WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrochemical device applications

  1. Joint with application in electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, K Scott [Richland, WA; Hardy, John S [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    A joint for use in electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen separators, and hydrogen separators, that will maintain a hermetic seal at operating temperatures of greater than 600.degree. C., despite repeated thermal cycling excess of 600.degree. C. in a hostile operating environment where one side of the joint is continuously exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere and the other side is continuously exposed to a wet reducing gas. The joint is formed of a metal part, a ceramic part, and a flexible gasket. The flexible gasket is metal, but is thinner and more flexible than the metal part. As the joint is heated and cooled, the flexible gasket is configured to flex in response to changes in the relative size of the metal part and the ceramic part brought about by differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal part and the ceramic part, such that substantially all of the tension created by the differences in the expansion and contraction of the ceramic and metal parts is absorbed and dissipated by flexing the flexible gasket.

  2. A reusable device for electrochemical applications of hydrogel supported black lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mech-Dorosz, Agnieszka; Heiskanen, Arto; Bäckström, Sania

    2015-01-01

    Black lipid membranes (BLMs) are significant in studies of membrane transport, incorporated proteins/ion transporters, and hence in construction of biosensor devices. Although BLMs provide an accepted mimic of cellular membranes, they are inherently fragile. Techniques are developed to stabilize...... the ETFE substrate and a gold electrode microchip, thus allowing direct electrochemical studies with the integrated working electrodes. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, we demonstrate the optimized chemical modifications...

  3. Materials for electrochemical device safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Daniel R.; Amine, Khalil; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2015-04-07

    An electrochemical device includes a thermally-triggered intumescent material or a gas-triggered intumescent material. Such devices prevent or minimize short circuits in a device that could lead to thermal run-away. Such devices may include batteries or supercapacitors.

  4. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for electrochemical applications, and devices and systems using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Brian Richmond; Chen, Xinwei; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-04-17

    In certain embodiments, the invention relates to an electrochemical device having a liquid lubricant impregnated surface. At least a portion of the interior surface of the electrochemical device includes a portion that includes a plurality of solid features disposed therein. The plurality of solid features define a plurality of regions therebetween. A lubricant is disposed in the plurality of regions which retain the liquid lubricant in the plurality of regions during operation of the device. An electroactive phase comes in contact with at least the portion of the interior surface. The liquid lubricant impregnated surface introduces a slip at the surface when the electroactive phase flows along the surface. The electroactive phase may be a yield stress fluid.

  5. Application of electrochemical method to microfabricated region in single-crystal device of FeSe1‑ x Te x superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ohnuma, Haruka; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji; Ayukawa, Shin-ya; Kitano, Haruhisa

    2018-04-01

    The application of an electrochemical method to the iron-based chalcogenide superconductors has great potentials in enhancing their properties such as the superconducting transition temperature. Unfortunately, this method has been limited to polycrystalline powders or thin film samples with a large surface area. Here, we demonstrate that the electrochemical method can be usefully applied to single-crystal devices of FeSe1‑ x Te x superconductors by combining it with the focused ion beam (FIB) microfabrication techniques. Our results open a new route to developing the high-quality superconducting devices fabricated using layered iron-based chalcogenides, whose properties are electrochemically controlled.

  6. System and method for networking electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark C.; Wimer, John G.; Archer, David H.

    1995-01-01

    An improved electrochemically active system and method including a plurality of electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and fluid separation devices, in which the anode and cathode process-fluid flow chambers are connected in fluid-flow arrangements so that the operating parameters of each of said plurality of electrochemical devices which are dependent upon process-fluid parameters may be individually controlled to provide improved operating efficiency. The improvements in operation include improved power efficiency and improved fuel utilization in fuel cell power generating systems and reduced power consumption in fluid separation devices and the like through interstage process fluid parameter control for series networked electrochemical devices. The improved networking method includes recycling of various process flows to enhance the overall control scheme.

  7. Self-assembled graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer film and its application in electrochemical energy storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xiaogong

    2011-03-01

    Graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer films were fabricated through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, and their performance as electrochemical capacitor electrode was investigated. Cationic azo polyelectrolyte (QP4VP-co-PCN) was synthesized through radical polymerization, postpolymerization azo coupling reaction, and quaternization. Negatively charged graphene nanosheets were prepared by a chemically modified method. The LbL films were obtained by alternately dipping a piece of the pretreated substrates in the QP4VP-co-PCN and nanosheet solutions. The processes were repeated until the films with required numbers of bilayers were obtained. The self-assembly and multilayer surface morphology were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, and TEM. The performance of the LbL films as electrochemical capacitor electrode was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the graphene nanosheets are densely packed in the multilayers and form random graphene network. The azo polyelectrolyte cohesively interacts with the nanosheets in the multilayer structure, which prevents agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. The sheet resistance of the LbL films decreases with the increase of the layer numbers and reaches the stationary value of 1.0 × 10(6) Ω/square for the film with 15 bilayers. At a scanning rate of 50 mV/s, the LbL film with 9 bilayers shows a gravimetric specific capacitance of 49 F/g in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) solution. The LbL films developed in this work could be a promising type of the electrode materials for electric energy storage devices.

  8. Design and development of electrochemical polymer-based lab-on-a-disc devices for biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanger, Kuldeep

    detection based centrifugal microfluidic platforms towards applications in bioprocess monitoring, medical diagnostics, food and environmental analysis, etc. Stencil based electrode fabrication approach was developed and optimized to pattern reliable and reproducible electrodes on a polymeric substrate. Also......, enrichment). The applicability of the developed microfluidic systems was demonstrated by monitoring a biological process, namely quantifying the amount of the bacterial metabolite p-Coumaric acid (pHCA) produced by genetically modified E. coli cells. The first generation LoD device (with integrated...

  9. Biomass derived porous nitrogen doped carbon for electrochemical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived porous nanostructured nitrogen doped carbon (PNC has been extensively investigated as the electrode material for electrochemical catalytic reactions and rechargeable batteries. Biomass with and without containing nitrogen could be designed and optimized to prepare PNC via hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis, and other methods. The presence of nitrogen in carbon can provide more active sites for ion absorption, improve the electronic conductivity, increase the bonding between carbon and sulfur, and enhance the electrochemical catalytic reaction. The synthetic methods of natural biomass derived PNC, heteroatomic co- or tri-doping into biomass derived carbon and the application of biomass derived PNC in rechargeable Li/Na batteries, high energy density Li–S batteries, supercapacitors, metal-air batteries and electrochemical catalytic reaction (oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, hydrogen evolution reaction are summarized and discussed in this review. Biomass derived PNCs deliver high performance electrochemical storage properties for rechargeable batteries/supercapacitors and superior electrochemical catalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction and evolution, as promising electrodes for electrochemical devices including battery technologies, fuel cell and electrolyzer. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen doped carbon, Batteries, Fuel cell, Electrolyzer

  10. Ionic liquids in electrochemical devices and processes: managing interfacial electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria; Howlett, Patrick C; Pringle, Jennifer M; Sun, Jiazeng; Annat, Gary; Neil, Wayne; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I

    2007-11-01

    Many ionic liquids offer a range of properties that make them attractive to the field of electrochemistry; indeed it was electrochemical research and applications that ushered in the modern era of interest in ionic liquids. In parallel with this, a variety of electrochemical devices including solar cells, high energy density batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors have become of intense interest as part of various proposed solutions to improve sustainability of energy supply in our societies. Much of our work over the last ten years has been motivated by such applications. Here we summarize the role of ionic liquids in these devices and the insights that the research provides for the broader field of interest of these fascinating liquids.

  11. Electrochemical structure-switching sensing using nanoplasmonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patskovsky, Sergiy; Dallaire, Anne-Marie; Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Meunier, Michel [Department of Engineering Physics, Laser Processing and Plasmonics Laboratory, Polytechnique, Montreal, Station Centre-ville, QC (Canada); Vallee-Belisle, Alexis [Laboratory of Biosensors and Nanomachines, Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In this article, the implementation of electrochemical plasmonic nanostructures functionalized with DNA-based structure-switching sensors is presented. eNanoSPR devices with open and microfluidic measurement cells are developed on the base of nanohole arrays in 100 nm gold film and applied for combined microscopic and electrochemical surface plasmon (eSPR) visualization. eSPR voltammograms and spectroscopy are performed using planar three electrode schematic with plasmonic nanostructure operated as working electrode. Limit of detection of eNanoSPR devices for oligonucleotide hybridization is estimated in the low nanomolar and applications for structure-switching electro-plasmonic sensing in complex liquids are discussed. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A novel LTCC electrochemical cell construction and characterization: a detection compartment for portable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquero, Naira Canevarolo; Gongora-Rubio, Mário Ricardo; Yamanaka, Hideko

    2013-08-07

    In this work we described for the first time the construction of a 25 μL electrochemical cell from low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) material and carbon screen-printed electrode applicable in portable devices. Firstly, a carbon screen-printed electrode was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. Afterwards carbon polymeric film and metal pastes were dropped into the LTCC cell cavities in order to determine the device electrodes, and this arrangement was also electrochemically characterized. The great advantage of this promising device is the simple construction method and its widespread applicability in reusable portable devices.

  13. Electrochemical surface plasmon spectroscopy-Recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Schweiss, Ruediger; Zong, Yun; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on recent developments and applications of electrochemical techniques combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPS) and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy make use of evanescent waves on metal-dielectric interfaces and can be conveniently combined with electrochemical methods. Selected examples of applications of high-pressure surface electrochemical plasmon resonance spectroscopy to study supramolecular architectures such as layer-by-layer films of conducting polymers or thin composite films will be presented. Then a combination of SPS with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) will be introduced and illustrated with a study on doping/de-doping process of a conducting polymer. This combination allows for simultaneous electrochemical, optical and microgravimetric characterization of interfaces. Finally, new technical developments including integration of SPS into microfluidic devices using a grating coupler and surface plasmon enhanced diffraction will be discussed

  14. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  15. Selectively-etched nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Michael P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, William D [Pleasanton, CA; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M [Oakland, CA

    2006-06-27

    Nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices having selectively-etched nanolaminates located in the fluid transport channel. The normally flat surfaces of the nanolaminate having exposed conductive (metal) stripes are selectively-etched to form trenches and baffles. The modifications of the prior utilized flat exposed surfaces increase the amount of exposed metal to facilitate electrochemical redox reaction or control the exposure of the metal surfaces to analytes of large size. These etched areas variously increase the sensitivity of electrochemical detection devices to low concentrations of analyte, improve the plug flow characteristic of the channel, and allow additional discrimination of the colloidal particles during cyclic voltammetry.

  16. Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is defined as a kind of analytical device incorporating a biological material, a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem. Electrochemical biosensors incorporating enzymes with nanomaterials, which combine the recognition and catalytic properties of enzymes with the electronic properties of various nanomaterials, are new materials with synergistic properties originating from the components of the hybrid composites. Therefore, these systems have excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events through electronic signal transduction so as to design a new generation of bioelectronic devices with high sensitivity and stability. In this review, we describe approaches that involve nanomaterials in direct electrochemistry of redox proteins, especially our work on biosensor design immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD, horseradish peroxidase (HRP, cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6, hemoglobin (Hb, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. The topics of the present review are the different functions of nanomaterials based on modification of electrode materials, as well as applications of electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

  17. Application of ZnO quantum dots dotted carbon nanotube for sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay based on simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy and a disposable device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Deng, Wenping; Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Ge, Shenguang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua, E-mail: ujn.yujh@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Song, Xianrang, E-mail: sxr@vip.163.com [Cancer Research Center, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, 250012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A sandwich-type electrochemluminence immunosensor was fabricated. • Simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy was selected as immunosensing probes. • ZnO@CNT composite was first employed as signal amplification label. Abstract: We report on a disposable microdevice suitable for sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). The method is making use of ZnO quantum dots dotted carbon nanotube (ZnO@CNT) and simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy. The latter was selected as immunosensing probe to modify screen-printed carbon electrode, due to its excellent electrical property. For further ultrasensitive, low-potential and stable ECL detection, ZnO@CNT composite was first synthesized using a facile solvothermal method, and employed as signal amplification label. In this work, two working electrodes in one device were used for one determination to obtain more exact results based on screen-print technique. Taking advantage of dual-amplification effects of the Pt/Au and ZnO@CNT, this immunosensor could detect the PSA quantitatively, in the range of 0.001–500 ng mL⁻¹, with a low detection limit of 0.61 pg mL⁻¹. The resulting versatile immunosensor possesses high sensitivity, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. This simple and specific strategy has vast potential to be used in other biological assays.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Leijonmarck, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning dev...

  19. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  20. Electrochemical Bioelectronic Device Consisting of Metalloprotein for Analog Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Yoo, Si-Youl; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an analog type logical device that combines metalloprotein and organic/inorganic materials and can make an interactive analog decision. Myoglobin is used as a functional biomolecule to generate electrochemical signals, and its original redox signal is controlled with various mercapto-acids by the distance effect between myoglobin and a metal surface in the process of electron transfer. Controlled signals are modulated with the introduction of inorganic materials including nanoparticles and metal ions. By forming a hybrid structure with various constituents of organic/inorganic materials, several functions for signal manipulation were achieved, including enhancement, suppression, and shift. Based on the manipulated signals of biomolecules, a novel logical system for interactive decision-making processes is proposed by selectively combining different signals. Through the arrangement of various output signals, we can define interactive logical results regulated by an inherent tendency (by metalloprotein), personal experience (by organic spacer sets), and environments (by inorganic materials). As a practical application, a group decision process is presented using the proposed logical device. The proposed flexible logic process could facilitate the realization of an artificial intelligence system by mimicking the sophisticated human logic process.

  1. Cell structure for electrochemical devices and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical device comprises a plurality of cells, each cell including a laminate cell membrane, made up of a separator/electrolyte means interposed between alternating positive and negative electrodes, each type of electrode being respectively in common contact to a single current collector.

  2. Electrochemically Controlled Reconstitution of Immobilized Ferritins for Bioelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Chu, Sang-Hong; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2007-01-01

    Site-specific reconstituted nanoparticles were fabricated via electrochemically-controlled biomineralization through the immobilization of biomolecules. The work reported herein includes the immobilization of ferritin with various surface modifications, the electrochemical biomineralization of ferritins with different inorganic cores, and the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen on the reconstituted Pt-cored ferritins. Protein immobilization on the substrate is achieved by anchoring ferritins with dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate (DTSP). A reconstitution process of site-specific electrochemical biomineralization with a protein cage loads ferritins with different core materials. The ferritin acts as a nano-scale template, a biocompatible cage, and a separator between the nanoparticles. This first demonstration of electrochemically controlled site-specific reconstitution of biomolecules provides a new tool for biomineralization and opens the way to produce the bio-templated nanoparticles by electrochemical control. The nanosized platinum-cored ferritins on gold displayed good catalytic activity for the electrochemical reduction of oxygen, which is applicable to biofuel cell applications. This results in a smaller catalyst loading on the electrodes for fuel cells or other bioelectronic devices.

  3. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragay, Gemma; Merkoçi, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  4. Spatiotemporal electrochemical detection in nanofluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to explore mass-transport processes for redox-active analytes in concentrated supporting electrolytes when they are driven by external pressure through nanofluidic channels with em-bedded electrodes. The principal devices employed in these experiments are so-called

  5. Tunable nanogap devices for ultra-sensitive electrochemical impedance biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Guo, Zheng [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qin-An; Zhu, Si-Wei [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wei, Yan, E-mail: yanwei_wnmc@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China)

    2016-01-28

    A wealth of research has been available discussing nanogap devices for detecting very small quantities of biomolecules by observing their electrical behavior generally performed in dry conditions. We report that a gold nanogapped electrode with tunable gap length for ultra-sensitive detection of streptavidin based on electrochemical impedance technique. The gold nanogap is fabricated using simple monolayer film deposition and in-situ growth of gold nanoparticles in a traditional interdigitated array (IDA) microelectrode. The electrochemical impedance biosensor with a 25-nm nanogap is found to be ultra-sensitive to the specific binding of streptavidin to biotin. The binding of the streptavidin hinder the electron transfer between two electrodes, resulting in a large increase in electron-transfer resistance (R{sub et}) for operating the impedance. A linear relation between the relative R{sub et} and the logarithmic value of streptavidin concentration is observed in the concentration range from 1 pM (picomolar) to 100 nM (nanomolar). The lowest detectable concentration actually measured reaches 1 pM. We believe that such an electrochemical impedance nanogap biosensor provides a useful approach towards biomolecular detection that could be extended to a number of other systems. - Highlights: • A tunable gold nanogap device was used as to electrochemical impedance biosensor. • Linear range from 1 pM to 100 nM with LOD of 1 pM for streptavidin detection was obtained. • The nanogap devices exhibit a satisfactory precision, stability, and reproducibility. • The combination of electrochemical impedance technique and nanogap devices was achieved.

  6. Method and apparatus for testing electrochemical energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for testing electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices includes means for sensing the current from the storage device and varying the load across the storage device in response to the current sensed. The system is equally adaptable to batteries and fuel cells. Means is also provided to sense system parameters from a plurality of locations within the system. Certain parameters are then stored in digital form for archive purposes and certain other parameters are used to develop control signals in a host processor.

  7. Superconductor electronic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDuzer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are becoming important in many applications where high sensitivity or speed is required. In this paper the authors give brief introduction to superconductive device physics and some comments on the role of high-temperature superconductors. They then present the basic principles of a number of applications in metrology, electromagnetic sensing, and analog and digital circuits. They conclude with the prospects for hybrid semiconductor-superconductor devices, circuits, and systems

  8. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-06-02

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  9. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  10. Nanodiamond Films for Applications in Electrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to give an overview on the current development status of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications. Firstly, we describe a brief comparison between the general properties of nanocrystalline diamond (undoped and boron-doped and boron-doped microcrystalline diamond films. This is followed by a summary of the nanodiamond preparation methods. Finally, we present a discussion about the undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond and their characteristics, electrochemical properties, and practical applications.

  11. Electrochemically-gated single-molecule electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shaoyin; Artés, Juan Manuel; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, single-molecule electrical contacts have emerged as a new experimental platform that allows exploring charge transport phenomena in individual molecular blocks. This novel tool has evolved into an essential element within the Molecular Electronics field to understand charge transport processes in hybrid (bio)molecule/electrode interfaces at the nanoscale, and prospect the implementation of active molecular components into functional nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Within this area, three-terminal single-molecule devices have been sought, provided that they are highly desired to achieve full functionality in logic electronic circuits. Despite the latest experimental developments offer consistent methods to bridge a molecule between two electrodes (source and drain in a transistor notation), placing a third electrode (gate) close to the single-molecule electrical contact is still technically challenging. In this vein, electrochemically-gated single-molecule devices have emerged as an experimentally affordable alternative to overcome these technical limitations. In this review, the operating principle of an electrochemically-gated single-molecule device is presented together with the latest experimental methodologies to built them and characterize their charge transport characteristics. Then, an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the most prominent examples will be given, emphasizing on the relationship between the molecular structure and the final device electrical behaviour

  12. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  13. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hojin Choi; Hyeonseok Yoon

    2015-01-01

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, t...

  14. Application of Coal in Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhi; Zeng, Qiang; Bai, Silan; Wang, Lishi

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we first report a new application of coal as a novel modified electrode material in electrochemical sensing, achieving excellent electrochemical performance similar to graphene and making the utilization of coal become more multipurpose and more meaningful. Raw coal was first ball-milled, then centrifugated, and finally annealed, thus obtaining annealed coal that possesses lots of edge-plane-like defective sites, resulting in good electron-transfer efficiency and excellent electrocatalytic activity, which makes it promising when used as signal amplifier material and as a modified matrix in electrochemical sensing. And we also described an investigation into the electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of annealed coal samples and their application for the detection of electroactive redox molecules (rutin). Compared with other published carbon materials modified sensors, the annealed coal/chitosan/GCE sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the determination of rutin with good sensitivity, providing a wide linear detection range from 0.001 to 10 μmol dm -3 and a low detection limit of 0.2 nmol dm -3 (S/N = 3). Moreover, when the annealed coal/GCE sensor was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, guanine, and adenine commonly contained in blood samples and urine samples, it also exhibited excellent detection performance with strong electrocatalytic activity. This research has opened up the application of coal in electroanalytical chemistry and held great promise for the sensing and biosensing application, which can be promising used as an alternative material of graphene.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.

    2011-01-01

    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... for biomimetic membrane encapsulation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Fabrication of a Microfluidic Device with Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes for Electrochemical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Shibano, Shuhei; Maeda, Hideto; Sugitani, Ai; Katayama, Michinobu; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    A prototype microfluidic device using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes patterned on an alumina chip was designed and fabricated. Electrochemical microfluidic devices have advantages in that the amount of sample required is small, the measurement throughput is high, different functions can be integrated on a single device, and they are highly durable. In using the device for the flow injection analysis of oxalic acid, the application of a brief conditioning step ensured that the reproducibility of the current signal was excellent. Furthermore, the fabricated system also performed as a prototype of “elimination-detection flow system”, in which interfering species are eliminated using “elimination electrodes” prior to the species reaching the “detection electrode”. The fabricated device reduced the current due to interfering species by 78%. Designs of devices to improve this efficiency are also discussed.

  17. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  18. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  20. Integrated Computational System for Electrochemical Device Design and Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Illinois Rocstar LLC proposes to develop and demonstrate the use of an integrated computational environment and infrastructure for electrochemical device design and...

  1. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  2. Current Constriction at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Solid Oxide Cell Electrochemical Devices Calculated Via 3D Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Graves, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrolysers, electrochemical reactors and electrochemical sensors are important technologies for the present and the future society. For further improvement or maturing of the various technologies it is important to understand, characterize...

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  4. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  5. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  6. Paper-based microfluidic devices for electrochemical immunofiltration analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangli; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Ruosheng; Zhao, Xiongjie; Jiang, Yuren; Chen, Zhencheng

    2017-06-15

    An electrochemical immunofiltration analysis was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the first time, which was based on photolithography and screen-printing technology. The hydrophilic test zones of the aldehyde-functionalized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were biofunctionalized with capture antibodies (Ab 1 ). A sensitive immune detection method was developed by using primary signal antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs/Ab 2 ) and alkaline phosphatase conjugated secondary antibody (ALP-IgG). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to detect the electrochemical response. The microfluidic paper-based electrochemical immunosensor (μ-PEI) was optimized and characterized for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a model analyte, in a linear range from 1.0mIUmL -1 to 100.0 IU mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.36mIUmL -1 . Additionally, the proposed μ-PEI was used to test HCG in real human serum and obtained satisfactory results. The disposable, efficient, sensitive and low-cost μ-PEI has exhibited great potential for the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) devices that can be applicated in healthcare monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring aerogel electrodes for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey Steven

    2001-07-01

    The principal theme of the dissertation research was determining the relation between aerogel electrode morphology and electrochemical performance. Issues such as electrical wiring and mass transport in transition metal oxide, aerogel electrodes were addressed and designs were tailored for electrochemical applications. Single-wall carbon nanotubes were used to form the electronically conducting network in lithium intercalation electrodes that incorporated vanadium oxide aerogel as the active material. The similarities in morphology and dimensional scale for the nanotubes and V2O5 ribbons enabled excellent electrical contact to be made between the two phases without seriously affecting the aerogel nanostructure. The electrodes exhibited specific capacities in excess of 400 mAh/g at high discharge rates and retained this level of capacity on cycling. A second research goal was to improve mass transport within the aerogel electrode by minimizing tortuosity. In this research, hierarchically ordered vanadium oxide aerogel electrodes were designed and fabricated. The electrodes have two discrete and independent levels or porosity. At one level, ordered, interconnected macropores were fabricated using the templating process. At another level, interconnected mesopores were created using sol-gel synthesis and ambient drying. Electrochemical activity towards lithium was demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. These data are believed to be the first to demonstrate electrochemical activity for the class of materials based on the inverse opal structure. Several Group I cations and multivalent cations were reversibly, and electrochemically reacted with vanadium oxide aerogel. The molar capacities of the Group I elements (Na+ = 3.0 moles and K+ = 2.0) were high and comparable to Li+ (3.6 moles). Interestingly, the electron equivalent capacity for Mg2+ (4.0) was higher than Li+ and agrees well with the chemical titration capacity. Galvanostatic rate

  8. Hierarchically structured carbonaceous foams generation and their use as electrochemical energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Prabaharan, Savari R.S.; Morcrette, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Amiens (France); Pecastaing, Gilles [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymeres Organiques, Pessac (France); Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Herve [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Backov, Renal [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)

    2010-07-01

    Hierarchically structured carbonaceous foams with a high control over macro-meso-microporous structures have been synthesized, using silica as inorganic exotemplate and phenolic resin as carbon precursor. These monolithic foams have been thoroughly characterized over all length scales. The applications of this new series of macrocellular carbonaceous monoliths as negative electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries devices (stable capacity of 200 mAh.g{sup -1}, during 50 cycles) and electrochemical capacitors (specific capacitance of 30 F.g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 10 mV.s{sup -1}) have been checked and will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Self-Protection of Electrochemical Storage Devices via a Thermal Reversible Sol-Gel Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Deng, Jiyang; Yu, Jiancan; Qi, Dianpeng; Li, Wenlong; Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-07

    Thermal self-protected intelligent electrochemical storage devices are fabricated using a reversible sol-gel transition of the electrolyte, which can decrease the specific capacitance and increase and enable temperature-dependent charging and discharging rates in the device. This work represents proof of a simple and useful concept, which shows tremendous promise for the safe and controlled power delivery in electrochemical devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photoluminescent polymer electrolyte based on agar and containing europium picrate for electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, E.; Raphael, E.; Sentanin, F.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Carlos, L.D.; Silva, M.M.; Pawlicka, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared ionic conducting membranes for the specific requirements of the device. ► Luminescent reporter groups, with many applications in biotechnology. ► Thermal and electrochemical stability of electrolytes is adequate for application. - Abstract: Dispersion of photoluminescent rare earth metal complexes in polymer matrices is of great interest due to the possibility of avoiding the saturation of the photoluminescent signal. The possibility of using a natural ionic conducting polymer matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agar-based electrolytes containing europium picrate were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The FTIR spectra indicated strong interaction of agar O-H and 3,6-anhydro-galactose C-O groups with glycerol and europium picrate. The DSC analyses revealed no glass transition temperature of the samples in the −60 to 250 °C range. From the thermogravimetry (TG), a thermal stability of the samples of up to 180 °C was stated. The membranes were subjected to ionic conductivity measurement, which provided the values of 2.6 × 10 −6 S/cm for the samples with acetic acid and 1.6 × 10 −5 S/cm for the samples without acetic acid. Moreover, the temperature-dependent ionic conductivity measurements revealed both Arrhenius and VTF models of the conductivity depending on the sample. Surface visualization through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated good uniformity. The samples were also applied in small electrochromic devices and showed good electrochemical stability. The present work confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of electrochemical devices.

