after 1000 cycles, much higher than those of the electrodes utilizing a poly(vinylidene fluoride) binder. These types of binders play a crucial role in stabilizing a microstructure demonstrated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and in affecting pseudocapacitive contributions quantitatively determined by a series of kinetic exploration. Briefly, this work might open up a new avenue toward the use of natural molybdenite as a first-hand LIB anode in scalable applications and deepen our understanding on the fundamental effect of binders in the metal-sulfide.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Choi, Jeong-Gil; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores

  5. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  6. UV-assisted synthesis of surface modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres and its electrochemical performances in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Xiaoling; Zeng, Min, E-mail: zengmin@swust.edu.cn; Li, Jing; Li, Fuyun

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We synthesize the surface modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres, which possess high surface area with 258 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and narrow pore size at about 7.8 nm. • The surface reaction mechanism of the UV-assisted synthesis mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres has been explored. • The as-made TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and deliver a capacity of 141 mAh g{sup −1} upon 100 cycles even at 1 C. - Abstract: Three-dimensional mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/graphene (TiO{sub 2}/G) microspheres have been successfully synthesized through a simple UV-assisted method of reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The as-made surface modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres possess large surface area and exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 220 mAh g{sup −1} and retain 84% (∼185 mAh g{sup −1}) of reversible capacity over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2C. In addition, TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres display improved cyclic performance, excellent rate capability and enhanced electrical conductivity, which are superior to the bare TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Furthermore, TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres can achieve a reversible capacity of 141 mAh g{sup −1} upon 100 cycles even at the 1C rate. We believe that the mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/G microspheres are expected to be a promising high performance anode material for the next generation lithium ion batteries.

  7. Growth of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films by pulsed-laser deposition and their electrochemical properties in lithium microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, C. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). LMDH; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico (Mexico); Camacho-Lopez, M.A. [LMDH, UMR 7603, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252, Paris (France); Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez-Jarquin, J. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-03-01

    Films of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) onto silicon wafers using sintered targets which consisted in the mixture of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}O powders. The film formation has been studied as a function of the preparation conditions, i.e. composition of the target, substrate temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in the deposition chamber. Composition, morphology and structural properties of PLD films have been investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The films deposited from target LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}+15% Li{sub 2}O have an excellent crystallinity when deposited onto silicon substrate maintained at 300 C in an oxygen partial pressure of 100 mTorr. It is found that such a film crystallizes in the spinel structure (Fd3m symmetry) as evidenced by X-ray diffraction. Well-textured polycrystalline films exhibit crystallite size of 300 nm. Pulsed-laser deposited LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films obtained with a polycrystalline morphology were successfully used as cathode materials in lithium microbatteries. The Li//LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film cells have been tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques in the potential range 3.0-4.2 V. Specific capacity as high as 120 mC/cm{sup 2} {mu}m was measured on polycrystalline films. The chemical diffusion coefficients for the Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films appear to be in the range of 10{sup -11}-10{sup -12} cm{sup 2}/s. Electrochemical measurements show a good cycleability of PLD films when cells are charged-discharged at current densities of 5-25 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nano-CeO2-coated nanostructure LiMn2O4 cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, D.; Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal

    2010-01-01

    LiMn 2 O 4 spinel cathode materials were coated with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.% CeO 2 by a polymeric process, followed by calcination at 850 o C for 6 h in air. The surface-coated LiMn 2 O 4 cathode materials were physically characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS). XRD patterns of CeO 2 -coated LiMn 2 O 4 revealed that the coating did not affect the crystal structure or the Fd3m space group of the cathode materials compared to uncoated LiMn 2 O 4 . The surface morphology and particle agglomeration were investigated using SEM, TEM image showed a compact coating layer on the surface of the core materials that had average thickness of about 20 nm. The XPS data illustrated that the CeO 2 completely coated the surface of the LiMn 2 O 4 core cathode materials. The galvanostatic charge and discharge of the uncoated and CeO 2 -coated LiMn 2 O 4 cathode materials were measured in the potential range of 3.0-4.5 V (0.5 C rate) at 30 o C and 60 o C. Among them, the 1.0 wt.% of CeO 2 -coated spinel LiMn 2 O 4 cathode satisfies the structural stability, high reversible capacity and excellent electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. On the Ageing of High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries—Comprehensive Electrochemical Diffusivity Studies of Harvested Nickel Manganese Cobalt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Capron

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the characterisation technique considered for the determination of the L i + solid state diffusion coefficient in uncycled as in cycled Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC electrodes. As major characterisation techniques, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were systematically investigated. L i + diffusion coefficients during the lithiation process of the uncycled and cycled electrodes determined by CV at 3.71 V are shown to be equal to 3 . 48 × 10 - 10 cm 2 ·s - 1 and 1 . 56 × 10 - 10 cm 2 ·s - 1 , respectively. The dependency of the L i + diffusion with the lithium content in the electrodes is further studied in this paper with GITT and EIS. Diffusion coefficients calculated by GITT and EIS characterisations are shown to be in the range between 1 . 76 × 10 - 15 cm 2 ·s - 1 and 4 . 06 × 10 - 12 cm 2 ·s - 1 , while demonstrating the same decreasing trend with the lithiation process of the electrodes. For both electrode types, diffusion coefficients calculated by CV show greater values compared to those determined by GITT and EIS. With ageing, CV and EIS techniques lead to diffusion coefficients in the electrodes at 3.71 V that are decreasing, in contrast to GITT for which results indicate increasing diffusion coefficient. After long-term cycling, ratios of the diffusion coefficients determined by GITT compared to CV become more significant with an increase about 1 order of magnitude, while no significant variation is seen between the diffusion coefficients calculated from EIS in comparison to CV.

