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Sample records for electrochemical hydrogen storage

  1. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  2. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  3. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  4. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  5. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented Electrochemical Kinetic Model (EKM), describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, has been extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e. the charge transfer kinetics and electrical double layer charging. A complete set of

  6. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented electrochemical kinetic model, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, was extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e., the charge-transfer kinetics and electrical double-layer charging. A complete set of equations

  7. Hydrogen storage material, electrochemically active material, electrochemical cell and electronic equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage material comprising an alloy of magnesium. The invention further relates to an electrochemically active material and an electrochemical cell provided with at least one electrode comprising such a hydrogen storage material. Also, the invention relates to

  8. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  9. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  10. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in Facile Synthesized Co@N-Doped Carbon Nanoparticle Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Qu, Xiaosheng; Zheng, Dong; Tang, Haolin; Liu, Dan; Qu, Deyang; Xie, ZhiZhong; Li, Junsheng; Qu, Deyu

    2017-11-29

    A Co@nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle composite was synthesized via a facile molecular self-assembling procedure. The material was used as the host for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen. The hydrogen storage capacity of the material was over 300 mAh g -1 at a rate of 100 mAg -1 . It also exhibited superior stability for storage of hydrogen, high rate capability, and good cyclic life. Hybridizing metallic cobalt nanoparticle with nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon is found to be a good approach for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen.

  11. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...

  12. Fabrication of Nickel Nanotube Using Anodic Oxidation and Electrochemical Deposition Technologies and Its Hydrogen Storage Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical deposition technique was utilized to fabricate nickel nanotubes with the assistance of AAO templates. The topography and element component of the nickel nanotubes were characterized by TEM and EDS. Furthermore, the nickel nanotube was made into microelectrode and its electrochemical hydrogen storage property was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the diameter of nickel nanotubes fabricated was around 20–100 mm, and the length of the nanotube could reach micron grade. The nickel nanotubes had hydrogen storage property, and the hydrogen storage performance was higher than that of nickel powder.

  13. The Current Status of Hydrogen Storage Alloy Development for Electrochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, the fundamentals of electrochemical reactions involving metal hydrides are explained, followed by a report of recent progress in hydrogen storage alloys for electrochemical applications. The status of various alloy systems, including AB5, AB2, A2B7-type, Ti-Ni-based, Mg-Ni-based, BCC, and Zr-Ni-based metal hydride alloys, for their most important electrochemical application, the nickel metal hydride battery, is summarized. Other electrochemical applications, such as Ni-hydrogen, fuel cell, Li-ion battery, air-metal hydride, and hybrid battery systems, also have been mentioned. PMID:28788349

  14. New insights on electrochemical hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbons by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva García, Sarai; Morallón Núñez, Emilia; Cazorla Amorós, Diego; Béguin, François; Lozano Castelló, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was exploited to analyze the interaction between carbon and hydrogen during electrochemical hydrogen storage at cathodic conditions. Two different activated carbons were used and characterized by different electrochemical techniques in two electrolytes (6 M KOH and 0.5 M Na2SO4). The in situ Raman spectra collected showed that, in addition to the D and G bands associated to the graphitic carbons, two bands appear simultaneously at about 1110 and 1500 cm−1 under cath...

  15. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new...

  16. Enhanced Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Performance on the Porous Graphene Network Immobilizing Cobalt Metal Nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myunggoo; Lee, Dong Heon; Jung, Hyun [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we attempted to apply Co metal nanoparticles decorated on the surface of the porous graphene (Co-PG) as the electrochemical hydrogen storage system. Co-PG was successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. To determine the synthetic strategy of porous graphene and Co nanoparticles, we compare the obtained Co-PG with two different materials such as Co nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide without soft-template (Co-RGO) and porous graphene without Co nanoparticle (PG). The experimental details regarding the synthesis and characterization of the Co-PG, Co-RGO, and PG samples are provided in Supporting Information. Co-PG with interpenetrating porous networks and immobilized Co metal nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. The obtained Co-PG exhibited high-surface area with ink-bottle open pores owing to the homogeneous dispersion of P123 micellar rods. The XRD and FE-SEM analyses clearly confirm that Co nanoparticles were immobilized on to the surface of porous graphene without any significant aggregation. The as-obtained Co-PG showed good electrochemical performance such as capacity and cycle stability for hydrogen storage. Based on these results, we believe that the Co-PG with a high-specific surface area could be worthwhile to investigate as not only electrochemical hydrogen storage materials but also other energy storage applications.

  17. Enhanced Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Performance on the Porous Graphene Network Immobilizing Cobalt Metal Nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myunggoo; Lee, Dong Heon; Jung, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to apply Co metal nanoparticles decorated on the surface of the porous graphene (Co-PG) as the electrochemical hydrogen storage system. Co-PG was successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. To determine the synthetic strategy of porous graphene and Co nanoparticles, we compare the obtained Co-PG with two different materials such as Co nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide without soft-template (Co-RGO) and porous graphene without Co nanoparticle (PG). The experimental details regarding the synthesis and characterization of the Co-PG, Co-RGO, and PG samples are provided in Supporting Information. Co-PG with interpenetrating porous networks and immobilized Co metal nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. The obtained Co-PG exhibited high-surface area with ink-bottle open pores owing to the homogeneous dispersion of P123 micellar rods. The XRD and FE-SEM analyses clearly confirm that Co nanoparticles were immobilized on to the surface of porous graphene without any significant aggregation. The as-obtained Co-PG showed good electrochemical performance such as capacity and cycle stability for hydrogen storage. Based on these results, we believe that the Co-PG with a high-specific surface area could be worthwhile to investigate as not only electrochemical hydrogen storage materials but also other energy storage applications

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of binary MgTi and ternary MgTiX (X=Ni, Si) hydrogen storage alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobichettipalayam Manivasagam, T.; Iliksu, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are promising candidate for many hydrogen storage applications because of the high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and favourable (de)hydrogenation kinetics. In the present study we have investigated the synthesis and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties

  19. A nanostructured Ni/graphene hybrid for enhanced electrochemical hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Moon-Hyung; Min, Young-Je; Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide(GO) was hybridized with the Ni(OH) 2 . • The Ni(OH) 2 /GO was reduced to Ni/graphene. • XRD, TEM, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were examined. • The hydrogen storage property of Ni/graphene was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: To fabricate electrochemical hydrogen storage materials with delaminated structure, the graphene oxide (GO) in the ethylene glycol solution was reassembled in the presence of the precursor of Ni nanoparticles, and then, the reassembled hybrid was reduced under hydrogen atmosphere to obtain Ni/graphene hybrid. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectscopic (XAS) analysis clearly show that Ni nanoparticles in Ni/graphene hybrid maintain its nanosized nature even after hybridization with graphene nanosheet (GNS). According to the TEM analysis, the Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 5.2 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the GNS in such a way that the nanoporous structure with much amount of void spaces could be fabricated. The obtained Ni/GNS exhibits a hydrogen storage capacity of 160 mA h/g, while the specific capacity of the graphene nanosheet was only 21 mA h/g. A flexible delaminated structure of Ni/GNS nanocomposite could provide additional intercalation sites for accommodation of hydrogen, leading to the enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity

  20. Overview on recent developments in energy storage: Mechanical, electrochemical and hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Cassone, Egidio; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • World energy demand is analyzed. • Promising energy storage systems are shown to explore their potentials. • Different storage are considered and compared. • The efficiency and costs of each are shown. • Easy guidelines for selection of energy storage are provided. - Abstract: Energy production is changing in the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to reduce the dependence on carbon/fossil sources and to introduce renewable energy sources. Despite the great amount of scientific efforts, great care to energy storage systems is necessary to overcome the discontinuity in the renewable production. A wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult and so in this paper the authors show a clear picture of the available state-of-the-art technologies. The paper provides an overview of mechanical, electrochemical and hydrogen technologies, explaining operation principles, performing technical and economic features. Finally a schematic comparison among the potential utilizations of energy storage systems is presented.

  1. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  2. Mechanical ball-milling preparation of fullerene/cobalt core/shell nanocomposites with high electrochemical hydrogen storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Di; Gao, Peng; Shen, Xiande; Chang, Cheng; Wang, Longqiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yujin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Sun, Shuchao; Li, Guobao; Yang, Piaoping

    2014-02-26

    The design and synthesis of new hydrogen storage nanomaterials with high capacity at low cost is extremely desirable but remains challenging for today's development of hydrogen economy. Because of the special honeycomb structures and excellent physical and chemical characters, fullerenes have been extensively considered as ideal materials for hydrogen storage materials. To take the most advantage of its distinctive symmetrical carbon cage structure, we have uniformly coated C60's surface with metal cobalt in nanoscale to form a core/shell structure through a simple ball-milling process in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectra, high-solution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) elemental mappings, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been conducted to evaluate the size and the composition of the composites. In addition, the blue shift of C60 pentagonal pinch mode demonstrates the formation of Co-C chemical bond, and which enhances the stability of the as-obtained nanocomposites. And their electrochemical experimental results demonstrate that the as-obtained C60/Co composites have excellent electrochemical hydrogen storage cycle reversibility and considerably high hydrogen storage capacities of 907 mAh/g (3.32 wt % hydrogen) under room temperature and ambient pressure, which is very close to the theoretical hydrogen storage capacities of individual metal Co (3.33 wt % hydrogen). Furthermore, their hydrogen storage processes and the mechanism have also been investigated, in which the quasi-reversible C60/Co↔C60/Co-Hx reaction is the dominant cycle process.

  3. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  4. Structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti2Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, B.; Li, X.; Khaldi, C.; ElKedim, O.; Lamloumi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. • By increasing the temperature the capacity loss, undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the 60 °C. • A good correlation is found between the evolutions of the different electrochemical parameters according to the temperature. - Abstract: The structure and the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling and used as an anode in nickel–metal hydride batteries were studied. Nominal Ti 2 Ni was synthesized under argon atmosphere at room temperature using a planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural and morphological characterization of the amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical characterization of the Ti 2 Ni electrodes is carried out by the galvanostatic charging and discharging, the constant potential discharge, the open circuit potential and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the Ti 2 Ni alloy, during the first eight cycles, and at a temperature of 30 °C, remained practically unchanged and a good held cycling is observed. By increasing the temperature, the electrochemical discharge capacity loss after eight cycles undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the temperature 60 °C. At 30 °C, the anodic corrosion current density is 1 mA cm −2 and then it undergoes a rapid drop, remaining substantially constant (0.06 mA cm −2 ) in the range 40–60 °C, before undergoing a slight increase to 70 °C (0.3 mA cm −2 ). This variation is in good agreement with the maximum electrochemical discharge capacity values found for the different temperatures. By increasing the

  5. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  6. Investigation on the Structure and Electrochemical Properties of La-Ce-Mg-Al-Ni Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and electrochemical characteristics of La0.96Ce0.04Mg0.15Al0.05Ni2.8 hydrogen storage alloy have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the La0.96Ce0.04Mg0.15Al0.05Ni2.8 hydrogen storage alloy consisted of a (La, MgNi3 phase with the rhombohedral PuNi3-type structure and a LaNi5 phase with the hexagonal CaCu5-type structure. TEM shows that the alloy is multicrystal with a lattice space 0.187 nm. EDS analyse shows that the content of Mg is 3.48% (atom which coincide well with the designed composition of the electrode alloy. Electrochemical investigations show that the maximum discharge capacity of the alloy electrode is 325 mAh g−1. The alloy electrode has higher discharge capacity within the discharge current density span from 60 mA g−1 to 300 mA g−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicate that the charge transfer resistance RT on the alloy electrode surface and the calculated exchange current density I0 are 0.135 Ω and 1298 mA g−1, respectively; the better eletrochemical reaction kinetic of the alloy electrode may be responsible for the better high-rate dischargeability.

  7. Mechanochemical activation and synthesis of nanomaterials for hydrogen storage and conversion in electrochemical power sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Zbigniew S; Varin, Robert A; Czujko, Tom

    2009-07-01

    In this study we discuss a process of mechanical activation employed in place of chemical or thermal activation to improve the mobility and reactivity of hydrogen atoms and ions in nanomaterials for energy applications: rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage for fuel cell systems. Two materials are discussed. Both are used or intended for use in power sources. One is nickel hydroxide, Ni(OH)2, which converts to oxyhydroxide in the positive Ni electrode of rechargeable metal hydride batteries. The other is a complex hydride, Mg(AIH4)2, intended for use in reversible, solid-state hydrogen storage for fuel cells. The feature shared by these unlikely materials (hydroxide and hydride) is a sheet-like hexagonal crystal structure. The mechanical activation was conducted in high-energy ball mills. We discuss and demonstrate that the mechanical excitation of atoms and ions imparted on these powders stems from the same class of phenomena. These are (i) proliferation of structural defects, in particular stacking faults in a sheet-like structure of hexagonal crystals, and (ii) possible fragmentation of a faulted structure into a mosaic of layered nanocrystals. The hydrogen atoms bonded in such nanocrystals may be inserted and abstracted more easily from OH- hydroxyl group in Ni(OH)2 and AlH4- hydride complex in Mg(AlH4)2 during hydrogen charge and discharge reactions. However, the effects of mechanical excitation imparted on these powders are different. While the Ni(OH)2 powder is greatly activated for cycling in batteries, the Mg(AlH4)2 complex hydride phase is greatly destabilized for use in reversible hydrogen storage. Such a "synchronic" view of the structure-property relationship in respect to materials involved in hydrogen energy storage and conversion is supported in experiments employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and direct imaging of the structure with a high-resolution transmission-electron microscope (HREM), as well as in

  8. Controllable synthesis and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Sb₂Se₃ ultralong nanobelts with urchin-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rencheng; Chen, Gang; Pei, Jian; Sun, Jingxue; Wang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    The controlled synthesis of one-dimensional and three-dimensional Sb(2)Se(3) nanostructures has been achieved by a facile solvothermal process in the presence of citric acid. By simply controlling the concentration of citric acid, the nucleation, growth direction and exposed facet can be readily tuned, which brings the different morphologies and nanostructures to the final products. The as-prepared products have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and selected area electron diffraction. Based on the electron microscope observations, a possible growth mechanism of Sb(2)Se(3) with distinctive morphologies including ultralong nanobelts, hierarchical urchin-like nanostructures is proposed and discussed in detail. The electrochemical hydrogen storage measurements reveal that the morphology plays a key role on the hydrogen storage capacity of Sb(2)Se(3) nanostructures. The Sb(2)Se(3) ultralong nanobelts with high percentage of {-111} facets exhibit higher hydrogen storage capacity (228.5 mA h g(-1)) and better cycle stability at room temperature.

  9. The electrochemical characteristics of Mg2Ni nanocrystalline hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Zhou Xiaosong; Peng Shuming

    2008-06-01

    The nanocrystalline Mg 2 Ni materials were prepared by mechanical alloying. The cyclic voltametry results indicated that the potential of oxidation peak was shift as the scan rate increased and the absorption property of Mg 2 Ni prepared by mechanical alloying was increased even at ambient temperature. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen in Mg 2 Ni alloy were remarkably accelerated with the rising temperature. Small angel X-ray scattering results indicated that the Mg 2 Ni powder have 1-5 nm and 5-10 nm particle size distribution, which increased the acting sites of hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction and decreased the diffusion path of hydrogen desorption. It was induced to the enhanced performance of Mg 2 Ni nanocrystalline powder. The cycle life investigated results indicated that the activation property of Mg 2 Ni nanocrystal-line hydrogen storage alloy electrode was excellent, the capacitance maintenance ration was 66% after 200 cycles. The coating of epoxy resin on one side of the electrode had no effect on the activation property and the capacitance maintenance ration was better than the uncoating one. But the anode peak current value and the cathodic peak current value were decreased remarkably which indicated that the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate and the charge/discharge degree had decreased. (authors)

  10. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  11. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment...... catalysts based on this. Suited for upper-level high school and first-year university students, this exercise involves using a basic two-cell electrochemical setup to test multiple electrode materials as catalysts at one applied potential, and then constructing a volcano curve with the resulting currents...

  12. Effects of Nd-addition on the structural, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of C14 metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Ng, K.Y.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Nd-addition to the AB{sub 2}-based alloy Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 22.8−x}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 7.0}Ni{sub 32.2}Al{sub 0.4}Nd{sub x} is studied for its effects on the structure, gaseous-phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties. This study follows a series of Cu, Mo, Fe, Y, Si, and La doping studies in similar AB{sub 2}-based alloys. Limited solubility of Nd in the main Laves phase promotes the formation of secondary phases (AB and Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}) to provide catalytic effects and synergies for improved capacity and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) performance. The main C14 storage phase has smaller lattice constants and cell volumes, and these effects reduce the storage capacity at higher Nd levels. Different hydrogen absorption mechanisms can occur in these multi-component, multi-phase alloys depending on the interfaces of the phases, and they have effects on the alloy properties. Higher Nd-levels improve the HRD performance despite having lower bulk diffusion and surface exchange current. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate large percentage of larger metallic nickel clusters are present in the surface oxide of alloys with higher Nd-content, and AC impedance studies show very low charge-transfer resistance with high catalytic capability in the alloys. The −40 °C charge-transfer resistance of 8.9 Ω g in this Nd-series of alloys is the lowest measured out of the studies investigating doped AB{sub 2}-based MH alloys for improved low-temperature characteristics. The improvement in HRD and low-temperature performance appears to be related to the proportion of the highly catalytic NdNi-phase at the surface, which must offset the increased bulk diffusion resistance in the alloy. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of hydrogen flow and corresponding PCT isotherms in funneling mode. - Highlights: • Structural and hydrogen storage properties of Nd-substituted AB{sub 2} metal hydride are reported. • Nd contributes to the lowest

  13. In situ synthesis of N and Cu functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 resins and carbons for electrochemical hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, AiGuo; Wang, WenJuan; Yang, Fan; Ding, HanMing; Shan, YongKui [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ShangHai 200062 (China)

    2010-07-15

    N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous resin and carbon materials with bicontinuous cubic structure (FDU-14) were obtained by a novel synthesis method. In this method, block copolymers were used as the templates as well as the precursors for the preparation of these modifying mesoporous materials. The CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the channels of mesoporous FDU-14 resins was gotten by in situ oxidation of the templates in a catalytic redox system containing Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. Simultaneously, the phenol-formaldehyde resin frameworks were in situ functionalized by the amine group resulting from the reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, leading to the formation of N and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified mesoporous FDU-14 resin materials. Its pyrolysis at the different temperatures resulted in the production of N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 resin and carbon materials. The structure and composition of these materials were characterized by the X-ray power diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, and inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurement indicated that N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 carbon materials possessed the enhanced electrochemical hydrogen storage performance. (author)

  14. Fe-Substitution for Ni in Misch Metal-Based Superlattice Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys—Part 1. Structural, Hydrogen Storage, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Fe partially replacing Ni in a misch metal-based superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA were studied. Addition of Fe increases the lattice constants and abundance of the main Ce2Ni7 phase, decreases the NdNi3 phase abundance, and increases the CaCu5 phase when the Fe content is above 2.3 at%. For the gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, Fe incorporation does not change the storage capacity or equilibrium pressure, but it does decrease the change in both entropy and enthalpy. With regard to electrochemistry, >2.3 at% Fe decreases both the full and high-rate discharge capacities due to the deterioration in both bulk transport (caused by decreased secondary phase abundance and consequent lower synergetic effect and surface electrochemical reaction (caused by the lower volume of the surface metallic Ni inclusions. In a low-temperature environment (−40 °C, although Fe increases the reactive surface area, it also severely hinders the ability of the surface catalytic, leading to a net increase in surface charge-transfer resistance. Even though Fe increases the abundance of the beneficial Ce2Ni7 phase with a trade-off for the relatively unfavorable NdNi3 phase, it also deteriorates the electrochemical performance due to a less active surface. Therefore, further surface treatment methods that are able to increase the surface catalytic ability in Fe-containing superlattice alloys and potentially reveal the positive contributions that Fe provides structurally are worth investigating in the future.

  15. Structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, B. [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); Li, X. [FEMTO-ST, MN2S, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, Site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort cedex (France); Khaldi, C., E-mail: chokri.khaldi@esstt.rnu.tn [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); ElKedim, O. [FEMTO-ST, MN2S, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, Site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort cedex (France); Lamloumi, J. [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. • By increasing the temperature the capacity loss, undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the 60 °C. • A good correlation is found between the evolutions of the different electrochemical parameters according to the temperature. - Abstract: The structure and the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling and used as an anode in nickel–metal hydride batteries were studied. Nominal Ti{sub 2}Ni was synthesized under argon atmosphere at room temperature using a planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural and morphological characterization of the amorphous Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical characterization of the Ti{sub 2}Ni electrodes is carried out by the galvanostatic charging and discharging, the constant potential discharge, the open circuit potential and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy, during the first eight cycles, and at a temperature of 30 °C, remained practically unchanged and a good held cycling is observed. By increasing the temperature, the electrochemical discharge capacity loss after eight cycles undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the temperature 60 °C. At 30 °C, the anodic corrosion current density is 1 mA cm{sup −2} and then it undergoes a rapid drop, remaining substantially constant (0.06 mA cm{sup −2}) in the range 40–60 °C, before undergoing a slight increase to 70 °C (0.3 mA cm{sup −2}). This variation is in good agreement with the maximum electrochemical discharge capacity values found for the

  16. Nanosized Magnesium Electrochemically Deposited on a Carbon Nanotubes Suspension: Synthesis and Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqi Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on a novel method for deposition of magnesium (Mg nanoparticles at the surface of carbon materials. Through the suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in an electrolyte containing di-n-butylmagnesium as a precursor, Mg nanoparticles were effectively deposited at the surface of the CNTs as soon as these touched the working electrode. Through this process, CNTs supported Mg particles as small as 1 nm were synthesized and the distribution of the nanoparticles was found to be influenced by the concentration of the CNTs in the electrolyte. Hydrogenation of these nanoparticles at 100°C was found to lead to low temperature hydrogen release starting at 150°C, owing to shorter diffusion paths and higher hydrogen mobility in small Mg particles. However, these hydrogen properties drastically degraded as soon as the hydrogenation temperature exceeded 200°C and this may be related to the low melting temperature of ultrasmall Mg particles.

  17. Nanosized Magnesium Electrochemically Deposited on a Carbon Nanotubes Suspension: Synthesis and Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chaoqi; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois, E-mail: f.aguey@unsw.edu.au [MERLin, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2017-10-17

    Herein, we report on a novel method for deposition of magnesium (Mg) nanoparticles at the surface of carbon materials. Through the suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an electrolyte containing di-n-butylmagnesium as a precursor, Mg nanoparticles were effectively deposited at the surface of the CNTs as soon as these touched the working electrode. Through this process, CNTs supported Mg particles as small as 1 nm were synthesized and the distribution of the nanoparticles was found to be influenced by the concentration of the CNTs in the electrolyte. Hydrogenation of these nanoparticles at 100°C was found to lead to low temperature hydrogen release starting at 150°C, owing to shorter diffusion paths and higher hydrogen mobility in small Mg particles. However, these hydrogen properties drastically degraded as soon as the hydrogenation temperature exceeded 200°C and this may be related to the low melting temperature of ultrasmall Mg particles.

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating with Anticorrosion and Electrochemical Property-Enhancing Effects Applied in Hydrogen Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Li, Na; Zhang, Tong-Ling; Feng, Qing-Ping; Du, Qian; Wu, Xing-Hua; Huang, Gui-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Low-capacity retention is the most prominent problem of the magnesium nickel alloy (Mg 2 Ni), which prevents it from being commercially applied. Here, we propose a practical method for enhancing the cycle stability of the Mg 2 Ni alloy. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) possesses a graphene-based structure, which could provide high-quality barriers that block the hydroxyl in the aqueous electrolyte; it also possesses good hydrophilicity. rGO has been successfully coated on the amorphous-structured Mg 2 Ni alloy via electrostatic assembly to form the rGO-encapsulated Mg 2 Ni alloy composite (rGO/Mg 2 Ni). The experimental results show that ζ potentials of rGO and the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy are totally opposite in water, with values of -11.0 and +22.4 mV, respectively. The crumpled structure of rGO sheets and the contents of the carbon element on the surface of the alloy are measured using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The Tafel polarization test indicates that the rGO/Mg 2 Ni system exhibits a much higher anticorrosion ability against the alkaline solution during charging/discharging. As a result, high-capacity retentions of 94% (557 mAh g -1 ) at the 10th cycle and 60% (358 mAh g -1 ) at the 50th cycle have been achieved, which are much higher than the results on Mg 2 Ni capacity retention combined with the absolute value reported so far to our knowledge. In addition, both the charge-transfer reaction rate and the hydrogen diffusion rate are proven to be boosted with the rGO encapsulation. Overall, this work demonstrates the effective anticorrosion and electrochemical property-enhancing effects of rGO coating and shows its applicability in the Mg-based hydrogen storage system.

  19. Bonding titanium on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage: An electrochemical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieno-Enriquez, K.M.; Ledesma-Garcia, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Qro, C.P. 76703 (Mexico); Perez-Bueno, J.J., E-mail: jperez@cideteq.mx [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Qro, C.P. 76703 (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Qro, C.P. 76703 (Mexico); Terrones, H. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Division de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4o Seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, A.P. 14-805, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    This work explores the use of some procedures, involving electrochemistry, in order to bond atomic Ti on the outer surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). It is assumed that each titanium atom has the potential of host up to four hydrogen molecules and relinquish them by heated. As a way to spread and stick nanotubes on an electrode, a tested route was drying a solution with nanotubes on a glassy carbon flat electrode. The MWNTs were treated by anodic polarization in organic media. Dichloromethane was selected as the medium and titanium tetrachloride as the precursor for attaching atomic Ti onto the nanotubes. The hydrogen adsorption, estimated from voltamperometry was five times higher on Ti-MWNTs that on bare nanotubes. The use of anodic polarization during the preparation of Ti-MWNTs may represent great significance in procedure, which was manifest during the voltamperometric evaluation of samples.