  11. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2017-10-01

    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  12. Deep reduced PEDOT films support electrochemical applications: Biomimetic color front.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toribio Fernandez OTERO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced conducting polymers. Here we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, towards the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, towards the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation (ESCR model explains those results.

  13. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  14. Applications of polymers for biomolecule immobilization in electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, F.R.R.; Fonseca, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Polymers are becoming inseparable from biomolecule immobilization strategies and biosensor platforms. Their original role as electrical insulators has been progressively substituted by their electrical conductive abilities, which opens a new and broad scope of applications. In addition, recent advances in diagnostic chips and microfluidic systems, together with the requirements of mass-production technologies, have raised the need to replace glass by polymeric materials, which are more suitable for production through simple manufacturing processes. Conducting polymers (CPs), in particular, are especially amenable for electrochemical biosensor development for providing biomolecule immobilization and for rapid electron transfer. It is expected that the combination of known polymer substrates, but also new transducing and biocompatible interfaces, with nanobiotechnological structures, like nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoengineered 'smart' polymers, may generate composites with new and interesting properties, providing higher sensitivity and stability of the immobilized molecules, thus constituting the basis for new and improved analytical devices for biomedical and other applications. This review covers the state-of-the-art and main novelties about the use of polymers for immobilization of biomolecules in electrochemical biosensor platforms

  15. Applications of Nonlinear Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (NLEIS)

    KAUST Repository

    Adler, S. B.

    2013-08-31

    This paper reviews the use of nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS) in the analysis of SOFC electrode reactions. By combining EIS and NLEIS, as well as other independent information about an electrode material, it becomes possible to establish quantitative links between electrochemical kinetics and materials properties, even when systems are unstable with time. After a brief review of the method, this paper summarizes recent results analyzing the effects of Sr segregation in thin-film LSC electrodes. © The Electrochemical Society.

  16. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  17. R and D considerations for the performance and application of electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Andrew [University of California-Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-12-20

    Research and development (R and D) of electrochemical capacitors is discussed in terms of material characteristics and device performance and testing. Various chemistries and technologies being developed are identified and the status of and problems associated with each of the technologies are discussed. The technologies considered include those using various types of carbon and pseudo-capacitive materials such as metal oxides. What is needed to make the various electrochemical capacitor technologies cost competitive with batteries for different applications and markets is also considered. Electrochemical capacitors (especially double-layer capacitors) are intrinsically high power devices of limited energy storage capability and long cycle life; batteries are basically energy storage devices, which can be designed and used as relatively high power devices with a sacrifice in useable energy storage capacity. Both electrochemical capacitors and high power batteries are designed with thin electrodes, materials having nano-scale characteristics, and a minimum resistance. Much of the research on electrochemical capacitors is concerned with increasing their energy density with the minimum sacrifice in power capability and cycle life for deep discharges. Of special interest has been the development of advanced carbons with specific capacitance (F/g) significantly greater than the present values of 150-200 F/g in aqueous electrolytes and 80-120 F/g in organic electrolytes. Cost continues to be a major obstacle to the development of large markets for electrochemical capacitors particularly for vehicle applications. The development of lower cost carbons appropriate for use in electrochemical capacitors is underway by several speciality carbon suppliers. The goal is to reduce the cost of the carbon to $10-15/kg. (author)

  18. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  19. An Integrated Device View on Photo-Electrochemical Solar-Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestino, Miguel A; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Devices that directly capture and store solar energy have the potential to significantly increase the share of energy from intermittent renewable sources. Photo-electrochemical solar-hydrogen generators could become an important contributor, as these devices can convert solar energy into fuels that can be used throughout all sectors of energy. Rather than focusing on scientific achievement on the component level, this article reviews aspects of overall component integration in photo-electrochemical water-splitting devices that ultimately can lead to deployable devices. Throughout the article, three generalized categories of devices are considered with different levels of integration and spanning the range of complete integration by one-material photo-electrochemical approaches to complete decoupling by photovoltaics and electrolyzer devices. By using this generalized framework, we describe the physical aspects, device requirements, and practical implications involved with developing practical photo-electrochemical water-splitting devices. Aspects reviewed include macroscopic coupled multiphysics device models, physical device demonstrations, and economic and life cycle assessments, providing the grounds to draw conclusions on the overall technological outlook.

  20. Physical multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage from theory to engineering to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Alejandro A; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the use of innovative physical multiscale modeling methods to deeply understand the electrochemical mechanisms and numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion.

  1. Transition metal-depleted graphenes for electrochemical applications via reduction of CO₂ by lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hwee Ling; Sofer, Zdenek; Luxa, Jan; Pumera, Martin

    2014-04-24

    Graphene has immense potential for future applications in the electrochemical field, such as in supercapacitors, fuel cells, batteries, or sensors. Graphene materials for such applications are typically fabricated through a top-down approach towards oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide, with consequent exfoliation/reduction to yield reduced graphenes. Such a method allows the manufacture of graphenes in gram/kilogram quantities. However, graphenes prepared by this method can contain residual metallic impurities from graphite which dominate the electrochemical properties of the graphene formed. This dominance hampers their electrochemical application. The fabrication of transition metal-depleted graphene is described, using ultrapure CO₂ (with benefits of low cost and easy availability) and elemental lithium by means of reduction of CO₂ to graphene. This preparation method produces graphene of high purity with electrochemical behavior that is not dominated by any residual transition metal impurities which would dramatically alter its electrochemical properties. Wide application of such methodology in industry and research laboratories is foreseen, especially where graphene is used for electrochemical devices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  3. Microoxygraph Device for Biosensoristic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aloisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen consumption rate (OCR is a significant parameter helpful to determine in vitro respiratory efficiency of living cells. Oxygen is an excellent oxidant and its electrocatalytic reduction on a noble metal allows accurately detecting it. By means of microfabrication technologies, handy, low-cost, and disposable chip can be attained, minimizing working volumes and improving sensitivity and response time. In this respect, here is presented a microoxygraph device (MOD, based on Clark’s electrode principle, displaying many advantageous features in comparison to other systems. This lab-on-chip platform is composed of a three-microelectrode detector equipped with a microgrooved electrochemical cell, sealed with a polymeric reaction chamber. Au working/counter electrodes and Ag/AgCl reference electrode were fabricated on a glass slide. A microchannel was realized by photoresist lift-off technique and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS nanoporous film was integrated as oxygen permeable membrane (OPM between the probe and the microreaction chamber. Electrochemical measurements showed good reproducibility and average response time, assessed by periodic injection and suction of a reducing agent. OCR measurements on 3T3 cells, subjected, in real time, to chemical stress on the respiratory chain, were able to show that this chip allows performing consistent metabolic analysis.

  4. Fundamentals and applications of organic electrochemistry synthesis, materials, devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchigami, Toshio; Inagi, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    This textbook is an accessible overview of the broad field of organic electrochemistry, covering the fundamentals and applications of contemporary organic electrochemistry.  The book begins with an introduction to the fundamental aspects of electrode electron transfer and methods for the electrochemical measurement of organic molecules. It then goes on to discuss organic electrosynthesis of molecules and macromolecules, including detailed experimental information for the electrochemical synthesis of organic compounds and conducting polymers. Later chapters highlight new methodology for organic electrochemical synthesis, for example electrolysis in ionic liquids, the application to organic electronic devices such as solar cells and LEDs, and examples of commercialized organic electrode processes. Appendices present useful supplementary information including experimental examples of organic electrosynthesis, and tables of physical data (redox potentials of various organic solvents and organic compounds and phy...

  5. Water-based synthesis of hydrophobic ionic liquids for high-energy electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanino, Maria; Alessandrini, Fabrizio; Passerini, Stefano; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water-based synthesis of ionic liquids with high yield. ► Full recycling of reagents. ► High purity pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with exceptional electrochemical stability window. ► Lithium plating from pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. -- Abstract: In this work is described an innovative synthesis route for hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) composed of N-methyl-N-alkylpyrrolidinium (or piperidinium) or imidazolium or tetralkylammonium cations and (perfluoroalkylsulfonyl)imide, ((C n F 2n+1 SO 2 )(C m F 2m+1 SO 2 )N − ), anions. This synthesis does not require the use of any environmental unfriendly solvent such as acetone, acetonitrile or halogen-containing compounds, which is not welcome in industrial applications. Only water is used as the process solvent throughout the entire process. In addition, the commonly used iodine-containing reagents were replaced by the cheaper, more chemically stable and less toxic bromine-containing compounds. A particular care was devoted to the development of the purification route, which is especially important for ILs to be used in high-energy electrochemical devices such as high voltage supercapacitors and lithium batteries. The effect of the reaction temperature, the time and the stoichiometry in the various steps of the synthesis have been investigated in detail. This novel procedure allowed obtaining ultrapure (>99.9 wt.%), clear, colourless, inodorous ILs with an overall yield above 92 wt.% and moisture content below 1 ppm. NMR measurements were run to confirm the chemical structure whereas elemental analysis and electrochemical tests were performed to check the purity of the synthesized ILs

  6. Electrochemical and AFM Characterization of G-Quadruplex Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences are able to form G-quadruplexes, being involved in important biological processes and representing smart self-assembling nanomaterials that are increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology and biosensor technology. G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors have received particular attention, since the electrochemical response is particularly sensitive to the DNA structural changes from single-stranded, double-stranded, or hairpin into a G-quadruplex configuration. Furthermore, the development of an increased number of G-quadruplex aptamers that combine the G-quadruplex stiffness and self-assembling versatility with the aptamer high specificity of binding to a variety of molecular targets allowed the construction of biosensors with increased selectivity and sensitivity. This review discusses the recent advances on the electrochemical characterization, design, and applications of G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors in the evaluation of metal ions, G-quadruplex ligands, and other small organic molecules, proteins, and cells. The electrochemical and atomic force microscopy characterization of G-quadruplexes is presented. The incubation time and cations concentration dependence in controlling the G-quadruplex folding, stability, and nanostructures formation at carbon electrodes are discussed. Different G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors design strategies, based on the DNA folding into a G-quadruplex, the use of G-quadruplex aptamers, or the use of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes, are revisited. PMID:29666699

  7. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  8. Printable Electrochemical Biosensors: A Focus on Screen-Printed Electrodes and Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Yamanaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present electrochemical biosensor developments, focusing on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs and their applications. In particular, we discuss how SPEs enable simple integration, and the portability needed for on-field applications. First, we briefly discuss the general concept of biosensors and quickly move on to electrochemical biosensors. Drawing from research undertaken in this area, we cover the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors in great detail. Through specific examples, we describe the fabrication and surface modification of printed electrodes for sensitive and selective detection of targeted DNA sequences, as well as integration with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. For a more rounded approach, we also touch on electrochemical immunosensors and enzyme-based biosensors. Last, we present some electrochemical devices specifically developed for use with SPEs, including USB-powered compact mini potentiostat. The coupling demonstrates the practical use of printable electrode technologies for application at point-of-use. Although tremendous advances have indeed been made in this area, a few challenges remain. One of the main challenges is application of these technologies for on-field analysis, which involves complicated sample matrices.

  9. Electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sasidharan, Manickam; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2018-04-30

    Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface. The advantageous attributes such as low-cost, miniaturization, energy efficient, easy fabrication, online monitoring, and the simultaneous sensing capability are the driving force towards continued growth of electrochemical biosensing platforms, which have fascinated the interdisciplinary research arenas spanning chemistry, material science, biological science, and medical industries. The electrochemical biosensor platforms have potential applications in the early-stage detection and diagnosis of disease as stout and tunable diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The key aim of this review is to emphasize the newest development in the design of sensing and biosensing platforms based on functional nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications. High sensitivity and selectivity, fast response, and excellent durability in biological media are all critical aspects which will also be wisely addressed. Potential applications of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced functional nanomaterials for neuroscience diagnostics, clinical, point-of-care diagnostics and medical industries are also concisely presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  11. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  12. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  13. Carbon Onions: Synthesis and Electrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, John K. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Y. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2013-01-01

    Onion-like carbon structures have been synthesized in many ways and large scale production is currently under study. The annealing method can satisfy the need for large scale production, though the ideal spherical shape is unachievable, and the temperature attainable in this method is not sufficient for treating the entire particle. The arc-discharge method provides an alternate pathway toward large scale synthesis. Due to its structure and electrochemical properties, carbon onions can be used as materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) and can be used to store energy across a much wider temperature range, which gives these materials advantages over conventional EDLCs. This and other aspects of carbon onions are discussed in this article.

  14. Promising and Reversible Electrolyte with Thermal Switching Behavior for Safer Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunhui; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yan; Jia, Limin; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-02-28

    A major stumbling block in large-scale adoption of high-energy-density electrochemical devices has been safety issues. Methods to control thermal runaway are limited by providing a one-time thermal protection. Herein, we developed a simple and reversible thermoresponsive electrolyte system that is efficient to shutdown the current flow according to temperature changes. The thermal management is ascribed to the thermally activated sol-gel transition of methyl cellulose solution, associated with the concentration of ions that can move between isolated chains freely or be restricted by entangled molecular chains. We studied the effect of cellulose concentration, substituent types, and operating temperature on the electrochemical performance, demonstrating an obvious capacity loss up to 90% approximately of its initial value. Moreover, this is a cost-effective approach that has the potential for use in practical electrochemical storage devices.

  15. Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensor Diagnosis Device Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-10-15

    We describe a disposable electrochemical immunosensor diagnosis device that is based on the immunochromatographic strip technique and an electrochemical immunoassay based on quantum dot (QD, CdS@ZnS) labels. The device takes advantage of the speed and low-cost of the conventional immunochromatographic strip test and the high-sensitivity of the nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay. A sandwich immunoreaction was performed on the immunochromatographic strip, and the captured QD labels in the test zone were determined by highly sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium) with a disposable-screen-printed electrode, which is embedded underneath the membrane on the test zone. The new device coupled with a portable electrochemical analyzer shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care quantitative testing of disease-related protein biomarkers. The parameters (e.g., voltammetric measurement of QD labels, antibody immobilization, the loading amount of QD-antibody, and the immunoreaction time) that govern the sensitivity and reproducibility of the device were optimized with IgG model analyte. The voltammetric response of the optimized device is highly linear over the range of 0.1 to 10 ng mL-1 IgG, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 30 pg mL-1 in association with a 7-min immunoreaction time. The detection limit was improved to 10 pg mL-1 using a 20-min immunoreaction time. The new disposable electrochemical diagnosis device thus provides a more user-friendly, rapid, clinically accurate, less expensive, and quantitative tool for protein detection.

  16. Note: Fixture for characterizing electrochemical devices in-operando in traditional vacuum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Josh A; McDaniel, Anthony H; El Gabaly, Farid; Farrow, Roger L; Grass, Michael E; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi; Linne, Mark A; Bluhm, Hendrik; McCarty, Kevin F

    2010-08-01

    We describe a fixture that allows electrochemical devices to be studied under electrical bias in the type of vacuum systems commonly used in surface science. Three spring-loaded probes provide independent contacts for device operation and the characterization in vacuum or under in situ conditions with reactive gases. We document the robustness of the electrical contacts over large temperature changes and their reliability for conventional electrochemical measurements such as impedance spectroscopy. The optical access provided to the device enables the analysis by many techniques, as we demonstrate using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure local electrical potentials on a solid-oxide electrolyte device operating at high temperature in near-ambient pressure.

  17. Electrochemically active functionalization of graphene for development of prototype biosensing devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    support for chemosensors and biosensors. Functionalization of graphene can further transform this 2D material into various versatile platforms for different applications. In this presentation, we will address some of our recent investigations: (1) electrochemically active functionalization of graphene...... nanosheets, (2) loading of different enzymes on functionalized graphene matrix, and (3) electrochemical performances of the functionalized nanaohybrid materials based prototype sensors. These latest advancements could be crucial for the design and fabrication of low-cost, flexible and disposable biosensors....

  18. High speed serdes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, David R; Sorna, Michael A; Dramstad, Kent; Ogilvie, Clarence Rosser; Amanullah, Mohammad; Rockrohr, James Donald

    2008-01-01

    Offers an understanding of the features and functions typically found on HSS devices. This book explains how these HSS devices are used in protocol applications and the analysis which must be performed to use such HSS devices.

  19. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  20. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmand, Maryam [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-19

    The development of better energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, is crucial for reduction of our global carbon footprint and improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, both of these technologies face important challenges. The development of lower cost and better electrode materials, which are more durable and allow more control over the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface, is perhaps most important for meeting these challenges. Hence, full characterization of the electrochemical processes that occur at the electrodes is vital for intelligent design of more energy efficient electrodes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a short-range order, element specific technique that can be utilized to probe the processes occurring at operating electrode surfaces, as well for studying the amorphous materials and nano-particles making up the electrodes. It has been increasingly used in recent years to study fuel cell catalysts through application of the and #916; and mgr; XANES technique, in combination with the more traditional X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The and #916; and mgr; XANES data analysis technique, previously developed and applied to heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell electrocatalysts by the GWU group, was extended in this work to provide for the first time space resolved adsorbate coverages on both electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell. Even more importantly, the and #916; and mgr; technique was applied for the first time to battery relevant materials, where bulk properties such as the oxidation state and local geometry of a cathode are followed.

  1. A miniaturized silicon based device for nucleic acids electrochemical detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petralia

    2015-12-01

    The system and the method here reported offer better advantages in term of analytical performances compared to the standard commercial optical-based real-time PCR systems, with the additional incomes of being potentially cheaper and easier to integrate in a miniaturized device.

  2. 4D nano-tomography of electrochemical energy devices using lab-based X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, T. M. M.; Finegan, D. P.; Tjaden, B.; Lu, X.; Iacoviello, F.; Millichamp, J.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemical energy devices offer a variety of alternate means for low-carbon, multi-scale energy conversion and storage. Reactions in these devices are supported by electrodes with characteristically complex microstructures. To meet the increasing capacity and lifetime demands across a range of applications, it is essential to understand microstructural evolutions at a cell and electrode level which are thought to be critical aspects influencing material and device lifetime and performance. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a highly employed method for non-destructive characterisation of such microstructures with high spatial resolution. However, sub-micron resolutions present significant challenges for sample preparation and handling particularly in 4D studies, (three spatial dimensions plus time). Here, microstructural information is collected from the same region of interest within two electrode materials: a solid oxide fuel cell and the positive electrode from a lithium-ion battery. Using a lab-based X-ray instrument, tomograms with sub-micron resolutions were obtained between thermal cycling. The intricate microstructural evolutions captured within these two materials provide model examples of 4D X-ray nano-CT capabilities in tracking challenging degradation mechanisms. This technique is valuable in the advancement of electrochemical research as well as broader applications for materials characterisation.

  3. Electrical Characterization and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Properties of Gold/Nafion:Polypyrrole/MWCNTs Electrochemical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Saitta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical devices using as substrates copier grade transparency sheets are developed by using ion conducting Nafion:polypyrrole mixtures, deposited between gold bottom electrodes and upper electrodes based on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical properties of the Nafion:polypyrrole blends and of the gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs devices are investigated under dry conditions and in deionized water by means of frequency dependent impedance measurements and time domain electrical characterization. According to current-voltage measurements carried out in deionized water, the steady state current forms cycles characterized by redox peaks, the intensity and position of which reversibly change in response to H2O2, with a lower detection limit in the micromolar range. The sensitivity that is obtained is comparable with that of other electrochemical sensors that however, unlike our devices, require supporting electrolytes.

  4. Universal mobile electrochemical detector designed for use in resource-limited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Hennek, Jonathan W; Kumar, Ashok A; Maxwell, E Jane; Fernández-Abedul, Maria Teresa; Whitesides, George M

    2014-08-19

    This paper describes an inexpensive, handheld device that couples the most common forms of electrochemical analysis directly to "the cloud" using any mobile phone, for use in resource-limited settings. The device is designed to operate with a wide range of electrode formats, performs on-board mixing of samples by vibration, and transmits data over voice using audio--an approach that guarantees broad compatibility with any available mobile phone (from low-end phones to smartphones) or cellular network (second, third, and fourth generation). The electrochemical methods that we demonstrate enable quantitative, broadly applicable, and inexpensive sensing with flexibility based on a wide variety of important electroanalytical techniques (chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and potentiometry), each with different uses. Four applications demonstrate the analytical performance of the device: these involve the detection of (i) glucose in the blood for personal health, (ii) trace heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and zinc) in water for in-field environmental monitoring, (iii) sodium in urine for clinical analysis, and (iv) a malarial antigen (Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2) for clinical research. The combination of these electrochemical capabilities in an affordable, handheld format that is compatible with any mobile phone or network worldwide guarantees that sophisticated diagnostic testing can be performed by users with a broad spectrum of needs, resources, and levels of technical expertise.

  5. Thermal-Responsive Polymers for Enhancing Safety of Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-24

    Thermal runway constitutes the most pressing safety issue in lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors of large-scale and high-power density due to risks of fire or explosion. However, traditional strategies for averting thermal runaway do not enable the charging-discharging rate to change according to temperature or the original performance to resume when the device is cooled to room temperature. To efficiently control thermal runaway, thermal-responsive polymers provide a feasible and reversible strategy due to their ability to sense and subsequently act according to a predetermined sequence when triggered by heat. Herein, recent research progress on the use of thermal-responsive polymers to enhance the thermal safety of electrochemical storage devices is reviewed. First, a brief discussion is provided on the methods of preventing thermal runaway in electrochemical storage devices. Subsequently, a short review is provided on the different types of thermal-responsive polymers that can efficiently avoid thermal runaway, such as phase change polymers, polymers with sol-gel transitions, and polymers with positive temperature coefficients. The results represent the important development of thermal-responsive polymers toward the prevention of thermal runaway in next-generation smart electrochemical storage devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ferromagnetic Swimmers - Devices and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua; Petrov, Peter; Winlove, C. Peter; Gilbert, Andrew; Bryan, Matthew; Ogrin, Feodor

    2017-11-01

    Microscopic swimming devices hold promise for radically new applications in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic technology, diagnostics and drug delivery etc. We propose a new class of autonomous ferromagnetic swimming devices, actuated and controlled solely by an oscillating magnetic field. Experimentally, these devices (3.6 mm) are based on a pair of interacting ferromagnetic particles of different size and different anisotropic properties joined by an elastic link and actuated by an external time-dependent magnetic field. The net motion is generated through a combination of dipolar interparticle gradient forces, time-dependent torque and hydrodynamic coupling. We investigate the dynamic performance of a prototype (3.6 mm) of the ferromagnetic swimmer in fluids of different viscosity as a function of the external field parameters and demonstrate stable propulsion over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Manipulation of the external magnetic field resulted in robust control over the speed and direction of propulsion. We also demonstrate our ferromagnetic swimmer working as a macroscopic prototype of a microfluidic pump. By physically tethering the swimmer, instead of swimming, the swimmer generates a directional flow of liquid around itself.

  7. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca ePUJOL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic on line monitoring devices are also evoked.

  8. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Luca; Evrard, David; Groenen-Serrano, Karine; Freyssinier, Mathilde; Ruffien-Cizsak, Audrey; Gros, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic “on line” monitoring devices are also evoked. PMID:24818124

  9. Ionic liquids, method for the production thereof, and use of same as electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Irene de; Herradón García, Bernardo; Mann, Enrique; Morales, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to ionic liquids of general formula (I), to the synthesis thereof, and to the use of said ionic liquids as electrolytes in electrochemical electrical energy storage devices.