  10. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Janina; Kulka, Andrzej; Milewska, Anna; Zając, Wojciech; Świerczek, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV) application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni), solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level. PMID:28809235

  11. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Świerczek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV. In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level.

  12. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  13. Design of lithium cobalt oxide electrodes with high thermal conductivity and electrochemical performance using carbon nanotubes and diamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Salgado, Ruben Arash; Lee, Byeongdu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher; Balandin, Alexander A.; Shevchenko, Elena V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal management remains one of the major challenges in the design of safe and reliable Li-ion batteries. We show that composite electrodes assembled from commercially available 100 μm long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and LiCoO2 (LCO) particles demonstrate the in-plane thermal conductivity of 205.8 W/m*K. This value exceeds the thermal conductivity of dry conventional laminated electrodes by about three orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of CNT-based electrodes is in the same range as thermal conductivities of conventional laminated electrodes. The CNT-based electrodes demonstrate a similar capacity to conventional laminated design electrodes, but revealed a better rate performance and stability. The introduction of diamond particles into CNT-based electrodes further improves the rate performance. Our lightweight, flexible electrode design can potentially be a general platform for fabricating polymer binder- and aluminum and copper current collector- free electrodes from a broad range of electrochemically active materials with efficient thermal management.

  14. Simple fabrication of TiO2/C nanocomposite with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue; Li, Tao; Qi, Yong-Xin; Gao, Xue-Ping; Yin, Long-Wei; Li, Hui; Zhu, Hui-Ling; Lun, Ning; Bai, Yu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /C nanocomposites were fabricated by simple hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate to yield TiO 2 nanoparticles followed by carbonizing the mixture of glucose and TiO 2 at 600 °C. By merely varying the weight ratio of glucose:TiO 2 , the electrochemical performance of the composites could be optimized significantly. At a ratio of 0.8, the composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 283.7 mA h g −1 after cycling 100 times at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , as well as the capacities of 245.1, 213.6, 179.9 and 136.6 mA h g −1 at the corresponding densities of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mA g −1 . After cycling 1000 times at 500 mA g −1 , a capacity of 122.8 mA h g −1 was retained for the composite with a ratio of 0.8, and even a capacity of 149.1 mA h g −1 for the composite with a ratio of 0.7. The enhanced performance is ascribed to the carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly embedding in the carbon matrix with appropriate carbon content

  15. Enhanced electrochemical performance of a ZnO-MnO composite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Seob; Nahm, Sahn; Cho, Won Il; Lee, Chongmok

    2015-09-28

    A ZnO-MnO composite was synthesized using a simple solvothermal method combined with a high-temperature treatment. To observe the phase change during the heating process, in situ high-temperature XRD analysis was performed under vacuum conditions. The results indicated that ZnMn2O4 transformed into the ZnO-MnO composite phase starting from 500 °C and that this composite structure was retained until 700 °C. The electrochemical performances of the ZnO-MnO composite electrode were evaluated through galvanostatic discharge-charge tests and cyclic voltammetry analysis. Its initial coulombic efficiency was significantly improved to 68.3% compared to that of ZnMn2O4 at 54.7%. Furthermore, the ZnO-MnO composite exhibited improved cycling performance and enhanced rate capability compared with untreated ZnMn2O4. To clarify the discharge-charge mechanism of the ZnO-MnO composite electrode, the structural changes during the charge and discharge processes were also investigated using ex situ XRD and TEM.

  16. Self-assembled 3-D flower-shaped SnO2 nanostructures with improved electrochemical performance for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rong; Gu Yingan; Li Yaoqi; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2010-01-01

    Flower-shaped SnO 2 nanoplates were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of tin(II) dichloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O) and sodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O) in alkali solution. The obtained SnO 2 nanoplates were less than 5 nm thick and self-assembled into flower-shaped nanostructures. The introduction of citrate was essential for the preparation of the SnO 2 nanoplates. The nanoscale shape and self-assembled architecture of SnO 2 nanoparticles were mainly controlled by the alkalinity of the solution. When the self-assembled SnO 2 nanostructures were used as anode materials in Li-ion batteries, they exhibit a reversible capacity of 670 mA h g -1 after 30 cycles and an average capacity fading of 0.95% per cycle after the second cycle. The good electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 sample prepared via the hydrothermal synthesis indicates the possibility of fabricating specific self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures for Li-ion batteries.