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen storage in ZrCrNiPd{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, F.C. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CAB), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), C. P. 8400, S. C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); CONICET Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peretti, H.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CAB), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), C. P. 8400, S. C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, C. P. 8400, S. C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Visintin, A. [CONICET Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas, Teoricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Suc. 4, C.C.: 16/Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas Provincia de Buenos Aires (C.I.C.), CP: 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The consumption of rechargeable batteries at worldwide level has increased constantly in the last years, mainly due to the use of portable devices such as cellular phones, digital cameras, computers, music and video reproducers, etc. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) is a rechargeable battery system widely used in these devices, also including the most of electrical and hybrid vehicles (EV and HEV). The study of hydride forming alloys is fundamental for its use as negative electrode component in NiMH batteries. In previous works, the electrocatalytic effect of Pd element addition to the electrode, in powder form and by means of electroless technique, has been studied. In this work, AB{sub 2}-type alloys are studied, in which Pd is incorporated to the structure by re-melting inside an arc furnace. The base alloy composition is ZrCrNi, and the composition of the elaborated compounds is ZrCrNiPd{sub x} (x = 0.095 and 0.19). The effect of the composition modification on these materials on properties such as electrochemical discharge capacity, activation and high rate dischargeability (HRD) is analyzed. (author)

  1. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  2. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  3. Cd2SiO4/Graphene nanocomposite: Ultrasonic assisted synthesis, characterization and electrochemical hydrogen storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi-Arani, Maryam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2018-05-01

    For the first time, a simple and rapid sonochemical technique for preparing of pure Cd 2 SiO 4 nanostructures has been developed in presence of various surfactants of SDS, CTAB and PVP. Uniform and fine Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticle was synthesized using of polymeric PVP surfactant and ultrasonic irradiation. The optimized cadmium silicate nanostructures added to graphene sheets and Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposite synthesized through pre-graphenization. Hydrogen storage capacity performances of Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticle and Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposite were compared. Obtained results represent that Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposites have higher hydrogen storage capacity than Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticles. Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposites and Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticles show hydrogen storage capacity of 3300 and 1300 mAh/g, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  5. Structures and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of the As-Spun RE-Mg-Ni-Co-Al-Based AB2-Type Alloys Applied to Ni-MH Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Yuan, Zeming; Shang, Hongwei; Li, Yaqin; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Dongliang

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the La0.8- x Ce0.2Y x MgNi3.5Co0.4Al0.1 ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) alloys were synthesized via smelting and melt spinning. The effect of Y content on the structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics of the as-cast and spun alloys was investigated. The identifications of XRD and SEM demonstrate that the experimental alloys possess a major phase LaMgNi4 and a minor phase LaNi5. The variation of Y content results in an obvious transformation of the phase abundance rather than phase composition in the alloys, namely LaMgNi4 phase increases while LaNi5 phase decreases with Y content growing. Furthermore, the replacement of Y for La causes the lattice constants and cell volume to clearly decrease and markedly refines the alloy grains. The electrochemical tests reveal that these alloys can obtain the maximum values of discharge capacity at the first cycling without any activation needed. With Y content growing, the discharge capacity of the alloys obviously declines, but its cycle stability remarkably improves. Moreover, the electrochemical dynamics of the alloys, involving the high-rate discharge ability, hydrogen diffusion coefficient ( D), limiting current density ( I L), and charge transfer rate, initially augment and then decrease with rising Y content.

  6. Influence of boron introduction on structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti–V-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Shujun; Huang, Jianling; Chu, Hailiang; Zou, Yongjin; Xiang, Cuili; Zhang, Huanzhi; Xu, Fen; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Huaiying

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the properties of Ti–V-based alloys in the electrochemical system, Ti 0.17 Zr 0.08 V 0.35 Cr 0.1 Ni 0.3 B x (x = 0–0.04) alloys were prepared and their structural and electrochemical performances had been systematically investigated in this study. XRD patterns show that they are mainly comprised of a C14 Laves phase and a body centered cubic (BCC) solid solution phase. The introduction of boron has little effect on the structure, while it remarkably influences the electrochemical performances. The cycle life of each electrode made from the studied alloy is obviously improved. For instance, the cycle retention after 200 charge–discharge cycles is more than 90%. Furthermore, high rate dischargeability (HRD) is also enhanced after boron introduction. It is also found that the charge-transfer reaction resistance R ct , the limiting current density I L, and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient D are first decreased and then increased with the increase of boron amount. Taking into consideration various factors, the introduction of boron in the alloy has an optimal value of x = 0.01. - Graphical abstract: Trace amounts of B element was introduced into Ti 0.17 Zr 0.08 V 0.35 Cr 0.1 Ni 0.3 alloys. XRD patterns show that the introduction of B has little effect on the structure, while it remarkably influences the electrochemical performances. The cycle life and the high rate dischargeability (HRD) are obviously improved. - Highlights: • Trace amounts of B element was introduced into Ti–V-based alloys. • Ti 0.17 Zr 0.08 V 0.35 Cr 0.1 Ni 0.3 B 0.01 has an optimal property. • At x = 0.01, C 200 /C max is 89.4% and HRD 800 is 72.5%

  7. Electrochemical investigations of activation and degradation of hydrogen storage alloy electrodes in sealed Ni/MH battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.X.; Xu, Z.D. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Tu, J.P. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-04-01

    The M1Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4} alloy was treated with hot alkaline solution containing a small amount of KBH{sub 4} and its effect on the activation and degradation behaviors of the hydrogen storage alloy electrodes in sealed Ni/MH batteries was investigated. It was found that the treated alloy electrode exhibited a better activation property than the untreated one in the sealed battery as well as in open cell. For the treated alloy electrode activating, the polarization resistance in the sealed battery was almost equal to that in the open cell. But in the case of the untreated alloy electrode activating, the polarization resistance in the sealed battery was larger than that in the open cell. The reason is that the oxide film on the untreated alloy surface suppressed the combination of the oxygen evolved on the positive electrode with hydrogen on the negative alloy surface. In addition, the decaying of capacity of the untreated alloy electrode was much faster than that of the treated one. The reasons were, that after surface treatment, the Ni-rich and Al-poor layer on the alloy surface not only had a high electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen electrode reaction, but also facilitated the combination of the oxygen with hydrogen and hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surface. (author)

  8. Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9 hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Dong Xiaoping; Wang Guoqing; Guo Shihai; Ren Jiangyuan; Wang Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performances of La-Mg-Ni system (PuNi 3 -type) hydrogen storage alloy, a trace of boron was added in La 2 Mg(Ni 0.85 Co 0.15 ) 9 and rapid quenching techniques were used. La 2 Mg(Ni 0.85 Co 0.15 ) 9 B x (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) hydrogen storage alloys were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The microstructures and electrochemical performances of the as-cast and quenched alloys were determined and measured. The effects of the boron content and the quenching rate on the microstructures and electrochemical performances of the alloys were investigated in detail. The obtained results show that the as-cast and quenched alloys are composed of the (La, Mg)Ni 3 phase (PuNi 3 structure), the LaNi 5 phase and the LaNi 2 phase. A trace of the Ni 2 B phase exists in the as-cast alloys containing boron. The Ni 2 B phase in the alloys containing boron nearly disappears after rapid quenching and the relative amount of each phase in the alloys changes with the variety of the quenching rate. The addition of boron obviously enhances the cycle stability of the as-cast and quenched alloys. The effects of boron content on the capacities of the as-cast and quenched alloys are different. The capacities of the as-cast alloys monotonously decrease with the increase of boron content, whereas the capacities of the as-quenched alloys have a maximum value with the change of boron content. The as-cast and quenched alloys have an excellent activation performance

  9. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  10. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  11. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  12. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  13. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  14. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  15. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  16. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  17. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  18. High-temperature electrochemical performance of low-cost La–Ni–Fe based hydrogen storage alloys with different preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiannan [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhu, Ding [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou, Wanhai; Zhong, Chenglin; Wu, Chaoling [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@aliyun.com [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effects of four different preparation processes were studied at 20/60 °C. • All NS + HT, RS and RS + HT processes can optimize the thermodynamic performance. • The HT process can provoke the precipitation of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} and leads to a poor cycling life. • Al exhibits the most remarkable dissolution for all the alloys, especially at 60 °C. - Abstract: In order to optimize the microstructure and high temperature electrochemical performances of low-cost AB{sub 5}-type Ml(NiMnAl){sub 4.2}Co{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage electrode alloys, four different preparation methods including normal solidification (NS), normal solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (NS + HT), rapid solidification (RS), rapid solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (RS + HT) were adopted in this work. All alloys exhibit CaCu{sub 5} type hexagonal structure and there is a small amount of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase in NS + HT and RS + HT alloys. It is found the using of HT process can decrease the hydrogen equilibrium plateau pressure, the plateau slope and hysteresis at 40, 60 and 80 °C. The NS + HT and RS + HT alloys also possess better activation, high rate discharge performance, larger discharge capacity, but poor cycling performance due to the existence of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase which can accelerate dissolution of Ni, Mn and Fe elements in KOH alkaline electrolyte. The RS process can make alloy exhibit the best cycling performance especially at 60 °C.

  19. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  20. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  1. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  2. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  3. Effects of Ni-5%RExOy Composite Additives on Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Performances of Mg2Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Guo-fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-5%RExOy (CeO2, La2O3, Eu2O3 as composite additives, Mg2Ni-Ni-5%RExOy composites were prepared by the ball milling method. The effects of different additives on the structure, morphology, electrochemistry and kinetic properties of Mg2Ni alloy were studied systematically. The results show that composite additives can improve the proportion of amorphous and nanocrystalline structure of Mg2Ni alloy. The particle size is homogeneous but the agglomeration is observed in the sample with Ni-5%CeO2 additives. The composites with additives show higher maximum discharge capacity and better cycle stabilities. All of these three kinds of composite additives can improve the kinetic properties of the composites effectively, including optimizing the charge-transfer ability, the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction on the alloy surface, and enhancing the diffusion coefficients of H atoms in the bulk of alloy. Among these three kinds of additives, Ni-5%CeO2 additive shows the best catalysis effect on promoting the kinetic properties of the composites.

  4. Electrochemical kinetic performances of electroplating Co–Ni on La–Mg–Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Tao, Yang; Ke, Dandan; Ma, Yufei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Han, Shumin, E-mail: hanshm@ysu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Co–Ni composite coating was prepared by electroplating. • The alloy treated at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} has superior kinetic performances. • The Co–Ni layer accelerates the charge transfer rate on the surface of the alloy. - Abstract: Electroplating Co–Ni treatment was applied to the surface of the La{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.48} alloy electrodes in order to improve the electrochemical and kinetic performances. The Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the electrodes were plated with a homogeneous Co–Ni alloy film. The alloy coating significantly improved the high rate dischargeability of the alloy electrode, and the HRD value increased to 57.5% at discharge current density 1875 mA/g after the Co–Ni-coating. The exchange current density I{sub 0}, the limiting current density I{sub L} and the oxidation peak current also increased for the coated alloy. The improvement of overall electrode performances was attributed to an enhancement in electro-catalytic activity and conductivity at the alloy surface, owing to the precipitation of the Co–Ni layer.

  5. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  6. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  7. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  8. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  9. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  10. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  11. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  12. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  13. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  14. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  15. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen storage of Ti-V-based body-centered-cubic phase alloy surface-modified with AB5 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.B.; Walker, G.S.; Grant, D.M.; Wu, Z.; Xia, B.J.; Shen, J.

    2005-01-01

    A composite of Ti-V-based bcc phase alloy surface-modified with AB 5 nanoparticles was prepared by ball milling. The composite showed significantly improved electrochemical hydrogen release capacities. For example, the 30 min ball milled Ti-30V-15Mn-15Cr+10 wt %AB 5 showed a discharge capacity in the first cycle, at 353 K, of 886 mA h g -1 , corresponding to 3.38 wt % of hydrogen, with a 45 mA g -1 discharge current. It is thought that this high capacity is due to the enhanced electrochemical-catalytic activity from the alloy surface covered with AB 5 nanoparticles, which not only have better charge-discharge capacity themselves, acting as both an electrocatalyst and a microcurrent collector, but also result in the greatly enhanced hydrogen atomic diffusivities in the nanocrystalline relative to their conventional coarse-grained counterparts. These results provide new insight for use of Ti-V-based bcc phase alloy for high-energy batteries

  17. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  18. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  19. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  20. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  1. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concepts transferred from the gaseous state. Separation of a ... molecular mass to that calculated by colligative methods. It is important in ... namics is vital in the design and optimization of the materials for hydrogen ... vehicular applications.

  2. Effect of annealing treatment on structure and electrochemical performance of quenched MmNi4.2Co0.3Mn0.4Al0.3Mg0.03 hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zenglin; Song Yueqing; Cui Shun; Huang Changgeng; Qian Wenlian; Lin Chenguang; Zhang Yongjian; Lin Yulin

    2010-01-01

    MmNi 4.2 Co 0.3 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Mg 0.03 hydrogen storage alloy was prepared by single-roll rapid quenching followed by different annealing treatments for 8 h at 1133 K, 1173 K, 1213 K, and 1253 K, respectively. Alloy structure, phase composition, pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties, and electrochemical performance of different annealed alloys have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), automatic Sieverts-type apparatus, and electrochemical experiments. Electrochemical experiments indicate that the annealing treatment at 1213 K extends cycle life from 193 cycles to 358 cycles, increases the maximum discharge capacity, and slightly decreases the activation behavior. Alloy structure analyses show that the improvement in cycle life is attributed to the formation of a single CaCu 5 -type structure or the relief of an Mg-containing AlMnNi 2 -type second phase. Pressure composition isotherms results illustrate that both the hydrogen absorption capability and the dehydriding equilibrium pressure go up with increased annealing temperature. For its good performance/cost ratio, the Mg-added low-Co alloy annealed at 1213 K would be a promising substitution for MmNi 4.05 Co 0.45 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 alloy product.

  3. Phase structure and electrochemical properties of La0.67Mg0.33Ni3.0-xCox (x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahui; Luo Yongchun; Yan Ruxu; Zhang Faliang; Kang Long

    2006-01-01

    La 0.67 Mg 0.33 Ni 3.0-x Co x (x=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) hydrogen storage alloys were prepared by induction melting. Influences of partial substitution of Co for Ni on phase structure and electrochemical properties of La 0.67 Mg 0.33 Ni 3.0 were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and electrochemical measurements. XRD patterns and back scattered electron images show that the alloys were composed of the (La,Mg)Ni 3 phase with the PuNi 3 -type structure and the (La,Mg) 2 Ni 7 phase with the Ce 2 Ni 7 -type structure. The lattice parameters a, c and the unit-cell volumes v vary with the increase of Co content x. The electrochemical measurements show that partial Co substitution for Ni had no influence on the initial activation rate of the alloys. The maximum electrochemical discharge capacity increases firstly then decreases, the high-rate dischargeabilities (HRDs) of La 0.67 Mg 0.33 Ni 3.0-x Co x alloy electrodes increase with the increase of Co content. Moreover, the cycle stabilities of La 0.67 Mg 0.33 Ni 3.0-x Co x is not improved by small quantity replacement Ni by Co except for x=0.75

  4. Hydrogen storage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A summary of the hydride development efforts for the current program year (FY98) are presented here. The Mg-Al-Zn alloy system was studied at low Zn levels (2--4 wt%) and midrange Al contents (40--60 wt%). Higher plateau pressures were found with Al and Zn alloying in Mg and, furthermore, it was found that the hydrogen desorption kinetics were significantly improved with small additions of Zn. Results are also shown here for a detailed study of the low temperature properties of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and a comparison made between conventional melt cast alloy and the vapor process material.

  5. Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A. R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in mobile and stationary applications. A relevant role of the fuel cell powered vehicles on the market of the transportation systems will be achieved only if the research and development of on-board vehicular hydrogen storage are able to allow a driving range of at least 500 km. The on-board hydrogen storage systems are more challenging due to the space, weight and cost limitations. This range of autonomy between refueling requires materials able to store at least 6.5% weight hydrogen, available at moderate pressures, at the working temperature of the fuel cells and with acceptable cycling stability. The intensive research on the hydrogen storage in alloys and intermetallic of the LaNi 5 , FeTi or Laves phase type compounds, which started more than three decades ago did not resulted in materials of more than about 3% H storage capacities. The 7.5% H content of the Mg hydride is still of attracting interest but though the absorption has been achieved at lower temperatures by ball milling magnesium with various amounts of nickel, the desorption can not be attained at 1 bar H 2 below 280 deg. C and the kinetics of the process is too slow. In the last decade, the attention is focused on another class of compounds, the complex hydrides of aluminum with alkali metals (alanates), due to their high hydrogen content. It was found that doping with Ti-based catalysts improve the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation conditions of NaAlH 4 . Later on, it was shown that ball milling with solid state catalysts greatly improve the hydrogen desorption kinetics of NaAlH 4 , and this also helps to the rehydriding process. The hydrogen desorption from NaAlH 4 occurs in three steps, it shows a reversible storage capacity of 5.5% H and this led to further research work for a better knowledge of its application relating properties. In this work, ball milling experiments on Na

  6. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  7. Effect of fluorination treatment on electrochemical properties of M1Ni{sub 3.5}Co{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongxia, E-mail: hhxhunan@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin (China); Huang, Kelong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University (China)

    2012-05-15

    The influence of surface treatment by solutions of NH{sub 4}F, LiF and LiF containing KBH{sub 4} on the structure and electrochemical properties of the M1Ni{sub 3.5}Co{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage alloy (in which M1 denotes mischmetal) is investigated. The fluorination treatment improves the electrochemical performances of the M1Ni{sub 3.5}Co{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.5} alloy. The maximum discharge capacity (C{sub max}) increases from 314.8 to 325.7 (NH{sub 4}F), 326.5 (LiF) and 316.4 mAh g{sup -1} (LiF+KBH{sub 4}). After 60 cycles, the capacity retention rate increases from 83.5 to 84.8% (NH{sub 4}F), 89.5% (LiF) and 93.9% (LiF+KBH{sub 4}). The results of the linear polarization and anodic polarization reveal that the exchange current density (I{sub 0}) and the limiting current density (I{sub L}) increase after fluorination treatment, indicating an improvement of the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption/desorption. (author)

  8. Electrochemical energy storage. Vol. 1. Fundamentals, aqueous storage batteries. Elektrochemische Energiespeicher. Bd. 1. Grundlagen, waessrige Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F; Euler, K J

    1984-01-01

    Vol. 1 is a synthesis of electrochemical, battery-technical and energy industry aspects. The role of energy storage systems in the energy industry, e.g. in connection with a hydrogen technology, is discussed along with the thermodynamic, kinetic, materials-technical and process engineering fundamentals. ''Classic'' and new systems are described in full detail for the first time. Cyclisation and technical/economic criteria of selection are discussed. (orig./GG).

  9. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1, high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.

  10. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  11. NRCan's hydrogen storage R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepanovic, V.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has been working in partnership with industry, other government departments and academia to expedite the development of hydrogen technologies. NRCan's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R and D Program covers all aspects of hydrogen technologies: production, storage, utilization and codes and standards. Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of fuel cell power systems in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. NRCan's storage program has been focused on developing storage materials and technologies for a range of applications with the emphasis on transportation. An overview of most recent hydrogen storage projects including pressurized hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and storage in hydrides and carbon-based materials will be given. (author)

  12. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  13. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  14. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  15. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-07

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  16. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  17. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  18. Magnesium mechanical alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Konstanchuk, I.; Stepanov, A.; Boldyrev, V.

    1985-01-01

    Metal hybrides are currently being used to store and handle hydrogen and its isotopes. They are also being tested in hydrogen compressors and in heat energy, refrigerators and in hydrogen and thermal storage devices. Metal hydrides have been proposed as one of the possible media for hydrogen storage to overcome the limitations of other techniques in regard to safety hydrogen weight and volume ration. The suitability of metal hybrides as a hydrogen storage media depends on a number of factors such as storage capacity, reactivity with hydrogen at various pressures and temperatures, and the cost of base materials. Magnesium based alloys are promising materials for storing hydrogen. They are generally made by argon melting and no attention has been payed to other fabrication techniques such as mechanical alloying or powder technique

  19. The electrochemical properties of Zr-Ti-V-Ni-Mn hydrogen storage alloys with various compositions for an electrode of Ni-MH secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jun; Jung, So Yi; Park, Choong Nyeon [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Effects of alloy modification for the Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.4} alloy as an electrode materials have been investigated. When Ti in the alloy was partially substituted by Zr, the hydrogen storage capacity and subsequently the discharge capacity increased significantly, however, the activation characteristic and rate capability decreased. By substituting Mn with other elements (Cr, Co and Fe) in the alloy, discharge capacity decreased but the cycle life and rate capability were improved. Considering both the discharge capacity, the high rate discharge property and cycle life, the Zaire.{sub 7}Ti{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.1} alloy among the alloys subjected to the test was found to be a prominent alloy for a practical usage. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  1. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  2. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  4. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...

  5. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  6. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity over Electro-synthesized HKUST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-BTC2] (BTC = benzene-tri-carboxylate was synthesized using an electrochemical method and tested for hydrogen storage. The obtained material showed a remarkably higher hydrogen uptake over reported HKUST-1 and reached until 4.75 wt% at room temperature and low pressure up to 1.2 bar. This yield was compared to HKUST-1 obtained from the solvothermal method, which showed a hydrogen uptake of only 1.19 wt%. Enhancement of hydrogen sorption of the electro-synthesized product was due to the more appropriate surface area and pore size, effected by the preferable physical interaction between the hydrogen gasses and the copper ions as unsaturated metal centers in the frameworks of HKUST-1.

  7. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  8. Metal ammine complexes for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Johannessen, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The hopes of using hydrogen as an energy carrier are severely dampened by the fact that there is still no safe, high-density method available for storing hydrogen. We investigate the possibility of using metal ammine complexes as a solid form of hydrogen storage. Using Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2 as the example......, we show that it can store 9.1% hydrogen by weight in the form of ammonia. The storage is completely reversible, and by combining it with an ammonia decomposition catalyst, hydrogen can be delivered at temperatures below 620 K....

  9. Fabrication characteristics and hydrogenation behavior of hydrogen storage alloys for sealed Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Jeon Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Oh, Ik-Hyun; Choi, Jeon; Park, Choong Nyeon

    2008-08-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys based on LmNi4.2Co0.2Mn0.3Al0.3 were fabricated to study the equilibrium hydrogen pressure and electrochemical performance. The surface morphology and structure of the alloys were analyzed by SEM and XRD, and then the hydrogenation behaviors of all alloys were evaluated by PCT and electrochemical half-cell. We studied the hydrogenation behavior of the Lm-based alloy with changes in composition elements such as Mn, Al, and Co and investigated the optimal design for Lm-based alloy in a sealed battery system. As a result of studying the hydrogenation characterization of alloys with the substitution elements, hydrogen storage alloys such as LmNi3.75Co0.15Mn0.5Al0.3 and LmNi3.5Co0.5Mn0.5Al0.5 were obtained to correspond with the characteristics of a sealed battery with a higher capacity, long life cycle, lower internal pressure, and lower battery cost. The capacity preservation rate of LmNi3.5Co0.5Mn0.5Al0.5 was greatly improved to 92.7% (255 mAh/g) at 60 cycles, indicating a low equilibrium hydrogen pressure of 0.03 atm in PCT devices.

  10. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  11. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  12. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  13. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  14. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  15. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  16. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  17. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  18. Hydrogen storage - are we making progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.; Milliken, J.; Satyapal, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The efficient storage of hydrogen in compact, lightweight systems that allow greater than 300-mile range has been identified as one of the major technical challenges facing the practical commercialization of fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles. Following the hydrogen vision announced by President Bush in his 2003 State of the Union address, the U.S. Department of Energy issued a Grand Challenge, soliciting ideas from universities, national laboratories, and industry. DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, an aggressive and innovative research program focused on materials R and D, will be launched in Fiscal Year 2005. An intensive effort is also underway in the private sector, both in the U.S. and abroad, to meet the challenging on-board hydrogen storage requirements. A historical perspective of hydrogen storage research and development will be provided and the current DOE technical targets for hydrogen storage systems will be discussed. The state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage will be summarized and recent progress assessed. Finally future research directions and areas of technical emphasis will be described. (author)

  19. Electrochemical hydrogen storage behaviour of as-cast and as-spun RE-Mg-Ni-Mn-based alloys applied to Ni-MH battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Hou, Zhonghui; Hu, Feng [Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources; Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research; Cai, Ying [Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Dongliang [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research

    2016-09-15

    La-Mg-Ni-Mn-based AB{sub 2}-type La{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.5}Mn{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys were fabricated by melt spinning. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the experimental alloys consisted of a major phase LaMgNi{sub 4} and a secondary phase LaNi{sub 5}. The Ce substitution for La and melt spinning refined the grains of the alloys clearly. Electrochemical tests showed that the as-cast and as-spun alloys exhibited excellent activation capability. With the increase in the spinning rate and Ce content, the discharge capacities of the alloys initially increased and then decreased, whereas their cycle stabilities always increased. Moreover, the electrochemical kinetics of the alloys initially increased and then decreased with the growth of Ce content and spinning rate. The major reason leading to the capacity degradation of the alloy electrodes was determined to be the pulverisation of the alloy particles and the corrosion and oxidation of the alloy surface.

  20. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  1. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  2. A kinetic study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, S.; Gardner, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the kinetics of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene in a PEM reactor. While in itself this reaction is of little industrial interest, this reaction can be looked upon as a model reaction for many of the important hydrogenation processes including the refining of heavy oils and the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To study the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene, several experimental techniques have been used including polarization measurements, measurement of the composition of the exit gases and potential step, transient measurements. The results show that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds rapidly and essentially to completion. By fitting the experimental transient data to the results from a zero-dimensional mathematical model of the process, a set of kinetic parameters for the reactions has been obtained that give generally good agreement with the experimental results. It seems probable that similar experimental techniques could be used to study the electrochemical hydrogenation of other unsaturated organic molecules of more industrial significance.

  3. Metal–organic frameworks for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has received increasing attention worldwide because they possess versatile structures, high surface areas, large free volumes, ultrahigh porosities, and tunable pore...

  4. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  5. Electrochemical Properties of Hydrogen-Storage Alloys ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x} and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x} for Ni-MH Secondary Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ryoung [Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Kwon, Ik Hyun [Automobile High-Technology Research Institute, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of AB{sub 2}-type hydrogen-storage alloys for Ni-MH secondary battery, AB{sub 2}-type alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) were prepared as the Zr-Mn-Ni three component alloys. The hydrogen-storage and the electrochemical properties were investigated. The C14 Laves phase formed in all alloys of ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.5 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6} was the easiest to activate, and it had the largest discharge capacity as well as the best cycling performance. The C14 Laves phase also formed in all alloys of ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.45 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} was the easiest to activate, taking only 3 charge-discharge cycles, and it had the largest discharge capacity of 42 mAh/g. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4), ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} had the largest discharge capacity (maximum value of 42 mAh/g), and it showed the fastest activation and good cycling performance. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Multi-component hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Syed A.; Lewis, Gregory J.; Sachtler, J.W. Adriaan; Low, John J.; Lesch, David A.; Dosek, Paul M.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Siegel, Donald J.; Sudik, Andrea C.; Yang, Jun

    2010-09-07

    A reversible hydrogen storage composition having an empirical formula of: Li.sub.(x+z)N.sub.xMg.sub.yB.sub.zH.sub.w where 0.4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8; 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.6; 0hydrogen storage compared to binary systems such as MgH.sub.2--LiNH.sub.2.

  7. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  8. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  9. The electrochemistry and modelling of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Vermeulen, P.; Ledovskikh, A.V.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Mg-based alloys are promising hydrogen storage materials because of the high gravimetric energy density of MgH 2 (7.6 wt.%). A major disadvantage, however, is its very slow desorption kinetics. It has been argued that, in contrast to the well-known rutile-structured Mg hydride, hydrided Mg-transition metal alloys have a much more open crystal structure facilitating faster hydrogen transport. In this paper, the electrochemical aspects of new Mg-Sc and Mg-Ti materials will be reviewed. Storage capacities as high as 6.5 wt.% hydrogen have been reached with very favourable discharge kinetics. A theoretical description of hydrogen storage materials has also been developed by our group. A new lattice gas model is presented and successfully applied to simulate the thermodynamic properties of various hydride-forming materials. The simulation results are expressed by parameters corresponding to several energy contributions, for example mutual atomic hydrogen interaction energies. A good fit of the lattice gas model to the experimental data is found in all cases

  10. Hydrogen storage by polylithiated molecules and nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Er, S.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study polylithiated molecules as building blocks for hydrogen storage materials, using first-principles calculations. CLi4 and OLi2 bind 12 and 10 hydrogen molecules, respectively, with an average binding energy of 0.10 and 0.13 eV, leading to gravimetric densities of 37.8 and 40.3 wt % of H2.