  10. MISENS DEVICE AS A NEW AUTOMATED BIOSENSING PLATFORM BASED ON REAL-TIME ELECTROCHEMICAL PROFILING (REP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yıldız uludağ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In various fields like health, environmental control, food security and military defense; there is an increasing demand for on-site detection, fast identification and urgent response which brings the necessity to employ laboratory detection procedures on standalone automatic devices. In response to that TUBITAK BILGEM’s Bioelectronic Devices and Systems Group has been developing portable and fully automated biosensor devices using optical and electrochemical biosensor detection techniques. Here we describe a new integrated and fully automated lab-on-a-chip based biosensor device ‘MiSens’. The key features of the MiSens include a new electrode array, an integrated microfluidic system and real-time amperometric measurements during the flow of enzyme substrate. While simple protocols can be controlled from the LCD display on the device, other main device control procedures can be run wireless by a tablet/PC using the MiCont™ software developed by the team. For the device, a new plug and play type sensor chip docking station has been designed that with one move it enables the formation of a ~ 7-10 µl capacity flow cell on the electrode array with the necessary microfluidic and electronic connections. The MiSens device has been developed by our multi-disciplinary team by integrating and automatising the earlier developed sensing platform REP™ (Real-time Electrochemical Profiling. The performance of the MiSens device has been tested using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry tests and the results were compared with an of the shelf potantiostat.

  11. 3D direct writing fabrication of electrodes for electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Zhou, Chi; Wu, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Among different printing techniques, direct ink writing is commonly used to fabricate 3D battery and supercapacitor electrodes. The major advantages of using the direct ink writing include effectively building 3D structure for energy storage devices and providing higher power density and higher energy density than traditional techniques due to the increased surface area of electrode. Nevertheless, direct ink writing has high standards for the printing inks, which requires high viscosity, high yield stress under shear and compression, and well-controlled viscoelasticity. Recently, a number of 3D-printed energy storage devices have been reported, and it is very important to understand the printing process and the ink preparation process for further material design and technology development. We discussed current progress of direct ink writing technologies by using various electrode materials including carbon nanotube-based material, graphene-based material, LTO (Li4Ti5O12), LFP (LiFePO4), LiMn1-xFexPO4, and Zn-based metallic oxide. Based on achieve electrochemical performance, these 3D-printed devices deliver performance comparable to the energy storage device fabricated using traditional methods still leaving large room for further improvement. Finally, perspectives are provided on the potential future direction of 3D printing for all solid-state electrochemical energy storage devices.

  12. Smart Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices with Self-Protection and Self-Adaptation Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Yu, Dandan; Wang, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Currently, with booming development and worldwide usage of rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices, their safety issues, operation stability, service life, and user experience are garnering special attention. Smart and intelligent energy storage devices with self-protection and self-adaptation abilities aiming to address these challenges are being developed with great urgency. In this Progress Report, we highlight recent achievements in the field of smart energy storage systems that could early-detect incoming internal short circuits and self-protect against thermal runaway. Moreover, intelligent devices that are able to take actions and self-adapt in response to external mechanical disruption or deformation, i.e., exhibiting self-healing or shape-memory behaviors, are discussed. Finally, insights into the future development of smart rechargeable energy storage devices are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Flexible devices: from materials, architectures to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhi; Ma, Yue; Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFA0208200, 2016YFB0700600, 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21403105, 21573108), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 020514380107).

  14. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    to energytechnologies. In this presentation, we have explored the combination of redox active Prussian Blue (PB)nanostructures (e.g., core-shell Gold@Prussian Blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs) and interlocked PBnanocubes) with chemically exfoliated graphene to prepare multifunctional composites......Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors...

  15. Chemical modification of graphene aerogels for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Wie, Jeong Jae; Xu, Yu; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-12-14

    Graphene aerogel is a relatively new type of aerogel that is ideal for energy storage applications because of its large surface area, high electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. Also, three dimensional interconnected macropores offer many advantages such as low density, fast ion and mass transfer, and easy access to storage sites. Such features allow graphene aerogels to be intensively applied for electrochemical capacitor applications. Despite the growing interest in graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors, however, the graphene aerogels still suffer from their low capacitive performances and high fragility. Both relatively low capacitance and brittleness of physically crosslinked graphene aerogels remain a critical challenge. Until now, a number of alternative attempts have been devoted to overcome these shortcomings. In this perspective, we summarize the recent research progress towards the development of advanced graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors according to the different approaches (e.g. porosity, composition and structure controls). Then, the recently proposed chemical strategies to improve the capacitive performances and mechanical durability of graphene aerogels for practical applications are highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives in this emerging material are also discussed.

  16. Structure and application of galvanomagnetic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, H

    1969-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Semiconductors, Volume 8: Structure and Application of Galvanomagnetic Devices focuses on the composition, reactions, transformations, and applications of galvanomagnetic devices. The book first ponders on basic physical concepts, design and fabrication of galvanomagnetic devices, and properties of galvanomagnetic devices. Discussions focus on changes in electrical properties on irradiation with high-energy particles, magnetoresistor field-plate, Hall generator, preparation of semiconductor films by vacuum deposition, structure of field-plate magnetoresist

  17. Printing Materials and Processes for Electrochemical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rymansaib, Zuhayr

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has revolutionised traditional manufacturing methods, opening up and distributing design and production of low cost, custom objects to virtually anyone. Tailoring of print material and part geometry allows for the benefits of this technology to reach multiple engineering and scientific fields, given appropriate design.A multidisciplinary approach concerning development of new print materials and methods was undertaken with the aim of further expansion and application of 3D printin...

  18. Applications of hydrogen peroxide in electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto Armando

    1998-12-01

    reproducible results and indicating that under the experimental conditions studied the reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and the cell components were chemically and electrochemically stable. [Espanol] Se demuestra que el peroxido de hidrogeno se puede producir con una eficiencia de corriente del 40-70% por reduccion catodica del oxigeno en un electrodo reticulado de carbon vitreo en una celda de flujo dividido usando los catolitos que consisten en un medio acuoso de cloruro o de sulfato, pH 2. El electrolito que utiliza no influye en la eficiencia de la corriente para el H{sub 2}O{sub 2} o su regimen de produccion. La eficiencia de la corriente para el H{sub 2}O{sub 2} no es una funcion importante del potencial y de esto sugiere que la reduccion de 2e- y del 4e- del oxigeno ocurre en paralelo en diversos sitios de la superficie del carbon. Los experimentos voltametricos mostraron que (a) la respuesta del I-E para la reduccion del oxigeno a un pH 2 es una funcion de la superficie del electrodo y/o del electrolito que utiliza; (b) tanto el desprendimiento del H{sub 2} y la reduccion del oxigeno se retardan en el carbon con el aumento de fuerza ionica; (c) la presencia de iones ferrosos conduce a la descomposicion homogenea del H{sub 2}O{sub 2} lejos de la superficie del catodo pero su eficacia como catalizador para esta descomposicion depende de su evolucion en la solucion que cambia durante una electrolisis. El uso de un electrodo tridimensional fabricado de carbon vitreo reticulado permite que el reactivo de Fenton sea electroproducido a un regimen practico que haga posible el retiro de substancias organicas en un medio acuoso ligeramente acido. Una amplia gama de las moleculas organicas altamente toxicas (fenol, catecol, hidroquinona, p-benzoquinona, acido oxalico, anilina, cresol y amaranto) se han oxidado en condiciones moderadas y una fraccion significativa del carbon organico se desprende como CO{sub 2}. En todos los casos estudiados la demanda quimica inicial de

  19. Electrochemical stability of binary TiNb for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, K. M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Alves Claro, A. P. R.; Marino, C. E. B.

    2017-07-01

    The Ti-Nb alloy binary system has been widely studied with regard to biomedical applications due to the high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties of the alloys. Regarding physical-chemical stability, Ti-Nb alloys maintain the properties of Ti metal, which is highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive media due to a spontaneous stable oxide layer (TiO2) formed on its surface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the Ti-40Nb alloy in artificial blood. The thermodynamic stability was studied using the open circuit potential technique and the corrosion resistance was assessed by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that the Ti-40Nb alloy has high corrosion resistance and good thermodynamic stability, with an OCP of around  -485 mV, and the alloy remained electrochemically stable in potentiodynamic conditions with initial and final potentials of  -1.0 V to  +2.0 Vsce, respectively, in low current densities (~µA cm-2) with an absence of hysteresis, aspure Ti. The results obtained showed that this specific alloy has the potential to be used in biomedical applications.

  20. Graphene directed architecture of fine engineered nanostructures with electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    . In this review, we aim to highlight some recent efforts devoted to rational design, assembly and fine engineering of electrochemically active nanostructures using graphene or/and its derivatives as soft templates for controlled synthesis and directed growth. We organize the contents according to the chemically...... classified nanostructures, including metallic nanostructures, self-assembled organic and supramolecular structures, and fine engineered metal oxides. In these cases, graphene templates either sacrificed during templating synthesis or retained as support for final products. We also discuss remained challenges...... and future perspective in the graphene-templating design and synthesis of various materials. Overall, this review could offer crucial insights into the nanoscale engineering of new nanostructures using graphene as a soft template and their potential applications in electrochemical science and technology. We...

  1. Development of a PMMA Electrochemical Microfluidic Device for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Trung, Hoang; Tien, Bui Quang; Binh, Nguyen Hai; Ha, Cao Hong; Le Huy, Nguyen; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic device fabricated by an inexpensive CO2 laser etching system was developed for detection of carcino-embryonic antigens (CEA). The device was capable of working in continuous mode and was designed with the aid of numerical simulation. The detection of target CEA was based on immuno-assay via magnetic particles and electrochemical sensing. The as-prepared microfluidic can be used to detect CEA at the relatively low concentration of 150 pg mL-1. The device could be reused many times, since the capture and removal of magnetic particles in the assay could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The proposed approach appears to be suitable for high-throughput and automated analysis of large biomolecules such as tumor markers and pathogens.

  2. Reliability of electrochemical noise measurements - part 2: first ECG-COMON guideline for an assessment of electrochemical noise measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, St. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Dept., Lab for Nuclear Materials, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Huet, F. [UPR15-LISE, CNRS, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Cottis, R.A. [Manchester Univ., Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Pro-active ageing management is becoming more and more important for the economical and safe operation of industrial plants. A key element for a pro-active ageing management approach is to apply in-situ corrosion monitoring. The electrochemical noise (EN) technique is an example of a promising method, especially for monitoring localised corrosion phenomena. Currently, research work on the EN technique is carried out in several labs worldwide for different kind of industrial applications but also for the investigation of corrosion mechanisms. A prerequisite for performing serious research on the EN measurement technique is a careful evaluation of the measuring system. Therefore, testing on well-defined dummy cells should always be a preliminary step to assess the baseline noise of the EN measurement equipment and to ensure data validity. For this purpose a guideline has been developed by the European Cooperative Group on Corrosion Monitoring of Nuclear Materials (ECG-COMON) as an outcome from round-robin testing on EN (see Part 1). The current guideline describes a simple procedure for the performance and evaluation of EN measurement equipment using dummy cells. For this guideline a series of dummy cells consisting of a 'star'-arrangement of resistors is used, rather than an electrochemical cell. This provides a well-defined source impedance and noise level, thereby allowing the testing of the noise level and sensitivity of the measuring instruments. Note that, although the resistors used in the dummy cells will generate thermal noise, it is not expected that it will always be possible to measure this noise, and the primary objective of the experiment is to determine the instrument noise levels. The use of a range of resistor values in the dummy cell permits the assessment of the current and potential noise capabilities of the input amplifiers, which are expected to vary according to the source impedance. (authors)

  3. Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-07-28

    Carbon nanocoil (CNC) based electrodes are shown to be promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage applications, provided the CNCs are properly functionalized. In the present study, nanocrystalline metal oxide (RuO 2, MnO2, and SnO2) dispersed CNCs were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using different electrochemical methods. In the two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with values reaching up to 311, 212, and 134 F/g for RuO2/CNCs, MnO2/CNCs, and SnO2/CNCs, respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be superior to those reported for metal oxide dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two electrode configuration. In addition, the fabricated supercapacitors retained excellent cycle life with ∼88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  5. Migrational polarization in high-current density molten salt electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Vallet, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical flux equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been derived in terms of experimental transport coefficients for binary molten salt mixtures analogous to those proposed for high temperature batteries and fuel cells. The equations and some numerical solutions indicate steady state composition gradients of significant magnitude. The effects of migrational separation must be considered along with other melt properties in the characterization of electrode behavior, melt composition, operating temperatures and differences of phase stability, wettability and other physicochemical properties at positive and negative electrodes of high current density devices with mixed electrolytes.

  6. Context aware mobile application for mobile devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masango, Mfundo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Android smart devices have become an integral part of peoples lives, having evolved beyond the capability of just sending a text message or making a call. Currently, smart devices have applications that can restrict access to other applications...

  7. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Coffey, Gregory W [Richland, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA; Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Hardy, John S [Richland, WA; Singh, Prabhaker [Richland, WA; Thomsen, Edwin C [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  8. A Universal Spring-Probe System for Reliable Probing of Electrochemical Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Keun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For achieve sensitivity in lab-on-a-chip electrochemical detection, more reliable probing methods are required, especially for repeated measurements. Spring-probes are a promising candidate method which can replace needle-like probes and alligator clips that usually produce scratches on the surface of gold electrodes due to the strong physical contacts needed for electrochemical measurements. The superior reliability of amperometric measurements by a spring-probe system was compared with results by conventional probing methods. We demonstrated that a universal spring-probe system would be potentially suitable to achieve high performance in lab-on-a-chip devices using electrochemical detection.

  9. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  10. Secure smart embedded devices, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markantonakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    New generations of IT users are increasingly abstracted from the underlying devices and platforms that provide and safeguard their services. As a result they may have little awareness that they are critically dependent on the embedded security devices that are becoming pervasive in daily modern life. Secure Smart Embedded Devices, Platforms and Applications provides a broad overview of the many security and practical issues of embedded devices, tokens, and their operation systems, platforms and main applications. It also addresses a diverse range of industry/government initiatives and consider

  11. Porous One-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Design, Fabrication and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiulong; Xiong, Fangyu; Tan, Shuangshuang; Huang, Lei; Lan, Esther H; Dunn, Bruce; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage technology is of critical importance for portable electronics, transportation and large-scale energy storage systems. There is a growing demand for energy storage devices with high energy and high power densities, long-term stability, safety and low cost. To achieve these requirements, novel design structures and high performance electrode materials are needed. Porous 1D nanomaterials which combine the advantages of 1D nanoarchitectures and porous structures have had a significant impact in the field of electrochemical energy storage. This review presents an overview of porous 1D nanostructure research, from the synthesis by bottom-up and top-down approaches with rational and controllable structures, to several important electrochemical energy storage applications including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries and supercapacitors. Highlights of porous 1D nanostructures are described throughout the review and directions for future research in the field are discussed at the end. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Current Status and Future Research Opportunities for Electrochemical Capacitors: Relevance for Naval and Civilian Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Jeffrey W

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are a class of energy-storage devices that offer significant promise in bridging the performance gap that exists between the high power density derived from electrostatic capacitors and the high...

  13. Aesthetic Applications of Radiofrequency Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadick, Neil; Rothaus, Kenneth O

    2016-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-based devices are used to improve face and neck laxity, a major feature of aging that until recently could only be addressed with surgery. Although these treatments are not meant to replace surgical procedures, patient satisfaction studies have been consistently high. For physicians offering these skin rejuvenation procedures, it is essential to have intimate knowledge of how the devices work, select appropriate candidates, set realistic expectations, and combine treatments to optimize outcomes. This article discusses the various noninvasive RF technologies currently in use and reviews pertinent clinical studies evaluating their efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  15. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  16. Supramolecular core-shell nanoparticles for photoconductive device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Jem-Kun; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We report a breakthrough discovery involving supramolecular-based strategies to construct novel core-shell heterojunction nanoparticles with hydrophilic adenine-functionalized polythiophene (PAT) as the core and hydrophobic phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the shell, which enables the conception of new functional supramolecular assemblies for constructing functional nanomaterials for applications in optoelectronic devices. The generated nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, well-controlled tuning of particle size with narrow size distributions, and excellent electrochemical stability in solution and the solid state owing to highly efficient energy transfer from PAT to PCBM. When the PAT/PCBM nanoparticles were fabricated into a photoconducting layer in an electronic device, the resulting device showed excellent electric conduction characteristics, including an electrically-tunable voltage-controlled switch, and high short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PAT/PCBM into specific nanostructures may help to promote efficient charge generation and transport processes, suggesting potential for a wide variety of applications as a promising candidate material for bulk heterojunction polymer devices.

  17. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokceoren, Argun Talat; Odhiambo, Sheilla Atieno; De Mey, Gilbert; Hertleer, Carla; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2017-01-01

    A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5). Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR)(QR)(QR) for uncharged and (QR)(QR)(Q(RW)) for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device. PMID:29283427

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nuramdhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly(4-styrenesulfonate polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5. Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR(QR(QR for uncharged and (QR(QR(Q(RW for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device.

  19. Electrochemical Deposition of Nanostructured Conducting Polymer Coatings on Neural Prosthetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyan; Martin, David

    2003-03-01

    Micromachined neural prosthetic devices facilitate the functional stimulation of and recording from the central nervous system (CNS). These devices have been fabricated to consist of silicon shanks that have gold or iridium sites along their surface. Our goal is to improve the biocompatibility and long-term performance of the neural prosthetic probes when they are implanted chronically in the brain. In our most recent efforts we have established that electrochemical polymerization can be used to deposit fuzzy coatings of conducting polymers specifically on the electrode sites. For neural prosthetic devices that are intended for long term implantation, we need to develop surfaces that provide intimate contact and promote efficient signal transport at the interface of the microelectrode array and brain tissue. We have developed methods to rapidly and reliably fabricate nanostructured conducting polymer coatings on the electrode probes using templated and surfactant-mediated techniques. Conducting polymer nanomushrooms and nanohairs of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically polymerized onto the functional sites of neural probes by using either nanoporous block copolymers thin films, "track-etched" polycarbonate films or anodic aluminium oxide membranes as templates. Nanofibers of conducting polymers have also been successfully obtained by polymerizations in the presence of surfactants. The influence of current density, monomer concentration, surfactant concentration, and deposition charge on the thickness and morphology of the nanostructured conducting polymer coatings has been studied by optical, scanned probe, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. As compared with the normal nodular morphology of polypyrrole, the nanostructured morphologies grown from the neural electrode result in fuzzy coatings with extremely high surface area. The electrical properties of the polymer coatings were studied by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) and Cyclic Voltammetry

  20. Development of a Quasi-Steady Flow Electrochemical Paper-Based Analytical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jaclyn A; Noviana, Eka; Henry, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) was developed for quasi-steady flow detection at microwire electrodes, for the first time. The device implements a fan shaped geometry connected to an analysis channel whereby solution is pulled from an inlet, through a channel, and into the steadily increasing capillary network of the fan. The network counteracts the decrease in solution flow rate associated with increasing viscosity within the channel, generating quasi-steady flow within the analysis channel. Microwire electrodes were embedded between two paper layers within the analysis channel, such that solution flow occurred on both sides of the wire electrodes. The quasi-steady flow ePAD increased the current by 2.5 times and 0.7 times from a saturated channel with no flow and from a single-layer paper device with flow, respectively. Amperometric detection was used for flow injection analysis (FIA) of multiple analytes at both Au and Pt microwire working electrodes, both of which provided similar sensitivity (ca. 0.2 mM -1 ) when normalized to the same standard. The two-layer paper devices provided a detection limit of 31 μM for p-aminophenol (PAP) using Pt electrodes and was also used to detect enzyme activity for the reaction of β-galactosidase with p-aminophenyl-galactopyranoside (PAPG). Measured enzyme kinetics provided similar V max (0.079 mM/min) and K m (0.36 mM) values as those found in the literature. This device shows great promise toward use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or other analytical techniques where flow or washing steps are necessary. The developed sensor provides a simple and inexpensive device capable of performing multiple injection analysis with steady-flow and online detection that would normally require an external pump to perform.

  1. Hydrogel-based devices for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligkaris, Kosmas; Tadele, T.S.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This review paper presents hydrogel-based devices for biomedical applications. The first part of the paper gives a comprehensive, qualitative, theoretical overview of hydrogels' synthesis and operation. Crosslinking methods, operation principles and transduction mechanisms are discussed in this

  2. Mixed bi-material electrodes based on LiMn2O4 and activated carbon for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cericola, Dario; Novak, Petr; Wokaun, Alexander; Koetz, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi-material electrodes for electrochemical hybrid devices were characterized. → Bi-material electrodes have higher specific charge than capacitor electrodes. → Bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than battery electrodes. → Bi-material systems outperform batteries and capacitors in pulsed applications. - Abstract: The performance of mixed bi-material electrodes composed of the battery material, LiMn 2 O 4 , and the electrochemical capacitor material, activated carbon, for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices is investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and pulsed discharge experiments. Both, a high and a low conductivity lithium-containing electrolyte are used. The specific charge of the bi-material electrode is the linear combination of the specific charges of LiMn 2 O 4 and activated carbon according to the electrode composition at low discharge rates. Thus, the specific charge of the bi-material electrode falls between the specific charge of the activated carbon electrode and the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. The bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. For high current pulsed applications the bi-material electrodes typically outperform both the battery and the capacitor electrode.

  3. Computational study of titania-ceria hybrid clusters for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Bibi, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    First principles calculations were carried out to investigate the electronic and optical properties with spotlight on excitation spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of Ce2O4, Ti2O4 and the hybrid cluster CeTiO4. The calculated UV/Vis spectrum and CD spectrum for Ce2O4 and Ti2O4 clusters found in respective IR and UV regions is shifted to visible region in case of the hybrid cluster. The major singlet-singlet-allowed transitions for the structures are discussed in detail. The hybrid cluster is optically active in the visible region and simultaneously contains titania's appealing catalytic properties as well as ceria's attractive properties for solid state electrolytes. The results point to possibility of adjustable band edges for potential applications in water splitting, coupling semiconductors applicable in dye-sensitized solar cells and other electrochemical devices.

  4. Understanding transport phenomena in electrochemical energy devices via X-ray nano CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, B.; Lane, J.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Porous support layers in electrochemical devices ensure mechanical stability of membrane assemblies such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). At the same time, porous layers affect diffusive mass transport of gaseous reactants and contribute to performance losses at high fuel utilisation and conversion ratios. Microstructural characteristics are vital to calculate mass transport phenomena, where tortuosity remains notoriously difficult to determine. Here, the tortuosity of tubular porous support layers of OTMs is evaluated via high resolution X-ray nano computed tomography. The high resolution reveals the complex microstructure of the samples to then execute a selection of image-based tortuosity calculation algorithms. Visible differences between geometric and flux-based algorithms are observed and have thus to be applied with caution.

  5. A Multi-Technique Reconfigurable Electrochemical Biosensor: Enabling Personal Health Monitoring in Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a reconfigurable, multi-technique electrochemical biosensor designed for direct integration into smartphone and wearable technologies to enable remote and accurate personal health monitoring. By repurposing components from one mode to the next, the biosensor's potentiostat is able reconfigure itself into three different measurements modes to perform amperometric, potentiometric, and impedance spectroscopic tests all with minimal redundant devices. A [Formula: see text] PCB prototype of the module was developed with discrete components and tested using Google's Project Ara modular smartphone. The amperometric mode has a ±1 nA to [Formula: see text] measurement range. When used to detect pH, the potentiometric mode achieves a resolution of device can measure 50 Ω-10 [Formula: see text] and has been shown to have of phase error. This prototype was used to perform several point-of-care health tracking assays suitable for use with mobile devices: 1) Blood glucose tests were conducted and shown to cover the diagnostic range for Diabetic patients (  ∼  200 mg/dL). 2) Lactoferrin, a biomarker for urinary tract infections, was detected with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/mL. 3) pH tests of sweat were conducted to track dehydration during exercise. 4) EIS was used to determine the concentration of NeutrAvidin via a label-free assay.

  6. Progress in the electrochemical modification of graphene-based materials and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Low, C.T.J.; Brandon, N.P.; Yufit, V.; Hashim, M.A.; Irfan, M.F.; Akhtar, J.; Ruiz-Trejo, E.; Hussain, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Six means of functionalizing graphene electrochemically is reviewed. • Electrochemical functionalization is relatively new to other standard methods. • The technique is expected to improve graphene's application range considerably. -- Abstract: Graphene is a 2D allotrope of carbon with exciting properties such as extremely high electronic conductivity and superior mechanical strength. It has considerable potential for applications in fields such as bio-sensors, electrochemical energy storage and electronics. In most cases, graphene has been functionalized and modified with other materials to prepare composites. This work reviews the electrochemical modification of graphene. Commencing with a brief history, a summary of several different means of modifying graphene to effect diverse applications is provided. This is followed by a discussion on different composite materials that have been prepared with reduced graphene oxide prior to moving onto a detailed consideration of six different methods of electrochemically modifying graphene to prepare composite materials. These methods involve cathodic reduction of graphene oxide, electrophoretic deposition, electro-deposition techniques, electrospinning, electrochemical doping and electrochemical polymerization. Finally a consideration on the applications of electrochemically modified graphene composite materials in various fields is presented prior to discussing some prospects in enhancing the electrochemical process to realize excellent and economic composite materials in bulk

  7. A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based electrochemical device for detection of glucose and uric acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-10-01

    A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based analytical device with all-carbon electrode-enabled electrochemical assay (SP-ACE-EC-μPAD) has been developed. The fabrication of these devices involved wax screen-printing, which was simple, low-cost and energy-efficient. The working, counter and reference electrodes were screen-printed using carbon ink on the patterned paper devices. Different wax screen-printing processes were examined and optimized, which led to an improved method with a shorter heating time (~5 s) and a lower heating temperature (75 °C). Different printing screens were examined, with a 300-mesh polyester screen yielding the highest quality wax screen-prints. The carbon electrodes were screen-printed on the μPADs and then examined using cyclic voltammetry. The analytical performance of the SP-ACE-EC-μPADs for the detection of glucose and uric acid in standard solutions was investigated. The results were reproducible, with a linear relationship [R(2) = 0.9987 (glucose) or 0.9997 (uric acid)] within the concentration range of interest, and with detection limits as low as 0.35 mM (glucose) and 0.08 mM (uric acid). To determine the clinical utility of the μPADs, chronoamperometry was used to analyze glucose and uric acid in real urine samples using the standard addition method. Our devices were able to detect the analytes of interest in complex real-world biological samples, and have the potential for use in a wide variety of applications.