  17. A systematic approach for electrochemical-thermal modelling of a large format lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Genieser, Ronny; Worwood, Daniel; Barai, Anup; Marco, James; Jennings, Paul

    2018-04-01

    A 1D electrochemical-thermal model is developed to characterise the behaviour of a 53 Ah large format pouch cell with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) chemistry over a wide range of operating conditions, including: continuous charge (0.5C-2C), continuous discharge (0.5C-5C) and operation of the battery within an electric vehicle (EV) over an urban drive-cycle (WLTP Class 3) and for a high performance EV being driven under track racing conditions. The 1D model of one electrode pair is combined with a 3D thermal model of a cell to capture the temperature distribution at the cell scale. Performance of the model is validated for an ambient temperature range of 5 °C-45 °C. Results highlight that battery performance is highly dependent on ambient temperature. By decreasing the ambient temperature from 45 °C to 5 °C, the available energy drops by 17.1% and 7.8% under 0.5C and 5C discharge respectively. Moreover, the corresponding power loss is found to be: 5.23% under the race cycle as compared with 7.57% under the WLTP drive cycle. Formulation of the model is supported by a comprehensive set of experiments, for quantifying key parameters and for model validation. The full parameter-set for the model is provided ensuring the model is a valuable resource to underpin further research.

  18. Fabrication of LiCoO2 films for lithium rechargeable microbattery in an aqueous solution by electrochemical reflux method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Kyoo-Seung; Lee, Bum-Jae; Seo, Seong-Il; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    LiCoO 2 films were directly deposited on electron-conducting substrates using electrochemical reflux method in an aqueous solution under ambient atmosphere at a fixed temperature between 100 and 200 o C with a fixed current density between 0.1 and 1.0mAcm -2 . The structural and compositional purities of the deposited LiCoO 2 film were confirmed by elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction pattern analyses, and Raman spectroscopy. According to the Raman spectroscopy and the voltage versus capacity profiles for the deposited LiCoO 2 film, it appears that the deposited film consists of layered LiCoO 2 phase (space group R3-bar m). Although the deposited LiCoO 2 film was fabricated in a very economical and simple way, it exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 54.1μAh/cm 2 μm and the discharge capacity retention of 85.6% over 15 cycles

  19. Switching between solid solution and two-phase regimes in the Li1-xFe1-yMnyPO4 cathode materials during lithium (de)insertion: combined PITT, in situ XRPD and electron diffraction tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhzhin, Oleg A.; Sumanov, Vasiliy D.; Karakulina, Olesia M.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Hadermann, Joke; Baranov, Andrey N.; Stevenson, Keith J.; Antipov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical properties and phase transformations during (de)insertion of Li + in LiFePO 4 , LiFe 0.9 Mn 0.1 PO 4 and LiFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 are studied by means of galvanostatic cycling, potential intermittent titration technique (PITT) and in situ X-ray powder diffraction. Different modes of switching between the solid solution and two-phase regimes are revealed which are influenced by the Mn content in Li 1-x Fe 1-y Mn y PO 4 . Additionally, an increase in electrochemical capacity with the Mn content is observed at high rates of galvanostatic cycling (10C, 20C), which is in good agreement with the numerically estimated contribution of the solid solution mechanism determined from PITT data. The observed asymmetric behavior of the phase transformations in Li 1-x Fe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 during charge and discharge is discussed. For the first time, the crystal structures of electrochemically deintercalated Li 1-x Fe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 with different Li content – LiFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 , Li 0.5 Fe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 and Li 0.1 Fe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 – are refined, including the occupancy factors of the Li position. This refinement is done using electron diffraction tomography data. The crystallographic analyses of Li 1-x Fe 0.5 Mn 0.5 PO 4 reveal that at x = 0.5 and 0.9 the structure retains the Pnma symmetry and the main motif of the pristine x = 0 structure without noticeable short range order effects.

  20. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  1. Cathodes for lithium ion batteries: the benefits of using nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazito, Fernanda F.C.; Torresi, Roberto M.

    2006-01-01

    Commercially available lithium ion cells, which are the most advanced among rechargeable batteries available so far, employ microcrystalline transition metal oxides as cathodes, which function as Li insertion hosts. In search for better electrochemical performance the use of nanomaterials in place of these conventional ones has emerged as excellent alternative. In this review we present a brief introduction about the motivations to use nanostructured materials as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. To illustrate such advantages we present some examples of research directed toward preparations and electrochemical data of the most used cathodes in nanoscale, such as LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 , LiMnO 2 , LiV 2 O 5 e LiFePO 4 . (author)

  2. Influence of electrode preparation on the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 composite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Yen; Greco, Giorgia; Täubert, Corina; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2012-07-01

    The electrode manufacturing for lithium-ion batteries is based on a complex process chain with several influencing factors. A proper tailoring of the electrodes can greatly improve both the electrochemical performances and the energy density of the battery. In the present work, some significant parameters during the preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based cathodes were investigated. The active material was mixed with a PVDF-binder and two conductive additives in different ratios. The electrode thickness, the degree of compacting and the conductive agent type and mixing ratio have proven to have a strong impact on the electrochemical performances of the composite electrodes, especially on their behaviour at high C-rates. Further it has been shown that the compacting has an essential influence on the mechanical properties of NCA coatings, according to their total, ductile and elastic deformation behaviour.

  3. Improved electrochemical performance of Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material synthesized by citric acid assisted sol-gel method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyou; Liang, Youwei; Lei, Dan; Xie, Yingchun; Ai, Ling; Xie, Jing

    2018-03-01

    A citric acid assisted sol-gel method is employed for synthesizing Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 used as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations prove that materials have a typical a-NaFeO2 structure with primary nano-sized particles. Electrochemical performances have been investigated by charge-discharge test and results show that the synthesized product exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high initial discharge capacity of 253.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and a preferable capacity retention of 84.8% after 50 cycles.