  11. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  12. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  13. Treatment and storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Back, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Eom, K. Y.; Lee, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Storage of gaseous hydrogen isotopes in a cylinder is a well-established technology. However, Immobilization in the solid form is preferred for long-term storage of radioactive isotope gas because of the concern for leakage of the gas. The experimental thermodynamic p-c-T data show that Ti and U soak up hydrogen isotope gas at a temperature of a few hundred .deg. C and modest pressures. It was found that more hydrogen is dissolved in the metal than deuterium at constant pressure. Thus, the lighter isotope tends to be enriched in the solid phase

  14. Effects of additive Pd on the structures and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33}-based composites or alloys with BCC phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhuang, Xiangyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhu, Yunfeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhan, Leyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Pu, Zhenggan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wan, Neng [SEU-FEI Nano Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, Liquan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Additive Pd in Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33} benefits to form a ternary BCC alloy. • Introducing 5.0 at.% Pd in Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33} lifts the initial discharge capacity from 10 mAh/g to maximum 530 mAh/g. • Exchange current density was increased due to the homogeneously dispersed Pd. • Additive Pd slightly enhances the hydrogen diffusion coefficient of Mg-Co-Pd composites or alloys. - Abstract: Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33} and Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33}-Pd composites/alloys prepared by ball milling for 120 h possess nano-crystalline with body-centered cubic (BCC) structure, which was verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The introduced 5.0 at.% Pd significantly lifts the initial discharge capacity from 10 mAh g{sup -1} of Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33} to maximum 530 mAh g{sup -1}. Pd also drives the Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33}-Pd composite forming a full BCC alloy during ball milling. The distribution of Pd gradually becomes homogeneous with the augmentation of the ball milling time according to the analyses by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Exchange current density increased with the milling time and can be ascribed to the homogeneously dispersion of Pd over the surface. The introduced Pd also enhances the hydrogen diffusion coefficient of the Mg{sub 67}Co{sub 33}-Pd composites/alloys.

  15. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  16. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  17. Positron annihilation study of hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu; Araki, Hideki; Sakaki, Kouji

    2003-01-01

    Some AB 5 and AB 2 hydrogen storage alloys have been characterized by using positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It has been shown that they contain no constitutional vacancies and that deviations from the stoichiometric compositions are all compensated by antistructure atoms. Positron lifetimes in fully-annealed LaNi 5-x Al x and MmNi 5-x Al x alloys show good correlation with their hydrogen desorption pressures. On the other hand, surprising amounts of vacancies together with dislocations have been found to be generated during the first hydrogen absorption process of LaNi 5 and ZrMn 2 . These lattice defects play important role in hydrogen absorption-desorption processes of hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  18. Hydrogen storage in thin film magnesium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niessen, R.A. H.; Notten, P.H. L.

    2005-01-01

    Thorough electrochemical materials research has been performed on thin films of novel magnesium-scandium hydrogen storage alloys. It was found that palladium-capped thin films of Mg x Sc (1-x) with different compositions (ranging from x=0.50 -0.90) show an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of more than 5-20% as compared to their bulk equivalents using even higher discharge rates. The maximum reversible hydrogen storage capacity at the optimal composition (Mg 80 Sc 20 ) amounts to 1795-bar mAh/g corresponding to a hydrogen content of 2.05 H/M or 6.7-bar wt.%, which is close to five times that of the commonly used hydride-forming materials in commercial NiMH batteries. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) measurements show that the equilibrium pressure during discharge is lower than that of bulk powders by one order of magnitude (10 -7 -bar mbar versus 10 -6 -bar mbar, respectively)

  19. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  20. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will lie the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio[l]. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to be the most promising [2]. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and

  1. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will be the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to lie the most promising. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and higher

  2. The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuochih

    The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys in the 1980s resulted in the birth and growth of the rechargeable nickel hydride (Ni/MH) battery. In this paper we describe briefly a semi-empirical electrochemical/thermodynamic approach to develop/screen a hydrogen storage alloy for electrochemical application. More specifically we will discuss the AB x Ti/Zr-based alloys. Finally, the current state of the Ni/MH batteries including commercial manufacture processes, cell performance and applications is given.

  3. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  4. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simultaneous purification and storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Weber, R.; Carlson, E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Specially coated magnesium particles have been shown to selectively absorb hydrogen from a hydrogen-rich gas stream such as reformate. These coated magnesium particles can store the absorbed hydrogen as required and subsequently deliver pure hydrogen, just as uncoated magnesium particles can. These coated magnesium particles could be used in a device that accepts a steady stream of reformate, as from a methane reformer, stores the selectively absorbed hydrogen indefinitely, and delivers purified hydrogen on demand. Unfortunately, this coating (magnesium nitride) has been shown to degrade over a period of several weeks, so that the magnesium within evidences progressively lower storage capacity. The authors are investigating two other coatings, one of which might be applicable to hydridable metals other than magnesium, to replace magnesium nitride.

  6. Analysis of hydrogen content and distribution in hydrogen storage alloys using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Satake, Yuichi; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Small amounts of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys, such as Mg 2 Ni, were detected using neutron radiography (NRG). Hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogenated solid solution were determined by this technique. Furthermore, we were able to obtain NRG images for an initial stage of hydrogen absorption in the hydrogen storage alloys. NRG would be a new measurement method to clarify the behavior of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  7. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  8. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  9. Nanoengineered Carbon Scaffolds for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hudson, J. L.; Fan, H.; Booker, R.; Simpson, L. J.; O' Neill, K. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Heben, M. J.; Pasquali, M.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers were engineered to become a scaffold for the storage of hydrogen. Carbon nanotube fibers were swollen in oleum (fuming sulfuric acid), and organic spacer groups were covalently linked between the nanotubes using diazonium functionalization chemistry to provide 3-dimensional (3-D) frameworks for the adsorption of hydrogen molecules. These 3-D nanoengineered fibers physisorb twice as much hydrogen per unit surface area as do typical macroporous carbon materials. These fiber-based systems can have high density, and combined with the outstanding thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes, this points a way toward solving the volumetric and heat-transfer constraints that limit some other hydrogen-storage supports.

  10. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  11. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Tan, C.D.; Hidalgo, R.; Baker, R.T.K.; Rodriguez, N.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-08-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNF) are a type of material that is produced by the decomposition of carbon containing gases over metal catalyst particles at temperatures around 600 C. These molecularly engineered structures consist of graphene sheets perfectly arranged in a parallel, perpendicular or at angle orientation with respect to the fiber axis. The most important feature of the material is that only edges are exposed. Such an arrangement imparts the material with unique properties for gas adsorption because the evenly separated layers constitute the most ordered set of nanopores that can accommodate an adsorbate in the most efficient manner. In addition, the non-rigid pore walls can also expand so as to accommodate hydrogen in a multilayer conformation. Of the many varieties of structures that can be produced the authors have discovered that when gram quantities of a selected number of GNF are exposed to hydrogen at pressures of {approximately} 2,000 psi, they are capable of adsorbing and storing up to 40 wt% of hydrogen. It is believed that a strong interaction is established between hydrogen and the delocalized p-electrons present in the graphite layers and therefore a new type of chemistry is occurring within these confined structures.

  12. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  13. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  14. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  15. Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Aly Mahmoud El Osery.

    1980-01-01

    Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

  16. Hydrogen storage via polyhydride complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M.; Zidan, R.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH{sub 4} is catalyzed in toluene slurries of the NaAlH{sub 4} containing the pincer complex, IrH{sub 4} {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}{r_brace}. The rates of the pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation are about five times greater those previously found for NaAlH{sub 4} that was doped with titanium through a wet chemistry method. Homogenization of NaAlH{sub 4} with 2 mole % Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} under an atmosphere of argon produces a novel titanium containing material. TPD measurements show that the dehydrogenation of this material occurs about 30 C lower than that previously found for wet titanium doped NaAlH{sub 4}. In further contrast to wet doped NaAlH{sub 4}, the dehydrogenation kinetics and hydrogen capacity of the novel material are undiminished over several dehydriding/hydriding cycles. Rehydrogenation of the titanium doped material occurs readily at 170 C under 150 atm of hydrogen. TPD measurements show that about 80% of the original hydrogen content (4.2 wt%) can be restored under these conditions.

  17. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  18. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  19. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  20. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  1. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  2. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-21

    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  3. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yue; Hill, James M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

  4. Hydrogen storage property of nanoporous carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Liu Nianping; Ouyang Ling; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Ni Xingyuan; Zhang Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Carbon aerogels were prepared from resorcinol and formaldehyde via sol-gel process, high temperature carbonization and atmospheric pressure drying technology with solvent replacement. By changing the resorcinol-sodium carbonate molar ratio and the mass fraction of the reactants,resorcinol and formaldehyde, the pore structure of carbon aerogels can be controlled and the palladium-doped carbon aerogels were prepared.By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, it is confirmed that the Pd exists in the skeleton structure of carbon aerogels as a form of nano simple substance pellet. The specific surface area is successfully raised by 2 times, and palladium-doped carbon aerogels with a specific surface area of 1 273 m 2 /g have been obtained by carrying out the activation process as the post-processing to the doped carbon aerogels. The hydrogen adsorption results show that the saturated hydrogen storage mass fraction of the carbon aerogels with the specific surface area of 3 212 m 2 /g is 3% in the condition of 92 K, 3.5 MPa, and 0.84% in the condition of 303 K, 3.2 MPa. In addition, the hydrogen adsorption test of palladium-doped carbon aerogels at room temperature (303 K) shows that the total hydrogen storage capacity of doped carbon aerogels is declined due to the relative small specific surface, but the hydrogen storage of unit specific surface area is enhanced. (authors)

  5. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  6. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  7. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  8. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  9. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  10. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  11. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  12. Redox Flow Batteries, Hydrogen and Distributed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Véronique; Peljo, Pekka; Toghill, Kathryn E; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Social, economic, and political pressures are causing a shift in the global energy mix, with a preference toward renewable energy sources. In order to realize widespread implementation of these resources, large-scale storage of renewable energy is needed. Among the proposed energy storage technologies, redox flow batteries offer many unique advantages. The primary limitation of these systems, however, is their limited energy density which necessitates very large installations. In order to enhance the energy storage capacity of these systems, we have developed a unique dual-circuit architecture which enables two levels of energy storage; first in the conventional electrolyte, and then through the formation of hydrogen. Moreover, we have begun a pilot-scale demonstration project to investigate the scalability and technical readiness of this approach. This combination of conventional energy storage and hydrogen production is well aligned with the current trajectory of modern energy and mobility infrastructure. The combination of these two means of energy storage enables the possibility of an energy economy dominated by renewable resources.

  13. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  14. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  15. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution: Sabatier's Principle and the Volcano Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anders B.; Varela, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, Fabio; Fanchiu, Hank; Miller, Chandler; Trinhammer, Ole L.; Rossmeisl, Jan; Dahl, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment combined with results from density functional…

  16. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  17. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The design and characterization of new materials for hydrogen storage is an important area of research, as the ability to store hydrogen at lower pressures and higher temperatures than currently feasible would lower operating costs for small hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent promising materials for use in storing hydrogen in this capacity. MOFs are highly porous, three-dimensional crystalline solids that are formed via linkages between metal ions (e.g., iron, nickel, and zinc) and organic molecules. MOFs can store hydrogen via strong adsorptive interactions between the gas molecules and the pores of the framework, providing a high surface area for gas adsorption and thus the opportunity to store hydrogen at significantly lower pressures than with current technologies. By lowering the energy required for hydrogen storage, these materials hold promise in rendering hydrogen a more viable fuel for motor vehicles, which is a highly desirable outcome given the clean nature of hydrogen fuel cells (water is the only byproduct of combustion) and the current state of global climate change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. The work presented in this report is the result of collaborative efforts between researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and General Motors Corporation (GM) to discover novel MOFs promising for H2 storage and characterize their properties. Described herein are several new framework systems with improved gravimetric and volumetric capacity to strongly bind H2 at temperatures relevant for vehicle storage. These materials were rigorously characterized using neutron diffraction, to determine the precise binding locations of hydrogen within the frameworks, and high-pressure H2 adsorption measurements, to provide a comprehensive picture of H2 adsorption at all relevant pressures. A

  18. Applications of hydrogen peroxide in electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto Armando

    1998-12-01

    It is demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide can be produced with a current efficiency of 40-70% by the cathodic reduction of oxygen at a reticulated vitreous carbon electrode in a divided flow-cell using catholytes consisting of aqueous chloride or sulphate media, pH >>{sub 2}. The supporting electrolyte does not influence either the current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or its rate of production. The current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not a strong function of the potential and this suggests that 2e- and 4e- reduction of oxygen occurs in parallel at different sites on the carbon surface. Voltammetry experiments showed that (a) the I-E response for oxygen reduction at pH >>{sub 2} is a function of the electrode surface and/or the supporting electrolyte; (b) both H{sub 2} evolution and oxygen reduction are retarded on carbon with increasing ionic strength; (c) the presence of ferrous ions lead to the homogeneous decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} away from the cathode surface but their effectiveness as a catalyst for this decomposition depends on their speciation in solution which changes during an electrolysis. The use of a three-dimensional electrode fabricated from reticulated vitreous carbon allows Fenton`s reagent to be electroproduced at a practical rate which makes possible the removal of organics in slightly acidic aqueous media. A wide range of highly toxic organic molecules (phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, oxalic acid, aniline, cresol and amaranth) have been oxidised in mild conditions and a significant fraction of the organic carbon is evolved as CO{sub 2}. In all cases studied the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) was depleted to levels higher than 85%, indicating a complete mineralisation of the organic pollutants. The life-time of the reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was demonstrated to be over 1000 hours during two and a half years of experiments. During this time the cathode performance was very good, leading to

  19. Development of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinji Oshima; Osamu Kato; Takeshi Kataoka; Yoshihiro Kobori; Michiaki Adachi [Hydrogen and New Energy Research Laboratory Nippon Oil Corporation 8, Chidoricho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, 231-0815 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    To achieve hydrogen storage of more than 5 mass%, we are focusing on porous materials that consist of light elements. At WHEC 15, we reported that KOH-activated bamboo charcoal showed 0.79 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. After examining various carbon materials, we found that carbonized and KOH-activated polyacrylonitrile fibers showed 1.0 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. When the pressure was raised to 35 MPa, this material showed 1.5 mass% hydrogen uptake at 303 K. Besides porous carbon, other materials, such as coordination polymers, were examined. Since these materials contain elements other than carbon, different adsorption phenomena may be expected. Although the values of their hydrogen uptakes are still lower than those of carbon materials, a coordination polymer which showed 0.38 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K was revealed to give an adsorption density of 47 kg/m{sup 3} at 0.1 MPa and 77 K, the highest value reported for a coordination polymer. (authors)

  20. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  1. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  2. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  3. Modified Borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Au

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing de-hydriding temperature and generating de-hydriding-re-hydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature. (authors)

  4. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  5. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  6. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  7. Enhanced hydrogen storage in sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid papers through hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qin, Wei; Jian, Jiahuang; Liu, Jiawei; Wu, Xiaohong; Gao, Peng; Hultman, Benjamin; Wu, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based two-dimensional (2D) structures have been fabricated for electrochemical hydrogen storage. However, the effective transfer of atomic hydrogen to adjacent rGO surfaces is suppressed by binders, which are widely used in conventional electrochemical hydrogen storage electrodes, leading to a confining of the performance of rGO for hydrogen storage. As a proof of concept experiment, a novel strategy is developed to fabricate the binder-free sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid paper via facile ball milling and filtration process. Based on the structure investigation, Co1-xS is immobilized in the space between the individual rGO sheets by the creation of chemical "bridges" (Csbnd S bonds). Through the Csbnd S bonds, the atomic hydrogen is transferred from Co1-xS to rGO accompanying a Csbnd H chemical bond formation. When used as an electrode, the hybrid paper exhibits an improved hydrogen storage capacity of 3.82 wt% and, most importantly, significant cycling stability for up to 50 cycles. Excluding the direct hydrogen storage contribution from the Co1-xS in the hybrid paper, the hydrogen storage ability of rGO is enhanced by 10× through the spillover effects caused by the Co1-xS modifier.

  8. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  9. Recent Advances in Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-06-18

    Climate change and the energy crisis have promoted the rapid development of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Owing to many intriguing physicochemical properties, such as excellent chemical stability, high electronic conductivity, and a large specific surface area, porous carbon materials have always been considering as a promising candidate for electrochemical energy storage. To date, a wide variety of porous carbon materials based upon molecular design, pore control, and compositional tailoring have been proposed for energy-storage applications. This focus review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis of various porous carbon materials from the view of energy storage, particularly in the past three years. Their applications in representative electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and lithium-ion hybrid capacitors, are discussed in this review, with a look forward to offer some inspiration and guidelines for the exploitation of advanced carbon-based energy-storage materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  11. Hydrogen storage in hybrid of layered double hydroxides/reduced graphene oxide using spillover mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi; Nabiyan, Afshin; Rezaei, Behzad; Dinari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    New efficient hydrogen storage hybrids were fabricated based on hydrogen spillover mechanism, including chemisorptions and dissociation of H_2 on the surface of LDH (layered double hydroxides) and diffusion of H to rGO (reduced graphene oxide). The structures and compositions of all of the hybrids (LDHs/rGO) have been verified using different methods including transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Then, the abilities of the LDHs/rGOs, as hydrogen spillover, were investigated by electrochemical methods. In addition, the LDHs/rGOs were decorated with palladium, using redox replacement process, and their hydrogen spillover properties were studied. The results showed that the hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, hydrogen storage capacities and stabilities of Pd"#LDH/rGOs are better than Pd/rGO. Finally presence of different polymers (synthesis with monomers, 4–aminophenol, 4–aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine) at the surface of the Pd#LDH/rGOs on hydrogen storage were studied. The results showed that presence of o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine improves the kinetics of the hydrogen adsorption/desorption and increase the capacity of the hydrogen storage. - Highlights: • Efficient hydrogen storage sorbents are introduced. • The sorbents are synthesized based on hybrids of layered double hydroxide. • The compositions of all of the hybrids are verified using different methods. • Pd nanoparticles modified nanohybrids are investigated for hydrogen storage. • Presence of different polymers beside the hydrogen sorbents are investigated.

  12. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  13. Hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, M. G.; Santana, C. C.; Santos, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Reversible reactions between hydrogen and such materials as iron/titanium and magnesium/ nickel alloy may provide a means for storing hydrogen fuel. A demonstration model of an iron/titanium hydride storage bed is described. Hydrogen from the hydride storage bed powers a converted gasoline electric generator.

  14. Hydrogen Storage using Physisorption : Modified Carbon Nanofibers and Related Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Marije Gessien

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes our research on adsorbent systems for hydrogen storage for small scale, mobile application. Hydrogen storage is a key element in the change-over from the less efficient and polluting internal combustion engine to the pollution-free operating hydrogen fuel cell. In general,

  15. Photoproduction of Hydrogen by Decamethylruthenocene Combined with Electrochemical Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Lucie; Peljo, Pekka; Vannay, Laurent A C; Gschwend, Grégoire C; Méndez, Manuel A; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Scanlon, Micheál D; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-02-20

    The photoinduced hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by decamethylruthenocene, Cp 2 *Ru II (Cp*=C 5 Me 5 ), is reported. The use of a metallocene to photoproduce hydrogen is presented as an alternative strategy to reduce protons without involving an additional photosensitizer. The mechanism was investigated by (spectro)electrochemical and spectroscopic (UV/Vis and 1 H NMR) measurements. The photoactivated hydride involved was characterized spectroscopically and the resulting [Cp 2 *Ru III ] + species was electrochemically regenerated in situ on a fluorinated tin oxide electrode surface. A promising internal quantum yield of 25 % was obtained. Optimal experimental conditions- especially the use of weakly coordinating solvent and counterions-are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates...... sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively....

  17. A study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of o-xylene in a PEM hydrogenation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonocho, R.; Gardner, C.L.; Ternan, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the electrochemical hydrogenation of o-xylene in a proton exchange membrane hydrogenation reactor (PEMHR). The reactor was operated isothermally over the temperature range 20–68 °C and at a pressure of 1 atm in a semi-batch mode. Hydrogen was fed into the anode compartment and o-xylene into the cathode. The hydrogenation efficiency was investigated at different current densities and temperatures. Results obtained show that the hydrogenation efficiency increases with temperature but decreases with current density. At low current densities the hydrogenation efficiency approaches 100%. A zero dimensional model was used to fit the data and extract a rate constant for the hydrogenation reaction. The activation energy for this reaction was found to be 28 kJ/mole.

  18. Electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue on hydrogen terminated silicon(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianwei; Zhang Yan; Shi Chuanguo; Chen, Hongyuan; Tong Lianming; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue (PB) was performed by cyclic voltammetry on hydrogen terminated n-type Si(111) surface. The characterization of the samples based on atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy showed a nanocrystal form of the PB films on the silicon surface. The thickness of PB films as a function of the potential cycling number was monitored simultaneously by Raman spectroscopy, proving that the growth of the films is in a good controllable manner

  19. Thermogravimetric research of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleperis, J; Grinberga, L; Ergle, M; Chikvaidze, G; Klavins, J

    2007-01-01

    During thermogravimetric research of metal hydrides we noticed mass growth of samples above 200 deg. C even in an argon atmosphere. Further heating is leading to the growth of weight up to 2-7 weight% till 500 0 C. Second run of the same sample without taking out of DTA instrument gave only small mass changes, indicating that noticed mass increase during first run is permanent. Microscope and elemental analyses were made to determine the reason of mass growth. XRD inspection revealed the formation of new phase with bunsenite NiO structure with deformed cubic structure. The new phase is no more active to hydrogen sorption/desorption. Our results demonstrated that the usage of hydrogen storage alloys AB 5 must be taken with care - it is important not to exceed some critical temperature were irreversible structural, compositional and morphological changes will occur

  20. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunita Satyapal; Carole Read; Grace Ordaz; John Petrovic; George Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is being considered by many countries as a potential energy carrier for vehicular applications. In the United States, hydrogen-powered vehicles must possess a driving range of greater than 300 miles in order to meet customer requirements and compete effectively with other technologies. For the overall vehicular fleet, this requires that a range of 5-13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board. The storage of such quantities of hydrogen within vehicular weight, volume, and system cost constraints is a major scientific and technological challenge. The targets for on-board hydrogen storage were established in the U.S. through the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnership, a partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and major energy companies. In order to achieve these long-term targets, the Department of Energy established a National Hydrogen Storage Project to develop the areas of metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based and high-surface-area sorbent materials, and new hydrogen storage materials and concepts. The current status of vehicular hydrogen storage is reviewed and hydrogen storage research associated with the National Hydrogen Storage Project is discussed. (authors)

  1. The microstructures and electrochemical performances of La0.6Gd0.2Mg0.2Ni3.0Co0.5-xAlx (x=0-0.5) hydrogen storage alloys as negative electrodes for nickel/metal hydride secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Xu, Peizhen; Zhao, Yamin; Wan, Jing; Liu, Xiaofang; Yu, Ronghai

    2014-12-01

    La0.6Gd0.2Mg0.2Ni3.0Co0.5-xAlx (x = 0-0.5) hydrogen storage alloys were prepared by induction melting followed by annealing treatment at 1173 K for 8 h. The effects of substitution Al for Co on the microstructures and electrochemical performances were studied systematically. The structure analyses show that all alloys consist of multiphase structures such as (La, Mg)2Ni7 phase, (La, Mg) Ni3 phase and LaNi5 phase. The abundance of (La, Mg)2Ni7 phase decreases while the abundance of LaNi5 phase and (La, Mg)Ni3 phase increases directly as the Al content increasing. The electrochemical tests show that the maximum discharge capacity of alloy electrodes are almost unchanged when x ≤ 0.2 while the cyclic stability of the alloy electrode are improved significantly after proper amount of Al substitution for Co. The alloy electrode with x = 0.1 exhibits the better balance between discharge capacity and cycling life than any others. Moreover, at the discharge current density of 900 mA g-1, the high rate dischargeability (HRD) of the alloy electrodes decreases with increasing Al substitution and the relative analyses reveal that the charge transfer on alloy surface is more important than the hydrogen diffusion in alloy bulk for the kinetic properties of the alloy electrodes.

  2. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  3. Hydrogen Storage Performance in Pd/Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A

    2016-10-05

    We have developed a Pd-graphene nanocomposite for hydrogen storage. The spherically shaped Pd nanoparticles of 5-45 nm in size are homogeneously distributed over the graphene matrix. This new hydrogen storage system has favorable features like desirable hydrogen storage capacity, ambient conditions of hydrogen uptake, and low temperature of hydrogen release. At a hydrogen charging pressure of 50 bar, the material could yield a gravimetric density of 6.7 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. As we increased the applied pressure to 60 bar, the hydrogen uptake capacity reached 8.67 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite and 7.16 wt % in the 5% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. This system allows storage of hydrogen in amounts that exceed the capacity of the gravimetric target announced by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  4. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  5. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C.

  6. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C

  7. Sputtered Pd as hydrogen storage for a chip-integrated microenergy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcheva, E; Ganske, G; Schnakenberg, U

    2014-01-01

    The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AMF). The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis) and discharging (fuel cell) operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  8. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of platinum in hydrogen peroxide solution (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, G.H.