  8. Surface Modification of MXenes: A Pathway to Improve MXene Electrode Performance in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-12-31

    The recent discovery of layered transition metal carbides (MXenes) is one of the most important developments in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Preliminary theoretical and experimental studies suggest a wide range of potential applications for MXenes. The MXenes are prepared by chemically etching ‘A’-layer element from layered ternary metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MAX phases) through aqueous acid treatment, which results in various surface terminations such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine. It has been found that surface terminations play a critical role in defining MXene properties and affects MXene performance in different applications such as electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, sensors and catalysis. Also, the electronic, thermoelectric, structural, plasmonic and optical properties of MXenes largely depend upon surface terminations. Thus, controlling the surface chemistry if MXenes can be an efficient way to improve their properties. This research mainly aims to perform surface modifications of two commonly studied MXenes; Ti2C and Ti3C2, via chemical, thermal or physical processes to enhance electrochemical energy storage properties. The as-prepared and surface modified MXenes have been studied as electrode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs). In pursuit of desirable MXene surface, we have developed an in-situ room temperature oxidation process, which resulted in TiO2/MXene nanocomposite and enhanced Li-ion storage. The idea of making metal oxide and MXene nanocomposites was taken to the next level by combining a high capacity anode materials – SnO2 – and MXene. By taking advantage of already existing surface functional groups (–OH), we have developed a composite of SnO2/MXene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) which showed enhanced capacity and excellent cyclic stability. Thermal annealing of MXene at elevated temperature under different atmospheres was

  9. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Junkison, A.R.; Pottinger, J.S.; Lain, M.J.; Neville, M.D.; Dawson, R.K.; Fletcher, P.A.; Fenn-Tye, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical dissolution into nitric acid has been developed as a decontamination process for metallic items, both for immersion and in-situ use. Not only is the spent electrolyte compatible with existing waste treatment routes, potentially yielding an immobilized product volume of 0.6 dm 3 /m 2 area treated, but it also suppresses any hydrogen production. Both processes have been developed from laboratory to microprocessor-controlled pilot-scale units, which have been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of genuine waste, reducing activity levels to background. For stainless steel substrates, the immersion tank process uses low current densities (10-50 A/m 2 ) in 1-5M HN0 3 for the treatment of extended areas. Decontamination factors > 10 4 can be achieved in two hours. The in-situ technique uses electropolishing in 6M HN0 3 at 1-2 A/cm 2 in an engineered head. Decontamination factors > 10 3 can be achieved in only 20 seconds. This device has also shown potential for incorporation into an integrated monitoring/decontaminating system under robotic control. Both techniques may be used remotely as a way of reducing man-dose and improving productivity during decontamination. Additional cost savings can be made over currently used techniques through the decategorization of the bulk of the waste volume, and the volume reduction of waste for interim storage and geological disposal

  10. Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L

    2013-08-27

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  12. Paper-Based Sensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Oxidative Stress Biomarker 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in Point-of-Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gabriela V; Tavares, Ana P M; Fortunato, Elvira; Sales, M Goreti F

    2017-11-06

    This work presents a cost-effective, label-free in point-of-care (POC) biosensor for the sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the most abundant oxidative product of DNA, that may allow a premature assessment of cancer disease, thereby improving diagnosis, prognostics and survival rates. The device targets the direct detection of 8-OHdG by using for the first time a carbon-ink 3-electrode on a paper substrate coupled to Differential Pulse Voltammetry readings. This design was optimized by adding nanostructured carbon materials to the ink and the conducting polymer PEDOT, enhancing the electrocatalytic properties of the sensor towards 8-OHdG detection. Meanwhile, the ability of this oxidative stress biomarker to undertake an oxidation reaction enabled the development of the sensing electrochemical device without the need of chemical probes and long incubation periods. This paper-modified sensor presented high electrochemical performance on the oxidation of 8-OHdG with a wide linear range (50-1000 ng/ml) and a low detection limit (14.4 ng/ml). Thus, our results showed the development of a direct and facile sensor with good reproducibility, stability, sensitivity and more importantly, selectivity. The proposed carbon-based electrochemical sensor is a potential candidate to be miniaturized to small portable size, which make it applicable for in-situ 8-OHdG sensing in real biological samples.

  13. Ruthenium Oxide Electrochemical Super Capacitor Optimization for Pulse Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryman, Stephen A.; Chen, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Electrical actuator systems are being pursued as alternatives to hydraulic systems to reduce maintenance time, weight and costs while increasing reliability. Additionally, safety and environmental hazards associated with the hydraulic fluids can be eliminated. For most actuation systems, the actuation process is typically pulsed with high peak power requirements but with relatively modest average power levels. The power-time requirements for electrical actuators are characteristic of pulsed power technologies where the source can be sized for the average power levels while providing the capability to achieve the peak requirements. Among the options for the power source are battery systems, capacitor systems or battery-capacitor hybrid systems. Battery technologies are energy dense but deficient in power density; capacitor technologies are power dense but limited by energy density. The battery-capacitor hybrid system uses the battery to supply the average power and the capacitor to meet the peak demands. It has been demonstrated in previous work that the hybrid electrical power source can potentially provide a weight savings of approximately 59% over a battery-only source. Electrochemical capacitors have many properties that make them well-suited for electrical actuator applications. They have the highest demonstrated energy density for capacitive storage (up to 100 J/g), have power densities much greater than most battery technologies (greater than 30kW/kg), are capable of greater than one million charge-discharge cycles, can be charged at extremely high rates, and have non-explosive failure modes. Thus, electrochemical capacitors exhibit a combination of desirable battery and capacitor characteristics.

  14. Nitride semiconductor devices fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a clear presentation of the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering. It introduces readers to fundamental issues that will enable them to follow the latest technological research. It also covers important applications, including LED and lighting, semiconductor lasers, high power switching devices, and detectors. This balanced and up-to-date treatment makes the text an essential educational tool for both advanced students and professionals in the electronics industry.

  15. Electrochemical, morphological and microstructural characterization of carbon film resistor electrodes for application in electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Liess, Hans-Dieter; Brett, Christopher M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical and microstructural properties of carbon film electrodes made from carbon film electrical resistors of 1.5, 15, 140 Ω and 2.0 kΩ nominal resistance have been investigated before and after electrochemical pre-treatment at +0.9 V vs SCE, in order to assess the potential use of these carbon film electrodes as electrochemical sensors and as substrates for sensors and biosensors. The results obtained are compared with those at electrodes made from previously investigated 2 Ω carbon film resistors. Cyclic voltammetry was performed in acetate buffer and phosphate buffer saline electrolytes and the kinetic parameters of the model redox system Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- obtained. The 1.5 Ω resistor electrodes show the best properties for sensor development with wide potential windows, similar electrochemical behaviour to those of 2 Ω and close-to-reversible kinetic parameters after electrochemical pre-treatment. The 15 and 140 Ω resistor electrodes show wide potential windows although with slower kinetics, whereas the 2.0 kΩ resistor electrodes show poor cyclic voltammetric profiles even after pre-treatment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy related these findings to the interfacial properties of the electrodes. Microstructural and morphological studies were carried out using contact mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. AFM showed more homogeneity of the films with lower nominal resistances, related to better electrochemical characteristics. X-ray diffraction and Confocal Raman spectroscopy indicate the existence of a graphitic structure in the carbon films

  16. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) based composite electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabelli, D.; Leprêtre, J.-C.; Cointeaux, L.; Sanchez, J.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Macroporous PVdF based membranes for electrochemical applications were prepared with support materials. • Woven PET and PA fabrics and non-woven cellulose paper are used as support materials. • Porous structure of PVdF was obtained on the support material. • Interaction between the electrolyte solvent and the composite material played an important role on the mechanical properties. • Compared to the pure PVdF separators, enhanced mechanical strength was obtained for composite separators, without decreasing the ionic conductivity. -- Abstract: PVdF-based separators are very promising materials in electrochemical energy storage systems but they suffer from fairly poor mechanical properties. To overcome this drawback, composite PVdF separators were fabricated and characterized in electrolytes of Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Macroporous PVdF composite separators were prepared by phase inversion method using PA and PET, and non-woven cellulose as support layers. Ionic conductivity and thermomechanical analyses were performed using electrolytes of Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The composite approach allowed a tremendous increase of the mechanical performances of the separator (between 340 and 750 MPa) compared to the unreinforced PVdF separator (56 MPa), without compromising the ionic conductivities (up to 15.6 mS cm −1 )

  18. Nanostructure of highly aromatic graphene nanosheets -- From optoelectronics to electrochemical energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sanjib

    aligned network designed to maximize device performance. Monolayers of large sized graphene nanosheets function as highly electrically conducting current collectors within a mesoporous network of smaller graphene nanosheets for improved rate capability of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) electrode. This nano-architecture produces an electrode with superior performance for high power EDLC applications: a high frequency capacitative response; a nearly rectangular cyclic voltammogram at a scanning rate of 1000 mv/sec; a rapid current response; small equivalent series resistance (ESR); and fast ionic diffusion. Integration of this nanostructured graphene nanosheet architecture with conductive polymers or metal oxide nanostructurcs was also investigated to produce similar multilayered structures for electrochemical energy storage applications. These inexpensive graphene nanosheets coupled with this facile and robust nanostructuring process make both this new material and method highly advantageous for many potential applications ranging from optoelectronics to high power electrochemical energy storage applications.

  19. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication and environmental applications of different nanomaterials. Bacteria in EABs generate electrons upon consuming electron donor and have the ability to transport these electrons to solid or insoluble substrates through extracellular electron transport (EET) mechanism. The extracellularly transported electrons, once utilized, can lead to nanoparticle synthesis. In this dissertation, noble metal (i.e., Au, Pd, and Pt) ultra-small nanoparticles (USNPs) were first synthesized with the assistance by the EABs. The assynthesized USNPs had a size range between 2 and 7 nm and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in dye decomposition. Also in this research, a two-dimensional (2D) cobalt nanosheet was successfully synthesized in the presence of EABs. A simple biogenic route led to the transformation of cobalt acetate to produce a green, toxic free homogeneous 2D cobalt nanosheet structure. Further, TiO2 nanotubes were successfully combined with the noble metal USNPs to enhance their photocatalytic activity. In this work, for the first time, the noble metal USNPs were directly reduced and decorated on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 nanotubes structure assisted by the EABs. The USNPs modified TiO2 nanotubes generated significantly improved photoelectrocatatlyic performances. This dissertation shines lights on the use of EABs in ultra-small nanoparticle synthesis.

  20. Structural and electrochemical properties of single crystalline MoV 2O8 nanowires for energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    We report the synthesis of MoV2O8 nanowires of high quality using spin coating followed by the thermal annealing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the average diameter of synthesized nanowire about 100 nm, and average length ranges from 1 to 5 μm. The TEM analysis further confirms the <001> growth direction of MoV 2O8 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of synthesized nanowires using cyclic voltammetry show the specific capacitance 56 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 that remains 24 Fg -1 at 100 mV s-1. The electrochemical measurements suggest that the MoV2O8 nanowires can be used as a material for the future electrochemical capacitors (energy storage devices). © 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Device for geophysical prospecting of ore deposits. [for deposits featuring electronic conductivity; based on polarization curves to determine electrochemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryss, J.M.; Bakhtin, J.G.; Chamaev, V.N.; Panteleimonov, V.M.

    1976-03-30

    A device is described for geophysical prospecting of ore deposits, wherein the supply circuit is made up of a direct-current source provided with apparatus for changing current intensity, a main current-carrying electrode having electrical contact with an ore body, and an auxiliary current-carrying electrode electrically connected with the medium enclosing said ore body. Connected in said supply circuit at the main current carrying electrode is a current intensity detector connected whereto is a series circuit made up of a compensating voltage generator, a summing unit and a unit for measuring the potentials of electrochemical reactions on the surface of the ore body. A recording unit is connected to the unit for setting values of the potentials of electrochemical reactions and to record in the form of polarization curves the relationships between the set potentials of electrochemical reactions on the surface of the ore body and the currents flowing through the surface of that body. (DDA)

  2. Electrochemical nano biosensor alarm devices for the determination of endocrine disruptor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwuoha, E.; Hendricks, N.; Baker, P.

    2009-01-01

    The role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme systems in the detoxification of bioactive and hydrophobic xenobiotics, such as drugs, environmental pollutants, food supplements, steroids and endocrine disruptors, cannot be over-emphasized. In this study we present the development and amperometric transduction of cytochromal biosensor alarm device for the determination of endocrine disruptors. As a class II microsomal b-type heme enzyme, CYP3A4 requires the obligatory presence of electron transfer donor redox protein, NAD(P)H, and cytochrome b5 for its physiological reactivity. Optimal reconstitution assays preferably involves vesicle forming phospholipids, detergents and specialized reducing agents. Biosensor offers the possibility of observing direct electron transfer reaction of cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) without the requirement of the enzyme's physiological redox partners (1,2). In this study, a nanobiosensor alarm device for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (an endocrine disruptor and hepatocarcinogen) was developed with genetically engineered CYP3A4 imprinted on carbon electrode chips that was modified with polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles. The sensor amperometric signals resulted from the two-electron monooxygenation reaction between the ferri-heme CYP3A4 enzyme and the endocrine disruptor compound. The biosensor was interrogated electrochemically for its ability to detect and report the presence of the endocrine disruptor compound in real time. Accordingly, the response time, sensitivity, storage stability, dynamic linear range and detection limits of the device were evaluated. The biosensor alarm device had a detection limit of 43 ng/L for 2,4-dichlorophenol which is lower than the European Union limit of 300 ng/L for pesticide compounds in ground water; as well as the USA Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) of 2000 ng/L (3,4). Chromatographic studies despite their tedious sample preparation and time-consuming pre

  3. Organic nanowire fabrication and device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Kim, Tae-Sik; Lee, Yeongjun; Cho, Himchan; Xu, Wentao; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-01-07

    Organic nanowires (ONWs) are flexible, stretchable, and have good electrical properties, and therefore have great potential for use in next-generation textile and wearable electronics. Analysis of trends in ONWs supports their great potential for various stretchable and flexible electronic applications such as flexible displays and flexible photovoltaics. Numerous methods can be used to prepare ONWs, but the practical industrial application of ONWs has not been achieved because of the lack of reliable techniques for controlling and patterning of individual nanowires. Therefore, an "individually controllable" technique to fabricate ONWs is essential for practical device applications. In this paper, three types of fabrication methods of ONWs are reviewed: non-alignment methods, massive-alignment methods, and individual-alignment methods. Recent research on electronic and photonic device applications of ONWs is then reviewed. Finally, suggestions for future research are put forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  5. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venarusso, Luna B. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil); Tammeveski, Kaido [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Maia, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto.maia@ufms.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of {beta}-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}, pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD{sup +}, and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD{sup +} and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  6. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venarusso, Luna B.; Tammeveski, Kaido; Maia, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN) 6 3- redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN) 6 3- , pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD + , and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD + and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  7. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Pottinger, J.S.; Lain, M.J.; Dawson, R.K.; Neville, M.D.; Junkison, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the development and evaluation of remote electrochemical decontamination systems for metal surfaces, in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Two types of technique based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin surface layers of the substrate were investigated: immersion of small items in tanks for electroetching and in situ electropolishing. A description is given of the work programme, the progress of work and the results obtained. (U.K.)

  8. Voltage controlled spintronics device for logic applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; You, C.-Y.

    1999-09-03

    We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistor-like concepts and re-programmable logic gates based on VCR elements.

  9. Fabrication and electrochemical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for applications to nano-electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sookhyun; Choi, Hyonkwang; Jeon, Minhyon; Vedala, Harindra; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Wonbong

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated and electrochemically characterized two types of individual carbon nanotube electrodes: an as-produced multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) electrode and a modified MWNT electrode. As-produced MWNTs were electrically contacted with Au/Ti layers by using nanolithography and RF magnetron sputtering. Open-ended modified MWNT electrodes were fabricated by using a reactive ion etching treatment under an oxygen atmosphere. We also performed cyclic voltammetry measurements to detect aqueous dopamine solutions with different concentrations. We found that an individual MWNT electrode, which had a small effective area, showed good electrochemical performance. The electrocatalytic behavior of the modified electrode, which had 'broken' open ends were better than that of the as-produced electrode with respect to sensitivity. The modified electrode was capable of detecting dopamine at the picomolar level. Therefore, an individual modified MWNT electrode has potential for applications to active components in nanobiosensors.

  10. Systems, methods and computer-readable media to model kinetic performance of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics. The computing system also analyzes the cell information of the electrochemical cell with a Butler-Volmer (BV) expression modified to determine exchange current density of the electrochemical cell by including kinetic performance information related to pulse-time dependence, electrode surface availability, or a combination thereof. A set of sigmoid-based expressions may be included with the modified-BV expression to determine kinetic performance as a function of pulse time. The determined exchange current density may be used with the modified-BV expression, with or without the sigmoid expressions, to analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. Model parameters can be defined in terms of cell aging, making the overall kinetics model amenable to predictive estimates of cell kinetic performance along the aging timeline.

  11. Quinone-Based Polymers for Label-Free and Reagentless Electrochemical Immunosensors: Application to Proteins, Antibodies and Pesticides Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Chau Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyquinone derivatives are widely recognized in the literature for their remarkable properties, their biocompatibility, simple synthesis, and easy bio-functionalization. We have shown that polyquinones present very stable electroactivity in neutral aqueous medium within the cathodic potential domain avoiding side oxidation of interfering species. Besides, they can act as immobilized redox transducers for probing biomolecular interactions in sensors. Our group has been working on devices based on such modified electrodes with a view to applications for proteins, antibodies and organic pollutants using a reagentless label-free electrochemical immunosensor format. Herein, these developments are briefly reviewed and put into perspective.

  12. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, James D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McLarnon, Frank R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cairns, Elton J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A ``secondary gradient technique`` is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  13. Plasma electronics applications in microelectronic device fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory. Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plas

  14. Applied superconductivity handbook on devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the latest applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in the field. Readers looking for a systematic overview on superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors, including organic and magnetic materials. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for several geometries, but the main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in power engineering or passive devices, such as filter and antenna or magnetic shields. The reader will also find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications in mechanical engineering, particle physics, fusion research, medicine and biomagnetism, as well as materials processing. SQUIDS and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered as are applications in quantum metrology, and, las...

  15. Physics and applications of electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Avellaneda, Cesar O.

    2003-07-01

    Solid state electrochromic devices (ECD) are of considerable technological and commercial interest because of their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, a major application of these devices is in smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings and also in glare attenuation in automobile rear view mirrors. Other applications include solar cells, small and large area flat panel displays, satellite temperature control, food monitoring, and document authentication. A typical electrochromic device has a five-layer structure: GS/TC/EC/IC/IS/TC/GS, where GS is a glass substrate, TC is a transparent conductor, generally ITO (indium tin oxide) or FTO (fluorine tin oxide), EC is an electrochromic coating, IC is an ion conductor (solid or liquid electrolyte) and IS is an ion storage coating. Generally, the EC and IS layers are deposited separately on the TC coatings and then jointed with the IC and sealed. The EC and IS are thin films that can be deposited by sputtering, CVD, sol-gel precursors, etc. There are different kinds of organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic films that can be used to make electrochromic devices. Thin electrochromic films can be: WO3, Nb2O5, Nb2O5:Li+ or Nb2O5-TiO2 coatings, ions storage films: CeO2-TiO2, CeO2-ZrO2 or CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 and electrolytes like Organically Modified Electrolytes (Ormolytes) or polymeric films also based on natural polymers like starch or cellulose. These last are very interesting due to their high ionic conductivity, high transparency and good mechanical properties. This paper describes construction and properties of different thin oxide and polymeric films and also shows the optical response of an all sol-gel electrochromic device with WO3/Ormolyte/CeO2-TiO2 configuration.

  16. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhexiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao Q.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population

  17. Synthesis of novel ZnV₂O₄ hierarchical nanospheres and their applications as electrochemical supercapacitor and hydrogen storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Faheem K; Tahir, Muhammad; Cao, Chuanbao; Idrees, Faryal; Ahmed, R; Khan, Waheed S; Ali, Zulfiqar; Mahmood, Nasir; Tanveer, M; Mahmood, Asif; Aslam, Imran

    2014-08-27

    Hierarchical nanostructures (Hs) have recently garnered enormous attention due to their remarkable performances in catalysis, electronic devices, energy storage and conversion. Considering the advantage of hierarchical nanostructures, we have formulated a facile and template free method to synthesize novel hierarchical nanospheres (NHNs) of ZnV2O4. Both zinc and vanadium are earth abundant, relatively economical and can offer several oxidation states, which can render a broad range of redox reactions favorable for electrochemical energy storage applications. Keeping these points in mind, we investigated for the first time the electrochemical supercapacitor performance of NHNs. The electrochemical measurements were performed in 2 M KOH solution. The measured specific capacitance of ZnV2O4 electrode is 360 F/g at 1 A/g with good stability and retention capacity of 89% after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the hydrogen storage properties of NHNs were measured at 473, 573, and 623 K with an absorption of 1.76, 2.03, and 2.49 wt %. respectively. These studies pave the way to consider ZnV2O4 as prospective material for energy storage applications.

  18. Diamond semiconductor technology for RF device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Yasar; Esame, Onur; Tekin, Ibrahim; Kang, Weng P.; Davidson, Jimmy L.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of diamond electronics from the RF perspective. Our aim was to find and present the potential, limitations and current status of diamond semiconductor devices as well as to investigate its suitability for RF device applications. While doing this, we briefly analysed the physics and chemistry of CVD diamond process for a better understanding of the reasons for the technological challenges of diamond material. This leads to Figure of Merit definitions which forms the basis for a technology choice in an RF device/system (such as transceiver or receiver) structure. Based on our literature survey, we concluded that, despite the technological challenges and few mentioned examples, diamond can seriously be considered as a base material for RF electronics, especially RF power circuits, where the important parameters are high speed, high power density, efficient thermal management and low signal loss in high power/frequencies. Simulation and experimental results are highly regarded for the surface acoustic wave (SAW) and field emission (FE) devices which already occupies space in the RF market and are likely to replace their conventional counterparts. Field effect transistors (FETs) are the most promising active devices and extremely high power densities are extracted (up to 30 W/mm). By the surface channel FET approach 81 GHz operation is developed. Bipolar devices are also promising if the deep doping problem can be solved for operation at room temperature. Pressure, thermal, chemical and acceleration sensors have already been demonstrated using micromachining/MEMS approach, but need more experimental results to better exploit thermal, physical/chemical and electronic properties of diamond.

  19. Theory and Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Fuel Cell Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Separation of different electrochemical and ohmic contributions to the current/voltage U(i) characteristics requires additional experimental techniques like Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The application of EIS is an approach to determine parameters which have proved to be indispensable for the characterization and development of fuel cell electrodes and electrolyte electrode assemblies [1]. By varying the operating conditions of the fuel cell and by simulation of the measu...

  20. Theory and Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Fuel Cell Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, N.; Schiller, G.; Friedrich, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Separation of different electrochemical and ohmic contributions to the current/voltage U(i) characteristics requires additional experimental techniques like Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The application of EIS is an approach to determine parameters which have proved to be indispensable for the characterization and development of fuel cell electrodes and electrolyte electrode assemblies. By varying the operating conditions of the fuel cell and by simulation of the measured ...

  1. Review on carbon-derived, solid-state, micro and nano sensors for electrochemical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Anjum; Kang , Weng P.; Davidson, Jimmy L.; Gürbüz, Yaşar; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the most relevant contributions in the development of electrochemical sensors based on carbon materials in the recent years. There have been increasing numbers of reports on the first application of carbon derived materials for the preparation of an electrochemical sensor. These include carbon nanotubes, diamond like carbon films and diamond film-based sensors demonstrating that the particular structure of these carbon material and their unique propertie...