  4. Improving the Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 in Lithium Ion Batteries by LiAlO2 Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA as a lithium ion battery cathode material has received attention for its highly specific capacity and excellent low temperature performance. However, the disadvantages of its high surface lithium compound residues and high pH value have influenced its processing performance and limited its application. This paper uses a facile method to modify NCA through LiAlO2 coating. The results showed that when the molar ratio of Al(NO33·9H2O and lithium compound residues at the surface of NCA cathode material was 0.25:1, the pH of the cathode material decreased from 12.70 to 11.80 and the surface lithium compound residues decreased from 3.99% to 1.48%. The NCA cell was charged and discharged for 100 cycles at 1 C in the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V, to test the capacity retention of NCA. It was found to be as high as 94.67%, which was 5.36% higher than the control NCA cell. The discharge capacity of NCA-0.25-500 °C was 139.8 mAh/g even at 8 C rate, which was 15% higher than the raw NCA. Further research indicated that Al(NO33·9H2O reacted with the surface lithium compound residues of NCA and generated LiAlO2, which improved the NCA electrochemical performance.

  5. Study of the electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of green anodes for Lithium ion batteries prepared with anatase TiO2 and water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water soluble CMC and PVDF binders are used to prepare anatase TiO 2 electrodes. ► The electrochemical behavior of the different electrodes is studied between 20 and −30 °C. ► CMC/TiO 2 anodes show lower ICL, lower polarization and higher low-temperature capacity at high rates than PVDF/TiO 2 anodes. ► Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results show better kinetics for CMC/TiO 2 electrodes. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of anatase TiO 2 electrodes for Lithium ion batteries have been evaluated by galvanostatic cycles in the temperature range 20 to −30 °C. Two different manufacturing processes have been used to prepare anatase anodes containing water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. The low temperature performances at different charge/discharge rates of TiO 2 /CMC and TiO 2 /PVDF electrodes are compared and discussed in terms of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) at the first cycle, capacity retention and reversible capacity. The kinetics of the electrodes containing CMC or PVDF is evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

  6. Effect of chemical treatment on the electrochemical properties of Li1.2NixMn0.8-xO2 (x = 0.2 and 0.25) in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takamatsu, Daiko; Gunji, Akira; Feng, Xiaoliang; Furutsuki, Sho; Okumura, Takefumi; Terada, Shohei

    2018-02-01

    The effect of chemical treatment using (NH4)2SO4 on the electrochemical properties of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and Li1.2Ni0.25Mn0.55O2 was investigated. The treatment was effective in improving the Coulombic efficiency and discharge capacity of a Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 cathode, but treatment with too much (NH4)2SO4 degraded the cathode's electrochemical performance. The effect of (NH4)2SO4 treatment on the charge-discharge reaction mechanism of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 was investigated by evaluating reaction potential, particle configuration, and oxidation state of transition metal. The experimental results indicated that the changes in the electrochemical performance of the treated cathodes were attributed to the changes in the surface state and of the element contributing to the redox reaction. Treatment with an appropriate amount of (NH4)2SO4 also improved the electrochemical performance of the high-nickel-content lithium-rich layer-structured cathode material Li1.2Ni0.25Mn0.55O2.

  7. Facile synthesis and electrochemical properties of continuous porous spheres assembled from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets for reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Lu, Huihui; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Ma, Liying

    2018-05-01

    Hollow or continuous porous hierarchical MoS2/C structures with large Li-ion and electron transport kinetics, and high structural stability are urgent needs for their application in lithium ion batteries. In this regard, a novel continuous porous micro-sphere constructed from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets is successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone surfactant serves as carbon source and supporter, while the CS2 works as soft template and sulfur source during hydrothermal process. The morphologies, structures, and electrochemical properties are systematically characterized. Importantly, it should be noted that the unique porous micro-spheres with merits of rich-defect, expanded-interlayer, few-layer (integrating carbon are favorable for lithium ion batteries application. When the uniform composites are used as lithium ion batteries anode materials, they deliver a high reversible capacity, excellent cycling performance (average capacity fading of 0.037% per cycle at 0.2 A g-1), and good rate capability.

  8. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  9. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  10. Preparation of hollow Zn2SnO4 boxes@C/graphene ternary composites with a triple buffering structure and their electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haijian; Huang, Ying; Wang, Mingyue; Chen, Xuefang; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Ke; Wu, Haiwei

    2014-01-01

    capability. With the unique structure design, this kind of composites with excellent electrochemical properties can be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  11. Electrochemical and diffusional insights of combustion synthesized SrLi2Ti6O14 negative insertion material for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayamani, Allumolu; Shinde, Ganesh S.; Chaupatnaik, Anshuman; Rao, R. Prasada; Adams, Stefan; Barpanda, Prabeer