    1963-06-01

    The relative stability of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution at 25 deg. C, allows its amperometric determination from the theory, using either its cathodic reduction or its anodic oxidation. The cathodic reduction yields a wave on a platinum electrode only when some oxygen is present in the solution. It cannot, therefore, be used for electrochemical determination. On the other hand, the anodic oxidation on platinum produces a wave which might be used. However, a passivation of platinum occurs at the same time. This passivation process is studied by means of potentio-kinetic, potentio-static, intensio-static curves and of pH measurements in the vicinity of the anode. A mechanism for passivation is presented, which takes into account the role of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. This passivation rules out any analytical application of the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide. (author) [fr

  10. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  11. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  12. Electrochemical measurement of tritium and hydrogen permeation through iron membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1988-01-01

    Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which an aqueous solution containing 3.7 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 tritium was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a specimen by cathodic polarization with a constant current density, while at the other side of the specimen the permeated tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. Nearly all of the potentiostatic current of the extraction side stands for the ionization of hydrogen, because the concentration of tritium in the cathodic electrolyte is very small. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. The separation factor for permeation obtained under steady state conditions (the ratio of permeation rates of hydrogen to tritium divided by the ratio of the concentration of hydrogen to tritium in the charging electrolyte) is 12 at 288 K. This value is independent of cathodic current density. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) in iron were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. For annealed specimens at 286 K, D T = 9 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -9 m 2 /s, and for 9% cold-worked specimens at 284 K, D T = 3 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -10 m 2 /s. (author)

  13. Electrochemical measurement of tritium and hydrogen permeation through iron membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1987-01-01

    Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electro-chemical method in which an aqueous solution containing 3.7 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 tritium was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a specimen by cathodic polarization with a constant current density, while at the other side of the specimen the permeated tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. Nearly all of the potentiostatic current on the extraction side is produced by the ionization of hydrogen, because the concentration of tritium in the cathodic electrolyte is very small. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the potentiostatic current, and that of permeated tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the anodic side. The separation factor for permeation obtained under steady state conditions (the ratio of permeation rates of hydrogen to tritium divided by the ratio of the concentration of hydrogen to tritium in the cathodic electrolyte) is 12 at 288 K. This value is independent of cathodic current density. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) in iron were determined from the tritium and hydrogen permeation by using time lag technique. For annealed iron at 286 K, D T = 9 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -9 m 2 /s, and for 9 % cold-worked iron at 284 K, D T = 3 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -10 m 2 /s. (author)

  14. Chemical grafting of Co9S8 onto C60 for hydrogen spillover and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qin, Wei; Zhou, Jia; Jian, Jiahuang; Lu, Songtao; Wu, Xiaohong; Fan, Guohua; Gao, Peng; Liu, Boyu

    2017-04-20

    Metal modified C 60 is considered to be a potential hydrogen storage medium due to its high theoretical capacity. Research interest is growing in various hybrid inorganic compounds-C 60 . While the design and synthesis of a novel hybrid inorganic compound-C 60 is difficult to attain, it has been theorized that the atomic hydrogen could transfer from the inorganic compound to the adjacent C 60 surfaces via spillover and surface diffusion. Here, as a proof of concept experiment, we graft Co 9 S 8 onto C 60 via a facile high energy ball milling process. The Raman, XPS, XRD, TEM, HTEM and EELS measurements have been conducted to evaluate the composition and structure of the pizza-like hybrid material. In addition, the electrochemical measurements and calculated results demonstrate that the chemical "bridges" (C-S bonds) between these two materials enhance the binding strength and, hence, facilitate the hydriding reaction of C 60 during the hydrogen storage process. As a result, an increased hydrogen storage capacity of 4.03 wt% is achieved, along with a favorable cycling stability of ∼80% after 50 cycles. Excluding the direct hydrogen storage contribution from Co 9 S 8 in the hybrid paper, the hydrogen storage ability of C 60 was enhanced by 5.9× through the hydriding reaction caused by the Co 9 S 8 modifier. Based on these experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, the unique chemical structure reported here could potentially inspire other C 60 -based advanced hybrids.

  15. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1985-06-01

    The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: (1) the exploratory technology development and testing (ETD) project and (2) the technology base research (TBR) project. The role of the TBR Project is to perform supporting research for the advanced battery systems under development by the ETD Project, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the TBR Project is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to industry and/or the ETD Project for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial, and management activities relevant to the TBR Project in CY 1984. General problem areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the assessment of fuel-cell technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: exploratory research, applied science research, and air systems research.

  16. Developing business opportunities for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.

    2001-01-01

    A quick review of the history of Dynetek Industries Limited was provided. During the period 1991-1995, it began research and development efforts in the field of advanced lightweight fuel storage systems and the DyneCell R Fuel Storage Systems was introduced on the market. In 1997, it began supplying Ballard Power Systems with hydrogen fuel tanks. Trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange started in September 2000, and in 2001 Dynetek incorporated a 100 per cent European subsidiary, Dynetek Europe GmbH. The advantages of the product are numerous: lightest cylinder on the market with a metallic liner, highest storage capacity of all lightweight designs, non-permeable, one piece, seamless aluminium liner, and true fast-fill capabilities to name but a few. Dynetek's vision of market development was introduced. It involves a California demonstration project for the period 2001-2003 which should lead to transit vehicles in 2005-2008. Fleet vehicles are expected to follow suit during the same period, and the consumer market should be ripe in 2010-2015. Some of the challenges facing the industry were discussed and Dynetek's role in meeting them was examined. figs

  17. Thermally responsive polymer electrolytes for inherently safe electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jesse C.

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in electrochemical energy storage devices, while preserving the performance, lifetimes, and versatility that large-format systems require. Initial work focused on the development of a model system that demonstrated the concept of RPEs in an electrochemical device. Aqueous electrolyte solutions of polymers exhibiting properties that change in response to temperature were developed for applications in EDLCs and supercapacitors. These "smart materials" provide a means to control electrochemical systems where polymer phase separation at high temperatures affects electrolyte properties and inhibits device performance. Aqueous RPEs were synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide, which governs the thermal properties, and fractions of acrylic acid or vinyl sulfonic acids, which provide ions to the solution. The molecular properties of these aqueous RPEs, specifically the ionic composition, were shown to influence the temperature-dependent electrolyte properties and the extent to which these electrolytes control the energy storage characteristics of a supercapacitor device. Materials with high ionic content provided the highest room temperature conductivity and electrochemical activity; however, RPEs with low ionic content provided the highest "on

  18. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  19. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  20. Redox Chemistry of Molybdenum Trioxide for Ultrafast Hydrogen-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Xie, Yiming; Tang, Kai; Wang, Chao; Yan, Chenglin

    2018-05-11

    Hydrogen ions are ideal charge carriers for rechargeable batteries due to their small ionic radius and wide availability. However, little attention has been paid to hydrogen-ion storage devices because they generally deliver relatively low Coulombic efficiency as a result of the hydrogen evolution reaction that occurs in an aqueous electrolyte. Herein, we successfully demonstrate that hydrogen ions can be electrochemically stored in an inorganic molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) electrode with high Coulombic efficiency and stability. The as-obtained electrode exhibits ultrafast hydrogen-ion storage properties with a specific capacity of 88 mA hg -1 at an ultrahigh rate of 100 C. The redox reaction mechanism of the MoO 3 electrode in the hydrogen-ion cell was investigated in detail. The results reveal a conversion reaction of the MoO 3 electrode into H 0.88 MoO 3 during the first hydrogen-ion insertion process and reversible intercalation/deintercalation of hydrogen ions between H 0.88 MoO 3 and H 0.12 MoO 3 during the following cycles. This study reveals new opportunities for the development of high-power energy storage devices with lightweight elements. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  2. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  3. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...

  4. Properties of thermoplastic polymers used for hydrogen storage under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousse, F.; Mazabraud, P.; Icard, B.; Mosdale, R.; Serre-Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development of industrial applications of fuel cells of type PEMFC ( Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Developing an effective system of storage remains major. Ameliorations concerning the storage density of energy, the cost and facilities and the storage must be considered especially for the mobile applications. Among different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seem the most promising way. The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the simplest technical solution, the most advanced and the most economic solution. However, the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  5. Renewable hydrogen production via thermochemical/electrochemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babiniec, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A coupled electrochemical/thermochemical cycle was investigated to produce hydrogen from renewable resources. Like a conventional thermochemical cycle, this cycle leverages chemical energy stored in a thermochemical working material that is reduced thermally by solar energy. However, in this concept, the stored chemical energy only needs to be partially, but not fully, capable of splitting steam to produce hydrogen. To complete the process, a proton-conducting membrane is driven to separate hydrogen as it is produced, thus shifting the thermodynamics toward further hydrogen production. This novel coupled-cycle concept provides several benefits. First, the required oxidation enthalpy of the reversible thermochemical material is reduced, enabling the process to occur at lower temperatures. Second, removing the requirement for spontaneous steam-splitting widens the scope of materials compositions, allowing for less expensive/more abundant elements to be used. Lastly, thermodynamics calculations suggest that this concept can potentially reach higher efficiencies than photovoltaic-to-electrolysis hydrogen production methods. This Exploratory Express LDRD involved assessing the practical feasibility of the proposed coupled cycle. A test stand was designed and constructed and proton-conducting membranes were synthesized. While the full proof of concept was not achieved, the individual components of the experiment were validated and new capabilities that can be leveraged by a variety of programs were developed.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Hydrogen Entry to HSLA Steel during Pickling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Aromaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pickling with hydrochloric acid is a standard method to clean steel surfaces before hot-dip galvanizing. When normal low strength steels are pickled, hydrogen formed in pickling reactions does not have any significant harmful effect on the mechanical properties of steel. However, in pickling of steels with higher strength, the penetration of hydrogen into the steel may cause severe damages. The effect of pickling of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA steels was investigated using a cell construction based on the Devanathan-Stachurski method with modified anodic surface treatment and hydrogen production using acid. The penetration and the permeability of hydrogen were measured using an electrochemical cell with hydrochloric acid on the one side of the steel sample and a solution of NaOH on the other side. No protective coating, for example, palladium on the anodic side of the sample, is needed. The penetration rate of hydrogen into the steel and exit rate from the steel were lower for higher strength steel.

  7. The impact of surface composition on Tafel kinetics leading to enhanced electrochemical insertion of hydrogen in palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga; Hamm, Steven C.; Knies, David L.; Cantwell, Richard; McConnell, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Our previous work experimentally demonstrated the enhancement of electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium by modifying the chemical composition of the cathode surface with Pb, Pt and Bi, referred to as surface promoters. The experiment demonstrated that an optimal combination of the surface promoters led to an increase in hydrogen fugacity of more than three orders of magnitude, while maintaining the same current density. This manuscript discusses the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) to elucidate the thermodynamics and kinetics of observed enhancement of electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium. We present theoretical simulations that: (1) establish the elevation of hydrogen's chemical potential on Pb and Bi surfaces to enhance hydrogen insertion, (2) confirm the increase of a Tafel activation barrier that results in a decrease of the reaction rate at the given hydrogen overpotential, and (3) explain why the surface promoter's coverage needs to be non-uniform, namely to allow hydrogen insertion into palladium bulk while simultaneously locking hydrogen below the surface (the corking effect). The discussed DFT-based method can be used for efficient scanning of different material configurations to design a highly effective hydrogen storage system.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  9. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV's). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EV's. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  10. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  11. Synthesis of Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-06-22

    We have designed a Ni-graphene composite for hydrogen storage with Ni nanoparticles of 10 nm in size, uniformly dispersed over a graphene substrate. This system exhibits attractive features like high gravimetric density, ambient conditions, and low activation temperature for hydrogen release. When charged at room temperature and an atmospheric hydrogen pressure of 1 bar, it could yield a hydrogen capacity of 0.14 wt %. When hydrogen pressure increased to 60 bar, the sorbent had a hydrogen gravimetric density of 1.18 wt %. The hydrogen release could occur at an operating temperature below 150 °C and completes at 250 °C.

  12. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  13. The electrochemical Peltier heat of the standard hydrogen electrode reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Wang Shaofen; Zhang Zhenghua; Qiu Guanzhou

    2008-01-01

    A method for measuring the electrochemical Peltier heat (EPH) of a single electrode reaction has been developed and an absolute scale is suggested to obtain EPH of the standard hydrogen electrode. The scale is based on φ 0 * = 0 and ΔS 0 * = 0 for any electrode reaction at zero Kelvin, in accord with the third law of thermodynamics. The relationships between entropy, enthalpy and free energy changes on this scale and on the conventional scale are derived. Calorimetric experiments were made on the Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- system at five different concentrations at 298.15 K, and EPH for the standard hydrogen electrode reaction is obtained. EPHs and the entropy change on the absolute scale for the studied redox are linearly related to concentration of electrolyte. The reversible electric work is almost concentration independent in the range of concentration studied

  14. Carbon catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide production in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čolić, Viktor; Yang, Sungeun; Révay, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run...... the reaction in an acidic electrolyte with high performance is particularly important, as it would allow the use of polymer solid electrolytes and the production of pH-neutral hydrogen peroxide. Carbon catalysts, which are cheap, abundant, durable and can be highly selective show promise as potential catalysts...... for such systems. In this work, we examine the electrocatalytic performance and properties of seven commercially available carbon materials for H2O2 production by oxygen electroreduction. We show that the faradaic efficiencies for the reaction lie in a wide range of 18-82% for different carbon catalysts. In order...

  15. An intertemporal decision framework for electrochemical energy storage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Moutis, Panayiotis; Kar, Soummya; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2018-05-01

    Dispatchable energy storage is necessary to enable renewable-based power systems that have zero or very low carbon emissions. The inherent degradation behaviour of electrochemical energy storage (EES) is a major concern for both EES operational decisions and EES economic assessments. Here, we propose a decision framework that addresses the intertemporal trade-offs in terms of EES degradation by deriving, implementing and optimizing two metrics: the marginal benefit of usage and the average benefit of usage. These metrics are independent of the capital cost of the EES system, and, as such, separate the value of EES use from the initial cost, which provides a different perspective on storage valuation and operation. Our framework is proved to produce the optimal solution for EES life-cycle profit maximization. We show that the proposed framework offers effective ways to assess the economic values of EES, to make investment decisions for various applications and to inform related subsidy policies.

  16. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  17. Effect of the La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Lei, Y. Q.; Chen, L. X.; Lu, G. L.; Pan, H. G.; Wang, Q. D.

    Effect of La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) ternary alloys was investigated. All alloys are consisted of a main phase with hexagonal PuNi 3-type structure and a few impurity phases (mainly LaNi 5 and MgNi 2). The increase of La/Mg ratio in the alloys leads to an increase in both the cell volume and the hydride stability. The discharge capacity of the alloys at 100 mA/g increases with the increase of La/Mg ratio and passes though a maximum of 397.5 mAh/g at x=2.0. As the La/Mg ratio increases, the high-rate dischargeability of the alloy electrodes at 1200 mA/g HRD 1200 decreases from 66.7% ( x=1.6) to 26.5% ( x=2.2). The slower decrease of HRD 1200 (from 66.7 to 52.7%) of the alloys with x=1.6-2.0 is mainly attributed to the decrease of electrocatalytic activity of the alloys for charge-transfer reaction, the more rapid decrease of HRD 1200 of the alloys with x>2.0 is mainly attributed to the lowering of the hydrogen diffusion rate in the bulk of alloy. The cycling capacity degradation of the alloys is rather fast for practical application due to the corrosion of La and Mg and the large VH in the hydride phase.

  18. Pseudocapacitive Oxides and Sulfides for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The intermittent nature of several sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind energy has ignited the demand of electrochemical energy storage devices in the form of batteries and electrochemical capacitors. The future generation

  19. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  20. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  1. Ageing of Mg-Ni-H hydrogen storage alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, OCT (2012), s. 14257-14264 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA106/09/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Magnesium alloys * Hydrogen desorption * Hydrogen storage * Hydrogen-storage materials * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  2. Multifunctional Graphene-based Hybrid Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju

    Intense research in renewable energy is stimulated by global demand of electric energy. Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems namely, supercapacitors and batteries, represent the most efficient and environmentally benign technologies. Moreover, controlled nanoscaled architectures and surface chemistry of electrochemical electrodes is enabling emergent next-generation efficient devices approaching theoretical limit of energy and power densities. This talk will present our recent activities to advance design, development and deployment of composition, morphology and microstructure controlled two- and three-dimensional graphene-based hybrids architectures. They are chemically and molecularly bridged with carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers, transition metal oxides and mesoproprous silicon wrapped with graphene nanosheets as engineered electrodes for supercapacitor cathodes and battery anodes. They showed significant enhancement in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, interfacial capacitance, charging-discharging rate and cyclability. We will also present fundamental physical-chemical interfacial processes (ion transfer kinetics and diffusion), imaging electroactive sites, and topography at electrode/electrolyte interface governing underlying electrochemical mechanisms via scanning electrochemical microscopy. KY NSF EPSCoR.

  3. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  4. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  5. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitai Yang; Morris, D.R.; Lister, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ''Nafion'' (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a ∼1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Leitai; Morris, D R; Lister, D H [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ``Nafion`` (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a {approx}1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  7. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G

    2003-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  8. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolite sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, Felicia; Brad, Sebastian; Lazar, Alin

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption molecular sieves and activated carbon were used for hydrogen isotopes. The adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. The synthetic zeolites have similar properties as natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure and affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures evidenced the efficient behavior of the activated carbon and zeolite sieves for hydrogen isotope temporary storage. (authors)

  9. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  10. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  11. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  12. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  13. Polyaniline as a material for hydrogen storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-07-12

    The main challenge of commercialization of the hydrogen economy is the lack of convenient and safe hydrogen storage materials, which can adsorb and release a significant amount of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Finding and designing suitable cost-effective materials are vital requirements to overcome the drawbacks of investigated materials. Because of its outstanding electronic, thermal, and chemical properties, the electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI) has a high potential in hydrogen storage applications. In this review, the progress in the use of different structures of conducting PANI, its nanocomposites as well as activated porous materials based on PANI as hydrogen storage materials is presented and discussed. The effect of the unique electronic properties based on the π-electron system in the backbone of these materials in view of the hydrogen uptake and the relevant mechanisms are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  15. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  16. Hydrogen storage in Ti-Mn-(FeV) BCC alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.F.; Huot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the replacement of vanadium by the less expensive (FeV) commercial alloy has been investigated in Ti-Cr-V BCC solid solutions and promising results were reported. In the present work, this approach of using (FeV) alloys is adopted to synthesize alloys of the Ti-Mn-V system. Compared to the V-containing alloys, the alloys containing (FeV) have a smaller hydrogen storage capacity but a larger reversible hydrogen storage capacity, which is caused by the increase of the plateau pressure of desorption. Correlations between the structure and the hydrogen storage properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  17. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  18. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-04-18

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.

  19. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  20. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  1. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  2. Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

    2006-05-30

    A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  4. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  5. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  6. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  7. New Transition metal assisted complex borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesha Srinivasan; Elias Lee Stefanakos; Yogi Goswami

    2006-01-01

    High capacity hydrogen storage systems are indeed essential for the on-board vehicular application that leads to the pollution free environment. Apart from the various hydrogen storage systems explored in the past, complex hydrides involving light weight alkali/alkaline metals exhibits promising hydrogenation/ dehydrogenation characteristics. New transition metal assisted complex borohydrides [Zn(BH 4 ) 2 ] have been successfully synthesized by an inexpensive mechano-chemical process. These complex hydrides possesses gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of ∼8.4 wt.% at around 120 C. We have determined the volumetric hydrogen absorption and desorption of these materials for a number of cycles. Another complex borohydride mixture LiBH 4 /MgH 2 catalyzed with ZnCl 2 has been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-02-28

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. This analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers. This paper will describe the matching of current glass microspheres with the useful application in commercial hydrogen bulk transport and storage.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  10. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A.; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp3 C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  12. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1994-04-20

    New, high-strength, hollow, glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit storage densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The hoop stress at failure of our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which fail at wall stresses of 50,000 psi. For this project, microsphere material and structure will be optimized for storage capacity and charge/discharge kinetics to improve their commercial practicality. Microsphere production scale up will be performed, directed towards large-scale commercial use. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics` indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as hydride beds, cryocarbons and pressurized tube transports. For microspheres made from advanced materials and processes, analysis will also be performed to identify the appropriate applications of the microspheres considering property variables, and different hydrogen infrastructure, end use, production and market scenarios. This report presents some of the recent modelling results for large beds of glass microspheres in hydrogen storage applications. It includes plans for experiments to identify the properties relevant to large-bed hydrogen transport and storage applications, of the best, currently producible, glass microspheres. This work began in March, 1994. Project successes will be manifest in the matching of cur-rent glass microspheres with a useful application in hydrogen bulk transport and storage, and in developing microsphere materials and processes that increase the storage density and reduce the storage energy requirement.

  13. Correlations between electrochemical activity and heterogeneous catalysis for hydrogen dissociation on platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P N; Stonehart, P [Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, Middletown, Conn. (USA)

    1975-02-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates on platinum surfaces have been compared to equivalent hydrogen molecule and adsorbed hydrogen atom electrochemical oxidation rates on the same surfaces. Over a temperature range of 293 to 360/sup 0/K the first order rate constants for H/sub 2/-D/sub 2/ exchange and hydrogen molecule electrochemical oxidation are the same, showing that the absorption-dissociation reaction (TAFEL, BONHOEFFER-FARKAS) is rate controlling. The rate of oxidation of the adsorbed hydrogen atom reaction involving electron transfer (VOLMER) is an order of magnitude larger.

  14. Nanoconfined Alkali-metal borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a promising energy carrier. Its combustion is not associated with pollution when generated from renewable energy sources like solar and wind. The large-scale use of hydrogen for intermittent energy storage and as a fuel for cars can contribute to the realization of a

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Porous Materials and Magnesium Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzech, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis representatives of two different types of materials for potential hydrogen storage application are presented. Usage of either nanoporous materials or metal hydrides has both operational advantages and disadvantages. A main objective of this thesis is to characterize the hydrogen

  16. Chemical-clathrate hybrid hydrogen storage: storage in both guest and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Timothy A; Kim, Yongkwan; Andrews, Gary S; Ferrell, Jack R; Koh, Carolyn A; Herring, Andrew M; Sloan, E Dendy

    2008-11-12

    Hydrogen storage from two independent sources of the same material represents a novel approach to the hydrogen storage problem, yielding storage capacities greater than either of the individual constituents. Here we report a novel hydrogen storage scheme in which recoverable hydrogen is stored molecularly within clathrate cavities as well as chemically in the clathrate host material. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of beta-hydroquinone (beta-HQ) clathrate with molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen within the beta-HQ clathrate vibrates at considerably lower frequency than hydrogen in the free gaseous phase and rotates nondegenerately with splitting comparable to the rotational constant. Compared with water-based clathrate hydrate phases, the beta-HQ+H2 clathrate shows remarkable stability over a range of p-T conditions. Subsequent to clathrate decomposition, the host HQ was used to directly power a PEM fuel cell. With one H2 molecule per cavity, 0.61 wt % hydrogen may be stored in the beta-HQ clathrate cavities. When this amount is combined with complete dehydrogenation of the host hydroxyl hydrogens, the maximum hydrogen storage capacity increases nearly 300% to 2.43 wt %.

  17. Comparative study of hydrogen storage on metal doped mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, P. M.; Sapag, K.; Oliva, M. I.; Eimer, G. A.

    2018-06-01

    The hydrogen adsorption capacity of mesoporous materials MCM-41 modified with Co, Fe, Ti, Mg and Ni at 77 K and 10 bar was investigated. Various techniques including XRD, N2 adsorption and DRUV-vis were employed for the materials characterization. The results showed that a low nickel loading on MCM-41 support promoted the presence of hydrogen-favorable sites, increasing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  18. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  19. An electrochemical method for determining hydrogen concentrations in metals and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical method was developed for the determination of hydrogen in metals using the EG&G-PARC Model 350A Corrosion Measurement Console. The method was applied to hydrogen uptake, both during electrolysis and electroplating, and to studies of hydrogen elimination and the effect of heat treatment on elimination times. Results from these studies are presented.

  20. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  1. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-02-15

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi{sub 5} particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol{sup -1} for the Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5}, Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface.

  2. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  3. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement, revisited by in situ electrochemical nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnoush, Afrooz

    2007-07-01

    The fine scale mechanical probing capability of NI-AFM was used to examine hydrogen interaction with plasticity. To realize this, an electrochemical three electrode setup was incorporated into the NI-AFM. The developed ECNI-AFM is capable of performing nanoindentation as well as imaging surfaces inside electrolytes. The developed ECNI-AFM setup was used to examine the effect of cathodically charged hydrogen on dislocation nucleation in pure metals and alloys. It was shown that hydrogen reduces the pop-in load in all of the tested materials except Cu. The reduced pop-in load can be interpreted as the HELP mechanism. Classical dislocation theory was used to model the homogeneous dislocation nucleation and it was shown that H reduces the activation energy for dislocation nucleation in H sensitive metals which are not undergoing a phase transformation. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation is related to the material specific parameters; shear modulus {mu}, dislocation core radius {rho} and in the case of partial dislocation nucleation, stacking fault energy {gamma}. These material properties can be influenced by H resulting in a reduced activation energy for dislocation nucleation. The universality of cohesion in bulk metals relates the reduction of the shear modulus to the reduction of the cohesion, meaning HEDE mechanism. The increase in the core radius of a dislocation due to H is a direct evidence of decrease in dislocation line energy and H segregation on the dislocation line. In the case of partial dislocations, the H can segregate on to the stacking fault ribbon and decrease {gamma}. This inhibits the cross slip process and enhances the slip planarity. Thus, HELP and HEDE are the two sides of a coin resulting in H embrittlement. However depending on the experimental approach utilized to probe the H effect, either HELP or HEDE can be observed. In this study, however, by utilizing a proper experimental approach, it was possible to resolve the

  5. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. F. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal, chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA, and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  6. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F M; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, Cesar A C; Ribeiro, Jorge H F

    2012-02-06

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi 3.6 Co 0.85 Al 0.3 Mn 0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  7. Density functional theory for hydrogen storage materials: successes and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hector, L G Jr; Herbst, J F

    2008-01-01

    Solid state systems for hydrogen storage continue to be the focus of considerable international research, driven to a large extent by technological demands, especially for mobile applications. Density functional theory (DFT) has become a valuable tool in this effort. It has greatly expanded our understanding of the properties of known hydrides, including electronic structure, hydrogen bonding character, enthalpy of formation, elastic behavior, and vibrational energetics. Moreover, DFT holds substantial promise for guiding the discovery of new materials. In this paper we discuss, within the context of results from our own work, some successes and a few shortcomings of state-of-the-art DFT as applied to hydrogen storage materials

  8. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The EU aims at establishing a sustainable energy supply, able to provide affordable and clean energy without increasing green house gas emissions. Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key energy system solutions for the 21. century, enabling clean and efficient production of power and heat from a broad range of primary energy sources. To be effective, there is a crucial need for well-coordinated research, development and deployment at European Level. The particular segment of hydrogen storage is one key element of the full hydrogen chain and it must meet a number of challenges before it is introduced into the global energy system. Regarding its energy characteristics, the gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is about three times higher than gasoline, but its energy content per volume is about a quarter. Therefore, the most significant problem for hydrogen (in particular for on-board vehicles) is to store sufficient -amounts of hydrogen. The volumetric energy density of hydrogen can be increased by compression or liquefaction which are both the most mature technologies. Still the energy required for both compression and liquefaction is one element to be properly assessed in considering the different pathways in particular for distribution. As far as on-board vehicle storage is concerned all possible options (compressed, liquid, metal hydrides and porous structures) have their own advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight, volume, energy efficiency, refuelling times, cost and safety aspects. To address these problems, long-term commitments to scientific excellence in research, coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders, is required. In the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage, no single technology satisfies all of the criteria required by manufacturers and end-users, and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations/needs for improvement

  9. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  10. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  11. Iron titanium manganase alloy hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James J.; Wiswall, Jr., Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    A three component alloy capable of reversible sorption of hydrogen having the chemical formula TiFe.sub.1-x Mn.sub.x where x is in the range of about 0.02 to 0.5 and the method of storing hydrogen using said alloy.