  2. Characterization of ZnO Interlayers for Organic Solar Cells: Correlation of Electrochemical Properties with Thin-Film Morphology and Device Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Kai-Lin; Ehamparam, Ramanan; MacDonald, Gordon; Stubhan, Tobias; Wu, Xin; Shallcross, R Clayton; Richards, Robin; Brabec, Christoph J; Saavedra, S Scott; Armstrong, Neal R

    2016-08-03

    This report focuses on the evaluation of the electrochemical properties of both solution-deposited sol-gel (sg-ZnO) and sputtered (sp-ZnO) zinc oxide thin films, intended for use as electron-collecting interlayers in organic solar cells (OPVs). In the electrochemical studies (voltammetric and impedance studies), we used indium-tin oxide (ITO) over coated with either sg-ZnO or sp-ZnO interlayers, in contact with either plain electrolyte solutions, or solutions with probe redox couples. The electroactive area of exposed ITO under the ZnO interlayer was estimated by characterizing the electrochemical response of just the oxide interlayer and the charge transfer resistance from solutions with the probe redox couples. Compared to bare ITO, the effective electroactive area of ITO under sg-ZnO films was ca. 70%, 10%, and 0.3% for 40, 80, and 120 nm sg-ZnO films. More compact sp-ZnO films required only 30 nm thicknesses to achieve an effective electroactive ITO area of ca. 0.02%. We also examined the electrochemical responses of these same ITO/ZnO heterojunctions overcoated with device thickness pure poly(3-hexylthiophehe) (P3HT), and donor/acceptor blended active layers (P3HT:PCBM). Voltammetric oxidation/reduction of pure P3HT thin films on ZnO/ITO contacts showed that pinhole pathways exist in ZnO films that permit dark oxidation (ITO hole injection into P3HT). In P3HT:PCBM active layers, however, the electrochemical activity for P3HT oxidation is greatly attenuated, suggesting PCBM enrichment near the ZnO interface, effectively blocking P3HT interaction with the ITO contact. The shunt resistance, obtained from dark current-voltage behavior in full P3HT/PCBM OPVs, was dependent on both (i) the porosity of the sg-ZnO or sp-ZnO films (as revealed by probe molecule electrochemistry) and (ii) the apparent enrichment of PCBM at ZnO/P3HT:PCBM interfaces, both effects conveniently revealed by electrochemical characterization. We anticipate that these approaches will be

  3. Preparation and electrochemical application of a new biosensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Banana tissue containing polyphenol oxidase was incorporated into polypyrrole matrix to make a biosensor for the analysis of acetaminophen (ACT). The electrocatalytic behaviour of oxidized acetaminophen was studied at the surface of the biosensor, using various electrochemical methods.

  4. Iodine encapsulation in CNTs and its application for electrochemical capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Rashid, M.; Syakirin, A. [Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    We report the experimental results for new type electrochemical capacitor using iodine redox reaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It was found that the energy density of the present redox capacitor using SWCNTs is almost three times larger than that of the normal electric double layer capacitor.

  5. An electrochemical-cantilever platform for hybrid sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Dohn, Søren; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a fully-functional, microfabricated electrochemical-cantilever hybrid platform with flow control. A new cantilever chip format is designed, fabricated, and mounted in a custom polymer flow cell. Issues such as leakage and optical/electrical access are addressed, and combined...

  6. Cost-Effective and Handmade Paper-Based Immunosensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Devarakonda, Sivaranjani; Singh, Renu; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Jang, Jaesung

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies concerning the detection of influenza virus have been published, a paper-based, label-free electrochemical immunosensor has never been reported. Here, we present a cost-effective, handmade paper-based immunosensor for label-free electrochemical detection of influenza virus H1N1. This immunosensor was prepared by modifying paper with a spray of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, and using stencil-printed electrodes. We used a glass vaporizer to spray the hydrophobic silica...

  7. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  8. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A secondary gradient technique'' is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  9. Applications of Silver Nanowires on Transparent Conducting Film and Electrode of Electrochemical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowire has potential applications on transparent conducting film and electrode of electrochemical capacitor due to its excellent conductivity. Transparent conducting film (G-film was prepared by coating silver nanowires on glass substrate using Meyer rod method, which exhibited better performance than carbon nanotube and graphene. The conductivity of G-film can be improved by increasing sintering temperature. Electrode of electrochemical capacitor (I-film was fabricated through the same method with G-film on indium tin oxide (ITO. CV curves of I-film under different scanning rates had obvious redox peaks, which indicated that I-film exhibited excellent electrochemical pseudocapacitance performance and good reversibility during charge/discharge process. In addition, the specific capacitance of I-film was measured by galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments, indicating that I-film exhibits high special capacitance and excellent electrochemical stability.

  10. Application of alternating current for dimensionally electrochemical machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacheev, M.K.; Kovalev, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of comparative experimental investigations in dimensionally electrochemical machining of 1Kh18N9T steel using alternating and direct currents are presented. The effect of the electrolyte rate in the inter-electrode clearance, electrode voltage and oscillation amplitude of the electrode-tool on the metal output from the electrodes and the relief of the machined surface is studied. It is shown that the a.c. electrochemical machining permits to achieve the greater dimensional accuracy than the d.c. machining when choosing the proper voltage and electrolyte composition. It is connected with the fact that the prevailing part of the metal output is obtained in the impulse-asymmetrical regime when the inter-electrode clearance is minimum

  11. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Lain, M.J.; Fletcher, P.A.; Dawson, R.K.; Pottinger, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The primary aim of the programme is to develop and evaluate remote electrochemical decontamination systems for metal surfaces. The bulk of the waste volume should be reduced to a reuse or low-level waste disposal category, while concentrating most of the activity in a small volume suitable for immobilisation. The goal of the development programme is to test these techniques in both alpha-active and alpha-beta-gamma hot cells in order to ascertain their usefulness as a component of an overall decommissioning strategy. As a result of the radiological environment, particular emphasis will be placed on remote operation in order to reduce occupational radiation exposure. Two types of technique based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin surface layers of the substrate will be investigated: immersion of small items in tanks for electroetching and in situ electropolishing. In both cases, reagents will be chosen with their subsequent disposal in mind. (Author)

  12. Bismuth chalcogenide compounds Bi 2 × 3 (X=O, S, Se): Applications in electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jiangfeng; Bi, Xuanxuan; Jiang, Yu; Li, Liang; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides Bi2×3 (X=O, S, Se) represent a unique type of materials in diverse polymorphs and configurations. Multiple intrinsic features of Bi2×3 such as narrow bandgap, ion conductivity, and environmental friendliness, have render them attractive materials for a wide array of energy applications. In particular, their rich structural voids and the alloying capability of Bi enable the chalcogenides to be alternative electrodes for energy storage such as hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), sodium (Na) storage and supercapacitors. However, the low conductivity and poor electrochemical cycling are two key challenges for the practical utilization of Bi2×3 electrodes. Great efforts have been devoted to mitigate these challenges and remarkable progresses have been achieved, mainly taking profit of nanotechnology and material compositing engineering. In this short review, we summarize state-of-the-art research advances in the rational design of diverse Bi2×3 electrodes and their electrochemical energy storage performance for H, Li, and Na and supercapacitors. We also highlight the key technical issues at present and provide insights for the future development of bismuth based materials in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  13. Application of Integer and Fractional Models in Electrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel S. Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of integer and fractional electrical elements, for modelling two electrochemical systems. A first type of system consists of botanical elements and a second type is implemented by electrolyte processes with fractal electrodes. Experimental results are analyzed in the frequency domain, and the pros and cons of adopting fractional-order electrical components for modelling these systems are compared.

  14. Applications of Ionic Liquids in Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra V. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are salt that exist in the liquid phase at and around 298 K and are comprised of a bulky, asymmetric organic cation and the anion usually inorganic ion but some ILs also with organic anion. ILs have attracted much attention as a replacement for traditional organic solvents as they possess many attractive properties. Among these properties, intrinsic ion conductivity, low volatility, high chemical and thermal stability, low combustibility, and wide electrochemical windows are few. Due to negligible or nonzero volatility of these solvents, they are considered “greener” for the environment as they do not evaporate like volatile organic compounds (VOCs. ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, lubricants, plasticizers, solvent, lithium batteries, solvents to manufacture nanomaterials, extraction, gas absorption agents, and so forth. Besides a brief discussion of the introduction, history, and properties of ILs the major purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview on the advantages of ILs for the synthesis of conducting polymer and nanoparticle when compared to conventional media and also to focus on the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on IL/composite modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed.

  15. Characterization of Damp-Heat Degradation of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cell Components and Devices by (Electrochemical) Impedance Spectroscopy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J. J.; Noufi, R.

    2011-09-01

    This work evaluated the capability of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (IS, or ECIS as used here) to monitor damp heat (DH) stability of contact materials, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell components, and devices. Cell characteristics and its variation of the CIGS devices were also examined by the ECIS.

  16. Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dana; Duncan, Walter M.; Slaughter, John

    2003-01-01

    For the past six years, Digital Light Processing technology from Texas Instruments has made significant inroads in the projection display market. With products enabling the world"s smallest data and video projectors, HDTVs, and digital cinema, DLP technology is extremely powerful and flexible. At the heart of these display solutions is Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a semiconductor-based "light switch" array of thousands of individually addressable, tiltable, mirror-pixels. With success of the DMD as a spatial light modulator for projector applications, dozens of new applications are now being enabled by general-use DMD products that are recently available to developers. The same light switching speed and "on-off" (contrast) ratio that have resulted in superior projector performance, along with the capability of operation outside the visible spectrum, make the DMD very attractive for many applications, including volumetric display, holographic data storage, lithography, scientific instrumentation, and medical imaging. This paper presents an overview of past and future DMD performance in the context of new DMD applications, cites several examples of emerging products, and describes the DMD components and tools now available to developers.

  17. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Bhattarai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous gold (np-Au, because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  18. Variable wavelength selection devices: Physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Haiqing

    Variable wavelength selection (VWS) achieved by implementing tunability to wavelength discriminating devices has generated great interest in basic science, applied physics, and technology. This thesis focuses on the underlying physics and application of several novel wavelength discriminating devices. Holographical polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) are switchable volume gratings formed by exposing a photopolymerizable monomer and liquid crystal mixture to interfering monochromatic light beams. An HPDLCs wavelength discriminating ability along with its switchability, allow it to be utilized in VWS devices. A novel mode HPDLC, total internal reflection (TIR) HPDLC, has been developed as a wavelength selective filter. The grating planes in this device are tilted so that the diffracted light experiences total internal reflection at the glass-air interface and is trapped in the cell until it eventually escapes from an edge. A VWS device is demonstrated by stacking TIR HPDLCs operating at different wavelengths. Converging or diverging recording beams are employed to fabricate chirped reflection HPDLCs with a pitch gradient along the designated direction, creating chirped switchable reflection gratings (CSRGs). A pixelated version of the CSRG is developed herein, and a dynamic spectral equalizer is presented by combining the pixelated CSRG with a prism (for wavelength discrimination). A switchable circular to point converter (SCPC), which enables the random selection of the wavelength bands divided by the Fabry-Perot interferometer utilizing the controllable beam steering capability of transmission HPDLCs, is demonstrated. A random optical cross-switch (TIROL) can be created by integrating a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a stack of SCPC units. The in-plane electric field generated by the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to elongate the helical pitch of a cholesteric liquid crystal and thereby induces a red shift of the transmission reflection peak

  19. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Arqueros, C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the electrodeposition as a low-cost, large-area fabrication process to obtain CuInSe 2 this films for efficient photovoltaic devices. this objective entails the elucidation of thin film deposition mechanism, the study of the fundamental properties of electrodeposited material, and also the modification of their physical and chemical parameters for photovoltaic applications. CuInSe 2 thin films have been successfully electrodeposited from a citric was characterized by compositional, structural, electrical, optical and electrochemical measurements, relating their properties with the preparation parameters and also studying the effect of various thermal and chemical treatments. The results showed post-deposition treatment are needed for optimizing these films for solar cells fabrication: first, an annealing in inert atmosphere at temperatures above 400 degrees celsius to obtain a high recrystallization in the chalcopyrite structure, and after a chemical etching in KCN solution to remove secondary phases of Cu x Se and Se which are frequently electrodeposited with the CuInSe 2 . The treated samples showed appropriate photovoltaic activity in a semiconductor-electrolite liquid junction. (author) 193 ref

  20. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao-Qun; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, this sensor was capable of detecting a minimum of 0.3 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) HBsAg with a wide linear concentration range from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1). The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg spiked in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New Applications of Electrochemically Produced Porous Semiconductors and Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisner Malte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growing demand for electro mobility together with advancing concepts for renewable energy as primary power sources requires sophisticated methods of energy storage. In this work, we present a Li ion battery based on Si nanowires, which can be produced reliable and cheaply and which shows superior properties, such as a largely increased capacity and cycle stability. Sophisticated methods based on electrochemical pore etching allow to produce optimized regular arrays of nanowires, which can be stabilized by intrinsic cross-links, which serve to avoid unwanted stiction effects and allow easy processing.

  2. Time-resolved electrochemical measurement device for microscopic liquid interface during droplet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuyama, Mao; Yoshida, Yumi; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Hibara, Akihide

    An electrochemical measurement system with a high-speed camera for observation of dynamic behavior of ionic molecules at a water-in-oil interface during microfluidic droplet formation is described. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, a liquid interface between 1 M sodium chloride

  3. Contemporary optoelectronics materials, metamaterials and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of extended contributions on the physics and application of optoelectronic materials and metamaterials.   The book is divided into three parts, respectively covering materials, metamaterials and optoelectronic devices.  Individual chapters cover topics including phonon-polariton interaction, semiconductor and nonlinear organic materials, metallic, dielectric and gyrotropic metamaterials, singular optics, parity-time symmetry, nonlinear plasmonics, microstructured optical fibers, passive nonlinear shaping of ultrashort pulses, and pulse-preserving supercontinuum generation. The book contains both experimental and theoretical studies, and each contribution is a self-contained exposition of a particular topic, featuring an extensive reference list.  The book will be a useful resource for graduate and postgraduate students, researchers and engineers involved in optoelectronics/photonics, quantum electronics, optics, and adjacent areas of science and technology.

  4. Strategies in electro-chemical machining of tungsten for divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, W.; Holstein, N.; Konys, J.

    2007-01-01

    For future application in a fusion power system a modular structured He cooled divertor concept is investigated under the framework of EFDA which is based on the use of pure W or W alloys for the thermally highly loaded parts. Due to the underlying physico-chemical principles electro-chemical machining (ECM) is the only shaping process which will not introduce microstructural defects, e.g. microcracks into work pieces as known by example from electro-discharge machining (EDM). However, ECM processes have no industrial application in W machining up to yet due to passivation effects using standard electrolytes known from steel working. Therefore, a systematical electrochemical development program was launched, and the electrochemical behavior of W was examined and passivation effects could be eliminated, successfully. The electrochemical shaping processes can be divided into two main categories. The first one is M-ECM, which represents the lithographic route based on structured anode masks, and the other is C-ECM, working with a negatively structured cathode as tool which is copied by electro-chemical dissolution. Both ECM branches are discussed on base of first machined structured parts, showing their process depending advantages and potential enhancements are revealed by applying pulsed currents instead of DC dissolution technique

  5. Direct synthesis of lithium-intercalated graphene for electrochemical energy storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Mukherjee, Arnab; Dubey, Madan; Zhan, Xiaobo; Singh, Neelam; Ci, Lijie; Billups, W Edward; Nagurny, John; Mital, Gandhi; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-06-28

    A novel approach for bulk synthesis of lithium-intercalated graphene sheets through the reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide in liquid ammonia and lithium metal is reported. It is demonstrated here that as-synthesized lithiated graphite oxide sheets (Li-RGO) can be directly used as an electrode material in lithium batteries. The electrochemical studies on Li-RGO electrodes show a significant enhancement in the specific capacity of the lithium battery over commercially available graphite electrodes. Partial intercalation of lithium ions in between graphene layers makes this material a good candidate for electrochemical energy storage applications.

  6. Application of electrochemical energy storage in solar thermal electric generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R.; Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper assesses the status, cost, and performance of existing electrochemical energy storage systems, and projects the cost, performance, and availability of advanced storage systems for application in terrestrial solar thermal electric generation. A 10 MWe solar plant with five hours of storage is considered and the cost of delivered energy is computed for sixteen different storage systems. The results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems use the following battery types: zinc-bromine (Exxon), iron-chromium redox (NASA/Lewis Research Center, LeRC), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (Energy Development Associates, EDA).

  7. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenjian; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10 −9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins. (paper)

  8. Fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of ratiometric electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Yu, Jianbo; Lv, Wei; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-05-15

    Previously developed electrochemical biosensors with single-electric signal output are probably affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In contrast, the ratiometric electrochemical biosensors (RECBSs) with dual-electric signal outputs have an intrinsic built-in correction to the effects from system or background electric signals, and therefore exhibit a significant potential to improve the accuracy and sensitivity in electrochemical sensing applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of RECBSs. First, the different fabrication strategies of RECBSs were introduced, referring to the analytes-induced single- and dual-dependent electrochemical signal strategies for RECBSs. Second, the different sensing modes of RECBSs were illustrated, such as differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, and so forth. Third, the analytical applications of RECBSs were discussed based on the types of target analytes. Finally, the forthcoming development and future prospects in the research field of RECBSs were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna El Harrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007–2017 on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  10. Application of Gold Nanoparticles for Electrochemical DNA Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES as a linker molecule combined with the gold nanoparticles (GNPs on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The SiO2 thin films surface was chemically modified with a mixture of APTES and GNPs for DNA detection in different time periods of 30 min, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours, respectively. The DNA immobilization and hybridization were conducted by measuring the differences of the capacitance value within the frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz. The capacitance values for DNA immobilization were 160 μF, 77.8 μF, 70 μF, and 64.6 μF, respectively, with the period of time from 30 min to 4 hours. Meanwhile the capacitance values for DNA hybridization were 44 μF, 54 μF, 55 μF, and 61.5 μF, respectively. The capacitance value of bare SiO2 thin film was 0.42 μF, which was set as a base line for a reference in DNA detection. The differences of the capacitance value between the DNA immobilization and hybridization revealed that the modified SiO2 thin films using APTES and GNPs were successfully developed for DNA detection.

  11. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  12. Minimizing losses in bio-electrochemical systems: the road to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwaert, Peter; Aelterman, Peter; Pham, The Hai; De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Carballa, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-07-01

    Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) enable microbial catalysis of electrochemical reactions. Plain electrical power production combined with wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been the primary application purpose for BESs. However, large-scale power production and a high chemical oxygen demand conversion rates must be achieved at a benchmark cost to make MFCs economical competitive in this context. Recently, a number of valuable oxidation or reduction reactions demonstrating the versatility of BESs have been described. Indeed, BESs can produce hydrogen, bring about denitrification, or reductive dehalogenation. Moreover, BESs also appear to be promising in the field of online biosensors. To effectively apply BESs in practice, both biological and electrochemical losses need to be further minimized. At present, the costs of reactor materials have to be decreased, and the volumetric biocatalyst activity in the systems has to be increased substantially. Furthermore, both the ohmic cell resistance and the pH gradients need to be minimized. In this review, these losses and constraints are discussed from an electrochemical viewpoint. Finally, an overview of potential applications and innovative research lines is given for BESs.

  13. Mobile devices and computing cloud resources allocation for interactive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile devices such as smartphones or iPads for various interactive applications is currently very common. In the case of complex applications, e.g. chess games, the capabilities of these devices are insufficient to run the application in real time. One of the solutions is to use cloud computing. However, there is an optimization problem of mobile device and cloud resources allocation. An iterative heuristic algorithm for application distribution is proposed. The algorithm minimizes the energy cost of application execution with constrained execution time.

  14. Electrochemical properties and applications of nanocrystalline, microcrystalline, and epitaxial cubic silicon carbide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Zhang, Lei; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Xin

    2015-05-27

    Microstructures of the materials (e.g., crystallinitiy, defects, and composition, etc.) determine their properties, which eventually lead to their diverse applications. In this contribution, the properties, especially the electrochemical properties, of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been engineered by controlling their microstructures. By manipulating the deposition conditions, nanocrystalline, microcrystalline and epitaxial (001) 3C-SiC films are obtained with varied properties. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film presents the lowest double-layer capacitance and the highest reversibility of redox probes, because of its perfect (001) orientation and high phase purity. The highest double-layer capacitance and the lowest reversibility of redox probes have been realized on the nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film. Those are ascribed to its high amount of grain boundaries, amorphous phases and large diversity in its crystal size. Based on their diverse properties, the electrochemical performances of 3C-SiC films are evaluated in two kinds of potential applications, namely an electrochemical capacitor using a nanocrystalline film and an electrochemical dopamine sensor using the epitaxial 3C-SiC film. The nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film shows not only a high double layer capacitance (43-70 μF/cm(2)) but also a long-term stability of its capacitance. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film shows a low detection limit toward dopamine, which is one to 2 orders of magnitude lower than its normal concentration in tissue. Therefore, 3C-SiC film is a novel but designable material for different emerging electrochemical applications such as energy storage, biomedical/chemical sensors, environmental pollutant detectors, and so on.

  15. Porous Microfluidic Devices - Fabrication adn Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Geerken, M.J.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The major part of microfluidic devices nowadays consists of a dense material that defines the fluidic structure. A generic fabrication method enabling the production of completely porous micro devices with user-defined channel networks is developed. The channel walls can be used as a (selective)

  16. Estimation of current constriction losses via 3D tomography reconstructions in electrochemical devices: a case study of a solid oxide cell electrode/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the methodology for accurate estimations of the current constriction resistance in solid state electrochemical devices via 3D tomography reconstructions is developed. The methodology is used to determine the current constriction resistances at the Ni:YSZ anode/YSZ electrolyte...

  17. Application of electrochemical methods in corrosion and battery research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoli

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied in the development of corrosion protection methods for ammonia/water absorption heat pumps and the evaluation of the stability of metallic materials in Li-ion battery electrolyte. Rare earth metal salts (REMSs) and organic inhibitors have been evaluated for corrosion protection of mild steel in the baseline solution of 5 wt% NH 3 + 0.2 wt% NaOH to replace the conventionally used toxic chromate salt inhibitors. Cerium nitrate provided at least comparable corrosion inhibition efficiency as dichromate in the baseline solution at 100°C. The cerium (IV) oxide formed on mild steel through the cerating process exhibited increasing corrosion protection for mild steel with prolonged exposure time in the hot baseline solution. The optimum cerating process was found to be first cerating in a solution of 2.3 g/L CeCl3 + 4.4 wt% H2O2 + appropriate additives for 20 minutes at pH 2.2 at room temperature with 30 minutes solution aging prior to use, then sealing in 10% sodium (meta) silicate or sodium molybdate at 50°C for 30 minutes. Yttrium salts provided less corrosion protection for mild steel in the baseline solution than cerium salts. Glycerophosphate was found to be a promising chromate-free organic inhibitor for mild steel; however, its thermostability in hot ammonia/water solutions has not been confirmed yet. The stability of six metallic materials used in Li-ion batteries has been evaluated in 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in a 1:1 volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate at 37°C in a dry-box. Aluminum is the most stable material, while Copper is active under anodic potentials and susceptible to localized corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The higher the concentration of the alloying elements Al and/or V in a titanium alloy, the higher was the stability of the titanium alloy in the battery electrolyte. 90Pt-10Ir can cause decomposition of the electrolyte resulting in a low stable

  18. Development of Electrochemical Capacitor Technology for DOD Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apblett, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to make a positive impact on the development of supercapacitors that are vital to the production of electrical vehicles and low-maintenance power sources for military applications...

  19. Cost-Effective and Handmade Paper-Based Immunosensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Devarakonda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies concerning the detection of influenza virus have been published, a paper-based, label-free electrochemical immunosensor has never been reported. Here, we present a cost-effective, handmade paper-based immunosensor for label-free electrochemical detection of influenza virus H1N1. This immunosensor was prepared by modifying paper with a spray of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, and using stencil-printed electrodes. We used a glass vaporizer to spray the hydrophobic silica nanoparticles onto the paper, rendering it super-hydrophobic. The super-hydrophobicity, which is essential for this paper-based biosensor, was achieved via 30–40 spray coatings, corresponding to a 0.39–0.41 mg cm−2 coating of nanoparticles on the paper and yielding a water contact angle of 150° ± 1°. Stencil-printed carbon electrodes modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan were employed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor, and the antibodies were immobilized via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to assess the sensitivity of the sensors at various virus concentrations, ranging from 10 to 104 PFU mL−1, and the selectivity was assessed against MS2 bacteriophages and the influenza B viruses. These immunosensors showed good linear behaviors, improved detection times (30 min, and selectivity for the H1N1 virus with a limit of detection of 113 PFU mL−1, which is sufficiently sensitive for rapid on-site diagnosis. The simple and inexpensive methodologies developed in this study have great potential to be used for the development of a low-cost and disposable immunosensor for detection of pathogenic microorganisms, especially in developing countries.