    2018-05-01

    Solvothermal synthetic routes can provide energy-savvy platforms to fabricate battery anode materials involving relatively milder annealing steps vis-à-vis the conventional solid-state synthesis. These energy efficient routes in turn restrict aggressive grain growth to form nanoscale particles favouring efficient Li+ diffusion. Here, we report an economic solution combustion synthesis of SrLi2Ti6O14 anode involving nitrate-urea complexation with a short annealing duration of only 2 h (900 °C). Rietveld refinement confirms the phase purity of target product assuming an orthorhombic framework (Cmca symmetry). It delivers reversible capacity of ∼125 mAh.g-1 at a rate of C/20 involving a 1.38 V Ti4+/Ti3+ redox activity with excellent rate kinetics and cycling stability. Bond valence site energy (BVSE) calculations gauge SrLi2Ti6O14 to be an anisotropic 3D Li+ ion conductor with the highest ionic conductivity along the c direction. The electrochemical and diffusional pathways have been elucidated for combustion prepared SrLi2Ti6O14 as an efficient and safe negative electrode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Study on lithium extraction from brines based on LiMn2O4/Li1-xMn2O4 by electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Meng-Yao; Ji, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Guo, Zhi-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Jie; Yuan, Jun-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A recovery system with LiMn 2 O 4 /Li 1-x Mn 2 O 4 as electrodes was used to extract lithium. •The influence sequence of coexisting ions on lithium extraction was Mg 2+ > Na + > Ca 2+ > K + . •The values of α Li-Na , α Li-Mg and α Li-Ca were more than 300, 70 and 110, respectively. •The specific energy consumption was between 18 and 19 W h·mol −1 . -- Abstract: Lithium rechargeable batteries have been used for lithium extraction in recent years. Here, we report on a highly selective lithium recovery system that consists of a LiMn 2 O 4 positive electrode, a Li 1-x Mn 2 O 4 negative electrode and a monovalent selective anion-exchange membrane. The effect of potential, temperature and coexisting ions on lithium extraction were investigated in this paper, and the lithium recovery system was applied to extract lithium from brine and concentrated seawater. The extraction capacity of Li + reached 34.31 mg· (1 g LiMn 2 O 4 ) −1 at 1.2 V. With higher reaction rate and lower energy consumption, 25 °C (room temperature) was considered as the appropriate temperature. The system still remained high selective for Li + even in the presence of impurity ions (K + , Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ ). With simulated brine and concentrated seawater as source solutions, the concentrations of Na + , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ were reduced more than 300, 70 and 100 times, consuming 18–19 W h per mole of lithium recovered. And the electrodes still had high separation coefficients of Li + and Me n+ (Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ ) after five cycles although a slight drop was existing.

  13. Improved electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 with a variable amount of graphene as a conductive agent for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kang, Sung-Won; Mathew, Vinod; Anh, Ly Tuan; Kang, Jungwon; Song, Jinju; Paul, Baboo Joseph; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-01-01

    We report on the solvothermal preparation of pure Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene (15 wt% and 30 wt%) nanocomposites anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Structure and morphology studies of the nanocomposites by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and field-emission transmission electron microscopy reveal Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles embedded onto the graphene nanosheets. On comparison to pure spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , the electrochemical performances of the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites indicate higher capacities and enhanced cycle performances within the voltage domain of 1.0–2.5 V, under current rates as high as 10.4 C. The production of phase pure Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles ensures the short ion-diffusion paths while the presence of graphene facilitates improved structural network and hence enhanced electronic transport in the prepared nanocomposites. These factors eventually amount to impressive electrochemical properties. Highlights: ► A simple polyol-based approach to obtain the graphene nanosheets. ► Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites synthesis by polyol-based solvothermal process. ► Low temperature solvothermal strategy is one-step process to control nanoparticle sizes. ► The nanoparticles are well anchored onto the graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposites. ► Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites exhibit impressive electrochemical performances.

  14. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of CuS/Graphene Composite for Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, He; Wang, Yunhui; Huang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yiyong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CuS/graphene composite is synthesized via one-pot microwave-assisted method. • CuS/graphene composite shows enhanced cycle stability and rate performance. • The incorporation of graphene plays a vital role in the electrode. • The kinetic mechanisms are investigated by EIS, CV and GITT methods. - Abstract: In this work, CuS/graphene (CuS-G) composite is synthesized via one-pot microwave irradiation method under ambient conditions. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the CuS-G composite delivers a significantly enhanced reversible capacity and charge/discharge cycle stability compared with pristine CuS. A capacity of 348 mAh g −1 can be maintained after 1000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A g −1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) measurements indicate that the incorporation of graphene sheets reduces the contact resistance and enhances lithium ion transfer rate during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction remarkably. Thus, as-prepared CuS spheres can be a promising anode material for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  15. Characterization of LT-LiXO1-YNIYO2 electrodes for rechargeable lithium cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gummow, RJ

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available -spinel in character and that LT- Li0.4Co0.sNi0.102 is a defect spinel with spinel notation {Li0.s\\[:\\]0.2}sa \\[Co, 6Nio.2D0.2104. Electrochemical data.--The charge and discharge pro- files for the first four cycles of Li/LT-LiCoO2, Li... on the B sites of an A\\[B2104 spinel structure. The spinel phase is significantly more stable to lithium insertion/extraction reactions than the quasi-spinel phase. It is believed that by optimizing the processing conditions...