  12. Modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, A.M.; Nouralishahi, A.; Karimi, A.; Kashefi, K. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran); Khodadadi, A.A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Chemical engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Due to unique structural, mechanical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs, they have been proposed as promising hydrogen storage materials especially in automotive industries. This research deals with investing of CNT's and some activated carbons hydrogen storage capacity. The CNT's were prepared through natural gas decomposition at a temperature of 900 C over cobalt-molybdenum nanoparticles supported by nanoporous magnesium oxide (Co-Mo/MgO) during a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effects of purity of CNT (80-95%wt.) on hydrogen storage were investigated here. The results showed an improvement in the hydrogen adsorption capacity with increasing the purity of CNT's. Maximum adsorption capacity was 0.8%wt. in case of CNT's with 95% purity and it may be raised up with some purification to 1%wt. which was far less than the target specified by DOE (6.5%wt.). Also some activated carbons were manufactured and the results compared to CNTs. There were no considerable H{sub 2}-storage for carbon nanotubes and activated carbons at room-temperature due to insufficient binding between H{sub 2} molecules carbon nanostructures. Therefore, hydrogen must be adsorbed via interaction of atomic hydrogen with the storage environment in order to achieve DOE target, because the H atoms have a very stronger interaction with carbon nanostructures. (author)

  13. Storage characteristics of hydrogen by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Kang, H. S.; Back, S. W.; Choi, H. J.; Kim, K. R.; An, D. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jung, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption experiments were performed by the sponge, strip and rod types of titanium(Ti) for investigating the absorption characteristics of hydrogen. From experimental results, Ti sponge showed the high hydrogen absorption capacity inspite of low reaction temperature(25 .deg. C), the H/M, which mean the capacity of hydrogen absorption was measured 2.0 for Ti sponge at 25 .deg. C. However, in case of strip and rod type of Ti, the hydrogen absorption capacities were very low in the experimental condition of 25 .deg. C. The pulverizing phenomena after metal hydriding reaction was observed in both Ti strip and Ti rod. However, the pulverizing phenomena was not observed in the Ti sponges because of high surface area

  14. Carbon compound used in hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work it is studied the activated carbon of mineral origin for the sorption of hydrogen. The carbon decreased of particle size by means of the one alloyed mechanical. The time of mill was of 10 hours. The characterization one carries out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sipped in the carbon material it was determined using the Thermal gravimetric method (TGA). The conditions of hydrogenation went at 10 atm of pressure and ambient temperature during 18 hours. They were also carried out absorption/desorption cycles of hydrogen in the same one system of thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed percentages of sorption of 2% approximately in the cycles carried out in the system TGA and of 4.5% in weight of hydrogen at pressure of 10 atmospheres and ambient temperature during 18 hours. (Author)

  15. Enhanced hydrogen storage by using lithium decoration on phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Wan, Neng, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Lei, Shuangying, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Yu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Microelectromechanical Systems of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-07-14

    The hydrogen storage characteristics of Li decorated phosphorene were systematically investigated based on first-principle density functional theory. It is revealed that the adsorption of H{sub 2} on pristine phosphorene is relatively weak with an adsorption energy of 0.06 eV. While this value can be dramatically enhanced to ∼0.2 eV after the phosphorene was decorated by Li, and each Li atom can adsorb up to three H{sub 2} molecules. The detailed mechanism of the enhanced hydrogen storage was discussed based on our density functional theory calculations. Our studies give a conservative prediction of hydrogen storage capacity to be 4.4 wt. % through Li decoration on pristine phosphorene. By comparing our calculations to the present molecular dynamic simulation results, we expect our adsorption system is stable under room temperature and hydrogen can be released after moderate heating.

  16. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydrogenation properties and microstructure of Ti-Mn-based alloys for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Nakamura, Jin; Akiba, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti-Mn-based AB 2 -type alloys which are suitable for a hybrid hydrogen storage vessel have been synthesized and evaluated hydrogenation properties. As the third element V was added to Ti-Mn binary alloys. All the alloys synthesized in this work mainly consist of the C14 Laves and BCC phase. In the case of Ti0.5V0.5Mn alloy, the amounts of hydrogen absorption was 1.8 wt.% at 243 K under the atmosphere of 7 MPa H 2 , and the hydrogen desorption pressure was in the range of 0.2-0.4 MPa at 243 K. The hydrogen capacity of this alloy did not saturate under 7 MPa H 2 and seems to increase with hydrogen pressure up to 35 MPa that is estimated working pressure of the hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

  18. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  19. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  20. Study of the storage of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Cossement, D.; Tessier, A.; Belanger, M.; Bose, T.K.; Dodelet, J-P.; Dellero, T.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development in industrial applications of fuel cells (CAP) of type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). An effective system of storage would be a major step in the large scale utilization of this energy source. Process improvements concerning the storage density of energy, the cost, and facilities and the reliability of the storage must be sought in particular for the mobile applications. Among the different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seems the most promising way.The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the technical solution simplest, more advanced and more economic. However the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  1. In Pursuit of Sustainable Hydrogen Storage with Boron-Nitride Fullerene as the Storage Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Gaurab; Malakar, Tanmay; Paul, Ankan

    2016-06-22

    Using well calibrated DFT studies we predict that experimentally synthesized B24 N24 fullerene can serve as a potential reversible chemical hydrogen storage material with hydrogen-gas storage capacity up to 5.13 wt %. Our theoretical studies show that hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the fullerene framework can be achieved at reasonable rates using existing metal-free hydrogenating agents and base metal-containing dehydrogenation catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Novel hydrogen storage materials: A review of lightweight complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, Pragya; Jain, Ankur

    2010-01-01

    The world is facing energy shortage and has become increasingly depending on new methods to store and convert energy for new, environmentally friendly methods of transportation and electrical energy generation as well as for portable electronics. Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. Non-renewable fossil fuels are projected to decline sharply after 20-30 years. CO 2 emission from burning such fuels is the main cause for global warming. Currently whole world is seeking international commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050. Hydrogen which can be produced with little or no harmful emissions has been projected as a long term solution for a secure energy future. Increasing application of hydrogen energy is the only way forward to meet the objectives of Department of Energy (DOE), USA, i.e. reducing green house gases, increasing energy security and strengthening the developing countries economy. Any transition from a carbon-based/fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen based economy involves overcoming significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers before ultimate implementation of hydrogen as the clean energy source of the future. Lot of research is going on in the world to find commercially viable solutions for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization, but hydrogen storage is very challenging, as application part of hydrogen energy totally depend on this. During early nineties and now also hydrogen storage as gas, liquid and metal hydride has been undertaken to solve the problem of hydrogen storage and transportation for the utilization as hydrogen energy, but none of these roots could became commercially viable along with the safety aspects for gas and liquid. With the result many new novel materials appeared involving different principles resulting in a fairly complex situation with no correlation between any two materials. In the present

  3. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  4. Scanning electrochemical microscopy determination of hydrogen flux at liquid|liquid interface with potentiometric probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jedraszko, Justyna; Nogala, Wojciech; Adamiak, Wojciech; Girault, Hubert H.; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy potentiometric determination of local hydrogen concentration and its flux next to the liquid|liquid interface was demonstrated. This method is based on the shift of open circuit potential of Pt-based reversible hydrogen electrode. The detection system was verified with a system generating hydrogen under galvanostatic conditions. Then, it was applied to aqueous|1,2-dichloroethane interface where hydrogen is produced with decamethylferrocene as electron donor.

  5. Electrochemical mass-flow control of hydrogen using a fullerene-based proton conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Ryuichiro

    2002-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated using proton conductive hydrogensulfated fullerenol (C 60 (OSO 3 H) n (OH) n ). Rate-controlled mass flow of hydrogen was performed by applying voltage to both electrodes of the MEA without humidification. The amount of the electrochemically transported hydrogen through the MEA increased as the applied current increased, obeying Faraday's law. Residual gas analysis of the transported hydrogen showed that the transported hydrogen contains trace amounts of water less than 1%

  6. Use of reversible hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, B.; Pezat, M.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of metals or alloys whose hydrides have a high dissociation pressure allows a considerable increase in the hydrogenation rate of magnesium. The influence of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the reaction rate were studied. Results concerning the hydriding of magnesium rich alloys such as Mg2Ca, La2Mg17 and CeMg12 are presented. The hydriding mechanism of La2Mg17 and CeMg12 alloys is given.

  7. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  8. Nanocellulose: a promising nanomaterial for advanced electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenshuai; Yu, Haipeng; Lee, Sang-Young; Wei, Tong; Li, Jian; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2018-04-23

    Nanocellulose has emerged as a sustainable and promising nanomaterial owing to its unique structures, superb properties, and natural abundance. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the current research activities that center on the development of nanocellulose for advanced electrochemical energy storage. We begin with a brief introduction of the structural features of cellulose nanofibers within the cell walls of cellulose resources. We then focus on a variety of processes that have been explored to fabricate nanocellulose with various structures and surface chemical properties. Next, we highlight a number of energy storage systems that utilize nanocellulose-derived materials, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and sodium-ion batteries. In this section, the main focus is on the integration of nanocellulose with other active materials, developing films/aerogel as flexible substrates, and the pyrolyzation of nanocellulose to carbon materials and their functionalization by activation, heteroatom-doping, and hybridization with other active materials. Finally, we present our perspectives on several issues that need further exploration in this active research field in the future.

  9. Mechanism of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten carbide and tungsten electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesener, K.; Winkler, E.; Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    The course of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten-carbide electrodes in hydrogen saturated 2.25 M H 2 SO 4 follows a electrochemical sorption-desorption mechanism in the potential range of -0.4 to +0.1 V. At potentials greater than +0.1 V the hydrogen oxidation is controlled by a preliminary chemical sorption step. Concluding from the similar behaviour of tungsten-carbide and tungsten electrodes after cathodic pretreatment, different tungsten oxides should be involved in the course of the hydrogen reaction on tungsten carbide electrodes. (author)

  10. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  11. Bismuth chalcogenide compounds Bi 2 × 3 (X=O, S, Se): Applications in electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jiangfeng; Bi, Xuanxuan; Jiang, Yu; Li, Liang; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides Bi2×3 (X=O, S, Se) represent a unique type of materials in diverse polymorphs and configurations. Multiple intrinsic features of Bi2×3 such as narrow bandgap, ion conductivity, and environmental friendliness, have render them attractive materials for a wide array of energy applications. In particular, their rich structural voids and the alloying capability of Bi enable the chalcogenides to be alternative electrodes for energy storage such as hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), sodium (Na) storage and supercapacitors. However, the low conductivity and poor electrochemical cycling are two key challenges for the practical utilization of Bi2×3 electrodes. Great efforts have been devoted to mitigate these challenges and remarkable progresses have been achieved, mainly taking profit of nanotechnology and material compositing engineering. In this short review, we summarize state-of-the-art research advances in the rational design of diverse Bi2×3 electrodes and their electrochemical energy storage performance for H, Li, and Na and supercapacitors. We also highlight the key technical issues at present and provide insights for the future development of bismuth based materials in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  12. Improving hydrogen storage in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Menendez, J.A.; Pis, J.J.; Arenillas, A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nickel distribution and content in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres on hydrogen storage capacity under conditions of moderate temperature and pressure was studied. It was found that the nickel distribution, obtained by using different doping techniques and conditions, has a noticeable influence on hydrogen storage capacity. The samples with the most homogeneous nickel distribution, obtained by pre-oxidising the carbon nanospheres, displayed the highest storage capacity. In addition, storage capacity is influenced by the amount of nickel. It was found a higher storage capacity in samples containing 5 wt.% of Ni. This is due to the greater interactions between the nickel and the support that produce a higher activation of the solid through a spillover effect. (author)

  13. Advanced nanostructured materials as media for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Niculescu, V.; Armeanu, A.; Sandru, C.; Constantinescu, M.; Sisu, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage alternatives. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials has been proposed as a solution for adequate hydrogen storage for a number of applications, in particular for transportation. This paper is a preliminary study with the focus on possibilities for hydrogen storage in zeolites, alumina and nanostructured carbon materials. The adsorption properties of these materials were evaluated in correlation with their internal structure. From N 2 physisorption data the BET surface area (S BET ) , total pore volume (PV), micropore volume (MPV) and total surface area (S t ) were derived. H 2 physisorption measurements were performed at 77 K and a pressure value of 1 bar. From these data the adsorption capacities of sorbent materials were determined. Apparently the microporous adsorbents, e.g activated carbons, display appreciable sorption capacities. Based on their micropore volume, carbon-based sorbents have the largest adsorption capacity for H 2 , over 230 cm 3 (STP)/g, at the previous conditions. By increasing the micropore volume (∼ 1 cm 3 /g) of sorbents and optimizing the adsorption conditions it is expected to obtain an adsorption capacity of ∼ 560 cm 3 (STP)/g, close to targets set for mobile applications. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Metal-functionalized silicene for efficient hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tanveer; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-10-21

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are used to investigate the electronic structure along with the stability, bonding mechanism, band gap, and charge transfer of metal-functionalized silicene to envisage its hydrogen-storage capacity. Various metal atoms including Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, and Ca are doped into the most stable configuration of silicene. The corresponding binding energies and charge-transfer mechanisms are discussed from the perspective of hydrogen-storage compatibility. The Li and Na metal dopants are found to be ideally suitable, not only for strong metal-to-substrate binding and uniform distribution over the substrate, but also for the high-capacity storage of hydrogen. The stabilities of both Li- and Na-functionalized silicene are also confirmed through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that both of the alkali metals, Li(+) and Na(+), can adsorb five hydrogen molecules, attaining reasonably high storage capacities of 7.75 and 6.9 wt %, respectively, with average adsorption energies within the range suitable for practical hydrogen-storage applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Heijne, ter Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At

  18. Theory of Hydrogen Storage: A New Strategy within Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng

    2006-03-01

    As one of the most vigorous fields in modern chemistry, organometallic chemistry has made vast contributions to a broad variety of technological fields including catalysis, light emitters, molecular devices, liquid crystals, and even superconductivity. Here we show that organometallic chemistry in nanoscale could be the frontier in hydrogen storage. Our study is based on the notion that the 3d transition metal (TM) atoms are superb absorbers for H storage, as their empty d orbital can bind dihydrogen ligands (elongated but non-dissociated H2) with high capacity at nearly ideal binding energy for reversible hydrogen storage. By embedding the TM atoms into a carbon-based nanostructures, high H capacity can be maintained. This presentation contains four parts. First, by comparing the conventional hydrogen storage media, e.g., metal hydrides and carbon-based materials, the general principles for designing hydrogen storage materials are outlined. Second, organometallic buckyballs are studied to demonstrate the novel strategy. The amount of H2 adsorbed on a Sc-coated fullerene, C48B12 [ScH]12, could approach 9 wt%, with binding energies of 30-40 kJ/mol. Third, the method is applied to the transition-metal carbide nanoparticles that have been synthesized experimentally. The similar non-dissociative H2 binding is revealed in our calculation, thereby demonstrating the resilience of the overall mechanism. Moreover, a novel self-catalysis process is identified. In the fourth part, transition-metal functionalization of highly porous carbon-based materials is discussed heuristically to foresee macroscopic media for hydrogen storage. Finally follows the summary and discussion of the remaining challenges to practical hydrogen storage. Work in collaboration with A. C. Dillon, Y.-H. Kim, M. Heben & S. B. Zhang and supported by the U.S. DOE/EERE under contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337.

  19. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  20. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  1. Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Puszkiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed.

  2. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  3. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  4. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  5. Toward an Aqueous Solar Battery: Direct Electrochemical Storage of Solar Energy in Carbon Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjaski, Filip; Kröger, Julia; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2018-03-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface. The photoreduced carbon nitride can thus be described as a battery anode operating as a pseudocapacitor, which can store light-induced charge in the form of long-lived, "trapped" electrons for hours. Importantly, the potential window of this process is not limited by the water reduction reaction due to the high intrinsic overpotential of carbon nitrides for hydrogen evolution, potentially enabling new applications for aqueous batteries. Thus, the feasibility of light-induced electrical energy storage and release on demand by a one-component light-charged battery anode is demonstrated, which provides a sustainable solution to overcome the intermittency of solar radiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  7. Experimental study on uranium alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, M.; Meleg, T.; Dinu, A.; Mihalache, M.; Ciuca, I.; Abrudeanu, M.

    2013-01-01

    The heaviest isotope of hydrogen is one of critically important elements in the field of fusion reactor technology. Conventionally, uranium metal is used for the storage of heavier isotopes of hydrogen (D and T). Under appropriate conditions, uranium absorbs hydrogen to form a stable UH 3 compound when exposed to molecular hydrogen at the temperature range of 300-500 O C at varied operating pressure below one atmosphere. However, hydriding-dehydriding on pure uranium disintegrates the specimen into fine powder. The powder is highly pyrophoric and has low heat conductivity, which makes it difficult to control the temperature, and has a high possibility of contamination Due to the powdering effect as hydrogen in uranium, alloying uranium with other metal looks promising for the use of hydrogen storage materials. This paper has the aim to study the hydriding properties of uranium alloys, including U-Ti U-Mo and U-Ni. The uranium alloys specimens were prepared by melting the constituent elements by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA) and studied in as cast condition as hydrogen storage materials. Then samples were thermally treated under constant flow of hydrogen, at various temperatures between 573-973 0 K. The structural and absorption properties of the products obtained were examined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They slowly reacted with hydrogen to form the ternary hydride and the hydrogenated samples mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride bat contained also U or UO 2 and some transient phase. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen storage materials at INCDTIM Cluj - Napoca. Achievements and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Introducing hydrogen fuel to the transportation area poses key challenges for research on hydrogen storage materials. As one of the most promising alternative fuels for transport, hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and can be based on renewable energy sources. The Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission fosters research for safe methods for storing hydrogen, for use in fuel cells or modified combustion engines in cars and other road vehicles. Hydrogen storage materials focused, in the last 30 years, the attention of the research programs in the many countries. Due to the fast development of the fuel cell technologies, the subject is much more stringent now. For mobile applications to fuel cell powered vehicles, on-board storage materials with hydrogen absorption/desorption capacities of at least 6.5%H are needed. For an efficient storage system the goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of H 2 gas (1 kg of gas has a volume of 11 m 3 at ambient temperature and pressure). To reach the high volumetric and gravimetric density suitable for mobile applications, basically six reversible storage methods are known today according to A. Zuettel: 1) high-pressure gas cylinders, 2) liquid in cryogenic tanks, 3) physisorbed on a solid surface e.g. carbon-nanotubes 4) metal hydrides of the metals or intermetallic compounds. 5) complex hydrides of light elements such as alanates and boranates, 6) storage via chemical reactions. Recently, the storage as hydrogen hydrates at 50 bar using promoters has been reported by F. Peetom. The paper discusses the feasibility of each of these storing alternatives. The authors presents their experience and results of the work in the field of metal hydrides and application obtained since 1975. All classes of hydrogen absorbing intermetallic compounds were studied: LaNi 5 , FeTi, Ti

  9. Towards a hydrogen-driven society? Calculations and neutron scattering on potential hydrogen storage materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmel, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development, the resources of the earth need to be maintained and carbon dioxide emission should be avoided. In particular, we need to find an alternative for the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. Since long, hydrogen has been recognised as the fuel of the future because it exhausts only water when used in fuel cells and hardly any pollutants when used in conventional internal combustion engines. However, the storage of hydrogen onboard vehicles is a major concern. Hydrogen is ...

  10. Lunar-derived titanium alloys for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, S.; Hertzberg, A.; Woodcock, G.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen gas, which plays an important role in many projected lunar power systems and industrial processes, can be stored in metallic titanium and in certain titanium alloys as an interstitial hydride compound. Storing and retrieving hydrogen with titanium-iron alloy requires substantially less energy investment than storage by liquefaction. Metal hydride storage systems can be designed to operate at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. A few such systems have been developed for terrestrial applications. A drawback of metal hydride storage for lunar applications is the system's large mass per mole of hydrogen stored, which rules out transporting it from earth. The transportation problem can be solved by using native lunar materials, which are rich in titanium and iron.

  11. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  12. Theory of molecular hydrogen sorption for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengbai

    2011-03-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) sorption has the advantage of fast kinetics and high reversibility. However, the binding strength is often too weak to be operative at near room temperatures. Research into such hydrogen sorption materials has branched into the study of pure van der Waals (vdW) physisorption and that of weak chemisorption (known to exist in the so-called Kubas complexes). In either case, however, theoretical tools to describe such weak interactions are underdeveloped with error bars that often exceed the strength of the interaction itself. We have used quantum-chemistry (QC) based approaches to benchmark the various available DFT methods for four classes of weak chemisorption systems [Sun et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 073401 (2010)]. These involve complexes containing Li, Ca, Sc, and Ti with increased strength of H2 binding from predominantly vdW to mostly Kubas-like. The study reveals that most of the DFT functionals within the generalized gradient approximation underestimate the binding energy, oppose to overestimating it. The functionals that are easy to use yet yielding results reasonably close to those of accurate QC are the PBE and PW91. I will also discuss the effort of implementing vdW interaction into the currently available density functional methods [Sun, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 154102 (2008)]. The rationale is that while the true vdW is an electron-electron correlation, a DFT plus classical dispersion approach may be too simple and unnecessary within the DFT. A local pseudopotential approach has been developed to account for the core part of the polarizability of the elements. Applications to a number of benchmark systems yield good agreement with QC calculations. The application of this method and the QC methods to vdW hydrogen binding will also be discussed. Work supported by DOE/BES and DOE/EERE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence under RPI subcontracts No. J30546/J90336.

  13. Hydrogen storage in Mg: a most promising material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, A.; Lal, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last one decade hydrogen has attracted worldwide interest as an energy carrier. This has generated comprehensive investigations on the technology involved and how to solve the problems of production, storage and applications of hydrogen. The interest in hydrogen as energy of the future is due to it being a clean energy, most abundant element in the universe, the lightest fuel and richest in energy per unit mass. Hydrogen as a fuel can be used to cook food, drive cars, jet planes, run factories and for all our domestic energy requirements. It can provide cheap electricity. In short, hydrogen shows the solution and also allows the progressive and non-traumatic transition of today's energy sources, towards feasible safe reliable and complete sustainable energy chains. The present article deals with the hydrogen storage in metal hydrides with particular interest in Mg as it has potential to become one of the most promising storage materials. Many metals combine chemically with Hydrogen to form a class of compounds known as Hydrides. These hydrides can discharge hydrogen as and when needed by raising their temperature or pressure. An optimum hydrogen-storage material is required to have various properties viz. high hydrogen capacity per unit mass and unit volume which determines the amount of available energy, low dissociation temperature, moderate dissociation pressure, low heat of formation in order to minimize the energy necessary for hydrogen release, low heat dissipation during the exothermic hydride formation, reversibility, limited energy loss during charge and discharge of hydrogen, fast kinetics, high stability against O 2 and moisture for long cycle life, cyclibility, low cost of recycling and charging infrastructures and high safety. So far most of the hydrogen storage alloys such as LaNi 5 , TiFe, TiMn 2 , have hydrogen storage capacities, not more than 2 wt% which is not satisfactory for practical application as per DOE Goal. A group of Mg based

  14. Ballmilling of metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    of the renewable energy sources [2]. Borohydrides have received great attention as energy carrier due to their high gravimetric content of hydrogen, though unfortunately they are currently not applicable for industrial use due to high thermal stability and poor recycling. The purpose of the investigation...

  15. Hydrogen storage in porous carbons: modelling and performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellenq, R.J.M.; Maresca, O.; Marinelli, F.; Duclaux, L.; Azais, P.; Conard, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we aim at exploring using ab initio calculations, the various ways allowing for an efficient hydrogen docking in carbon porous materials. Firstly, the influence of surface curvature on the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen is considered. Then it is shown that electro-donor elements such as lithium or potassium used as dopant of the carbon substrate induce a strong physi-sorption for H 2 , allowing its storage at ambient temperature under moderate pressure. (authors)

  16. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary Dale

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  17. Nanosizing and nanoconfinement: new strategies towards meeting hydrogen storage goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Petra E; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2010-12-17

    Hydrogen is expected to play an important role as an energy carrier in a future, more sustainable society. However, its compact, efficient, and safe storage is an unresolved issue. One of the main options is solid-state storage in hydrides. Unfortunately, no binary metal hydride satisfies all requirements regarding storage density and hydrogen release and uptake. Increasingly complex hydride systems are investigated, but high thermodynamic stabilities as well as slow kinetics and poor reversibility are important barriers for practical application. Nanostructuring by ball-milling is an established method to reduce crystallite sizes and increase reaction rates. Since five years attention has also turned to alternative preparation techniques that enable particle sizes below 10 nanometers and are often used in conjunction with porous supports or scaffolds. In this Review we discuss the large impact of nanosizing and -confinement on the hydrogen sorption properties of metal hydrides. We illustrate possible preparation strategies, provide insight into the reasons for changes in kinetics, reversibility and thermodynamics, and highlight important progress in this field. All in all we provide the reader with a clear view of how nanosizing and -confinement can beneficially affect the hydrogen sorption properties of the most prominent materials that are currently considered for solid-state hydrogen storage.

  18. Hydrogen storage in Earth's mantle and core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Two different approaches to explaining how hydrogen might be stored in the mantle are illustrated by a number of papers published over the past 25-30 years, but there has been little attempt to provide objective comparisons of the two. One approach invokes the presence in the mantle of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMS) stable at elevated pressures and temperatures. The other involves nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) that contain hydrogen as a minor constituent on the ppm level. Experimental studies on DHMS indicate these phases may be stable to pressures and temperatures as high at 16 GPa and 1200 C. This temperature is lower than that indicated by a mantle geotherm at 16 GPa, but may be reasonable for a subducting slab. It is possible that other DHMS could be stable to even higher pressures, but little is known about maximum temperature limits. For NAM, small amounts of hydrogen (up to several hundred ppm) have been detected in olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet recovered from xenoliths in kimberlites, eclogites, and alkali basalts; it has been demonstrated that synthetic wadsleyite and perovskite can accommodate significant amounts of hydrogen. A number of problems are associated with each possibility. For NAM originating in the mantle, one would like to assume that the hydrogen measured in samples recovered on Earth's surface was incorporated when the phase-crystallized at high temperatures and pressures, but it could have been introduced during transport to the surface. Major problems for the DHMS proponents are that none of these phases have been found as minerals and little is yet known about their stabilities in systems containing other cations such as Fe, Al, and Ca.

  19. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  20. Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)

  1. Calcium-decorated carbyne networks as hydrogen storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Lee, Hoonkyung; Antipina, Lyubov Yu; Singh, Abhishek K; Yakobson, Boris I

    2011-07-13

    Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function.

  2. Energy storage applications of activated carbons: supercapacitors and hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbons have several advantageous properties with respect to their use in energy applications that require constrained space such as in electrode materials for supercapacitors and as solid state hydrogen stores. The attractive properties of porous carbons include, ready abundance, chemical and thermal stability, ease of processability and low framework density. Activated carbons, which are perhaps the most explored class of porous carbons, have been traditionally employed as catalyst s...