  20. Development and application of artificial rainfall device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaomei; Li Zhaolin; Jia Xue; Tadatoshi Yamamoto; Shinichi Takebe

    2000-01-01

    An artificial sprinkling simulation device was designed and developed to be used for radioactive nuclides migration tests. In this device water drops are sprinkled through medical syringe needles which vibrate along a circle. After several year operation at the field test site, it was demonstrated that this device is stable and sprinkling homogeneous, with the rainfall intensity from 2 mm/h to 100 mm/h and the low limit of 2 mm/h. Compared with spraying nozzle, it is easy to control the rainfall quantity and sprinkling area, and the evaporation loss is small. The device can meet the requirement of radioactive nuclide migration test and may also be used for other purpose

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications of CVD Grown Niobium Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiz, Raquel; Appel, Linus; Gutiérrez-Pardo, Antonio; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; Mathur, Sanjay

    2016-08-24

    We report here on the controlled synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of different polymorphs of niobium pentoxide grown by CVD of new single-source precursors. Nb2O5 films deposited at different temperatures showed systematic phase evolution from low-temperature tetragonal (TT-Nb2O5, T-Nb2O5) to high temperature monoclinic modifications (H-Nb2O5). Optimization of the precursor flux and substrate temperature enabled phase-selective growth of Nb2O5 nanorods and films on conductive mesoporous biomorphic carbon matrices (BioC). Nb2O5 thin films deposited on monolithic BioC scaffolds produced composite materials integrating the high surface area and conductivity of the carbonaceous matrix with the intrinsically high capacitance of nanostructured niobium oxide. Heterojunctions in Nb2O5/BioC composites were found to be beneficial in electrochemical capacitance. Electrochemical characterization of Nb2O5/BioC composites showed that small amounts of Nb2O5 (as low as 5%) in conjunction with BioCarbon resulted in a 7-fold increase in the electrode capacitance, from 15 to 104 F g(-1), while imparting good cycling stability, making these materials ideally suited for electrochemical energy storage applications.

  2. Developing trends in aptamer-based biosensor devices and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Scott; Wishart, David; Xing, James Z; Chen, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Aptamers are, in general, easier to produce, easier to store and are able to bind to a wider variety of targets than antibodies. For these reasons, aptamers are gaining increasing popularity in environmental monitoring as well as disease detection and disease management applications. This review article examines the research and design of RNA and DNA aptamer based biosensor systems and applications as well as their potential for integration in effective biosensor devices. As single stranded DNA or RNA molecules that can bind to specific targets, aptamers are well suited for biomolecular recognition and sensing applications. Beyond being able to be designed for a near endless number of specific targets, aptamers can also be made which change their conformation in a predictable and consistent way upon binding. This can lead to many unique and effective detection methods using a variety of optical and electrochemical means.

  3. Electrochemical-signal enhanced information storage device composed of cytochrome c/SNP bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinho; Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoo, Si-Youl; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2014-03-01

    The films organized with biomolecules and organic materials are important elements for developing bioelectronic devices according to their electron transfer property. Until now, several concepts of techniques have been accomplished to be used for developing biomemory devices. However it is difficult to detect the current signal from the electron transfer between biomolecules and the substrate in these fabricated films. To enhance the current signal, the silver nanoparticle was introduced to the cytochrome c in this present study. The surface morphology of the fabricated film was investigated by atomic force microscopy. The current signal enhancement was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. As a result, we could obtain the redox potentials. Moreover, by chronoamperometry, we validated that this proposed layer showed the signal-enhanced memory property for biomemory devices. This new film composed of the cytochrome c and the silver nanoparticle showed the signal enhancement. Using chronoamperometry, the areas under the graphs between 0 s and 50 ms were calculated. The calculated result showed that the areas under the cytochrome c/SNP graph and cytochrome c graph were 6.93 x 10(-7) C and 4.54 x 10(-7) C, respectively. This numerical value verified that the cytochrome c/silver nanoparticle hetero-layer film showed better electron charged biomemory performance compared to the cytochrome c monolayer. This signal-enhanced film can be applied to the bioelectronic devices which are able to replace existing electronic devices in the near future.

  4. Carbon nanotubes--electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental chemical, redox, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, optical and optoelectronic features of carbon nanotubes are surveyed with particular emphasis on the most relevant applications as electron donor/electron acceptor or as electron conductor/hole conductor materials, in solutions and in the solid state. Methods that aim at p- and n-doping as a means to favor hole or electron injection/transport are covered as well (critical review, 208 references).

  5. Wearable Device Control Platform Technology for Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application development platform is the most important environment in IT industry. There are a variety of platforms. Although the native development enables application to optimize, various languages and software development kits need to be acquired according to the device. The coexistence of smart devices and platforms has rendered the native development approach time and cost consuming. Cross-platform development emerged as a response to these issues. These platforms generate applications for multiple devices based on web languages. Nevertheless, development requires additional implementation based on a native language because of the coverage and functions of supported application programming interfaces (APIs. Wearable devices have recently attracted considerable attention. These devices only support Bluetooth-based interdevice communication, thereby making communication and device control impossible beyond a certain range. We propose Network Application Agent (NetApp-Agent in order to overcome issues. NetApp-Agent based on the Cordova is a wearable device control platform for the development of network applications, controls input/output functions of smartphones and wearable/IoT through the Cordova and Native API, and enables device control and information exchange by external users by offering a self-defined API. We confirmed the efficiency of the proposed platform through experiments and a qualitative assessment of its implementation.

  6. Characterization of Porous WO3 Electrochromic Device by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chien Chon

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the microstructure of the anodic tungsten oxide (WO3) and its use in an electrochromic (EC) glass device. When voltages between 100 V and 160 V were applied to tungsten film for 1 h under 0.4 wt. % NaF electrolyte, porous WO3 film was formed. The film, which had a large surface area, was used as electrochromic film for EC glass. The average transmittance in a visible region of the spectrum for a 144 cm2 EC device was above 75% in the bleached state and below 40% in the col...

  7. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Titas

    2011-12-01

    bilayers showed significant increase in work function values (˜5.3 eV). The work function of the bilayer films was tuned by varying the processing conditions and doping of over layers. Preliminary test device results of the organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on these surfaces modified TCO layers have shown an increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) and/or increase in Fill factor (FF) and the power conversion efficiency of these devices. These results suggest that the surface modified GZO films have a potential to substitute for ITO in transparent electrode applications. To gain a better understanding of the fundamentals and factors affecting the properties of p-type TCO, NiO thin films have been grown on c-sapphire and glass substrates with controlled properties. Growth of NiO on c-sapphire occurs epitaxially in [111] direction with two types of crystalline grains rotated by 60° with respect to each other. We have also investigated the effects of the deposition parameters and Li doping concentration variations on the electrical and optical properties of NiO thin films. The analysis of the resistivity measurement showed that doped Li+ ions occupy the substitutional sites in the NiO films, enhancing the p-type conductivity. The minimum resistivity of 0.15 O-cm was obtained for Li0.07Ni 0.93O film. The results of this research help to understand the conduction mechanisms in TCOs and are critical to further improvement and optimization of TCO properties. This work has also demonstrated interesting possibilities for fabricating a p-LixNi1-xO/ i-MgZnO /n-ZnO heterojunction diode on c-sapphire. It has been demonstrated that epitaxial LixNi 1-xO can be grown on ZnO integrated with c-sapphire. Heteroeptaxial growth of the p-n junction is technologically important as it minimizes the electron scattering at the interface. The insertion of i-MgZnO between the p and n layer led to improved current-voltage characteristics with reduced leakage current. An attempt has been made

  8. Analysis of Methanol in the Presence of Ethanol, Using a Hybrid Capillary Electrophoresis Device with Electrochemical Derivatization and Conductivity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro Sérgio Ferreira; da Costa, Eric Tavares; Gutz, Ivano Gebhardt Rolf; Garcia, Carlos D

    2017-01-17

    Concurrently with ethanol, many other compounds can be formed during the fermentation of grains and fruits. Among those, methanol is particularly important (because of its toxicity) and is typically formed at concentrations much lower than ethanol, presenting a particular challenge that demands the implementation of separation techniques. Aiming to provide an alternative to traditional chromatographic approaches, a hybrid electrophoresis device with electrochemical preprocessing and contactless conductivity detection (hybrid EC-CE-C 4 D) is herein described. The device was applied to perform the electro-oxidation of primary alcohols, followed by the separation and detection of the respective carboxylates. According to the presented results, the optimum conditions were obtained when the sample was diluted with 2 mmol L -1 HNO 3 and then electro-oxidized by applying a potential of 1.4 V for 60 s. The oxidation products were then electrokinetically injected by applying a potential of 3 kV for 4 s and separated using a potential of 3 kV and a background running electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 10 mmol L -1 N-cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (CHES) and 5 mmol L -1 sodium hydroxide (NaOH). n-Propanol was used as an internal standard and the three carboxylate peaks were resolved with baseline separation within fractional distillation presented a decreasing methanol ratio (from 4% to <0.5%) and a growing ethanol ratio (from 80% to 100%) in the collected volume.

  9. Dry Film Photoresist-based Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor Platform: Device Fabrication, On-chip Assay Preparation, and System Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Richard; Kling, André; Urban, Gerald A; Dincer, Can

    2017-09-19

    In recent years, biomarker diagnostics became an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of human disease, especially for the point-of-care diagnostics. An easy-to-use and low-cost sensor platform is highly desired to measure various types of analytes (e.g., biomarkers, hormones, and drugs) quantitatively and specifically. For this reason, dry film photoresist technology - enabling cheap, facile, and high-throughput fabrication - was used to manufacture the microfluidic biosensor presented here. Depending on the bioassay used afterwards, the versatile platform is capable of detecting various types of biomolecules. For the fabrication of the device, platinum electrodes are structured on a flexible polyimide (PI) foil in the only clean-room process step. The PI foil serves as a substrate for the electrodes, which are insulated with an epoxy-based photoresist. The microfluidic channel is subsequently generated by the development and lamination of dry film photoresist (DFR) foils onto the PI wafer. By using a hydrophobic stopping barrier in the channel, the channel is separated into two specific areas: an immobilization section for the enzyme-linked assay and an electrochemical measurement cell for the amperometric signal readout. The on-chip bioassay immobilization is performed by the adsorption of the biomolecules to the channel surface. The glucose oxidase enzyme is used as a transducer for electrochemical signal generation. In the presence of the substrate, glucose, hydrogen peroxide is produced, which is detected at the platinum working electrode. The stop-flow technique is applied to obtain signal amplification along with rapid detection. Different biomolecules can quantitatively be measured by means of the introduced microfluidic system, giving an indication of different types of diseases, or, in regard to therapeutic drug monitoring, facilitating a personalized therapy.

  10. Handbook of terahertz technologies devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves, which lie in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, have long been investigated in a few limited fields, such as astronomy, because of a lack of devices for their generation and detection. Several technical breakthroughs made over the last couple of decades now allow us to radiate and detect terahertz waves more easily, which has triggered the search for new uses of terahertz waves in many fields, such as bioscience, security, and information and communications technology. The book covers some of the technical breakthroughs in terms of device technologies. It discusses not only th

  11. Application of electrochemical processes to membrane bioreactors for improving nutrient removal and fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Laura; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is becoming increasingly popular as wastewater treatment due to the unique advantages it offers. However, membrane fouling is being given a great deal of attention so as to improve the performance of this type of technology. Recent studies have proven that the application of electrochemical processes to MBR represents a promising technological approach for membrane fouling control. In this work, two intermittent voltage gradients of 1 and 3 V/cm were applied between two cylindrical perforated electrodes, immersed around a membrane module, at laboratory scale with the aim of investigating the treatment performance and membrane fouling formation. For comparison purposes, the reactor also operated as a conventional MBR. Mechanisms of nutrient removal were studied and membrane fouling formation evaluated in terms of transmembrane pressure variation over time and sludge relative hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the impact of electrochemical processes on transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), proposed as a new membrane fouling precursor, was investigated in addition to conventional fouling precursors such as bound extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP). All the results indicate that the integration of electrochemical processes into a MBR has the advantage of improving the treatment performance especially in terms of nutrient removal, with an enhancement of orthophosphate (PO 4 -P) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N) removal efficiencies up to 96.06 and 69.34 %, respectively. A reduction of membrane fouling was also observed with an increase of floc hydrophobicity to 71.72 %, a decrease of membrane fouling precursor concentrations, and, thus, of membrane fouling rates up to 54.33 %. The relationship found between TEP concentration and membrane fouling rate after the application of electrochemical processes confirms the applicability of this parameter as a new membrane fouling indicator.

  12. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 materials have been intensively studied in the past years because of many varied applications. This mini review article focuses on TiO2 micro and nano architectures with the prevalent crystal structures (anatase, rutile, brookite, and TiO2(B, and summarizes the major advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO2 micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures via different strategies, with an emphasis on rational control of the surface and interface structures. We further discuss the applications of TiO2 micro and nano architectures in photocatalysis, lithium/sodium ion batteries, and Li–S batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the surface/interface structures of TiO2 micro and nano structures will be highlighted. Then, we discuss the phase transitions of TiO2 nanostructures and possible strategies of improving the phase stability. The review concludes with a perspective on the current challenges and future research directions.

  13. Biomedical device innovation methodology: applications in biophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Daniel M; Kaushik, Arjun; Beinart, Dylan; McGarry, Sarah; Yew, Ming Khoon; Kennedy, Brendan F; Maria, Peter Luke Santa

    2017-12-01

    The process of medical device innovation involves an iterative method that focuses on designing innovative, device-oriented solutions that address unmet clinical needs. This process has been applied to the field of biophotonics with many notable successes. Device innovation begins with identifying an unmet clinical need and evaluating this need through a variety of lenses, including currently existing solutions for the need, stakeholders who are interested in the need, and the market that will support an innovative solution. Only once the clinical need is understood in detail can the invention process begin. The ideation phase often involves multiple levels of brainstorming and prototyping with the aim of addressing technical and clinical questions early and in a cost-efficient manner. Once potential solutions are found, they are tested against a number of known translational factors, including intellectual property, regulatory, and reimbursement landscapes. Only when the solution matches the clinical need, the next phase of building a "to market" strategy should begin. Most aspects of the innovation process can be conducted relatively quickly and without significant capital expense. This white paper focuses on key points of the medical device innovation method and how the field of biophotonics has been applied within this framework to generate clinical and commercial success. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Biomedical device innovation methodology: applications in biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Daniel M.; Kaushik, Arjun; Beinart, Dylan; McGarry, Sarah; Yew, Ming Khoon; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Maria, Peter Luke Santa

    2018-02-01

    The process of medical device innovation involves an iterative method that focuses on designing innovative, device-oriented solutions that address unmet clinical needs. This process has been applied to the field of biophotonics with many notable successes. Device innovation begins with identifying an unmet clinical need and evaluating this need through a variety of lenses, including currently existing solutions for the need, stakeholders who are interested in the need, and the market that will support an innovative solution. Only once the clinical need is understood in detail can the invention process begin. The ideation phase often involves multiple levels of brainstorming and prototyping with the aim of addressing technical and clinical questions early and in a cost-efficient manner. Once potential solutions are found, they are tested against a number of known translational factors, including intellectual property, regulatory, and reimbursement landscapes. Only when the solution matches the clinical need, the next phase of building a "to market" strategy should begin. Most aspects of the innovation process can be conducted relatively quickly and without significant capital expense. This white paper focuses on key points of the medical device innovation method and how the field of biophotonics has been applied within this framework to generate clinical and commercial success.

  15. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Lin-Chi; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H 2 O 2 . • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  16. Electrochemical deposition of honeycomb magnetite on partially exfoliated graphite as anode for capacitive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen; Cai, Xiang; Song, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2017-08-01

    Research on anode materials with high capacitive performance is lagging behind that of cathode materials, which has severely hindered the development of high-efficient energy storage devices. Compared with other anode materials, Fe3O4 exhibits highly desirable advantages due to its low cost, high theoretical capacity and preferable electronic conductivity of ∼102 S cm-1. Herein, hierarchical honeycomb Fe3O4 is integrated on functionalized exfoliated graphite through electrochemical deposition and the following chemical conversion. The hierarchical honeycomb Fe3O4 is constructed by the oxide nanorods, which are assembled by a number of nanoparticles. This unique porous structure not only ensures fast ion diffusion in the electrode, but also provides large amount of active sites for electrochemical reactions. The exfoliated graphene atop the graphite base can act as 3D conductive scaffold to facilitate the electron transport of the electrode. Therefore, FEG/Fe3O4 exhibits large specific capacitances of 327 F g-1@1 A g-1 and 275 F g-1@10 A g-1. Good cycling stability is also achieved due to the flexibility of the graphene substrate. The assembled asymmetric device using FEG/Fe3O4 as anode can deliver a high energy density of 54 Wh kg-1.

  17. Facile preparation and electrochemical characterization of kassite-based materials for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weijie; Zhao, Gaoling; Song, Bin; Xie, Junliang; Lu, Wangwei; Han, Gaorong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, kassite was synthesized by employing a simple, green hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out to study its crystal phases, morphologies and electrochemical performance. With the extension of reaction time, the crystallinity of the samples became higher and the specific capacitance increased correspondingly. The result shows that kassite has a promising application in electrode material for capacitors. To improve the electrical conductivity of kassite and the accessibility of the surface area, graphene nanosheet (GNS) was introduced to form composites with kassite. The capacitive performance improved with increasing weight percentage of GNS and reached an optimum with the specific capacitance of 129.8 F/g at weight percentage of 10%, then decreased with further increasing GNS, showing a synergistic effect of kassite and the GNS.

  18. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J [Naperville, IL; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Martin, Edward [Libertyville, IL; Arora, Michelle [Woodridge, IL; de la Garza, Linda [Woodridge, IL

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  19. Device Data Protection in Mobile Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Dasun; Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan; Rakocevic, Veselin

    The rapid growth in mobile technology makes the delivery of healthcare data and services on mobile phones a reality. However, the healthcare data is very sensitive and has to be protected against unauthorized access. While most of the development work on security of mobile healthcare today focuses on the data encryption and secure authentication in remote servers, protection of data on the mobile device itself has gained very little attention. This paper analyses the requirements and the architecture for a secure mobile capsule, specially designed to protect the data that is already on the device. The capsule is a downloadable software agent with additional functionalities to enable secure external communication with healthcare service providers, network operators and other relevant communication parties.

  20. Development of cryotribological theories & application to cryogenic devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2001-03-12

    This is the final report of a research program on low-temperature friction and wear, primarily focused on development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices, particularly superconducting magnets.

  1. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  2. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  3. Characterization of Porous WO3 Electrochromic Device by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chon Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the microstructure of the anodic tungsten oxide (WO3 and its use in an electrochromic (EC glass device. When voltages between 100 V and 160 V were applied to tungsten film for 1 h under 0.4 wt. % NaF electrolyte, porous WO3 film was formed. The film, which had a large surface area, was used as electrochromic film for EC glass. The average transmittance in a visible region of the spectrum for a 144 cm2 EC device was above 75% in the bleached state and below 40% in the colored state, respectively. Repeatability using of the colored/bleached cycles was tested good by a cyclic voltammograms method. The internal impedance values under colored and bleached states were detected and simulated using an electrical impedance spectra (EIS technique. The EC glass impedance characteristics were simulated using resistors, capacitors, and Warburg impedance. The ITO/WO3, WO3/electrolyte, electrolyte/NiO, and NiO/ITO interfaces can be simulated using a resistance capacitance (RC parallel circuits, and bulk materials such as the indium tin oxide (ITO and conducting wire can be simulated by using a series of resisters.

  4. Frontiers of graphene and carbon nanotubes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on carbon nanotubes and graphene as representatives of nano-carbon materials, and describes the growth of new technology and applications of new devices. As new devices and as new materials, nano-carbon materials are expected to be world pioneers that could not have been realized with conventional semiconductor materials, and as those that extend the limits of conventional semiconductor performance. This book introduces the latest achievements of nano-carbon devices, processes, and technology growth. It is anticipated that these studies will also be pioneers in the development of future research of nano-carbon devices and materials. This book consists of 18 chapters. Chapters 1 to 8 describe new device applications and new growth methods of graphene, and Chapters 9 to 18, those of carbon nanotubes. It is expected that by increasing the advantages and overcoming the weak points of nanocarbon materials, a new world that cannot be achieved with conventional materials will be greatly expanded. W...

  5. Applications of Photonic Crystals to Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    Photonic crystals are structures that exhibit wavelength-scale spatial periodicity in their dielectric function. They are best known for their ability to exhibit complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) - spectral regions over which no light can propagate within the crystal. PBGs are specific instances of a more general phenomenon, in which the local photonic density of states can be enhanced or suppressed over different frequency ranges by tuning the properties of the crystal. This can be used to redirect, concentrate, or even trap light incident on the crystal. In this thesis, we investigate how photonic crystals can be used to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic devices by trapping light. Due to the many different types of photovoltaic devices in existence (varying widely in materials used, modes of operation, and internal structure), there is no single light trapping architecture that can be applied to all photovoltaics. In this work we study a number of different devices: dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, silicon-perovskite tandem cells, and single-junction silicon cells. We propose novel photonic crystal-based light trapping designs for each type of device, and evaluate these designs numerically to demonstrate their effectiveness. Full-field optical simulations of the cell are performed for each design, using either finite element method (FEM) or finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) techniques. Where appropriate, electrical modelling of the cell is also performed, through either the use of a simple one-diode model, or by obtaining full solutions to the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations within the cell. In all cases we find that the photonic crystal-based designs significantly outperform their non-nanostructured counterparts. In the case of dye-sensitized and polymer cells, enhancements in light absorption of 33% and 40% (respectively) are seen, relative to reference cells with planar geometries. In the case of silicon-perovskite tandem cells

  6. Current Status and Future Research Opportunities for Electrochemical Capacitors: Relevance for Naval and Civilian Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Jeffrey W

    2008-01-01

    ... energy density of batteries. As such, ECs will ultimately enable technologies and applications, ranging from microelectronics to hybrid- and all-electric vehicle platforms, where current energy-storage devices are not sufficient...

  7. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lubberman, Ewout; Fuller, Elliot J.; Keene, Scott T.; Faria, Grégorio C.; Agarwal, Sapan; Marinella, Matthew J.; Alec Talin, A.; Salleo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ~1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. Here we describe an electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe) operating with a fundamentally different mechanism from existing memristors. ENODe switches at low voltage and energy (500 distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a ~1 V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations. Plastic ENODes are also fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with three-dimensional architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.

  8. Nanopatterning and nanoscale devices for biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Šelimović, Seila

    2014-01-01

    ""This book is a good reference for researchers interested in realizing bio-applications based on micro- and nanostructures, where their interface with liquids and biomolecules is the key point. The most important 'players' of micro- and nano-bioengineering are considered, from DNA to proteins and cells. The work is a good merger of basic concepts and real examples of applications.""-Danilo Demarchi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

  9. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-09-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  10. System Control Applications of Low-Power Radio Frequency Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Roger

    2017-09-01

    This paper conceptualizes a low-power wireless sensor network design for application employment to reduce theft of portable computer devices used in educational institutions today. The aim of this study is to design and develop a reliable and robust wireless network that can eradicate accessibility of a device’s human interface. An embedded system supplied by an energy harvesting source, installed on the portable computer device, may represent one of multiple slave nodes which request regular updates from a standalone master station. A portable computer device which is operated in an undesignated area or in a field perimeter where master to slave communication is restricted, indicating a possible theft scenario, will initiate a shutdown of its operating system and render the device unusable. Consequently, an algorithm in the device firmware may ensure the necessary steps are executed to track the device, irrespective whether the device is enabled. Design outcomes thus far indicate that a wireless network using low-power embedded hardware, is feasible for anti-theft applications. By incorporating one of the latest Bluetooth low-energy, ANT+, ZigBee or Thread wireless technologies, an anti-theft system may be implemented that has the potential to reduce major portable computer device theft in institutions of digitized learning.

  11. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    and thickness-modulated gold strips different waveguide components including reflecting gratings can be realized. For applications where polarization is random or changing, metal nanowire waveguides are shown to be suitable candidates for efficient guiding of arbitrary polarized light. Plasmonic waveguides...

  12. Electrochemical hydride generation as a sample-introduction technique in atomic spectrometry: fundamentals, interferences, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Francisco; Bolea, Eduardo; Castillo, Juan R

    2007-06-01

    Electrochemical hydride generation (EC-HG) has been proposed as a valid alternative to chemical generation as a sample-introduction technique in atomic spectrometry. In this review fundamental aspects of the technique are revised, including designs of electrolytic cells, mechanisms of the generation process, and interferences caused by the presence of different species. Special attention is paid to the role of the configuration of the cathodes and their materials on the efficiency of hydride generation and on interferences from concomitant species. An overview of the application of EC-HG to the analysis of real samples is also given.

  13. Novel membrane-based electrochemical sensor for real-time bio-applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya; Dimaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    experiments showed that the membrane-sensor was suitable as a cell culturing substrate for bio-applications. Real-time measurements of dopamine exocytosis in cell cultures were performed, where the transmitter release was recorded at the point of release. The developed membrane-sensor provides a new......This article presents a novel membrane-based sensor for real-time electrochemical investigations of cellular- or tissue cultures. The membrane sensor enables recording of electrical signals from a cell culture without any signal dilution, thus avoiding loss of sensitivity. Moreover, the porosity...