  16. Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies of ReO3 Type Phase Nb3O7F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saritha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In latest era, explore for alternative materials to carbonaceous negative electrodes working at higher potential in lithium ion batteries is given enormous significance to avoid lithium plating and electrolyte decomposition. Niobium based oxides show enhanced results as choice to carbonaceous anodes and also Nb5+/4+ redox couple working at approximately 1.5V vs. lithium.The redox potential of the niobium metal ion (~1.5V and the structure of Nb3O7F encourage us lithium insertion studies. Nb3O7F compound has been synthesized through a simple solid state method to explore as anode material. A structural and electrochemical property of this compound is studied in detail.The charge-discharge curves are obtained galvanostatically at C/5 rate. In first discharge step, 5.3 Li can be inserted into four step process between 3.0 – 1.0 V with a specific capacity of 350 mAhg-1. Four plateaus are observed at 1.65, 1.3,1.2 and 1.1V. During charge 1.3 Li can be extracted with an irreversible capacity loss. The total first-charge capacity is 86 mAhg-1 corresponding to the extraction of 1.3 Li. These cells show a reversible capacity 86 mAhg-1 after 25 cycles. The detailed results will be described and discussed.

  17. Synthesis of free-standing MnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide membranes and electrochemical investigation of their performances as anode materials for half and full lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaojun [Northwest University, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Nature Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Materials Science (China); Wang, Gang [Northwest University, National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials (Culture Base), National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application International Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@nwu.edu.cn [Northwest University, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Nature Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Materials Science (China)

    2016-10-15

    MnO{sub 2} nanotubes/reduced graphene oxide (MnO{sub 2}/RGO) membranes with different MnO{sub 2} contents are successfully synthesized by a facile two-step method including vacuum filtration and subsequent thermal reduction route. The MnO{sub 2} nanotubes obtained are 38 nm in diameter and homogeneously imbedded in RGO sheets as spacers. The synthesized MnO{sub 2}/RGO membranes exhibit excellent mechanical flexibilities and free-standing properties. Using the membranes directly as anode materials for lithium batteries (LIBs), the membranes for half LIBs show superb cycling stabilities and rate performances. Importantly, the electrochemical performances of MnO{sub 2}/RGO membranes show a strong dependence on the MnO{sub 2} nanotube contents in the hybrids. In addition, our results show that the hybrid membranes with 49.0 wt% MnO{sub 2} nanotube in half LIBs achieve a high reversible capacity of 1006.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}, which is higher lithium storage capacity than that of reported MnO{sub 2}-carbon electrodes. Furthermore, the synthesized full cell (MnO{sub 2}/RGO//LiCoO{sub 2}) system also exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, which can be attributed to the unique microstructures of MnO{sub 2} and GRO, coupled with the strong synergistic interaction between MnO{sub 2} nanotubes and GRO sheets.

  18. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven; Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Li(Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 )O 2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g -1 ), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li 1.18 (Ni 0.39 Mn 0.19 Co 0.35 )O 1.97 target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  19. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials (IAM); Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Materials Chemistry

    2017-11-15

    Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g{sup -1}), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li{sub 1.18}(Ni{sub 0.39}Mn{sub 0.19}Co{sub 0.35})O{sub 1.97} target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  20. Enhanced Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Storage in an Interconnected Carbon Network Comprising Electronegative Fluorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-Min; Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Hong, Chulgi Nathan; Choi, Seung Wan; Lee, Ki Bong; Pol, Vilas G

    2017-06-07

    Fluorocarbon (C x F y ) anode materials were developed for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries through a facile one-step carbonization of a single precursor, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Interconnected carbon network structures were produced with doped fluorine in high-temperature carbonization at 500-800 °C. The fluorocarbon anodes derived from the PVDF precursor showed higher reversible discharge capacities of 735 mAh g -1 and 269 mAh g -1 in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, respectively, compared to the commercial graphitic carbon. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the fluorocarbon showed retentions of 91.3% and 97.5% in lithium (at 1C) and sodium (at 200 mA g -1 ) intercalation systems, respectively. The effects of carbonization temperature on the electrochemical properties of alkali metal ion storage were thoroughly investigated and documented. The specific capacities in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries were dependent on the fluorine content, indicating that the highly electronegative fluorine facilitates the insertion/extraction of lithium and sodium ions in rechargeable batteries.

  1. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of long lifespan Li-rich Li1+x(Ni0.37Mn0.63)1−xO2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Min; Lian, Fang; Liu, Hongquan; Tian, Cuijun; Ma, Leilei; Yang, Wangyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long lifespan Li 1+x (Ni 0.37 Mn 0.63 ) 1−x O 2 samples were obtained through adjusting the content of lithium. ► x = 0.123 and x = 0.111 can retain more than 80% of the initial discharge capacities at 0.5 C after 500 cycles. ► x = 0.086 shows high initial efficiency, high medium discharge voltage and good rate capability. ► The significant increase of charge-transfer resistance of the cells contributes to the capacity decay. -- Abstract: Li 1+x (Ni 0.37 Mn 0.63 ) 1−x O 2 (x = 0.123, 0.111, 0.086, 0.070, 0.031) cathode materials were synthesized via coprecipitation of carbonates and the samples with long lifespan for lithium ion batteries were obtained through adjusting the content of lithium. Their crystal structure and electrochemical performance were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), galvanostatic charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The XRD data show that the materials can be indexed as a single α-NaFeO 2 phase except the sample with x = 0.031. The FESEM results indicate that the primary particles size increase with an increase of x value and the secondary particles retain the spherical morphology. The as-prepared sample with x = 0.086 delivers the largest discharge capacity of 232.1 mAh g −1 and a high initial efficiency of 81.8% at 0.2 C in the potential range of 2.5–4.7 V. Moreover, the better cycle performances are obtained for samples with x = 0.123 and 0.111, and the capacity retentions are up to 89 and 81% of the first discharge capacity at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, respectively