  3. Energy conversion, storage and transportation by means of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlmeier, G; Mateos, P; Bolcich, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Data concerning the present consumption of energy indicate that the industrialized countries (representing 25% of the world's population) consume almost 75% of the world's energy production, while the need for energy aimed at maintaining the growth of non-industrialized countries increases day after day. Since estimations indicate that the fossil reverses will exhaust within frightening terms, the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels and, fundamentally, from renewable sources constitute a response to future energy demand. The production of hydrogen from water is performed by four different methods: direct thermal, thermochemical, electrolysis and photolysis. Finally, different ways of storaging and using hydrogen are proposed. (Author)

  4. Hydrogen storage in double clathrates with tert-butylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sum, Amadeu K; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-06-18

    The first proof-of-concept of the formation of a double tert-butylamine (t-BuNH(2)) + hydrogen (H(2)) clathrate hydrate has been demonstrated. Binary clathrate hydrates with different molar concentrations of the large guest t-BuNH(2) (0.98-9.31 mol %) were synthesized at 13.8 MPa and 250 K, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy. A structural transformation from sVI to sII of t-BuNH(2) hydrate was clearly observed under hydrogen pressures. Raman spectroscopic data suggested that the hydrogen molecules occupied the small cages and had similar occupancy to hydrogen in the double tetrahydrofuran (THF) + H(2) clathrate hydrate. The hydrogen storage capacity in this system was approximately 0.7 H(2) wt % at the molar concentration of t-BuNH(2) close to the sII stoichiometry.

  5. Magnesium nanoparticles with transition metal decoration for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Callini, Elsa; Brighi, Matteo; Boscherini, Federico; Montone, Amelia; Jensen, Torben R.; Maurizio, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Marco; Bonetti, Ennio

    2011-01-01

    We report on the hydrogen storage behaviour of Mg nanoparticles (NPs) (size range 100 nm–1 μm) with metal-oxide core–shell morphology synthesized by inert gas condensation and decorated by transition metal (TM) (Pd or Ti) clusters via in situ vacuum deposition. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared and hydrogenated NPs is studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction including in situ experiments and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in order to investigate the relationships with the hydrogen storage kinetics measured by the volumetric Sieverts method. With both Pd and Ti, the decoration deeply improves the hydrogen sorption properties: previously inert NPs exhibit complete hydrogenation with fast transformation kinetics, good stability and reversible gravimetric capacity that can attain 6 wt%. In the case of Pd-decoration, the occurrence of Mg–Pd alloying is observed at high temperatures and in dependence of the hydrogen pressure conditions. These structural transformations modify both the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydride formation, while Ti-decoration has an effect only on the kinetics. The experimental results are discussed in relation with key issues such as the amount of decoration, the heat of mixing between TM and Mg and the binding energy between TM and hydrogen.

  6. Theoretical study of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alyson C M; Pavão, A C

    2018-05-04

    Adsorption, absorption and desorption energies and other properties of hydrogen storage in palladium and in the metal hydrides AlH 3 , MgH 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , Mg(BH 4 )(NH 2 ) and LiNH 2 were analyzed. The DFT calculations on cluster models show that, at a low concentration, the hydrogen atom remains adsorbed in a stable state near the palladium surface. By increasing the hydrogen concentration, the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites are sequentially occupied. In the α phase the tetrahedral site releases hydrogen more easily than at the octahedral sites, but the opposite occurs in the β phase. Among the hydrides, Mg(BH 4 ) 2 shows the highest values for both absorption and desorption energies. The absorption energy of LiNH 2 is higher than that of the palladium, but its desorption energy is too high, a recurrent problem of the materials that have been considered for hydrogen storage. The release of hydrogen, however, can be favored by using transition metals in the material structure, as demonstrated here by doping MgH 2 with 3d and 4d-transition metals to reduce the hydrogen atomic charge and the desorption energy.

  7. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Coatings for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Isvar Abraxas

    The realization of an energy future based on safe, clean, sustainable, and economically viable technologies is one of the grand challenges facing modern society. Electrochemical energy technologies underpin the potential success of this effort to divert energy sources away from fossil fuels, whether one considers alternative energy conversion strategies through photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of chemical fuels or fuel cells run with sustainable hydrogen, or energy storage strategies, such as in batteries and supercapacitors. This dissertation builds on recent advances in nanomaterials design, synthesis, and characterization to develop novel electrodes that can electrochemically convert and store energy. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on refining the properties of TiO2-based PEC water-splitting photoanodes used for the direct electrochemical conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel. The approach utilized atomic layer deposition (ALD); a growth process uniquely suited for the conformal and uniform deposition of thin films with angstrom-level thickness precision. ALD's thickness control enabled a better understanding of how the effects of nitrogen doping via NH3 annealing treatments, used to reduce TiO2's bandgap, can have a strong dependence on TiO2's thickness and crystalline quality. In addition, it was found that some of the negative effects on the PEC performance typically associated with N-doped TiO2 could be mitigated if the NH 3-annealing was directly preceded by an air-annealing step, especially for ultrathin (i.e., transparent electrode based on a network of solution-processed Cu/Ni cores/shell nanowires (NWs) were activated by electrochemically converting the Ni metal shell into Ni(OH)2. Furthermore, an adjustment of the molar percentage of Ni plated onto the Cu NWs was found to result in a tradeoff between capacitance, transmittance, and stability of the resulting nickel hydroxide-based electrode. The nominal area capacitance and power

  8. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  9. Studies of Modified Hydrogen Storage Intermetallic Compounds Used as Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. M. Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of substituting Pt/C with the hydrogen storage alloy MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 as the anode active material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system has been analyzed. The electrochemical properties indicate that a much more electrochemically active anode is obtained by impregnating the active material loaded anode in a Nafion proton conducting polymer. Such performance improvement might result from the increase of three-phase boundary sites or length in the gas diffusion electrode where the electrochemical reaction occurs. The experimental data revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA shows better results when the anode active material, MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3, is treated with a hot alkaline KBH4 solution, and then chemically coated with 3 wt.% Pd. The MEA with the aforesaid modification presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption, and has been studied by molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry.

  10. Characterization of ceramic materials for electrochemical hydrogen sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serret, P.; Colominas, S. [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Industrial Engineering Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Accurate and reliable tritium management is of basic importance for the correct operation conditions of the blanket tritium cycle. The Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) is working in the design and development of tritium sensors, based on proton solid state electrolytes to be used in molten lithium-lead eutectic. Different solid electrolyte proton conductors have been synthesized (Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55}, SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}}) in order to be evaluated in a testing apparatus for hydrogen gas. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed. In all experiments the working temperature was 500 {sup o}C. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor element Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation. When the proton conductor elements SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}} were used a deviation higher than 100 mV between theoretical and experimental data was obtained.

  11. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  12. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  13. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for nickel-hydrogen storage battery use; Nikkeru-suiso chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, H.; Tadokoro, M.

    1995-06-16

    In the conventional hydrogen storage alloy electrode, water soluble polymer is employed as for the binder. Employing the water soluble polymer as for the binder may cause the film formation on the surface of the hydrogen storage alloy to hinder the hydrogen absorption at the alloy surface, resulting in the decrease in activity of electrode and in the discharge characteristic at a low temperature. This invention proposes the addition of Vinylon fiber in the binder of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode made by kneading the hydrogen storage alloy and the binder. The Vinylon fiber improves the strength of the electrode, as it forms a network in the electrode. Furthermore, the point contact between the alloy and the Vinylon fiber in the electrode prevents the film formation which hinders the oxygen absorption and chemical reaction on the surface of the alloy. As for the binder, carboxymethyl cellulose is used. The preferable size of Vinylon fiber is fiber diameter of 0.1 - 0.5 denier and fiber length of 0.5 - 5.0 mm. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The permeation of hydrogen in a steel at elevated temperature by an electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubakino, H.; Ando, A.; Yamakawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    An electrochemical permeation method has been widely used to study the transport characteristics of hydrogen in metals, i.e., the content, diffusivity and permeability. This electrochemical measurement technique has the following remarkable features: a good detection limit for the measurement of hydrogen content, a simpler measuring apparatus, suitability for successive measurement of the transport characteristics, and flexibility in variation of experimental conditions. However this method has been restricted to temperatures below 373 K because an aqueous solution has been used as an electrode. In this study, an electrochemical permeation method using molten salts at elevated temperatures (673-773 K) in the range of practical interest for hydrogen attack in steel is presented. The introduction of hydrogen by use of molten salts has been reported but it has been performed at 423473 K and at 553 K

  15. Experimental study of hydrogen isotopes storage on titanium bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, Felicia; Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Pearsica, Claudia; Bidica, Nicolae

    2002-01-01

    As known, the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda equipped with a Canadian reactor, of CANDU type, is the most powerful tritium source from Europe. On long term, due to a 6·10 16 Bq/year, Cernavoda area will be contaminated due to the increasing tritium quantity. Also, the continuous contamination of heavy water from the reactor, induces a reduction of moderation's capacity. Therefore, one considers that it is improperly to use heavy water if its activity level is higher than 40 Ci/kg in the moderator and 2 Ci/kg in the cooling fluid. For these reasons, we have developed a detritiation technology, based on catalytic isotopic exchange and cryogenic distillation. Tritium will be removed from the tritiated heavy water, so it appears the necessity of storage of tritium in a special vessel that can provide a high level of protection and safety of environment and personal. There several metals were tested as storage beds for hydrogen isotopes. One of the reference materials used for storage of hydrogen isotopes is uranium, a material with a great storage capacity, but unfortunately it is a radioactive metal and also can react with the impurities from the stored gas. Other metals and alloys as ZrCo, Ti, FeTi are also adequate as storage beds at normal temperature. The paper presents studies about the reaction between hydrogen and titanium used as storage bed for the hydrogen isotopes resulted after the detritiation of tritiated heavy water. The experiments that were carried out used protium and mixture of deuterium and protium at different storage parameters as process gas. (authors)

  16. Closed-cell polymeric foam for hydrogen separation and storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pientka, Zbyněk; Pokorný, P.; Bélafi-Bakó, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 304, 1-2 (2007), s. 82-87 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymeric foam * gas separation * hydrogen storage Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2007

  17. Hydrogen storage alloys for nickel/metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Tetsuo; Myamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Uehara, Itsuki [Osaka National Research Inst. (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to improve performance of metal hydride electrodes such as substitution of alloy components, heat treatment, and surface treatment intended to change surface and bulk structure of hydrogen storage alloys, mainly LaNi{sub 5} based alloys, are reviewed. The importance of control of morphology is emphasized. (author)

  18. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery**

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  19. Hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for hydrogen storage have continued to receive intense interest over the past decade. MOFs are a class of organic-inorganic hybrid crystalline materials consisting of metallic moieties that are linked by strong...

  20. Computational investigation and design of coordination compounds for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    Two classes of high capacity hydrogen storage materials, the metal tetrahydroborates and the metal ammines, were investigated at the atomic scale using density functional theory simulations. It was shown that simple model structures could be used to asses the stabilities of complex systems. Trends...

  1. Are carbon nanostructures an efficient hydrogen storage medium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Zeppelin, von F.; Chen, X.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.

    2003-01-01

    Literature data on the storage capacities of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures show a scatter over several orders of magnitude which cannot be solely explained by the limited quantity or purity of these novel nanoscale materials. With this in mind, this article revisits important experiments.

  2. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  3. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  4. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  5. Stress distributions due to hydrogen concentrations in electrochemically charged and aged austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenak, P.; Loew, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of hydrogen concentration gradients in type austenitic stainless steels, formed during electrochemical charging and followed by hydrogen loss during aging, at room temperature, surface stresses were developed. These stresses were measured by X-ray technique and the crack formation thus induced could be studied using equilibrium stress equations. After various electrochemical charging and aging times, X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from samples indicated that the reflected and broadened diffraction peaks are the result of the formation of a non-uniform but continuous solid solution in the austenitic matrix. Since both hydrogen penetrations during charging and hydrogen release during aging are diffusion controlled processes and huge hydrogen concentration gradients in the thin surface layer, at depths comparable with the depth of X-ray penetration, are observed. The non-uniform hydrogen concentration in the austenitic matrix, results to the non-uniform expansion of the atomic microstructure and latter inevitably leads to the development of internal stresses. The internal stresses development formulae's are very similar to those relating to non-uniform heating of the materials, where thermal stresses appear due to non-uniform expansion or contraction. The relevant well developed theory is applicable in our case of non-uniform hydrogen concentrations in a solid solution of electrochemically charged and aged austenitic matrix. A few cracks were present on the surface after some minutes of electrochemical charging and the severity of cracking increased as hydrogen was lost during subsequent aging. This is consistent with the expectation of high compressive stresses in the bulk of the specimen during charging and high tensile surface stresses (at the level of 1 x 10 11 Pa) during the aging process. These stresses can induce the formation of surface cracks during the aging process after electrochemical charging in the AISI 316 stainless steel

  6. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  7. Paracyclophane functionalized with Sc and Li for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Rohit Y.; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    Li and Sc metals functionalized on the delocalized π -electrons of benzene rings in [2,2]paracyclophane structure are studied for hydrogen storage efficiency by using the M06 DFT functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. It is found that Sc and Li functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane complexes can hold up to 10 H2 molecules and 8 H2 molecules by Kubas-Niu-Jena interaction and charge polarization mechanism with hydrogen weight percentage of 11.4 and 13.5, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation at various temperatures showed appreciable thermal stability while the chemical potential calculation at room temperature reveals that Sc functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane system will be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  8. Hydrogen storage performances of LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan, E-mail: zhangyh59@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Haitao [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai, Tingting; Yang, Tai; Yuan, Zeming; Zhao, Dongliang [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous and nanostructured alloys were prepared by mechanical milling. • The maximum discharge capacity of ball milled alloys reaches to 1053.5 mA h/g. • The addition of Ni significantly increases the discharge capacity. • Increasing milling time reduces the kinetic performances of ball milled alloys. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage performances of Mg-based materials, LaMg{sub 11}Ni alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting. Then the nanocrystalline/amorphous LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) hydrogen storage alloys were synthesized by ball milling technology. The structure characterizations of the alloys were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were tested by using programmed control battery testing system. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curves and potential-step curves were also plotted by an electrochemical workstation (PARSTAT 2273). The results indicate that the as-milled alloys exhibit a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, and the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with extending milling time. Prolonging the milling duration markedly enhances the electrochemical discharge capacity and cyclic stability of the alloys. The electrochemical kinetics, including high rate discharge ability (HRD), charge transfer rate, limiting current density (I{sub L}), hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), monotonously decrease with milling time prolonging.

  9. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO 2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH 4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Jonville, P.

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells [fr

  11. Storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R; Jonville, P

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells.

  12. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  13. Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua

    magnetic field. Without any modification of the inside of the electrochemical capacitance cell, the reported magnetic field enhanced capacitance with both improved energy density and power density will have a great impact on the electrochemical energy storage field. A facile thermodecomposition process to synthesize magnetic graphene nanocomposites (MGNCs) is reported. The MGNCs demonstrate an extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from the wastewater with a high removal efficiency and with an almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 5 min. The large saturation magnetization (96.3 emu/g) of the synthesized nanoparticles allows fast separation of the MGNCs from liquid suspension. By using a permanent magnet, the recycling process of both the MGNC adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) is more energetically and economically sustainable. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the Cr(VI) and the applicability in treating the solutions with low pH make MGNCs promising for the efficient removal of heavy metals from the wastewater. A waste-free process to recycle Fe Fe2O3/ polypropylene (PP) polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is introduced to synthesize magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) and simultaneously produce useful chemical species which can be utilized as a feedstock in petrochemical industry. The magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are found to have an effective catalytic activity on the pyrolysis of PP. The coked solid waste from the conventional process has been utilized as a carbon source to form a protective carbon shell surrounding the magnetic NPs. The magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) pyrolyzed from PNCs containing 20.0 wt% NPs demonstrate extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from wastewater with the almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The large saturation magnetization (32.5 emu g-1) of these novel magnetic carbon nanocomposites allows fast recycling of both the adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) from the liquid suspension in a more energetically and

  14. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Cazorla Amoros; D Lozano Castello; F Suarez Garcia; M Jorda Beneytoa; A Linares Solano

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ). [1] A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous carbons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  15. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Lozano-Castello, D.; Suarez-Garcia, F.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Linares-Solano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ) [1]. A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous cartons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  16. 3D printing technologies for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Wei, Min; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Swart, Benjamin; Shao, Yuyan; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes play an important role in promoting the performance of electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. Traditional fabrication techniques have limited capability in controlling the geometry and architecture of the electrode and solid-state electrolytes, which would otherwise compromise the performance. 3D printing, a disruptive manufacturing technology, has emerged as an innovative approach to fabricating EES devices from nanoscale to macroscale and from nanowatt to megawatt, providing great opportunities to accurately control device geometry (e.g., dimension, porosity, morphology) and structure with enhanced specific energy and power densities. Moreover, the additive manufacturing nature of 3D printing provides excellent controllability of the electrode thickness with much simplified process in a cost effective manner. With the unique spatial and temporal material manipulation capability, 3D printing can integrate multiple nanomaterials in the same print, and multi-functional EES devices (including functional gradient devices) can be fabricated. Herein, we review recent advances in 3D printing of EES devices. We focused on two major 3D printing technologies including direct writing and inkjet printing. The direct material deposition characteristics of these two processes enable them to print on a variety of flat substrates, even a conformal one, well suiting them to applications such as wearable devices and on-chip integrations. Other potential 3D printing techniques such as freeze nano-printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, binder jetting, laminated object manufacturing, and metal 3D printing are also introduced. The advantages and limitations of each 3D printing technology are extensively discussed. More importantly, we provide a perspective on how to integrate the emerging 3D printing with existing technologies to create structures over multiple length scale from

  17. Research on hydrogen storage alloys and their uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.B.; Hewitt, J.S.; Khatamian, D.; Manchester, F.D.; McLean, A.; Ward, C.A.; Weatherly, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief account is given of the work being done by members of the Centre on the development of hydrogen storage alloys having useful, reliable, and predictable, performance characteristics. Metals and alloys which have been studied, in one or more aspects, so far, include FeTi, and also FeTi with small added amounts of C, Mn, Al and Mischmetal. Experimental work on the FeTi family of alloys has been concentrated on surface structure and surface behaviour and the importance of these for determining successful activation for hydrogen absorption. As a part of development work on control devices responding to temperature changes through hydrogen desorption, experiments have been performed on hydrides of Nb, La-Ni-Al and Ca-Ni. Some theoretical modelling on kinetics of hydrogen absorption into metals has also been done

  18. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  19. Destabilized and catalyzed borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F [Northville, MI; Nakamura, Kenji [Toyota, JP; Au, Ming [Martinez, GA; Zidan, Ragaiy [Alken, SC

    2012-01-31

    A process of forming a hydrogen storage material, including the steps of: providing a first material of the formula M(BH.sub.4).sub.X, where M is an alkali metal or an alkali earth metal, providing a second material selected from M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x, a mixture of M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x and MCl.sub.x, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and Al, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and AlH.sub.3, a mixture of MH.sub.x and Al, Al, and AlH.sub.3. The first and second materials are combined at an elevated temperature and at an elevated hydrogen pressure for a time period forming a third material having a lower hydrogen release temperature than the first material and a higher hydrogen gravimetric density than the second material.

  20. Natural diatomite modified as novel hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Zheng, Chenghui; Yang, Huaming

    2014-03-01

    Natural diatomite, subjected to different modifications, is investigated for hydrogen adsorption capacities at room temperature. An effective metal-modified strategy is developed to disperse platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of diatomite. Hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine diatomite (diatomite) is 0.463 wt.% at 2.63 MPa and 298 K, among the highest of the known sorbents, while that of acid-thermally activated diatomite (A-diatomite) could reach up to 0.833 wt.% due to the appropriate pore properties by activation. By incorporation with a small amount of Pt and Pd ( 0.5 wt.%), hydrogen adsorption capacities are enhanced to 0.696 wt.% and 0.980 wt.%, respectively, indicating that activated diatomite shows interesting application in the field of hydrogen storage at room temperature.

  1. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  2. In situ NMR studies of hydrogen storage kinetics and molecular diffusion in clathrate hydrate at elevated hydrogen pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuchi, T. [Okayama Univ., Misasa, Tottori (Japan); Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of storing high-density hydrogen into compact host media was investigated. The conventional storage scheme where an aqueous solution is frozen with hydrogen gas is too slow for practical use in a hydrogen-based society. Therefore, the authors developed a faster method whereby hydrogen was stored into gas hydrates. The hydrogen gas was directly charged into hydrogen-free, crystalline hydrate powders with partly empty lattices. The storage kinetics and hydrogen diffusion into the hydrate was observed in situ by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a pressurized tube cell. At pressures up to 20 MPa, the storage was complete within 80 minutes, as observed by growth of stored-hydrogen peak into the hydrate. Hydrogen diffusion within the crystalline hydrate media is the rate-determining step of current storage scheme. Therefore, the authors measured the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen molecules using the pulsed field gradient NMR method. The results show that the stored hydrogen is very mobile at temperatures down to 250 K. As such, the powdered hydrate media should work well even in cold environments. Compared with more prevailing hydrogen storage media such as metal hydrides, clathrate hydrates have the advantage of being free from hydrogen embrittlement, more chemically durable, more environmentally sound, and economically affordable. It was concluded that the powdered clathrate hydrate is suitable as a hydrogen storage media. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Nanodiamond for hydrogen storage: temperature-dependent hydrogenation and charge-induced dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2012-02-21

    Carbon-based hydrogen storage materials are one of hottest research topics in materials science. Although the majority of studies focus on highly porous loosely bound systems, these systems have various limitations including use at elevated temperature. Here we propose, based on computer simulations, that diamond nanoparticles may provide a new promising high temperature candidate with a moderate storage capacity, but good potential for recyclability. The hydrogenation of nanodiamonds is found to be easily achieved, in agreement with experiments, though we find the stability of hydrogenation is dependent on the morphology of nanodiamonds and surrounding environment. Hydrogenation is thermodynamically favourable even at high temperature in pure hydrogen, ammonia, and methane gas reservoirs, whereas water vapour can help to reduce the energy barrier for desorption. The greatest challenge in using this material is the breaking of the strong covalent C-H bonds, and we have identified that the spontaneous release of atomic hydrogen may be achieved through charging of hydrogenated nanodiamonds. If the degree of induced charge is properly controlled, the integrity of the host nanodiamond is maintained, which indicates that an efficient and recyclable approach for hydrogen release may be possible. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, Kevin [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jovanovic, Goran [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Paul, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  5. Physical multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage from theory to engineering to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Alejandro A; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the use of innovative physical multiscale modeling methods to deeply understand the electrochemical mechanisms and numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion.

  6. An investigation on the hydrogen storage characteristics of the melt-spun nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg20-xLaxNi10 (x = 0, 2) hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Li Baowei; Ren Huiping; Guo Shihai; Wu Zhongwang; Wang Xinlin

    2009-01-01

    Mg 2 Ni-type hydrogen storage alloys Mg 20-x La x Ni 10 (x = 0, 2) were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The structures and morphologies of the as-cast and quenched alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Thermal stability of the as-quenched alloys was researched by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured using an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus, and their electrochemical properties were measured by a tri-electrode open cell. The results showed that the no amorphous phase formed in the as-quenched La-free alloy, but the as-quenched alloys containing La held a major amorphous phase. The quenching rate induced a light influence on the crystallization temperature of the amorphous phase, and it significantly improved the initial hydrogenation rate and the hydrogen absorption capacity of the alloys. The discharge capacity and the cycle stability of the alloys grew with the increase of the quenching rate. When the quenching rate increased from 0 (as-cast was defined at a quenching rate of 0 m s -1 ) to 30 m s -1 , the hydrogen absorption capacity of the alloys for x = 0 and 2 at 200 deg. C and 1.5 MPa in 10 min changed from 1.21 to 3.10 wt.% and from 1.26 to 2.60 wt.%, the maximum discharge capacity from 30.26 to 135.51 mAh g -1 and from 197.23 to 406.51 mAh g -1 at a current density of 20 mA g -1 , and the capacity retaining rate at 20th cycle from 36.71 to 27.06% and from 37.26 to 78.33%, respectively

  7. Hydrogen storage alloy for a battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, N.; Takahashi, M.; Sasai, T. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-18

    Cobalt contained in a hydrogen storage alloy has an effect to improve a cycle life, but it gives a problem of inferior discharge characteristics. Moreover, cobalt is a rather expensive constituent and therefore, it is desirable to suppress its use as far as possible. This invention aims to present a hydrogen storage alloy with a long service life and high discharge characteristics for a negative electrode of a hydrogen battery without containing a large amount of cobalt. The hydrogen storage alloy of this invention has a composition of a general formula: RNi(a)Co(b)Al(c)Mn(d)Fe(e), where R is a mixture of rare earth elements and La content in this alloy is 25 to 70wt%, 3.7{<=}a{<=}4.0, 0.1{<=}b{<=}0.4, 0.20{<=}c{<=}0.4, 0.30{<=}d{<=}0.45, 0.2{<=}e{<=}0.4, 0.5{<=}b+e{<=}0.7 and 5.0{<=}a+b+c+d+e{<=}5.1. 1 tab.

  8. 76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY: Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and... the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the Hydrogen Storage team of the EERE... hydrogen storage in the Washington, DC metro area. DATES: The workshops will be held on Monday, February 14...