  14. Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Aqueous Sodium Halide Electrolytes toward Low Oxygen Content Graphene for Energy and Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Enterría, M; Pagán, A; Villar-Rodil, S; Pereira, M F R; Martins, J I; Figueiredo, J L; Cenis, J L; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2017-07-19

    Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte. Contrary to previous conflicting reports on the ability of halide anions to act as efficient exfoliating electrolytes in electrochemical graphene exfoliation, we show that proper choice of both graphite electrode (e.g., graphite foil) and sodium halide concentration readily leads to the generation of large quantities of single-/few-layer graphene nanosheets possessing a degree of oxidation (O/C ratio down to ∼0.06) lower than that typical of anodically exfoliated graphenes obtained with commonly used electrolytes. The halide anions are thought to play a role in mitigating the oxidation of the graphene lattice during exfoliation, which is also discussed and rationalized. The as-exfoliated graphene materials exhibited a three-dimensional morphology that was suitable for their practical use without the need to resort to any kind of postproduction processing. When tested as dye adsorbents, they outperformed many previously reported graphene-based materials (e.g., they adsorbed ∼920 mg g -1 for methyl orange) and were useful sorbents for oils and nonpolar organic solvents. Supercapacitor cells assembled directly from the as-exfoliated products delivered energy and power density values (up to 15.3 Wh kg -1 and 3220 W kg -1 , respectively) competitive with those of many other graphene-based devices but with the additional advantage of extreme simplicity of preparation.

  15. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefeni, Kebede K.; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  16. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  17. Clay-Inspired MXene-Based Electrochemical Devices and Photo-Electrocatalyst: State-of-the-Art Progresses and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hou; Wu, Yan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Xin; Chew, Jia Wei

    2018-03-01

    MXene, an important and increasingly popular category of postgraphene 2D nanomaterials, has been rigorously investigated since early 2011 because of advantages including flexible tunability in element composition, hydrophobicity, metallic nature, unique in-plane anisotropic structure, high charge-carrier mobility, tunable band gap, and favorable optical and mechanical properties. To fully exploit these potentials and further expand beyond the existing boundaries, novel functional nanostructures spanning monolayer, multilayer, nanoparticles, and composites have been developed by means of intercalation, delamination, functionalization, hybridization, among others. Undeniably, the cutting-edge developments and applications of clay-inspired 2D MXene platform as electrochemical electrode or photo-electrocatalyst have conferred superior performance and have made significant impact in the field of energy and advanced catalysis. This review provides an overview of the fundamental properties and synthesis routes of pure MXene, functionalized MXene and their hybrids, highlights the state-of-the-art progresses of MXene-based applications with respect to supercapacitors, batteries, electrocatalysis and photocatalysis, and presents the challenges and prospects in the burgeoning field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrochemical Detection of p-Aminophenol by Flexible Devices Based on Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Electrochemically Modified Nafion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Scandurra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A conducting composite prepared by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs into a host matrix consisting of Nafion, electrochemically doped with copper, has been prepared, characterized and used to modify one of the gold electrodes of simply designed electrochemical cells having copier grade transparency sheets as substrates. Electrical measurements performed in deionized water show that the Au/Nafion/Au-MWCNTs–Nafion:Cu cells can be successfully used in order to detect the presence of p-aminophenol (PAP in water, without the need for any supporting electrolyte. The intensity of the redox peaks arising when PAP is added to deionized water is found to be linearly related to the analyte in the range from 0.2 to 1.6 µM, with a detection limit of 90 nM and a sensitivity of 7 µA·(µM−1·cm−2.

  19. Multijet atmospheric plasma device for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Hubička, Zdeněk; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-141 ISSN 1947-5764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * plasma sources * biomedical applications Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Electrochemical co-reduction synthesis of graphene/nano-gold composites and its application to electrochemical glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene/nano-Au composite was synthesized by electrochemical co-reduction method in one step. • Glucose oxidase achieves direct electrochemistry on the graphene/nano-Au composite film. • The glucose biosensor shows a high sensitivity of 56.93 μA mM −1 cm −2 toward glucose. • Glucose was detected with a wide linear range and low detection limit. - Abstract: A simple, green and controllable approach was employed for electrochemical synthesize of the graphene/nano-Au composites. The process was that graphene oxide and HAuCl 4 was electrochemically co-reduced onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry in one step. The obtained graphene/nano-Au/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 , which resulted in a remarkable decrease in the overpotential of H 2 O 2 electrochemical oxidation compared with bare GCE. Such electrocatalytic behavior of the graphene/nano-Au/GCE permitted effective low-potential amperometric biosensing of glucose via the incorporation of glucose oxidase (GOD) with graphene/nano-Au. An obvious advantage of this enzyme electrode (graphene/nano-Au/GOD/GCE) was that the graphene/nano-Au nanocomposites provided a favorable microenvironment for GOD and facilitated the electron transfer between the active center of GOD and electrode. The immobilized GOD showed a direct, reversible redox reaction. Furthermore, the graphene/nano-Au/GOD/GCE was used as a glucose biosensor, displaying a low detection limit of 17 μM (S/N = 3), a high sensitivity of 56.93 μA mM −1 cm −2 , acceptable reproducibility, very good stability, selectivity and anti-interference ability

  1. Structural and electrochemical investigation of waste newspaper based electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinaveen T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus to develop renewable energy storage and conversion technologies to replace fossil fuel energy for sustainable development. Currently, the development of high performance energy storage and conversion devices is an important step on the road to alternative energy technologies. With a special focus on the upgradation of waste to valuable energy, this paper presents an effective synthetic method that utilizes waste newspapers as the precursor to prepare the activated carbon electrodes by the pyrolysis and chemical activation processes. The amorphous nature and surface morphology of the carbon samples were confirmed by XRD and SEM analysis, respectively. Activated waste newspaper carbon (AWNP showed good electrochemical properties at 800 °C and its specific capacitance at a scan rate of 2 mV/s was found to be 380 F/g. It is important to mention that the source of the raw material is cost effective and suitable for green technology.

  2. Design and fabrication of nanoelectrodes for applications with scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Rahul

    strategy to fabricate parylene based carbon electrodes Here, we have developed a unique strategy to obtain carbon based nanoelectrodes from vapor deposition of parylene over pulled glass nanopipettes. With this approach, multiple electrode geometries were constructed and the application of individual geomtery with SECM is demonstrated. In particular, enhanced spatial resolution and electrochemical information were obtained with the use of carbon ring/nanopore electrodes. Practical implications of edge-effects observed with carbon ring/nanopore electrodes is discussed with substrate generation tip collection (SG/TC) SECM Carbon ring/nanopore electrodes have also enabled the use of SECM in conjunction with ion conductance microscopy to alleviate the issue of poor feedback response. This has further helped in deconvolution of electrochemcial and topographical signals. Although, use of carbon nanoelectrodes is discussed with specific applications to electrochemcial microscopy, these probes have wide utility in electroanalytical applications. Initial proof-of-concept experiments along with future directions for this work are presented.

  3. On iris detection for mobile device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdi A.; Sarkis, Michel; Bi, Ning; Zhong, Xin; Qi, Yingyong

    2014-09-01

    A novel transform called Gradient Direction Transform for fast detection of naturally curved items in digital images is described in this article. This general purpose image transform is defined to suit platforms with limited memory and processing footprints by utilizing only additions and simple shift and bitwise operations. We present this unique algorithmic approach in application to real world problems of iris detection. The new approach is tested on a large data set and the experiments show promising and superior performance compared to existing techniques.

  4. Doped oxide nanoarchitectures for device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, O.; Railean, S.; Sontea, V.; Pocaznoi, I.; Chow, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We present an experimental approach to study magnesium and cadmium-alloyed zinc oxide nanorods and their integration in wavelength-tunable light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Doped zinc oxide were deposited on p-GaN substrates. Low-dimensional ternary structures have been obtained for magnesium sulfate, cadmium chloride concentration in the deposition bath. Accordingly to SEM observations the cadmium-alloyed zinc oxide have a nanorod morphology. Structural analyses demonstrate that the zinc oxide nanomaterial is doped with the magnesium or cadmium incorporated within ZnO nanorods. Reported results are of great importance for wavelength-tunable LED and nanosensors applications. (authors)

  5. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  6. Understanding surveillance technologies spy devices, their origins & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2001-01-01

    From electronic wire taps to baby monitors and long-distance video and listening devices, startling changes occur everyday in how we gather, interpret, and transmit information. An extraordinary range of powerful new technologies has come into existence to meet the requirements of this expanding field.Your search for a comprehensive resource for surveillance devices is over. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Their Origins and Applications serves as a provocative, broad-based, and visually appealing reference that introduces and describes the technologies rapidly moving into

  7. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO₂ micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO₂ nanostructures via different strategies...

  8. Material Characterization in the Electro-Analytic Approach for Applications in Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Electrochemical Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Simon E.

    The work presented in this thesis covers electro-analytical characterization for multiple applications in material science. Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate soluble film formation on metals used in chemical mechanical planarization in order to better understand the removal rate process by studying new chemicals proposed by groups in industry. Second, an ionic liquid was used as an electrolyte in a lithium ion cathode half cell to show the essential functionality of the IL and the temperature advantage over traditional electrolytes. Lastly, a comprehensive measurement for charge recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells was performed using both open-circuit voltage decay and impedance spectroscopy, which may be used to better understand the limiting factors that affect the cell's efficiently. Electrochemical techniques were applied to new methods and materials to extend the development of material manufacturing and advance the measurement process. The fabrication of interconnect structures for semiconductor devices requires low down-pressure chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of Ta barrier layers. Guanidine carbonate (GC) serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for such CMP applications, where the rate of Ta removal can be chemically controlled through pH-tuned selectivity with respect to the removal of Cu lines. Electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study the surface-modifying roles of GC that make this chemical an attractive complexing agent for Ta CMP. In addition, the effects of including H2O2 (an oxidizer) and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA, a dissolution inhibitor for Cu) in GC-based CMP solutions are investigated to examine the selective CMP mechanisms of Ta and Cu in these solutions. The results suggest that the removal of Ta is supported in part by structurally weak guanidinium-tantalic-acid surface complexes formed on Ta/Ta2O5. The bicarbonate/carbonate anions of GC also facilitate Ta removal through

  9. Modifying the photoelectric behavior of bacteriorhodopsin by site-directed mutagenesis: electrochemical and genetic engineering approaches to molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F. T.; Hong, F. H.; Needleman, R. B.; Ni, B.; Chang, M.

    1992-07-01

    Bacteriorhodopsins (bR's) modified by substitution of the chromophore with synthetic vitamin A analogues or by spontaneous mutation have been reported as successful examples of using biomaterials to construct molecular optoelectronic devices. The operation of these devices depends on desirable optical properties derived from molecular engineering. This report examines the effect of site-directed mutagenesis on the photoelectric behavior of bR thin films with an emphasis on their application to the construction of molecular devices based on their unique photoelectric behavior. We examine the photoelectric signals induced by a microsecond light pulse in thin films which contain reconstituted oriented purple membrane sheets isolated from several mutant strains of Halobacterium halobium. A recently developed expression system is used to synthesize mutant bR's in their natural host, H. halobium. We then use a unique analytical method (tunable voltage clamp method) to investigate the effect of pH on the relaxation of two components of the photoelectric signals, B1 and B2. We found that for the four mutant bR's examined, the pH dependence of the B2 component varies significantly. Our results suggest that genetic engineering approaches can produce mutant bR's with altered photoelectric characteristics that can be exploited in the construction of devices.

  10. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  11. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ranjan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.

  12. Physical and electrochemical properties of quaternary ammonium bis(oxalato)borates and their application to electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanbu, Noritoshi [Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)]. E-mail: nanbu@nano.t-kougei.ac.jp; Ebina, Takahito [Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University , 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan); Uno, Hiroyuki [Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan); Ishizawa, Saki [Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan); Sasaki, Yukio [Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    The use of nonhalogenated electrolyte salts for electrochemical devices is very important from the point of view of safety and cost. We have investigated the physical and electrochemical properties of a series of quaternary ammonium bis(oxalato)borates (QABOBs) and the performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). The mass and van der Waals volume of BOB{sup -} are higher and larger than those of BF{sub 4} {sup -}. The mass densities, viscosities, and surface tensions of propylene carbonate (PC) solutions containing the QABOBs are higher than those obtained for tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}), and the electric conductivities become lower. However, the electrochemical voltage windows measured with an activated carbon electrode and the gravimetric capacitances of 2025-type coin cells are comparable to those obtained for the PC solutions containing the TEABF{sub 4}.

  13. Synthesis of free-standing metal sulfide nanoarrays via anion exchange reaction and their electrochemical energy storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Zhu, Changrong; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Ng, Chin Fan; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-02-26

    Metal sulfides are an emerging class of high-performance electrode materials for solar cells and electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, a facile and powerful method based on anion exchange reactions is reported to achieve metal sulfide nanoarrays through a topotactical transformation from their metal oxide and hydroxide preforms. Demonstrations are made to CoS and NiS nanowires, nanowalls, and core-branch nanotrees on carbon cloth and nickel foam substrates. The sulfide nanoarrays exhibit superior redox reactivity for electrochemical energy storage. The self-supported CoS nanowire arrays are tested as the pseudo-capacitor cathode, which demonstrate enhanced high-rate specific capacities and better cycle life as compared to the powder counterparts. The outstanding electrochemical properties of the sulfide nanoarrays are a consequence of the preservation of the nanoarray architecture and rigid connection with the current collector after the anion exchange reactions.

  14. Guided-wave acousto-optic devices for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, C.; Peluso, F.; Armenise, M. N.

    2005-09-01

    Production of high- performance and low-cost new devices to be used in space applications is strongly required due to the remarkable development of innovative technologies in the last few years. Guided-wave optoelectronics technologies, including integrated optics, acousto-optics and electro-optics can provide some significant benefits to the space applications. In particular, they can overcome the intrinsic limits of the conventional technologies improving also the cost/performance figures, and enabling new services. Earth observation, telecommunications, radar surveillance and navigation control are the main space areas where guided-wave devices can contribute significantly. In this paper, after some general considerations on the potential of optoelectronics for space, on the use of acousto-optic guided-wave devices, a brief description of the acousto-optic interaction is given. Some functional devices reported in literature having significant potential impact in space applications are described with the aim of highlighting the main features of the acousto-optic technology. The performance limits of guided-wave devices for space applications are also shortly discussed.

  15. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    The accomplishments and technology progressmade during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 05NT42403 (duration: July 11, 2005 through April 30, 2014, funded for $125 million in cost- shared research) are summarized in this Final Technical Report for a total of thirty-seven (37) collaborative programs organized by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, LLC (USABC). The USABC is a partnership, formed in 1991, between the three U.S. domestic automakers Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The USABC provides a unique opportunity for developers to leverage their resources in combination with those of the automotive industry and the Federal government. This type of pre-competitive cooperation minimizes duplication of effort and risk of failure, and maximizes the benefits to the public of the government funds. A major goal of this program is to promote advanced battery development that can lead to commercialization within the domestic, and as appropriate, the foreign battery industry. A further goal of this program is to maintain a consortium that engages the battery manufacturers with the automobile manufacturers and other key stakeholders, universities, the National Laboratories, and manufacturers and developers that supply critical materials and components to the battery industry. Typically, the USABC defines and establishes consensus goals, conducts pre-competitive, vehicle-related research and development (R&D) in advanced battery technology. The R&D carried out by the USABC is an integral part of the DOE’s effort to develop advanced transportation technologies that will significantly improve fuel economy, comply with projected emissions and safety regulations, and use domestically produced fuels. The USABC advanced battery development plan has the following three focus areas: 1. Existing technology

  16. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  17. Electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Column design, retention processes, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, En -Yi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    This work describes the continued development of a new separation technique, electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), from column design, retention mechanisms to pharmaceutical applications. The introduction section provides a literature review of the technique as well as a brief overview of the research in each of the chapters. This section is followed by four chapters which investigate the issues of EMLC column design, the retention mechanism of monosubstituted aromatic compounds, and the EMLC-based applications to two important classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., corticosteroids and benzodiazepines). These four sections have been removed to process separately for inclusion on the database. The dissertation concludes with a general summary, a prospectus, and a list of references cited in the General Introduction. 32 refs.

  18. Investigation of band structure and electrochemical properties of h-BN/rGO composites for asymmetric supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sanjit; Jana, Milan; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh C. [Surface Engineering & Tribology Division, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CMERI Campus, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Kim, Nam H. [Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global), Dept. of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering & Tribology Division, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CMERI Campus, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Lee, Joong H., E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global), Dept. of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Carbon Composite Research Centre, Department of Polymer & Nanoscience and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    The effect of different content of graphene oxide (GO) on the electrical and electrochemical property of h-BN/reduced GO (rGO) hetero-structure is investigated elaborately. The increasing amount of rGO within the h-BN moiety plays fascinating role by reducing the electronic work function while increasing the density of state of the electrode. Furthermore, different h-BN/rGO architecture shows different potential window and the transition from pseudocapacitance to electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is observed with increasing π-conjugation of C atoms. The rod like h-BN is aligned as sheet while forming super-lattice with rGO. Transmission electron microscopy images show crystalline morphology of the hetero-structure super-lattice. The valance band and Mott-Shotky relationship determined from Mott-Shotky X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the electronic band structure of super-lattice is improved as compared to the insulating h-BN. The h-BN/rGO super-lattice provides high specific capacitance of ∼960 F g{sup −1}. An asymmetric device configured with h-BN/rGO super-lattice and B, N doped rGO shows very high energy and power density of 73 W h kg{sup −1} and 14,000 W kg{sup −1}, respectively. Furthermore, very low relaxation time constant of ∼1.6 ms and high stability (∼80%) after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles ensure the h-BN/rGO super-lattice as potential materials for the next generation energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Band gap energy of boron nitride decreased with increasing graphene oxide content. • Graphene oxide effectively affected the charge storage mechanism of the composite. • Morphology of boron nitride changed from rod to sheet while forming superlattice. • Highly conducting superlattice showed excellent supercapacitor performance. • Asymmetric device exhibited long stability with high energy and power density.

  19. Novel nanoarchitectures for electrochemical biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Michelle M.

    Sensitive, real-time detection of biomarkers is of critical importance for rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease for point-of-care (POC) technologies. Current methods, while sensitive, do not adequately allow for POC applications due to several limitations, including complex instrumentation, high reagent consumption, and cost. We have investigated two novel nanoarchitectures, the nanocoax and the nanodendrite, as electrochemical biosensors towards the POC detection of infectious disease biomarkers to overcome these limitations. The nanocoax architecture is composed of vertically-oriented, nanoscale coaxial electrodes, with coax cores and shields serving as integrated working and counter electrodes, respectively. The dendritic structure consists of metallic nanocrystals extending from the working electrode, increasing sensor surface area. Nanocoaxial- and nanodendritic-based electrochemical sensors were fabricated and developed for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT). Both nanoarchitectures exhibited levels of sensitivity that are comparable to the standard optical ELISA used widely in clinical applications. In addition to matching the detection profile of the standard ELISA, these electrochemical nanosensors provide a simple electrochemical readout and a miniaturized platform with multiplexing capabilities toward POC implementation. Further development as suggested in this thesis may lead to increases in sensitivity, enhancing the attractiveness of the architectures for future POC devices.

  20. Microarray of programmable electrochemically active elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. McCaskill, John; Maeke, Thomas; Straczek, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes possible applications of a two dimensional array of programmable electrochemically active elements to Alife. The array has been developed as part of the MICREA-gents project, and after several design phases, is now a mature enough device for general use beyond the project. He...

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO nanorods hetero-junction for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokade, A. V.; Rondiya, S. R.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D. [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, S. R., E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Development of high performance visible light responsive solar cell materials has attracted wide interest due to their potential applications in the energy industries. In this work, ZnO nanorods films were successfully prepared on the ITO coated glass substrates via simple three electrode electrochemical deposition route. The Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles were then electrodeposited on the surface of ZnO nanorods to form p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure. The synthesized ZnO, Cu{sub 2}O films and p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO hetero-structure were characterized by low angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Due to the hierarchical morphologies and core-shell structure, p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO hetero-structure shows a prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance under the low intensity light irradiation. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to synthesize ZnO nanorods, Cu{sub 2}O films and p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure by a simple, cost effective and environment friendly electrodeposition process which can be useful for water splitting and solar cell device fabrication.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of p-Cu2O/n-ZnO nanorods hetero-junction for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokade, A. V.; Rondiya, S. R.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Development of high performance visible light responsive solar cell materials has attracted wide interest due to their potential applications in the energy industries. In this work, ZnO nanorods films were successfully prepared on the ITO coated glass substrates via simple three electrode electrochemical deposition route. The Cu2O nanoparticles were then electrodeposited on the surface of ZnO nanorods to form p-Cu2O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure. The synthesized ZnO, Cu2O films and p-Cu2O/n-ZnO hetero-structure were characterized by low angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Due to the hierarchical morphologies and core-shell structure, p-Cu2O/n-ZnO hetero-structure shows a prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance under the low intensity light irradiation. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to synthesize ZnO nanorods, Cu2O films and p-Cu2O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure by a simple, cost effective and environment friendly electrodeposition process which can be useful for water splitting and solar cell device fabrication.

  3. Applied optics fundamentals and device applications nano, MOEMS, and biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Mentzer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    How does the field of optical engineering impact biotechnology? Perhaps for the first time, Applied Optics Fundamentals and Device Applications: Nano, MOEMS, and Biotechnology answers that question directly by integrating coverage of the many disciplines and applications involved in optical engineering, and then examining their applications in nanobiotechnology. Written by a senior U.S. Army research scientist and pioneer in the field of optical engineering, this book addresses the exponential growth in materials, applications, and cross-functional relevance of the many convergent disciplines

  4. Optimized fast mixing device for real-time NMR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rémi; Favier, Adrien; Schanda, Paul; Brutscher, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    We present an improved fast mixing device based on the rapid mixing of two solutions inside the NMR probe, as originally proposed by Hore and coworkers (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 12484-12492). Such a device is important for off-equilibrium studies of molecular kinetics by multidimensional real-time NMR spectrsocopy. The novelty of this device is that it allows removing the injector from the NMR detection volume after mixing, and thus provides good magnetic field homogeneity independently of the initial sample volume placed in the NMR probe. The apparatus is simple to build, inexpensive, and can be used without any hardware modification on any type of liquid-state NMR spectrometer. We demonstrate the performance of our fast mixing device in terms of improved magnetic field homogeneity, and show an application to the study of protein folding and the structural characterization of transiently populated folding intermediates.

  5. Photo-Enhanced Hydrogen Transport Technology for Clean Renewable Electrochemical Energy Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers are promising electrochemical devices for space and terrestrial applications due to their high power densities and clean...

  6. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2018-01-16

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  7. Organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Róisín M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  8. Colorimetric Characterization of Mobile Devices for Vision Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fez, Dolores; Luque, Maria José; García-Domene, Maria Carmen; Camps, Vicente; Piñero, David

    2016-01-01

    Available applications for vision testing in mobile devices usually do not include detailed setup instructions, sacrificing rigor to obtain portability and ease of use. In particular, colorimetric characterization processes are generally obviated. We show that different mobile devices differ also in colorimetric profile and that those differences limit the range of applications for which they are most adequate. The color reproduction characteristics of four mobile devices, two smartphones (Samsung Galaxy S4, iPhone 4s) and two tablets (Samsung Galaxy Tab 3, iPad 4), have been evaluated using two procedures: 3D LUT (Look Up Table) and a linear model assuming primary constancy and independence of the channels. The color reproduction errors have been computed with the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. There is good constancy of primaries but large deviations of additivity. The 3D LUT characterization yields smaller reproduction errors and dispersions for the Tab 3 and iPhone 4 devices, but for the iPad 4 and S4, both models are equally good. The smallest reproduction errors occur with both Apple devices, although the iPad 4 has the highest number of outliers of all devices with both colorimetric characterizations. Even though there is good constancy of primaries, the large deviations of additivity exhibited by the devices and the larger reproduction errors make any characterization based on channel independence not recommendable. The smartphone screens show, in average, the best color reproduction performance, particularly the iPhone 4, and therefore, they are more adequate for applications requiring precise color reproduction.

  9. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  10. Novel Membrane-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Bio-Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima AlZahra'a Alatraktchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel membrane-based sensor for real-time electrochemical investigations of cellular- or tissue cultures. The membrane sensor enables recording of electrical signals from a cell culture without any signal dilution, thus avoiding loss of sensitivity. Moreover, the porosity of the membrane provides optimal culturing conditions similar to existing culturing techniques allowing more efficient nutrient uptake and molecule release. The patterned sensor electrodes were fabricated on a porous membrane by electron-beam evaporation. The electrochemical performance of the membrane electrodes was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and the detection of synthetic dopamine was demonstrated down to a concentration of 3.1 pM. Furthermore, to present the membrane-sensor functionality the dopamine release from cultured PC12 cells was successfully measured. The PC12 cells culturing experiments showed that the membrane-sensor was suitable as a cell culturing substrate for bio-applications. Real-time measurements of dopamine exocytosis in cell cultures were performed, where the transmitter release was recorded at the point of release. The developed membrane-sensor provides a new functionality to the standard culturing methods, enabling sensitive continuous in vitro monitoring and closely mimicking the in vivo conditions.