  3. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  4. Catalyst engineering for lithium ion batteries: the catalytic role of Ge in enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2(GeO2)0.13/G anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Wang, Ye; Han, Zhao Jun; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Yang, Hui Ying

    2014-12-21

    The catalytic role of germanium (Ge) was investigated to improve the electrochemical performance of tin dioxide grown on graphene (SnO(2)/G) nanocomposites as an anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Germanium dioxide (GeO(20) and SnO(2) nanoparticles (GeO(2))0.13/G nanocomposites can deliver a capacity of 1200 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), which is much higher than the traditional theoretical specific capacity of such nanocomposites (∼ 702 mA h g(-1)). More importantly, the SnO(2)(GeO(2))0.13/G nanocomposites exhibited an improved rate, large current capability (885 mA h g(-1) at a discharge current of 2000 mA g(-1)) and excellent long cycling stability (almost 100% retention after 600 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Ge, which enabled the reversible reaction of metals (Sn and Ge) to metals oxide (SnO(2) and GeO(2)) during the charge/discharge processes. Our demonstrated approach towards nanocomposite catalyst engineering opens new avenues for next-generation high-performance rechargeable Li-ion batteries anode materials.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of 4.8 V LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode material in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Le Ha [Faculty of Engineering Physics and NanoTechnology, College of Technology, 144 Xuan Thuy Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam)] [Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dinh, Nguyen Nang [Faculty of Engineering Physics and NanoTechnology, College of Technology, 144 Xuan Thuy Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Brutti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.brutti@uniroma1.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Scrosati, Bruno [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In this work the synthesis of a nickel doped cubic manganese spinel has been studied for application as cathode material in secondary lithium batteries. Six different experimental approaches have been tested in order to carry out a screening of the various possible synthetic routes. The used synthetic strategies were wet chemistry (WC), solid state (SS), combustion synthesis (CS), cellulose-based sol-gel synthesis (SG-C), ascorbic acid-based sol-gel synthesis (SG-AA) and resorcinol/formaldehyde-based sol-gel synthesis (SG-RF). The goal of our study is to obtain insights about how the synthesis conditions can be modified in order to achieve a material with improved electrochemical performances in such devices, especially in high current operating regimes. The synthesized materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) atomic emission spectroscopy, surface area measurements and tested as high voltage cathodes in Li-ion electrochemical devices.

  6. Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LiVPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. YU ZHANGa,∗, XIAOLAN BAIb ... and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ... Analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) ... studied with a SEM (JSM-7500F, Japan) equipped with.

  7. Lithium-ions diffusion kinetic in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Guizhen; Wang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Olivine structure LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles are synthesized successfully using a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Microwave is an effective method to synthesize nanomaterials, the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles with high crystallinity can shorten diffusion routes for ionic transfer and electron tunneling. Meanwhile, a high quality, complete and homogenous carbon layer with appropriate thickness coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles during in situ chemical vapor deposition process, which can ensure that electrons are able to transfer fast enough from all sides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is carried out to collect information about the kinetic behavior of lithium diffusion in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles during the charging and discharging processes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium ions, DLi, are calculated in the range of 10-15-10-9 cm2s-1. Nanoscale LiFePO4/carbon particles show the longer regions of the faster solid-solution diffusion, and corresponding to the narrower region of the slower two-phase diffusion during the insertion/exaction of lithium ions. The CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements show that the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles perform an excellent electrochemical performance, especially the high rate capacity and cycle life.

  8. A simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach to synthesize single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods with high electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Li, Fang; Liu, Xingquan; Xiong, Weiqiang; Chen, Bing; Shao, Huailing; Que, Dongyang; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The single-crystalline LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach in which the γ-MnOOH nanorods were prepared through a facile hydrothermal process, in which KMnO 4 was reduced by anhydrous alcohol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) without adding any template reagent or additional surfactant. The crystal structures and morphologies of synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results showed that the γ-MnOOH nanorods had high crystallinity and well-shaped morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm and an average length of 12 μm. For the resulting LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the initial discharge capacity was 123.5 mAh g −1 and remained 110.2 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 1.0 C in the voltage range of 3.20∼4.35 V. Moreover, the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods can present superior rate performance, especially the capacity recovery performance as the charge-discharge rate restores to 0.1 C from 5.0 C. Such excellent electrochemical performance could make them to be the promising cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries

  9. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO 2 composite, where SnO 2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO 2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO 2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g -1 and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Anode behaviors of aluminum antimony synthesized by mechanical alloying for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.; Sakaguchi, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Esaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    AlSb was synthesized as an anode active material for lithium secondary battery using mechanical alloying (MA). Electrochemical performance was examined on the electrodes of AlSb synthesized with different MA time. The first charge (lithium-insertion) capacity of the AlSb electrodes decreased with increasing the MA time. The discharge capacity on repeating charge-discharge cycle, however, did not show the same dependence. The electrode, consisting of the 20 h MA sample exhibited the longest charge-discharge life cycle, suggesting that there is the optimum degree of internal energy derived from the strain and/or the amorphization due to mechanical alloying. These results were evaluated using ex situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry

  11. Characterization and electrochemical performance of lithium-active titanium dioxide inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} material prepared by lithium residue-assisted method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingjun [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, Zhaoyong, E-mail: csullj@hotmail.com [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Song, Liubin [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan (China); Xu, Ming; Zhu, Huali; Gong, Li [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Zhang, Kaili, E-mail: kaizhang@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • LiTiO{sub 2}-inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} is prepared by lithium residue-assisted method. • The unique inlaid architecture inherits the advantages of coating and doping. • LiTiO{sub 2} inlaying enhances the pristine at high cyclability and rate properties. • Excess LiTiO{sub 2} modification results in low Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient. • The 3 mol% LiTiO{sub 2} inlaid sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance. - Abstract: The lithium residues are consumed as raw materials to in-situ synthesize the LiTiO{sub 2}-inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} composites. The effects of various LiTiO{sub 2} contents on the morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} materials are investigated in detail. Energy dispersive spectrometer mapping, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis confirm that the spherical particles of LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} are completely coated by crystalline LiTiO{sub 2} phase; X-ray diffraction, cross-section SEM and corresponding EDS results indicate that Ti ions are also doped into the bulk LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} with gradient distribution. Electrochemical tests show that the LiTiO{sub 2}-inlaid samples exhibit excellent reversible capacity, enhanced cyclability, superior lithium diffusion coefficient and rate properties. Specially, the 3 mol% LiTiO{sub 2} inlaid sample maintains 153.7 mA h g{sup −1} with 94.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles between 2.7–4.4 V at 1 C, take 30% advantage than that of the pristine one (118.2 mA h g{sup −1}). This improvement can be attributed to the removal of lithium residues and suitable LiTiO{sub 2} inlaying. The absence of lithium residue is helpful to retard the decomposition of LiPF{sub 6}. While, suitable LiTiO{sub 2} inlaying can protect the bulk from directly contacting the electrolyte

  12. Electrochemical performance of LiV3O8 micro-rod at various calcination temperatures as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Ginanjar, Edith Setia; Susanti, Diah; Prihandoko, Bambang

    2018-04-01

    Lithium vanadium oxide (LiV3O8) has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method followed by calcination via the reaction of Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and ammonium metavanade (NH4VO3). The precursors were heated at hydrothermal at 200 °C and then calcined at different calcination temperature in 400, 450, and 500 °C. The characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) is indicated that LiV3O8 micro-rod have been obtained by this method. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) result showed that redox reaction occur in potential range between 2.42 - 3.57 V for the reduction reaction and oxidation reaction in potential range between 2.01 V-3.69 V. The highest result was obtained for sample 450 °C with specific discharge capacity of 138 mA/g. The result showed that LiV3O8 has a promising candidate as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  13. Influence of strontium as additive on corrosive-electrochemical behavior of alloy Al +6% lithium in NaCI electrolyte medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.N.; Norova, M.T.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Nikitin, V.I.; Karieva, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    At various voltages, strontium settles down ahead of hydrogen, and the standard electrode potential equals -2,89B. Thus, in relation to aluminum- lithium an alloy Al-Li (6 % lithium) at electrode potential -1,020B, strontium is the anode. Taking into account anodic properties of strontium as additional and its solubility in aluminum-lithium a firm solution is formed, we have selected the following ratio of concentration of an alloying component, 0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5 (mass %). It has perilously been shown, that potential of free corrosion in time, alloys alloyed by strontium, are exposed a little bit faster passivity, than not alloyed. The similar tendency has been observed in all three investigated medium: with the increase in concentration of strontium, the potential of free corrosion is displaced in positive area. Results potentiodynamic researches of alloys in the medium of electrolyte NaCI of various concentration of chlorines -ions the potential of corrosion is displaced in negative area that testifies to decrease of corrosion stability of allays, with growth of aggression of the corrosion medium. It proves to be true accounting speeds of corrosion of alloys from a catholic branch potentiodynamic curves. (author)

  14. Lithium Superionic Conductor Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04 with Li10GeP2S12-Type Structure in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 Pseudoternary System: Synthesis, Electrochemical Properties, and Structure–Composition Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kato, Yuki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Lithium superionic conductors with the Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 (LGPS)-type structure are promising materials for use as solid electrolytes in the next-generation lithium batteries. A novel member of the LGPS family, Li 9.42 Si 1.02 P 2.1 S 9.96 O 2.04 (LSiPSO), and its solid solutions were synthesized by quenching from 1273 K in the Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –SiO 2 pseudoternary system. The material exhibited an ionic conductivity as high as 3.2 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 298 K, as well as the high electrochemical stability to lithium metal, which was improved by the introduction of oxygen into the LGPS-type structure. An all-solid-state cell with a lithium metal anode and LSiPSO as the separator showed excellent performance with a high reversibility of 100%. Thus, oxygen doping is an effective way of improving the electrochemical stability of LGPS-type structure.

  15. Lithium superionic conductor Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04 with Li10GeP2S12-type structure in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 pseudoternary system: Synthesis, electrochemical properties, and structure–composition relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium superionic conductors with the Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS-type structure are promising materials for use as solid electrolytes in next-generation lithium batteries. A novel member of the LGPS family, Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04, and its solid solutions were synthesised by quenching from 1273 K in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 pseudoternary system. The material exhibited an ionic conductivity as high as 3.2×10−4 S cm−1 at 298 K, as well as the high electrochemical stability to lithium metal, which was improved by the introduction of oxygen into the LGPS-type structure. An all-solid-sta