  9. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  10. An investigation on hydrogen storage kinetics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg2Ni1-xCox (x = 0-0.4) alloy prepared by melt spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Li Baowei; Ren Huipin; Ding Xiaoxia; Liu Xiaogang; Chen Lele

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The investigation of the structures of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys indicates that a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure can be obtained in the experiment alloys by melt spinning technology. The substitution of Co for Ni facilitates the glass formation in the Mg 2 Ni-type alloy. And the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with increasing Co content. → Both the melt spinning and Co substitution significantly improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption saturation ratio (R t a ) and hydrogen desorption ratio (R t d ) as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) increase with rising spinning rate and Co content. The hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), the Tafel polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements show that the electrochemical kinetics notably increases with rising spinning rate and Co content. → Furthermore, all the as-spun alloys, when the spinning rate reaches to 30 m/s, have nearly same hydrogen absorption kinetics, indicating that the hydrogen absorption kinetics of the as-spun alloy is predominately controlled by diffusion ability of hydrogen atoms. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the Mg 2 Ni-type alloys, Ni in the alloy was partially substituted by element Co, and melt-spinning technology was used for the preparation of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) hydrogen storage alloys. The structures of the as-cast and spun alloys are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys is tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the alloys are calculated by virtue of potential-step method. The electrochemical impedance spectrums (EIS) and the Tafel

  11. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M A [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  12. Functional nanometers for hydrogen storage produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czujko, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]|[Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies; Varin, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering; Wronski, Z.S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation; Zaranski, Z. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to switch to cleaner alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen, as environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuel increase. Specifically, there is a need for efficient on-board hydrogen storage technologies for vehicular applications. This paper discussed three different methods of hydrogen desorption temperature reduction and desorption kinetics of nanostructured hydrides. The first method was based on substantial hydride particle size refinement. The second method utilized catalytic effects of nanometric n-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), n-yttrium oxide powder (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and n-nickel (Ni) additives. The third method was based on a composite of nanohydride mixtures. The composite approach was applied to the magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) plus sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH{sub 4}) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) systems. The paper presented the effects of nanostructuring and nanocatalytic additives on Mg hydride desorption properties as well as a composite behaviour of nanostructured complex hydrides. It was concluded that milling of commercial MgH{sub 2} with the nano-oxide additives had a limited effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties. The addition of specialty Inco nanometric Ni reduced the hydrogen desorption temperature considerably. 28 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  13. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  14. Hydrogen storage by reaction between metallic amides and imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, J.B.; Cahen, S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Janot, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details the various metal-N-H systems reported in the literature as possible hydrogen storage materials. In a first part, we discuss the hydrogen storage performances of the Li-N-H system and the desorption mechanism of the LiH-LiNH 2 mixture is especially presented. The possibility of storing hydrogen using two other binary systems (Mg-N-H and Ca-N-H) is described in a second part. In the third part of the paper, we discuss about the performances of the highly promising Li-Mg-N-H system, for which a nice reversibility is obtained at 200 C with an experimental hydrogen capacity of about 5.0 wt.%. Other ternary systems, as Li-B-N-H and Li-Al-N-H, are presented in the last part of this review paper. We especially emphasize the performances obtained in our Laboratory at Amiens with a LiAl(NH 2 ) 4 -LiH mixture able to desorb around 6.0 wt.% of hydrogen at only 130 C. (authors)

  15. Ice XVII as a Novel Material for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo del Rosso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage is one of the most addressed issues in the green-economy field. The latest-discovered form of ice (XVII, obtained by application of an annealing treatment to a H 2 -filled ice sample in the C 0 -phase, could be inserted in the energy-storage context due to its surprising capacity of hydrogen physisorption, when exposed to even modest pressure (few mbars at temperature below 40 K, and desorption, when a thermal treatment is applied. In this work, we investigate quantitatively the adsorption properties of this simple material by means of spectroscopic and volumetric data, deriving its gravimetric and volumetric capacities as a function of the thermodynamic parameters, and calculating the usable capacity in isothermal conditions. The comparison of ice XVII with materials with a similar mechanism of hydrogen adsorption like metal-organic frameworks shows interesting performances of ice XVII in terms of hydrogen content, operating temperature and kinetics of adsorption-desorption. Any application of this material to realistic hydrogen tanks should take into account the thermodynamic limit of metastability of ice XVII, i.e., temperatures below about 130 K.

  16. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  17. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  18. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  19. Preparation and electrochemical properties of La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 (x = 0, 0.30, 0.33, 0.36, 0.39) hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xiao; Wei, Wei; Duan, Ruxia; Zheng, Xinyao; Zhang, Huaiwei; Tegus, O.; Li, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    The as-cast alloy with the composition of La_0_._7_0Ni_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 was prepared by vacuum arc melting. La–Mg–Ni-based La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 hydrogen storage alloy has been synthesized by high-energy vibratory milling blending of the La_0_._7_0Ni_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 as-cast alloy and elemental Mg, followed by an isothermal annealing. The microstructures and electrochemical properties of the La_0_._7_0Ni_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 and La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloys were investigated by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The XRD analysis and Rietveld refinement showed that the as-cast La_0_._7_0Ni_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloy consists of single LaNi_5 phase, whereas the La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloys contain the LaNi_5 and (La, Mg)_2Ni_7. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the maximum discharge capacity and discharge potential characteristic of the La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloys increases first and then decreases with increasing x. The maximum discharge capacity and discharge potential characteristic of alloy reaches the optimum when x is 0.36. The cyclic stability of the La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloy with a smaller quantity of Mg is better than that of the alloy with a larger quantity of Mg. - Highlights: • La–Mg–Ni-based alloy was synthesized by melting, milling and subsequent annealing. • Mg atoms exist in the La_2Ni_7 phase prior to LaNi_5 phase. • The La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloys consist of the LaNi_5 and (La, Mg)_2Ni_7. • The more Mg element the alloys contain, the easier aggregation Mg atom is. • The C_m_a_x of La_0_._7_0Mg_xNi_2_._4_5Co_0_._7_5Al_0_._3_0 alloy first increases and then decreases with rising x.

  20. Effects of the Formulations of Silicon-Based Composite Anodes on their Mechanical, Storage, and Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assresahegn, Birhanu Desalegn; Bélanger, Daniel

    2017-10-23

    In this work, the effects of the formulation of silicon-based composite anodes on their mechanical, storage, and electrochemical properties were investigated. The electrode formulation was changed through the use of hydrogenated or modified (through the covalent attachment of a binding additive such as polyacrylic acid) silicon and acetylene black or graphene sheets as conducting additives. A composite anode with a covalently grafted binder had the highest elongation without breakages and strong adhesion to the current collector. These mechanical properties depend significantly on the conductive carbon additive used and the use of graphene sheets instead of acetylene black can improve elongation and adhesion significantly. After 180 days of storage under ambient conditions, the electronic conductivity and discharge capacity of the modified silicon electrode showed much smaller decreases in these properties than those of the hydrogenated silicon composite electrode, indicating that the modification can result in passivation and a constant composition of the active material. Moreover, the composite Si anode has a high packing density. Consequently, thin-film electrodes with very high material loadings can be prepared without decreased electrochemical performance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Tritiated hydrogen gas storage systems for a fusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, W.; Hircq, B.; Peyrat, M.; Leger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that USSI INGENIERIE has carried out a study financed by European Communities Commission concerning the NET/ITER project, on tritium Fuel Management and Storage systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. A processing block diagram for hydrogen isotopes represents all interfaces and possible links between these systems and tritiated gas mixtures flowing through the Fusion plant. Large quantities of hydrogen isotopes (up to several thousand moles of protium, deuterium and tritium) in gaseous form associated with torus fuelling and exhaust pellet injection, and neutral beam injection, must be stored and managed in such a plant

  2. Electrochemical permeation tests on the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption of palladium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafft, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical permeation tests were performed to investigate the kinetics of the hydrogen development and hydrogen absorption. The cathode side of the samples was galvanostatically cathodically polarized in different electrolyte solutions with and without additions. THe hydrogen atoms diffusing out of the opposite side for iron and α-palladium were oxidized with potentiostatic, sufficiently anodic polarization. The thus registered stationary current is proportional to the hydrogen activity on the cathode side. Test apparatus and conditions are described. The measurements on iron are discussed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  3. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  4. Ab initio calculations on hydrogen storage in porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, O.; Marinelli, F.; Pellenq, R.J.M.; Duclaux, L.; Azais, Ph.; Conard, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated through ab initio computations the possible ways to achieve efficient hydrogen storage on carbons. Firstly, we have considered how the curvature of a carbon surface could affect the chemisorption of atomic H 0 Secondly, we show that electron donor elements such as Li and K, used as dopants for the carbon substrate, strongly enhance the physi-sorption energy of H 2 , allowing in principle its storage in this type of material at room temperature under mild conditions of pressure. (authors)

  5. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  6. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  7. Hydrogen effects in duplex stainless steel welded joints - electrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, J.; Łabanowski, J.; Ćwiek, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this work results on the influence of hydrogen on passivity and corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) welded joints are described. The results were discussed by taking into account three different areas on the welded joint: weld metal (WM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal. The corrosion resistance was qualified with the polarization curves registered in a synthetic sea water. The conclusion is that, hydrogen may seriously deteriorate the passive film stability and corrosion resistance to pitting of 2205 DSS welded joints. The presence of hydrogen in passive films increases corrosion current density and decreases the potential of the film breakdown. It was also found that degree of susceptibility to hydrogen degradation was dependent on the hydrogen charging conditions. WM region has been revealed as the most sensitive to hydrogen action.

  8. Materials for Hydrogen Storage in Nanocavities: Design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    The adsorption potential for a given adsorbate depends of both, material surface and adsorbate properties. In this contribution the possible guest-host interactions for H{sub 2} within a cavity or on a surface are discussed considering the molecule physical properties. Five different interactions contribute to the adsorption forces for this molecule: 1) quadrupole moment interaction with the local electric field gradient; 1) electron cloud polarization by a charge center; 3) dispersive forces (van der Waals); 4) quadrupole moment versus quadrupole moment between neighboring H{sub 2} molecules, and, 5) H{sub 2} coordination to a metal center. The relative importance of these five interactions for the hydrogen storage in nanocavities is discussed from experimental evidences in order to extract materials design criteria for molecular hydrogen storage. (author)

  9. Hydrogen storage and evolution catalysed by metal hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-07

    The storage and evolution of hydrogen are catalysed by appropriate metal hydride complexes. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hydrogen is catalysed by a [C,N] cyclometalated organoiridium complex, [Ir(III)(Cp*)(4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))benzoic acid-κC(3))(OH(2))](2)SO(4) [Ir-OH(2)](2)SO(4), under atmospheric pressure of H(2) and CO(2) in weakly basic water (pH 7.5) at room temperature. The reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from formate, is also catalysed by [Ir-OH(2)](+) in acidic water (pH 2.8) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between hydrogen and formic acid in water at ambient temperature and pressure has been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst in both directions depending on pH. The Ir complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses regioselective hydrogenation of the oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to produce the 1,4-reduced form (NADH) under atmospheric pressure of H(2) at room temperature in weakly basic water. In weakly acidic water, the complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses the reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from NADH to produce NAD(+) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between NADH (and H(+)) and NAD(+) (and H(2)) has also been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst and by changing pH. The iridium hydride complex formed by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) by H(2) and NADH is responsible for the hydrogen evolution. Photoirradiation (λ > 330 nm) of an aqueous solution of the Ir-hydride complex produced by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) with alcohols resulted in the quantitative conversion to a unique [C,C] cyclometalated Ir-hydride complex, which can catalyse hydrogen evolution from alcohols in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.9). The catalytic mechanisms of the hydrogen storage and evolution are discussed by focusing on the reactivity of Ir-hydride complexes.

  10. Magnesium borohydride: from hydrogen storage to magnesium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-09-24

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH(4))(2) electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Development Unit Hydrogen Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) project has been a long-running program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate to enhance the knowledge and technology related to handling cryogenic propellants, specifically liquid hydrogen. This particular effort, the CPST engineering development unit (EDU), was a proof of manufacturability effort in support of a flight article. The EDU was built to find and overcome issues related to manufacturability and collect data to anchor the thermal models for use on the flight design.

  12. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Hydrogen Compression and Storage Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    standards relating to the production , transportation, handling, and storage of hydrogen gas. Four of CGAs standards were consulted during the design and...assessed as a low risk since the manufacturer had not experienced problems after several thousands of hours of work with their product . Future station...specified by their manufacturers . These pressure-temperature ratings are summarized for each tubing size in Table 6. A more rigorous design was

  14. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  15. Computational investigation of hydrogen storage on B5V3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Based on density functional theory method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set, the structures, stability and hydrogen storage capacity of B5V3 have been theoretically investigated. It is found that a maximum of seven hydrogen molecules can be adsorbed on B5V3 with gravimetric uptake capacity of 6.39 wt%. The uptake capacity exceeds the target set by the US Department of Energy for vehicular application. Moreover, the average adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 0.60 eV/H2 in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The kinetic stability of H2 adsorbed on B5V3 01 is confirmed by using gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). The gap value of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 2.81 eV, which indicates the compound with high stability. In addition, the thermochemistry calculation (Gibbs free energy corrected adsorption energy) is used to analyse if the adsorption is favourable or not at different temperatures. It can be found that the Gibbs corrected adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is still positive at 400 K at 1 atm. It means that the adsorption of seven hydrogen molecules on B5V3 01 is energetically favourable in a fairly wide temperature range. All the results show that B5V3 01 can be considered as a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  16. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  17. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kittrell, Carter [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Enhancement Attained by Fixation of Ti on MWNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Pérez-Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hydrogen has a preponderant position among the potentially sustainable energy sources. Due to its power density, its storage is of main concern when considering a broad use in practical applications. Carbon nanotubes constitute promising candidates for the design and construction of hydrogen storage devices. This work explores the use of some procedures involving electrochemistry, aimed to bond atomic Ti on the outer surface of MWNTs. Each titanium atom has the potential of hosting two hydrogen molecules and relinquishing them by heating. Nevertheless, nanotubes are difficult to handle due to electrostatic charge and agglomeration, and in this context, two routes were tested as procedures to spread and stick nanotubes on an electrode: (1 a functionalization capable of attaching gold was tested in two forms, as either using 4 nm particles or a flat gold electrode. The fixation of Au particles was confirmed by HRTEM. (2 A simpler route that consisted on drying a CH2Cl2/nanotubes solution previously spread on a glassy carbon flat electrode. CH2Cl2 was selected as the medium and TiCl4 as the precursor for attaching atomic Ti to the nanotubes. The results revealed that hydrogen adsorption, estimated from voltamperometry, was five times higher on Ti-MWNTs than on bare nanotubes.

  19. Sodium hydrazinidoborane: a chemical hydrogen-storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Romain; Demirci, Umit B; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chiriac, Rodica; van der Lee, Arie; Miele, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we present the successful synthesis and full characterization (by (11) B magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction) of sodium hydrazinidoborane (NaN2 H3 BH3 , with a hydrogen content of 8.85 wt %), a new material for chemical hydrogen storage. Using lab-prepared pure hydrazine borane (N2 H4 BH3 ) and commercial sodium hydride as precursors, sodium hydrazinidoborane was synthesized by ball-milling at low temperature (-30 °C) under an argon atmosphere. Its thermal stability was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that under heating sodium hydrazinidoborane starts to liberate hydrogen below 60 °C. Within the range of 60-150 °C, the overall mass loss is as high as 7.6 wt %. Relative to the parent N2 H4 BH3 , sodium hydrazinidoborane shows improved dehydrogenation properties, further confirmed by dehydrogenation experiments under prolonged heating at constant temperatures of 80, 90, 95, 100, and 110 °C. Hence, sodium hydrazinidoborane appears to be more suitable for chemical hydrogen storage than N2 H4 BH3 . Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  1. Technology-base research project for electrochemical storage report for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, F.

    1982-06-01

    The technology base research (TBR) project which provides the applied reseach base that supports all electrochemical energy storage applications: electric vehicles, electric load leveling, storage of solar electricity, and energy and resource conservation is described. The TBR identifies electrochemical technologies with the potential to satisfy stringent performance and economic requirements and transfer them to industry for further development and scale up. The TBR project consists of four major elements: electrochemical systems research, supporting research, electrochemical processes, and fuel cells for transportation. Activities in these four project elements during 1981 are summarized. Information is included on: iron-air batteries; aluminum-air batteries; lithium-metal sulfide cells; materials development for various batteries; and the characteristics of an NH3-air alkaline fuel cell in a vehicle.

  2. Investigation of the Alkaline Electrochemical Interface and Development of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides for Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael

    Understanding the fundamentals of electrochemical interfaces will undoubtedly reveal a path forward towards a society based on clean and renewable energy. In particular, it has been proposed that hydrogen can play a major role as an energy carrier of the future. To fully utilize the clean energy potential of a hydrogen economy, it is vital to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis, thus avoiding co-production of CO2 inherent to reformate hydrogen. While significant research efforts elsewhere are focused on photo-chemical hydrogen production from water, the inherent low efficiency of this method would require a massive land-use footprint to achieve sufficient hydrogen production rates to integrate hydrogen into energy markets. Thus, this research has primarily focused on the water splitting reactions on base-metal catalysts in the alkaline environment. Development of high-performance base-metal catalysts will help move alkaline water electrolysis to the forefront of hydrogen production methods, and when paired with solar and wind energy production, represents a clean and renewable energy economy. In addition to the water electrolysis reactions, research was conducted to understand the de-activation of reversible hydrogen electrodes in the corrosive environment of the hydrogen-bromine redox flow battery. Redox flow batteries represent a promising energy storage option to overcome the intermittency challenge of wind and solar energy production methods. Optimization of modular and scalable energy storage technology will allow higher penetration of renewable wind and solar energy into the grid. In Chapter 1, an overview of renewable energy production methods and energy storage options is presented. In addition, the fundamentals of electrochemical analysis and physical characterization of the catalysts are discussed. Chapter 2 reports the development of a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline

  3. Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)

  4. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  5. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  6. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of metal ions in dilute solution using hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, I.; Wijnbelt, E.C.W.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of metal ions in dilute solutions is of great interest for purification of waste waters and process liquids. A new electrochemical cell has been introduced. This cell - a GBC-cell - is a combination of a gasdiffusion electrode in direct contact with a packed bed of carbon particles.

  8. Standard practice for evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals by an electrochemical technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice gives a procedure for the evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals using an electrochemical technique which was developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. While this practice is primarily intended for laboratory use, such measurements have been conducted in field or plant applications. Therefore, with proper adaptations, this practice can also be applied to such situations. 1.2 This practice describes calculation of an effective diffusivity of hydrogen atoms in a metal and for distinguishing reversible and irreversible trapping. 1.3 This practice specifies the method for evaluating hydrogen uptake in metals based on the steady-state hydrogen flux. 1.4 This practice gives guidance on preparation of specimens, control and monitoring of the environmental variables, test procedures, and possible analyses of results. 1.5 This practice can be applied in principle to all metals and alloys which have a high solubility for hydrogen, and for which the hydrogen permeation is ...

  9. Multi-functionalized naphthalene complexes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A density functional study of hydrogen uptake capacity of multi-functionalized naphthalene with Ti and Li metal atom has been carried out. It is observed that, the naphthalene functionalized with two Ti atoms can interact with total eight hydrogen molecules in which each Ti metal atom interacts with four hydrogen molecules. Naphthalene decorated with two Li atoms can interact with total three H 2 molecules only. First ( 19 Li) and second ( 20 Li) Li atom can interact with only one and two hydrogen molecule respectively. It is observed that, hydrogen molecules bind strongly to the C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex than C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex. The gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex is found to be 6.72 and 3.73 wt% respectively. Moreover, after functionalizing naphthalene with four Li atoms, the uptake capacity is increased to 7.20 wt %. However, the thermochemistry result favors to Ti functionalized naphthalene complex (C 10 H 8 Ti 2 ) for hydrogen storage over Li functionalized naphthalene (both C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 ) complexes. Atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed which showed that C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex cannot bind single hydrogen molecule at room temperature whereas C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules. -- Highlights: ► The gravimetric H 2 uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex is 6.72 wt%. ► Uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex is 3.73 and 7.20 wt% respectively. ► C 10 H 8 Ti is more promising material for hydrogen adsorption. ► C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules as shown by ADMP-MD results.

  10. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  11. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  12. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  13. A high-porosity carbon molybdenum sulphide composite with enhanced electrochemical hydrogen evolution and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders B.; Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a highly active and stable acid activated carbon fibre and amorphous MoSx composite hydrogen evolution catalyst. The increased electrochemical-surface area is demonstrated to cause increased catalyst electrodeposition and activity. These composite electrodes also show...

  14. Hydrogen from electrochemical reforming of C1–C3 alcohols using proton conducting membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapountzi, F. M.; Tsampas, M. N.; Fredriksson, H. O. A.; Gracia, J. M.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the production of hydrogen from the electrochemical reforming of short-chain alcohols (methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol) and their mixtures. High surface gas diffusion Pt/C electrodes were interfaced to a Nafion polymeric membrane. The assembly separated the two chambers of an

  15. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0 °C). The reduction typically...... of TCEP. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of using electrochemical reduction as a substitute for TCEP in HDX-MS analyses. Our results demonstrate that efficient disulfide bond reduction is readily achieved by implementing an electrochemical cell into the HDX-MS workflow. We also identify...... some challenges in using electrochemical reduction in HDX-MS analyses and provide possible conditions to attenuate these limitations. For example, high salt concentrations hamper disulfide bond reduction, necessitating additional dilution of the sample with aqueous acidic solution at quench conditions....

  16. Fundamental Challenges for Modeling Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Axel

    2018-04-23

    There is a strong need to improve the efficiency of electrochemical energy storage, but progress is hampered by significant technological and scientific challenges. This review describes the potential contribution of atomic-scale modeling to the development of more efficient batteries, with a particular focus on first-principles electronic structure calculations. Numerical and theoretical obstacles are discussed, along with ways to overcome them, and some recent examples are presented illustrating the insights into electrochemical energy storage that can be gained from quantum chemical studies.

  17. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical ..... tems and BASF for developing high energy density lithium ion cells for plug-in electric ..... SEM and STEM images showing typical shapes and sizes of FeF2 ...

  18. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  19. Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  20. Methyllithium-Doped Naphthyl-Containing Conjugated Microporous Polymer with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Li, Gang; Shang, Jin; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen storage is a primary challenge for using hydrogen as a fuel. With ideal hydrogen storage kinetics, the weak binding strength of hydrogen to sorbents is the key barrier to obtain decent hydrogen storage performance. Here, we reported the rational synthesis of a methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer with exceptional binding strength of hydrogen to the polymer guided by theoretical simulations. Meanwhile, the experimental results showed that isosteric heat can reach up to 8.4 kJ mol(-1) and the methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer exhibited an enhanced hydrogen storage performance with 150 % enhancement compared with its counterpart naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer. These results indicate that this strategy provides a direction for design and synthesis of new materials that meet the US Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen storage target. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Defect studies of ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Žaludová, N.; Vlach, M.; Daniš, S.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

    2008-03-01

    Various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. The hydrogen content in the crystals is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and it is found that already 0.3at.% H exists in chemically bound form in the virgin ZnO crystals. A single positron lifetime of 182ps is detected in the virgin crystals and attributed to saturated positron trapping at Zn vacancies surrounded by hydrogen atoms. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to ˜30at.%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. More than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e., incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. This drastic increase of the hydrogen concentration is of marginal impact on the measured positron lifetime, whereas a contribution of positrons annihilated by electrons belonging to O-H bonds formed in the hydrogen doped crystal is found in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra. The formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface of the hydrogen doped crystals by optical microscopy is observed and discussed.

  2. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  3. Hydriding properties of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.I.; Bustamante, L.A.C.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the development of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd alloy for hydrogen storage purposes. The hydrogen storage properties of the alloy were analyzed using pressure-composition isotherms and hydrogen desorption kinetic curves at different temperatures. The characterization of the microstructures, before and after hydrogenation, was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Hydrogenation caused significant changes in the alloy microstructure. Two pressure plateaus were observed. The maximum hydrogen storage reversible capacity measured was 4 wt.% at 573 K

  4. Review of theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meregalli, V.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we review the existing theoretical literature on hydrogen storage in single-walled nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The reported calculations indicate a hydrogen uptake smaller than some of the more optimistic experimental results. Furthermore the calculations suggest that a variety of complex chemical processes could accompany hydrogen storage and release. (orig.)

  5. Effects of microstructures on hydrogen induced cracking of electrochemically hydrogenated double notched tensile sample of 4340 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sk, Mobbassar Hassan, E-mail: Skmobba@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Overfelt, Ruel A. [Materials Research and Education Center, Materials Engineer, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Abdullah, Aboubakr M. [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-04-06

    Quantitative fractographic characteristics of 4340 steel is demonstrated for a grain size range of 10−100 µm and hardness range of 41–52 HRC. Double-notched tensile samples were electrochemically charged in-situ with hydrogen in 0.5 m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+5 mg/l As{sub 2}O{sub 3} solution for 0–40 min charging time. Hydrogen induced fracture initiations were analyzed by novel metallographic investigation of the “unbroken” notch while the overall fractographic behaviors were examined by the scanning electron microscopic imaging of the fracture surfaces of the actually broken notch. Effect of hydrogen was predominantly manifested as intergranular fracture for the harder samples and quasi-cleavage fracture for the softer counterparts. 10–40 µm samples showed the maximum intensity of the hydrogen induced fracture features (intergranular and/or quasi-cleavage) close to the notch which gradually reduced with increasing distance from the notch. The largest grained samples (100 µm) however showed brittle behavior even in absence of hydrogen with similar intensity of percent fracture features at all distance from the notch, while presence of hydrogen intensified the overall percent brittle fractures with their intensities being highest close to the notch. Finally, the brittle fracture characteristics of the hydrogen embrittled samples were shown to be distinguishably different from that of the liquid nitrogen treated samples of same grain sizes and hardnesses.

  6. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolitic sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, F.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.

    2001-01-01

    For hydrogen isotope separation, adsorption molecular sieves and active carbon were used. Adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. Commercial zeolites have the same proprieties with natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure. They also have affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperature (77.4 K) and liquid hydrogen revealed the efficient behaviour of the active carbon and zeolitic sieves for hydrogen isotopes temporary storage. We study adsorption of the synthetic zeolites in a wide range of temperatures and pressures and we used the molecular sieves 4A, 5A and active carbon. The 4A and 5A zeolites have a tridimensional structure with 11.4 A diameter. When the hydration water is eliminated, the material keeps a porous structure. The porous volume represents 45% from the zeolite mass for 4A and 5A sieves. The activation temperature of the zeolite and the carbon is very important for obtaining a high adsorption capacity. If the temperature used for activation is low, the structural water will be not eliminated and the adsorption capacity will be low. The excessive temperature will destroy the porous structure. The adsorption capacity for the hydrogen isotopes was calculated with the relation: A = V ads /m (cm 3 /g). The adsorption capacity and efficiency for the adsorbent materials, are given. Physical adsorption process of the hydrogen isotopes was carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature. The flux gas used in the adsorption system is composed of dry deuterium and protium. This mixture is cooled in liquid nitrogen and then is passed to the adsorbent getter at the same temperature (77.4 K). The gas flux in the adsorbent getter is 5 and 72 l/h (which correspond to 0.008 and 0.134 discharge velocity, respectively). (authors)

  7. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  8. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  9. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  10. Sc-Decorated WS_2 Nanoribbons as Hydrogen Storage Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Wang Yu-Sheng; Zhang Jing; Song Na-Hong; Li Meng; Yi Lin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen storage behavior of Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer and WS_2 nanoribbons is systematically studied by using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The present results indicate that an Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer is not suitable for storing hydrogen due to the weak interaction between the monolayer WS_2 sheet and the Sc atoms. It is found that both the hybridization mechanism and the Coulomb attraction make the Sc atoms stably adsorb on the edges of WS_2 nanoribbons without clustering. The 2Sc/WS_2 NRs system can adsorb at most eight H_2 molecules with average adsorption energy of 0.20 eV/H_2. The results show that the desorption of H_2 is possible by lowering the pressure or by increasing the temperature. (paper)

  11. Kinetics with deactivation of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, G; Marin, A; Wyss, C; Mueller, S; Newson, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation step to recycle toluene and release hydrogen is being studied as part of a hydrogen energy storage project. The reaction is performed catalytically in a fixed bed reactor, and the efficiency of this step significantly determines overall system economics. The fresh catalyst kinetics and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke play an important role in the process analysis. The main reaction kinetics were determined from isothermal experiments using a parameter sensitivity analysis for model discrimination. An activation energy for the main reaction of 220{+-}11 kJ/mol was obtained from a two-parameter model. From non-isothermal deactivation in PC-controlled integral reactors, an activation energy for deactivation of 160 kJ/mol was estimated. A model for catalyst coke content of 3-17 weight% was compared with experimental data. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  12. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  13. Graphene-Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites for Enhancing Electrochemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Fei; Pankratov, Dmitry; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of power generation, expansion of transportation and electrification, and popularization of portable electronic devices have altogether posed growing demands for more efficient energy storage systems. Supercapacitors, as one of major electrochemical energy storage devices, have...... recently received intensive attention. In this minireview, our focus is on graphene-conducting polymer nanocomposites and their applications in supercapacitors that have potential to perform high power and energy density, fast charge/discharge rate, low cost and eco-friendly operation conditions. We first...

  14. Electrochemical titration of hydrogen adsorbed on supported platinum catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paseka, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 329, - (2007), s. 161-163 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : platinum * hydrogen adsorption * specific surface area Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2007

  15. Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    wide range of industrial processes such as food processing (e.g. in the ... tron transfer effect of mitochondria.4 These radicals. (reactive .... of H2O2 without undergoing fouling or poisoning due to any inter- .... adsorbed OHads species was shown operative at po- tentials of .... Douglass W C 2003 Hydrogen peroxide medical.

  16. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  17. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Kinetics of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Mg₂Ni-type Alloy by Melt Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang-Huan; Li, Bao-Wei; Ren, Hui-Ping; Li, Xia; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Dong-Liang

    2011-01-18

    Mg₂Ni-type Mg₂Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys were fabricated by melt spinning technique. The structures of the as-spun alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys was tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The results show that the as-spun (x = 0.1) alloy exhibits a typical nanocrystalline structure, while the as-spun (x = 0.4) alloy displays a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, confirming that the substitution of Co for Ni notably intensifies the glass forming ability of the Mg₂Ni-type alloy. The melt spinning treatment notably improves the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) of the alloys. With an increase in the spinning rate from 0 (as-cast is defined as spinning rate of 0 m/s) to 30 m/s, the hydrogen absorption saturation ratio () of the (x = 0.4) alloy increases from 77.1 to 93.5%, the hydrogen desorption ratio () from 54.5 to 70.2%, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D) from 0.75 × 10 - 11 to 3.88 × 10 - 11 cm²/s and the limiting current density I L from 150.9 to 887.4 mA/g.

  18. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  19. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  20. Property changes of some hydrogen storage alloys upon hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.N.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling induced by pressure change in a closed system were carried out with LaNi 5 , La 0.7 Ce 0.3 Ni 4 Cu and TiFe 0.9 Ni 0.1 alloys. PC isotherms measured during the cycling showed some changes in hydrogen storage capacity, plateau pressure and hysteresis of the alloys. The half capacity life of LaNi 5 alloy can be projected as 70,000 cycles for room temperature pressure cycling. When La 0.7 Ce 0.3 Ni 4 Cu alloy was pressure cycled both of the plateau pressures were decreased significantly and continuously. TiFe 0.9 Ni 0.1 alloy showed a good resistance to cyclic degradation. Heat treatments of the degraded alloys under 1 atm of hydrogen gas recovered most of the hydrogen storage properties to the initial level even though they were degraded again more rapidly upon subsequent cycling. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  2. Hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with a metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Taylor, Jared M.; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Toh, Shoichi; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen is an essential component in many industrial processes. As a result of the recent increase in the development of shale gas, steam reforming of shale gas has received considerable attention as a major source of H2, and the more efficient use of hydrogen is strongly demanded. Palladium is well known as a hydrogen-storage metal and an effective catalyst for reactions related to hydrogen in a variety of industrial processes. Here, we present remarkably enhanced capacity and speed of hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 (copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The Pd nanocrystals covered with the MOF have twice the storage capacity of the bare Pd nanocrystals. The significantly enhanced hydrogen storage capacity was confirmed by hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The speed of hydrogen absorption in the Pd nanocrystals is also enhanced by the MOF coating.

  3. Modeling hydrogen storage in boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tokarev, A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms was considered as a novel material for hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations were used to model key properties of the material, such as geometry, hydrogen packing...

  4. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  5. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  6. Conception of modular hydrogen storage systems for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, V.; Miotti, P.; Manzoni, G.; Ozebec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen, till now the most prominent candidate as a future sustainable energy carrier, yields a gravimetric energy density three times as high as liquid hydrocarbon. Furthermore it is proven to be the most environmentally friendly fuel. Unfortunately, a few components regarding storage and tank solutions have not yet reached a technology level required for broad use. Thus, we intend to propose solutions and device concepts for both devices everyday use and space applications. This contribution assesses both state of the art of storage materials and existing technologies of power generation systems for application in portable devices. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics of a modular system, being suitable for a wide range of different devices, operating on advanced metal hydrides as the active hydrogen supply component. The concept has been studied and modelled with respect to volumes, mass and power requirements of different devices. The smallest system developed is intended to run, for example, a mobile phone. Minor tuning and straightforward scale up of this power supply module should make it suitable for general applicability in any portable device. (author)

  7. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  8. Method and system for hydrogen evolution and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Cameron, Thomas M.

    2012-12-11

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen (H.sub.2) employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  9. Mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao He; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of V-based phase is much lower than that of C14 Laves phase of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. - Abstract: In this work, the mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys were investigated systemically. Several key factors for example corrosion resistance, pulverization resistance and oxidation resistance were evaluated individually. The V-based solid solution phase has much lower anti-corrosion ability than C14 Laves phase in KOH solution, and the addition of Cr in V-Ti-based alloys can suppress the dissolution of the main hydrogen absorption elements of the V-based phase in the alkaline solution. During the charge/discharge cycling, the alloy particles crack or break into several pieces, which accelerates their corrosion/oxidation and increases the contact resistance of the alloy electrodes. Proper decreasing the Vickers hardness and enhancing the fracture toughness can increase the pulverization resistance of the alloy particles. The oxidation layer thickness on the alloy particle surface obviously increases during charge/discharge cycling. This deteriorates their electro-catalyst activation to the electrochemical reaction, and leads to a quick degradation. Therefore, enhancing the oxide resistance can obviously improve the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys.

  10. Theoretical study of molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storage on two-dimensional covalent-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiu-Ying; He Jie; Yu Jing-Xin; Fan Zhi-Qin; Li Zheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storages on five two-dimensional (2D) covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) (PPy-COF, TP-COF, BTP-COF, COF-18 Å, and HHTP-DPB COF) are investigated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the density functional theory (DFT), respectively. The GCMC simulated results show that HHTP-DPB COF has the best performance for hydrogen storage, followed by BTP-COF, TP-COF, COF-18 Å, and PPy-COF. However, their adsorption amounts at room temperature are all too low to meet the uptake target set by US Department of Energy (US-DOE) and enable practical applications. The effects of pore size, surface area, and isosteric heat of hydrogen on adsorption amount are considered, which indicate that these three factors are all the important factors for determining the H 2 adsorption amount. The chemisorptions of spiltover hydrogen atoms on these five COFs represented by the cluster models are investigated using the DFT method. The saturation cluster models are constructed by considering all possible adsorption sites for these cluster models. The average binding energy of a hydrogen atom and the saturation hydrogen storage density are calculated. The large average binding energy indicates that the spillover process may proceed smoothly and reversibly. The saturation hydrogen storage density is much larger than the physisorption uptake of H 2 molecules at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar = 10 5 Pa), and is close to or exceeds the 2010 US-DOE target of 6 wt% for hydrogen storage. This suggests that the hydrogen storage capacities of these COFs by spillover may be significantly enhanced. Thus 2D COFs studied in this paper are suitable hydrogen storage media by spillover

  11. Passivation behavior of AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloys for battery electrode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meli, F. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Sakai, T. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Zuettel, A. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Schlapbach, L. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1995-04-15

    In many applications, AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys show passivation behavior, i.e. when fully discharged, metal hydride electrodes show (especially at higher temperatures) a decrease in activity and therefore a decrease in capacity at normal discharge currents for ensuing cycles. Passivation may continue to the point where activity becomes so low that the capacity is no longer accessible. Electrochemical measurements were taken of two different AB{sub 5}-type alloys, one with manganese and one without manganese (LaNi{sub 3.4}Co{sub 1.2}Al{sub 0.4} and LaNi{sub 3.4}Co{sub 1.2}Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.1}). Both alloys showed passivation behavior after remaining in the discharged state. The alloy with manganese showed a stronger tendency to passivation which is in contradiction with earlier observations. Photoelectron spectroscopic analysis together with sputter depth profiling was used to investigate the surface composition of samples which had undergone different surface pretreatments. Surface analysis of electrodes in the passivated state shows a lower content of metallic nickel and a thicker nickel surface oxide film. We attribute the low electrochemical kinetics of the alloys after passivation to the loss of metallic nickel and/or cobalt at the electrode-electrolyte interface. ((orig.))

  12. High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, KT; Ridgway, P; Weber, AZ; Haussener, S; Battaglia, V; Srinivasan, V

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.018211jes] All rights reserved.

  13. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, Mike [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Purewal, Justin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Xu, Chunchuan [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Yang, Jun [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Blaser, Rachel [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Sudik, Andrea [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Siegel, Don [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ming, Yang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Dong' an [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chi, Hang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gaab, Manuela [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Arnold, Lena [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Muller, Ulrich [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  14. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Yves

    2009-03-01

    To develop a hydrogen-based energy technology, several classes of materials are being considered to achieve the DOE targets for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities for hydrogen storage, including liquids (e.g. ammonium borohydrides), clathrate structures, complex metal hydrides, nanostructured (e.g. carbon) an nanoporous materials. Fundamental studies are necessary to determine the ultimate hydrogen capacity of each system. Nanoporous Metal-organic Framework (MOF) materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because the chemical nature and size of their unit cell can be tailored to weakly attract and incorporate H2 molecules, with good volumetric and mass density. In this talk, we consider the structure M2(BDC)2(TED), where M is a metal atom (Zn, Ni, Cu), BDC is benzenedicarboxylate and TED triethylenediamine, to determine the location and interaction of H2 molecules within the MOF. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the tetragonal phase (space group P4/ncc), they construct 3D porous structures with relatively large pore size (˜7-8 A ), pore volume (˜0.63-0.84 cc/g) and BET surface area (˜1500-1900 m^2/g). At high pressures (300-800 psi), the perturbation of the H-H stretching mode can be measured with IR absorption spectroscopy, showing a 35 cm-1 redshift from the unperturbed ortho (4155 cm-1 ) and para (4161 cm-1 ) frequencies. Using a newly developed non empirical van der Waals DFT method vdW-DFT),ootnotetextJ.Y. Lee, D.H. Olson, L. Pan, T.J. Emge, J. Li, Adv. Func. Mater. 17, 1255 (2007) it can be shown that the locus of the deepest H2 binding positions lies within to types of narrow channels. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms, and heat of adsorption) data.ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Ryberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B.I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). Importantly, the

  15. Porous One-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Design, Fabrication and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiulong; Xiong, Fangyu; Tan, Shuangshuang; Huang, Lei; Lan, Esther H; Dunn, Bruce; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage technology is of critical importance for portable electronics, transportation and large-scale energy storage systems. There is a growing demand for energy storage devices with high energy and high power densities, long-term stability, safety and low cost. To achieve these requirements, novel design structures and high performance electrode materials are needed. Porous 1D nanomaterials which combine the advantages of 1D nanoarchitectures and porous structures have had a significant impact in the field of electrochemical energy storage. This review presents an overview of porous 1D nanostructure research, from the synthesis by bottom-up and top-down approaches with rational and controllable structures, to several important electrochemical energy storage applications including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries and supercapacitors. Highlights of porous 1D nanostructures are described throughout the review and directions for future research in the field are discussed at the end. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 2D Materials with Nanoconfined Fluids for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyn, Veronica [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Inst.

    2017-10-11

    In the quest to develop energy storage with both high power and high energy densities, and while maintaining high volumetric capacity, recent results show that a variety of 2D and layered materials exhibit rapid kinetics of ion transport by the incorporation of nanoconfined fluids.

  17. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  18. Shape-dependent hydrogen-storage properties in Pd nanocrystals: which does hydrogen prefer, octahedron (111) or cube (100)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Dekura, Shun; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-23

    Pd octahedrons and cubes enclosed by {111} and {100} facets, respectively, have been synthesized for investigation of the shape effect on hydrogen-absorption properties. Hydrogen-storage properties were investigated using in situ powder X-ray diffraction, in situ solid-state (2)H NMR and hydrogen pressure-composition isotherm measurements. With these measurements, it was found that the exposed facets do not affect hydrogen-storage capacity; however, they significantly affect the absorption speed, with octahedral nanocrystals showing the faster response. The heat of adsorption of hydrogen and the hydrogen diffusion pathway were suggested to be dominant factors for hydrogen-absorption speed. Furthermore, in situ solid-state (2)H NMR detected for the first time the state of (2)H in a solid-solution (Pd + H) phase of Pd nanocrystals at rt.

  19. Pseudocapacitive Oxides and Sulfides for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-03-22

    The intermittent nature of several sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind energy has ignited the demand of electrochemical energy storage devices in the form of batteries and electrochemical capacitors. The future generation of electrochemical capacitors will in large part depend on the use of pseudocapacitive materials in one or both electrodes. Developing pseudocapacitors to have both high energy and power density is crucial for future energy storage systems. This dissertation evaluates two different material systems to achieve high energy density pseudocapacitive energy storage. This research presents the successful preparation and application of ternary NiCo2S4, which is based on the surface redox mechanism, in the area of pseudocapacitive energy storage. Attention has been paid to understanding its basic physical properties which can impact its electrochemical behavior. Well-defined single- and double-shell NiCo2S4 hollow spheres were fabricated for pseudocapacitor applications, showing much improved electrochemical storage performance with good energy and power densities, as well as excellent cycling stability. To overcome the complexity of the preparation methods of NiCo2S4 nanostructures, a one-step approach was developed for the first time. Asymmetric pseudocapacitors using NiCo2S4 as cathode and graphene as anode were also fabricated to extend the operation voltage in aqueous electrolyte, and thus enhance the overall capacity of the cells. Furthermore, high-performance on-chip pseudocapacitive energy storage was demonstrated using NiCo2S4 as electrochemically active materials. This dissertation also involves another material system, intercalation pseudocapacitive VO2 (B), that displays a different charge storage mechanism from NiCo2S4. By constructing high-quality, atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) VO2 (B) sheets using a general monomer-assisted approach, we demonstrate that a rational design of atomically thin, 2D nanostructures of

  20. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  1. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  2. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers: effect of synthesis catalyst and pretreatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Yang, Ralph T; Rodriguez, Nelly M; Baker, R Terry K

    2004-02-03

    A series of graphite nanofibers (GNFs) that were subjected to various pretreatments were used to determine how modifications in the carbon structure formed during either synthesis or pretreatment steps results in active or inactive materials for hydrogen storage. The nanofibers possessing a herringbone structure and a high degree of defects were found to exhibit the best performance for hydrogen storage. These materials were exposed to several pretreatment procedures, including oxidative, reductive, and inert environments. Significant hydrogen storage levels were found for several in situ pretreatments. Examination of the nanofibers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after pretreatment and subsequent hydrogen storage revealed the existence of edge attack and an enhancement in the generation of structural defects. These findings suggest that pretreatment in certain environments results in the creation of catalytic sites that are favorable toward hydrogen storage. The best pretreatment resulted in a 3.8% hydrogen release after exposure at 69 bar and room temperature.

  3. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans,; Carl, B [Augusta, GA

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  4. Prediction of hydrogen storage on Y-decorated graphene: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rongguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • Rare earth metal Y has an excellent performance on hydrogen storage. • After decoration, each Y can attach six hydrogen molecules without dissociation. • The Y atoms disperse uniformly and stably on B/graphene. • The enhancement of H binding is caused by hybridization and electrostatic attraction. - Abstract: Yttrium decorated graphene has been investigated as a potential carrier for high density hydrogen storage. The adsorption energy and optimized geometry for yttrium on pristine and boron doped graphene have been studied by DFT calculations. The clustering and stability of isolated yttrium atoms on graphene has also been considered. For yttrium decorated boron doped graphene, each yttrium can attach six hydrogen molecules with average adsorption energy of −0.568 eV per hydrogen molecule and the hydrogen storage capacity of this material is 5.78 wt.%, indicating yttrium decorated boron doped graphene as a promising hydrogen storage candidate

  5. Electron microscopy studies of materials used for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Carmen M.

    2004-07-01

    Concerns over global warming and air pollution have stimulated the concept of the ''Hydrogen Economy'' and the potential extensive use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Hydrogen storage in a solid matrix has become one of the promising solutions for vehicular applications. In this study, several transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques such as high resolution (HR), electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFT EM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the microstructure of materials related to hydrogen storage applications. Some of the results are compared with powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) data. A TbNiAl compound processed by the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) route has been studied using a combination of SEM, TEM and PXD. Information about the variations in the composition and surface topography in both disproportionation and recombination stages is given by the SEM backscattered electrons and secondary electrons images. The crystallites that have undergone the recombination process were found smaller in size. The sodium alanate, NaAIH4 is one of the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen storage. Ti additives are effective at reducing the reaction temperatures and improving the efficiency of the kinetics. The microstructure of NaAlH4 with TiF3 additive has been examined after the initial ball milling and after 15 cycles, using TEM, SEM and EDS. The effect of the additive on particle morphology, grain size and distribution of the phases has been studied. The additive has uneven distribution in the sample after initial ball milling. After 15 cycles, EDS maps show some combination of Ti with the alanate phase. No significant change in grain size of the Na/Al rich particles between the ball milled and 15 cycled sample was observed. The LiAlD4

  6. Polymer-directed synthesis of metal oxide-containing nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yiyong; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-12-01

    Metal oxide-containing nanomaterials (MOCNMs) of controllable structures at the nano-scale have attracted considerable interest because of their great potential applications in electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors. Among many structure-directing agents, polymers and macromolecules, including block copolymers (BCPs) and graphene, exhibit distinct advantages in the template-assisted synthesis of MOCNMs. In this feature article, we introduce the controlled preparation of MOCNMs employing BCPs and graphene as structure-directing agents. Typical synthetic strategies are presented for the control of structures and sizes as well as the improvement of physical properties and electrochemical performance of MOCNMs in LIBs and supercapacitors.

  7. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Malley, Kathleen; Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie; Ahn, Channing C.; Stetson, Ned T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage

  8. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA 22033 (United States); Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Ahn, Channing C. [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stetson, Ned T., E-mail: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage.

  9. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veluswamy, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is looked upon as the next generation clean energy carrier, search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been pursued relentlessly. Improving hydrogen storage capacity to meet DOE targets has been challenging and research efforts are continuously put forth to achieve the set targets and to make hydrogen storage a commercially realizable process. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art experimental work conducted on the storage of hydrogen as hydrogen clathrates both at the molecular level and macroscopic level. It identifies future directions and challenges for this exciting area of research. Hydrogen storage capacities of different clathrate structures – sI, sII, sH, sVI and semi clathrates have been compiled and presented. In addition, promising new approaches for increasing hydrogen storage capacity have been described. Future directions for achieving increased hydrogen storage and process scale up have been outlined. Despite few limitations in storing hydrogen in the form of clathrates, this domain receives prominent attention due to more environmental-friendly method of synthesis, easy recovery of molecular hydrogen with minimum energy requirement, and improved safety of the process

  10. Engineering radical polymer electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2017-06-01

    In principle a wide range of organic materials can store energy in the form of reversible redox conversions of stable radicals. Such chemistry holds great promise for energy storage applications due to high theoretical capacities, high rate capabilities, intrinsic structural tunability, and the possibility of low-cost "green" syntheses from renewable sources. There have been steady improvements in the design of organic radical polymers, in which radicals are incorporated into the backbone and/or as pendant groups. This review highlights opportunities for improved redox molecule and polymer design along with the key challenges (e.g., transport phenomena, solubility, and reaction mechanisms) to transitioning known organic radicals into high-performance electrodes. Ultimately, organic-based batteries are still a nascent field with many open questions. Further advances in molecular design, electrode engineering, and device architecture will be required for these systems to reach their full potential and meet the diverse and increasing demands for energy storage.

  11. Improving corrosion resistance of magnesium-based alloys by surface modification with hydrogen by electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) and by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkar, A. [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik, Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, 38678 Clausthal (Germany); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Suez Canal University, P.O. Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Neubert, V. [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik, Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, 38678 Clausthal (Germany)]. E-mail: volkmar.neubert@tu-clausthal.de

    2005-05-01

    Magnesium-based hydrides are well known that they have a high hydrogen-storage capacity. In this study, two different methods have been provided for hydrogen surface modification of high purity magnesium (hp Mg) and AZ91 magnesium alloy. One was electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) of hydrogen from an alkaline electrolyte on such Mg-based cathode. The other was plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII or PI{sup 3}) into Mg-based substrate. The depth profile of H-modified surfaces was described by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Corrosion testing was carried out in Avesta cell by potentiodynamic polarisation in chloride-containing aqueous solutions of pH 7 and pH 12. A greatly significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of H-modified surfaces was verified.

  12. Improving corrosion resistance of magnesium-based alloys by surface modification with hydrogen by electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) and by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkar, A.; Neubert, V.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium-based hydrides are well known that they have a high hydrogen-storage capacity. In this study, two different methods have been provided for hydrogen surface modification of high purity magnesium (hp Mg) and AZ91 magnesium alloy. One was electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) of hydrogen from an alkaline electrolyte on such Mg-based cathode. The other was plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII or PI 3 ) into Mg-based substrate. The depth profile of H-modified surfaces was described by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Corrosion testing was carried out in Avesta cell by potentiodynamic polarisation in chloride-containing aqueous solutions of pH 7 and pH 12. A greatly significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of H-modified surfaces was verified

  13. Light Metal Decorated Graphdiyne (GDY) Nanosheets for Reversible Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P; Dhinakaran, A K; Naqvi, S R; Rao, Sankara Gollu; Ahuja, Rajeev; Hussain, Tanveer

    2018-05-29

    The sensitive nature of molecular hydrogen (H2) interaction with the surfaces of pristine and functionalized nanostructures, especially two-dimensional materials (2D) has been a subject of debate for a while now. An accurate approximation of H2 adsorption mechanism has a vital significance for the specific fields like H2 storage applications. Owing to the importance of this issue, we have performed a comprehensive DFT study by means of several different approximations to investigate the structural, electronic, charge transfer and energy storage properties of pristine and functionalized graphdiyne (GDY) nano sheets. The dopants considered here include light-metals Li, Na, K, Ca, Sc and Ti, which make uniform distribution over GDY even at high doping concentration due to their strong binding and charge transfer mechanism. Upon 11% of metal functionalization, GDY changes into metallic state from being a small band gap semiconductor. Such situations turn the dopants to a partial positive state, which is favorable for adsorption of H2 molecules. The adsorption mechanism of H2 on GDY has been studied and compared by different methods like GGA, vdW-DF and DFT-D3 functionals. It has been established that each functionalized systems anchor multiple H2 molecules with adsorption energies that falls into a suitable range regardless of the functional used for approximations. A significantly high H2 storage capacity would guarantee that light metal-doped GDY nano sheets could serve the purpose of an efficient and reversible H2 storage material. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshoy, Shokufeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram; Behpour, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully deposited on the surface of Ni substrate. On the other hand, a field-emission scanning electron microscopy technique revealed the morphology of resulting Ni foam, Ni-Sn and Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes. In order to measure the hydrogen adsorption performed in a three electrode cell, the Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/MWCNT and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes were used as working electrodes whereas Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes were employed as counter and reference electrodes, respectively. Our results on the discharge capacity in different electrodes represent that the Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT has a maximum discharge capacity of ˜30 000 mAh g-1 for 20 cycles compared to that of Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes for 15 cycles (˜9500 mAh g-1). By increasing the number of cycles in a constant current, the corresponding capacity increases, thereby reaching a constant amount for 20 cycles.

  15. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  16. Electrochemically fabricated polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen coordination complex as high-performance lithium-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingkun; Kong, Qingyu; Zhu, Ying; Mao, Ya; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Wan, Meixiang; Chen, Liquan

    2011-12-23

    Current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies are all based on inorganic electrode materials, though organic materials have been used as electrodes for years. Disadvantages such as limited thermal stability and low specific capacity hinder their applications. On the other hand, the transition metal oxides that provide high lithium-storage capacity by way of electrochemical conversion reaction suffer from poor cycling stability. Here we report a novel high-performance, organic, lithium-storage material, a polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen (PPy-Co-O) coordination complex, with high lithium-storage capacity and excellent cycling stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopy and other physical and electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that this coordination complex can be electrochemically fabricated by cycling PPy-coated Co(3)O(4) between 0.0 V and 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that each cobalt atom coordinates with two nitrogen atoms within the PPy-Co coordination layer and the layers are connected with oxygen atoms between them. Coordination weakens the C-H bonds on PPy and makes the complex a novel lithium-storage material with high capacity and high cycling stability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydrogen Storage and Release Properties of Transition Metal-Added Magnesium Hydride Alloy Fabricated by Grinding in a Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sung Nam; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    90 wt% MgH{sub 2}+5 wt% Ni+2.5 wt% Fe+2.5 wt% Ti (called MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti), a hydrogen storage and release material, was fabricated by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere, and then its quantities of stored and released hydrogen as a function of time were examined. A nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti specimen was made by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere and subsequent hydrogen storage-release cycling. The crystallite size of Mg and the strain of the Mg crystallite after ten hydrogen storage-release cycles, which were obtained using the Williamson-Hall method, were 38.6 (±1.4) nm and 0.025 (±0.0081) %, respectively. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti sample after the process of grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere was highly reactive with hydrogen. The sample exhibited an available storage capacity of hydrogen (the amount of hydrogen stored during 60 minutes) of about 5.7 wt%. At the first cycle, the MgH2+Ni+Fe+Ti sample stored hydrogen of 5.53 wt% in 5 minutes, 5.66 wt% in 10 minutes and 5.73 wt% in 60 minutes at 573 K and 12 bar of hydrogen. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti after activation released hydrogen of 0.56 wt% in 5 minutes, 1.26 wt% in 10 minutes, 2.64 wt% in 20 minutes, 3.82 wt% in 30 minutes, and 5.03 wt% in 60 minutes.

  18. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  19. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  20. Electrochemical methods to study hydrogen production during interaction of copper with deoxygenated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilja, Christina; Betova, Iva; Bojinov, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In some countries, spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in canisters with a copper shell for corrosion protection, for further disposal in geologic repositories. The possibilities for corrosion after oxygen depletion must be evaluated, even if copper is considered to be immune in oxygen-free water. To follow the interaction of copper with deoxygenated aqueous solution, open-circuit potentiometric and electrochemical impedance measurements have been coupled to in-situ detection of cupric ion, dissolved molecular hydrogen and oxygen concentrations using electrochemical sensors. A kinetic model that considers the production of hydrogen as a catalytic process, the rate of which is proportional to the surface coverage of an intermediate species formed during interaction between copper and the solution is used to interpret the results. Kinetic parameters are estimated by a simultaneous fit of the experimental impedance spectra, the open circuit potential and cupric ion concentration as depending on temperature (22–70 °C) and exposure time (up to 720 h) to the model equations. Using the obtained values and a balance equation of hydrogen production on copper and its diffusion out of the cell through its walls, the kinetic parameters of this process are estimated by fitting dissolved molecular hydrogen concentration vs. time data at the three temperatures.