  11. Application of a modified electrochemical system for surface decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Yang, H.Y.; Shin, S.W.; Song, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional and modified electrolytic decontamination experiments were performed in a solution of sodium sulfate for the decontamination of carbon steel as the simulated metal wastes which are generated in large amounts from nuclear power plants. The effect of reaction time, current density and concentration of electrolytes in the modified electrolytic decontamination system were examined to remove the surface contamination of the simulated radioactive metal wastes. As for the results of this research, the modified electrochemical decontamination process can decontaminate more effectively than the conventional decontamination process by applying different anode material which causes higher induced electro-motive forces. When 0.5 M sodium sulfate, 0.4 A/cm 2 current density and 30 minutes reaction time were applied in the modified process, a 16 μm thickness change that is expected to remove most surface contamination in radioactive metal wastes was achieved on carbon steel which is the main material of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants. The decontamination efficiency of metal waste showed similar results with the small and large lab-scale modified electrochemical system. The application of this modified electrolytic decontamination system is expected to play a considerable role for decontamination of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants in the near future. (author)

  12. Synthesis and Microstructural Characterization of Manganese Oxide Electrodes for Application as Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Banafsheh

    The aim of this thesis work was to synthesize Mn-based oxide electrodes with high surface area structures by anodic electrodeposition for application as electrochemical capacitors. Rod-like structures provide large surface areas leading to high specific capacitances. Since templated electrosynthesis of rods is not easy to use in practical applications, it is more desirable to form rod-like structures without using any templates. In this work, Mn oxide electrodes with rod-like structures (˜1.5 µm in diameter) were synthesized from a solution of 0.01 M Mn acetate under galvanostatic control without any templates, on Au coated Si substrates. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized nanocrystalline electrodes were investigated to determine the effect of morphology, chemistry and crystal structure on the corresponding electrochemical behavior of Mn oxide electrodes. Mn oxides prepared at different current densities showed a defective antifluoritetype crystal structure. The rod-like Mn oxide electrodes synthesized at low current densities (5 mAcm.2) exhibited a high specific capacitance due to their large surface areas. Also, specific capacity retention after 250 cycles in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na2SO4 at 100 mVs -1 was about 78% of the initial capacity (203 Fg-1 ). To improve the electrochemical capacitive behavior of Mn oxide electrodes, a sequential approach and a one-step method were adopted to synthesize Mn oxide/PEDOT electrodes through anodic deposition on Au coated Si substrates from aqueous solutions. In the former case, free standing Mn oxide rods (about 10 µm long and less than 1.5 µm in diameter) were first synthesized, then coated by electro-polymerization of a conducting polymer (PEDOT) giving coaxial rods. The one-step, co-electrodeposition method produced agglomerated Mn oxide/PEDOT particles. The electrochemical behavior of the deposits depended on the morphology and crystal structure of the fabricated electrodes, which were affected

  13. Room-temperature vertically-aligned copper oxide nanoblades synthesized by electrochemical restructuring of copper hydroxide nanorods: An electrode for high energy density hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Junya; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Abas, Asim; Su, Qing; Lan, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John)

    2018-04-01

    The fast growing of portable electronics has greatly stimulated the development of energy storage materials, such as transition metal oxides (TMOs). However, TMOs usually involve harsh synthesis conditions, such as high temperature. Here we take advantage of the metastable nature of Cu(OH)2 and grow CuO nanoblades (NBs) on Cu foam under the electric field at room temperature. The electrochemical polarization accelerates the dissolution of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, guides the deposition of the as-dissolved Cu(OH)42- species and eventually leads to the phase transformation of CuO NBs. The unique materials architecture render the vertically-aligned CuO NBs with enhanced electronic and ionic diffusion kinetics, high charge storage (∼779 mC cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), excellent rate capability and long-term cycling performances. Further matching with activated carbon electrode results in high-performance hybrid device, which displays a wide voltage window (1.7 V) in aqueous electrolyte, high energy density (0.17 mWh cm-2) and power density (34 mW cm-2) coupled with long lifetime, surpassing the best CuO based device known. The hybrid device can be randomly connected and power several light-emitting diodes. Importantly, such an electrochemical restructuring approach is cost-effective, environmentally green and universal, and can be extended to synthesize other metastable hydroxides to in-situ grow corresponding oxides.

  14. New innovative materials for advanced electrochemical applications in battery and fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, S.; Kollmann, H.; Kollmann, W.

    The advanced material POLYMET is an innovative high tech polymer with a three-dimensional polymeric structure metallized with an enclosing coating of different kinds of metals or alloys. The result is a range of tailor-made, microporous structures on a designable scale. By varying the metals and alloys, it is possible to draw upon extremely diverse areas of applications such as battery systems, fuel cells, filters or efficient catalysts as well as air regeneration systems, e.g. in aerospace. The three-dimensional structure of metallized high tech woven or non-woven materials or foams causes a lot of advantages such as high conductivity, high corrosion resistance, flexibility or mechanical strength. Therefore, POLYMET is suitable for, e.g. current collectors or gas diffusion layers in energy storage systems. They supply an economic and environmental alternative material to improve functional electrochemical systems.

  15. Graphene-zinc oxide (G-ZnO nanocomposite for electrochemical supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Saranya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites (G-ZnO were prepared by a facile solvothermal approach. Well, crystalline ZnO nanoparticles with size in the range of 30–70 nm are uniformly deposited on the graphene sheets, as evidenced by different techniques. The electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were examined by measuring the specific capacitance in 6 M KOH solution using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques. G-ZnO nanocomposites showed a good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 122.4 F/g as compared to graphene oxide (2.13 F/g and rGO (102.5 F/g at 5 mV/s scan rate. Results demonstrated that such hybrid materials are promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  16. Electrochemical estimation on the applicability of nickel plating to EAC problems in CRDM nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Si Hyoung; Hwang, Il Soon

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of nickel-plating to EAC problems in CRDM nozzle was estimated in the light of electrochemical aspect. The passive film growth law for nickel was improved to include oxide dissolution rate improving conventional point defect model to explain retarded passivation of plated nickel in PWR primary side water environment and compared with experimental data. According to this model, oxide growth and passivation current is closely related with oxide dissolution rate because steady state is made only if oxide formation and oxide destruction rate are same, from which oxide dissolution rate constant, k s , was quantitatively obtained utilizing experimental data. Commonly observed current-time behavior, i∝t m ,where m is different from 1 or 0.5, for passive film formation can be accounted for by virtue of enhanced oxide dissolution in high temperature aqueous environment

  17. On-site applicability of hydrogen peroxide producing microbial electrochemical cells (MECs) coupled with UV in wastewater disinfection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals wh...

  18. ON-SITE APPLICABILITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCING MICROBIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS COUPLED WITH UV IN WASTEWATER DISINFECTION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals when coupled w...

  19. An electrochemical approach: Switching Structures of rare earth metal Praseodymium hexacyanoferrate and its application to sulfite sensor in Red Wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, Balamurugan; Sivakumar, Mani; Chen, Shen Ming; Cheemalapati, Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nucleation and growth of PrHCF and its application to sulfite oxidation in wine samples. - Highlights: • Electrochemical synthesis of PrHCF. • Switching structures of PrHCF. • Sulfite electrochemical sensor. • Wide linear range and low limit of detection. • Real sample application. - Abstract: Herein, we report a shape-controlled preparation of Praseodymium hexacyanoferrate (PrHCF) using a simple electrochemical technique. The electrochemically fabricated PrHCF modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) shows an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards sulfite oxidation. The morphology of PrHCF particles were controlled by carefully changing various synthesis conditions including electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry, amperometry and chemical), cations in the supporting electrolyte (K + , Na + , Li + and H + ), deposition cycles, molar ratio of precursors, and applied potential (-.2,0 and 0.2 V). The morphologies of the PrHCF was elucidated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as-synthesized PrHCF was characterized using X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Infra-red (IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The electrochemical oxidation of sulfite on PrHCF modified GCE was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The sensitivity of the as-developed sulfite sensor was determined to be 0.036 μA μM −1 cm −2 . The low limit of detection was determined to be 2.15 μM. The real time application of PrHCF modified GCE was confirmed through the determination of sulfite from red wine and tap water samples

  20. Growth of 2D Materials and Application in Electrochemical Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Gonglan

    The discovery of graphene in 2004 has generated numerous interests among scientists for graphene's versatile potentials. The enthusiasm for graphene has recently been extended to other members of two-dimensional (2D) materials for applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. Different from graphene, atomically-thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have varied band gaps and would benefit for applications in the semiconductor industry. One of the promising applications of 2D TMDs is for 2D integrated circuits to replace current Si based electronics. In addition to electronic applications, 2D materials are also good candidates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion due to their large surface area and atomic thickness. This thesis mainly focuses on the synthesis of 2D materials and their application in energy conversion. Firstly, we focus on the synthesis of two-dimensional Tin Disulfide (SnS2). SnS2 is considered to be a novel material in 2D family. 2D SnS2 has a large band gap ( 2.8 eV) and high carrier mobility, which makes it a potential applicant for electronics. Monolayer SnS2 with large scale and high crystal quality was successfully synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and its performance as a photodetector was examined. The next chapter demonstrated a generic method for growing millimeter-scale single crystals as well as wafer-scale thin films of TMDs. This generic method was obtained by studying the precursors' behavior and the flow dynamics during the CVD process of growing MoSe2, and was extended to other TMD layers such as millimeter-scale WSe2 single crystals. Understanding the growth processes of high quality large area monolayers of TMDs is crucial for further fundamental research as well as future development for scalable complex electronics. Besides the synthesis of 2D materials with high qualities, we further explored the relationship between defects and electrochemical properties. By directly observing

  1. Biomedical Probes Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles for Electrochemical and Optical Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoh, Abdulhadee; Pinyorospathum, Chanika; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles usually provide novel and unique physical properties as their size approaches nanometer scale dimensions. The unique physical and optical properties of nanoparticles may lead to applications in a variety of areas, including biomedical detection. Therefore, current research is now increasingly focused on the use of the high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoparticles to fabricate superb chemical- or biosensors for various detection applications. This article highlights various kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, including metal nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and semiconductor nanoparticles that can be perceived as useful materials for biomedical probes and points to the outstanding results arising from their use in such probes. The progress in the use of inorganic nanoparticle-based electrochemical, colorimetric and spectrophotometric detection in recent applications, especially bioanalysis, and the main functions of inorganic nanoparticles in detection are reviewed. The article begins with a conceptual discussion of nanoparticles according to types, followed by numerous applications to analytes including biomolecules, disease markers, and pharmaceutical substances. Most of the references cited herein, dating from 2010 to 2015, generally mention one or more of the following characteristics: a low detection limit, good signal amplification and simultaneous detection capabilities. PMID:26343676

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of titanium coated stainless steel by r.f. sputtering in synthetic sweat solutions for electrode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, C.; Vaz, F.; Barbosa, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The r.f. sputtering technique was used to deposit titanium thin films on stainless steel substrates, aiming at the application of the coated samples as skin contact materials for 'dry' active electrodes. In this work the electrochemical behaviour of the coated samples was investigated in synthetic sweat solutions and their performance was compared with that of uncoated stainless steel and bulk titanium. The characterisation of the samples was carried out by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The coated samples displayed corrosion resistance values in synthetic sweat solutions much higher than stainless steel samples and of the same order of the values measured for bulk titanium in the same conditions

  3. Alignment technology and applications of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takatoh, Kohki; Hasegawa, Ray; Koden, Mitsushiro; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignme...

  4. Evaluating the trade-off between mechanical and electrochemical performance of separators for lithium-ion batteries: Methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaimer, Martin; Breitfuß, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang; Heindl, Simon F.; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Steffan, Hermann; Wilkening, Martin; Hennige, Volker; Tatschl, Reinhard; Geier, Alexander; Schramm, Christian; Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are in widespread use in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Besides features like energy density, cost, lifetime, and recyclability the safety of a battery system is of prime importance. The separator material impacts all these properties and requires therefore an informed selection. The interplay between the mechanical and electrochemical properties as key selection criteria is investigated. Mechanical properties were investigated using tensile and puncture penetration tests at abuse relevant conditions. To investigate the electrochemical performance in terms of effective conductivity a method based on impedance spectroscopy was introduced. This methodology is applied to evaluate ten commercial separators which allows for a trade-off analysis of mechanical versus electrochemical performance. Based on the results, and in combination with other factors, this offers an effective approach to select suitable separators for automotive applications.

  5. Design and Electrochemical Study of Platinum-Based Nanomaterials for Sensitive Detection of Nitric Oxide in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maduraiveeran Govindhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The extensive physiological and regulatory roles of nitric oxide (NO have spurred the development of NO sensors, which are of critical importance in neuroscience and various medical applications. The development of electrochemical NO sensors is of significant importance, and has garnered a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, rapid response, low cost, miniaturization, and the possibility of real-time monitoring. Nanostructured platinum (Pt-based materials have attracted considerable interest regarding their use in the design of electrochemical sensors for the detection of NO, due to their unique properties and the potential for new and innovative applications. This review focuses primarily on advances and insights into the utilization of nanostructured Pt-based electrode materials, such as nanoporous Pt, Pt and PtAu nanoparticles, PtAu nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (rGO, and PtW nanoparticle/rGO-ionic liquid (IL nanocomposites, for the detection of NO. The design, fabrication, characterization, and integration of electrochemical NO sensing performance, selectivity, and durability are addressed. The attractive electrochemical properties of Pt-based nanomaterials have great potential for increasing the competitiveness of these new sensors and open up new opportunities in the creation of novel NO-sensing technologies for biological and medical applications.

  6. Hierarchically structured carbon-based composites: Design, synthesis and their application in electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C Z; Gao, B; Shen, L F; Yang, S D; Hao, L; Lu, X J; Zhang, F; Zhang, L J; Zhang, X G

    2011-02-01

    This feature article provides an overview of the recent research progress on the hierarchically structured carbon-based composites for electrochemical capacitors. The basic principles of electrochemical capacitors, and the design, construction and performance of hierarchically structured carbon-based composites electrode materials with good ions and electron transportation and large specific surface area are discussed. The trend of future development of high-power and large-energy electrochemical capacitors is proposed.

  7. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias

    2012-07-21

    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  8. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction: devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2004-10-20

    An overview of a new extraction technique called focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction (FMASE) is here presented. This technique is based on the same principles as conventional Soxhlet extraction but using microwaves as auxiliary energy to accelerate the process. The different devices designed and constructed so far, their advantages and limitations as well as their main applications on environmental and food analysis are discussed in this article.

  9. Novel Dilute Bismide, Epitaxy, Physical Properties and Device Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dilute bismide in which a small amount of bismuth is incorporated to host III-Vs is the least studied III-V compound semiconductor and has received steadily increasing attention since 2000. In this paper, we review theoretical predictions of physical properties of bismide alloys, epitaxial growth of bismide thin films and nanostructures, surface, structural, electric, transport and optic properties of various binaries and bismide alloys, and device applications.

  10. Investigation of disorder and its effect on electrical transport in electrochemically doped polymer devices by current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Khan, Motiur; Anjaneyulu, P.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.; Menon, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics and impedance measurements of electrochemically doped poly(3-methylthiophene) devices at different doping levels. The extent of doping is carefully tailored such that only the bulk-limited transport mechanism prevails. A transition from exponentially distributed trap-limited transport to trap-free space-charge-limited current is observed in current-voltage conduction upon increasing the doping. The obtained trap densities (3.2  ×  1016 cm-3 and 8.6  ×  1015 cm-3) and trap energies (31.7 meV and 16.6 meV) for different devices signify the variation in disorder with doping, which is later supported by impedance measurements. Impedance-frequency data for various devices can not be explained using the parallel resistance-capacitance (RC) model in the equivalent circuit. However, this was established by incorporating a constant phase element Q (CPE) instead of the capacitance parameter. It should be emphasized that low doping devices in particular are best simulated with two CPE elements, while the data related to other devices are fitted well with a single CPE element. It is also observed from evaluated circuit parameters that the spatial inhomogeneity and disorder are the cause of variability in different samples, which has an excellent correlation with the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics.

  11. Investigation of disorder and its effect on electrical transport in electrochemically doped polymer devices by current–voltage and impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Motiur Rahman; Koteswara Rao, K S R; Menon, R; Anjaneyulu, P

    2017-01-01

    We report on the analysis of temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics and impedance measurements of electrochemically doped poly(3-methylthiophene) devices at different doping levels. The extent of doping is carefully tailored such that only the bulk-limited transport mechanism prevails. A transition from exponentially distributed trap-limited transport to trap-free space-charge-limited current is observed in current–voltage conduction upon increasing the doping. The obtained trap densities (3.2  ×  10 16 cm −3 and 8.6  ×  10 15 cm −3 ) and trap energies (31.7 meV and 16.6 meV) for different devices signify the variation in disorder with doping, which is later supported by impedance measurements. Impedance–frequency data for various devices can not be explained using the parallel resistance–capacitance ( RC ) model in the equivalent circuit. However, this was established by incorporating a constant phase element Q (CPE) instead of the capacitance parameter. It should be emphasized that low doping devices in particular are best simulated with two CPE elements, while the data related to other devices are fitted well with a single CPE element. It is also observed from evaluated circuit parameters that the spatial inhomogeneity and disorder are the cause of variability in different samples, which has an excellent correlation with the temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics. (paper)

  12. Optoelectronic devices product assurance guideline for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, A.; Vanzi, M.

    2017-11-01

    New opportunities are emerging for the implementation of hardware sub-systems based on OptoElectronic Devices (OED) for space application. Since the end of this decade the main players for space systems namely designers and users including Industries, Agencies, Manufacturers and Laboratories are strongly demanding of adequate strategies to qualify and validate new optoelectronics products and sub-systems [1]. The long term space application mission will require to address either inter-satellite link (free space communication, positioning systems, tracking) or intra-satellite connectivity/flexibility/reconfigurability or high volume of data transfer between equipment installed into payload.

  13. Wonder of nanotechnology quantum optoelectronic devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Razeghi, Manijeh; von Klitzing, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    When you look closely, Nature is nanotechnology at its finest. From a single cell, a factory all by itself, to complex systems, such as the nervous system or the human eye, each is composed of specialized nanostructures that exist to perform a specific function. This same beauty can be mirrored when we interact with the tiny physical world that is the realm of quantum mechanics.The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Leo Esaki, and Klaus von Klitzing focuses on the application of nanotechnology to modern semiconductor optoelectr

  14. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  15. Pseudocapacitive oxide materials for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Augustyn, Veronica; Simon, Patrice; Dunn, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Electrochemical energy storage technology is based on devices capable of exhibiting high energy density (batteries) or high power density (electrochemical capacitors). There is a growing need, for current andnear-future applications, where both high energy and high power densities are required in the same material. Pseudocapacitance, a faradaic process involving surface or near surface redox reactions, offers a means of achieving high energy density at high charge–disc...

  16. Solid state electrochemical composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  17. A stand-alone tidal prediction application for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Han; Fan, Ren-Ye; Yang, Yi-Chung

    2017-04-01

    It is essential for people conducting fishing, leisure, or research activities at the coasts to have timely and handy tidal information. Although tidal information can be found easily on the internet or using mobile device applications, this information is all applicable for only certain specific locations, not anywhere on the coast, and they need an internet connection. We have developed an application for Android devices, which allows the user to obtain hourly tidal height anywhere on the coast for the next 24 hours without having to have any internet connection. All the necessary information needed for the tidal height calculation is stored in the application. To develop this application, we first simulate tides in the Taiwan Sea using the hydrodynamic model (MIKE21 HD) developed by the DHI. The simulation domain covers the whole coast of Taiwan and the surrounding seas with a grid size of 1 km by 1 km. This grid size allows us to calculate tides with high spatial resolution. The boundary conditions for the simulation domain were obtained from the Tidal Model Driver of the Oregon State University, using its tidal constants of eight constituents: M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, and Q1. The simulation calculates tides for 183 days so that the tidal constants for the above eight constituents of each water grid can be extracted by harmonic analysis. Using the calculated tidal constants, we can predict the tides in each grid of our simulation domain, which is useful when one needs the tidal information for any location in the Taiwan Sea. However, for the mobile application, we only store the eight tidal constants for the water grids on the coast. Once the user activates the application, it reads the longitude and latitude from the GPS sensor in the mobile device and finds the nearest coastal grid which has our tidal constants. Then, the application calculates tidal height variation based on the harmonic analysis. The application also allows the user to input location and

  18. Electrochemical and electromechanical properties of fully hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for applications in biomimetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassil, M; El Tahchi, M; Souaid, E; Azzi, G; Nabbout, R; Davenas, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of fully hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PAAM) hydrogel for applications in biomimetics. We present an analysis of the motion of actuators based on PAAM hydrogel in order to obtain the elementary background needed for the design of actuating devices based on this material, which has a high compatibility with living tissues. The gel properties are investigated, the electroactivity of the hydrogel is shown and a qualitative–quantitative study demonstrating the basics of motion of such actuators is presented

  19. Application of molybdenum and phosphate modified kaolin in electrochemical treatment of paper mill wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp and paper mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. The electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater catalyzed by molybdenum and phosphate (Mo-P) modified kaolin with graphite as anode and cathode was investigated. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and SEM spectra and the effects of pH, metal ion and introduction of NaCl on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found out that the modified kaolin loaded with Fe 3+ had higher electrochemical catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of paper mill wastewater at pH 4. A 96% COD removal efficiency was obtained in 40 min of electrochemical treatment of the wastewater at current density 30 mA cm -2 . A possible mechanism for degradation of the mill wastewater constituents was also proposed

  20. An application for delivering field results to mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, A.; Hloupis, G.; Vallianatos, F.; Rust, D.

    2009-04-01

    Mobile devices (MD) such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and Smartphones expand the ability of Internet communication between remote users. In particular these devices have the possibility to interact with data centres in order to request and receive information. For field surveys MDs used primarily for controlling instruments (in case of field measurements) or for entering data needed for later processing (e.g damage description after a natural hazard). It is not unusual in areas with high interest combined measurements took place. The results from these measurements usually stored in data servers and their publicity is driven mainly by web-based applications. Here we present a client / server application capable of displaying the results of several measurements for a specific area to a MD. More specific, we develop an application than can present to the screen of the MD the results of existing measurements according to the position of the user. The server side hosted at data centre and uses a relational data base (including the results), a SMS/MMS gateway and a receiver daemon application waiting for messages from MDs. The client side runs on MD and is a simple menu driven application which asks the user to enter the type of requested data and the geographical coordinates. In case of embedded GPS receiver, coordinates automatically derived from the receiver. Then a message is sent to server which responds with the results. In case of absence of Internet communication the application can switched to common Short/Multimedia Messaging Systems: the client request data using SMS and the server responds with MMS. We demonstrate the application using results from TEM, VES and HVSR measurements Acknowledgements Work of authors AK, GH and FV is partially supported by the EU-FP6-SSA in the frame of project "CYCLOPS: CYber-Infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS"

  1. Synthesis of highly stable sub-8 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and their multilayer electrodes of TiO2/MWNT for electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Gallant, Betar M; Shah, Nisarg J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2013-10-09

    Next-generation electrochemical energy storage for integrated microsystems and consumer electronic devices requires novel electrode materials with engineered architectures to meet the requirements of high performance, low cost, and robustness. However, conventional electrode fabrication processes such as doctor blading afford limited control over the electrode thickness and structure at the nanoscale and require the incorporation of insulating binder and other additives, which can promote agglomeration and reduce active surface area, limiting the inherent advantages attainable from nanoscale materials. We have engineered a route for the synthesis of highly stable, sub-8 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and their subsequent incorporation with acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into nanostructured electrodes using aqueous-based layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly. Using this approach, binder-free thin film electrodes with highly controllable thicknesses up to the micrometer scale were developed with well-dispersed, nonagglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles on MWNTs. Upon testing in an Li electrochemical half-cell, these electrodes demonstrate high capacity (>150 mAh/gel(ectrode) at 0.1 A/gel(ectrode)), good rate capability (>100 mAh/gel(ectrode) up to 1 A/g(electrode)) and nearly no capacity loss up to 200 cycles for electrodes with thicknesses up to 1480 nm, indicating their promise as thin-film negative electrodes for future Li storage applications.

  2. Application of Corrosion Test for Austenitic SS 304 in PWR with Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Seok; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2011-01-01

    and coolant water. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance is a new electrochemical technique developed in recent years able to be applied to study the filming kinetics of corrosion phenomena using piezoelectric effect. The high sensitivity of EQCM is the basis for its applications in thin film studies. In addition, interfacial process can be measured with the exact time scale depending on the frequency counter used. The purpose of this study is to understand the corrosion inhibition mechanisms of pitting corrosion for stainless steel 304 using inhibitor based on phosphoric acid and to contribute the application of corrosion test by EQCM techniques for corrosion research of steam condenser tube exposed of seawater coolant in the secondary system of NPP

  3. Applications of Si/SiGe heterostructures to CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    For more than two decades, advances in MOSFETs used in CMOS VLSI applications have been made through scaling to ever smaller dimensions for higher packing density, faster circuit speed and lower power dissipation. As scaling now approaches nanometer regime, the challenge for further scaling becomes greater in terms of technology as well as device reliability. This work presents an alternative approach whereby non-selectively grown Si/SiGe heterostructure system is used to improve device performance or to relax the technological challenge. SiGe is considered to be of great potential because of its promising properties and its compatibility with Si, the present mainstream material in microelectronics. The advantages of introducing strained SiGe in CMOS technology are examined through two types of device structure. A novel structure has been fabricated in which strained SiGe is incorporated in the source/drain of P-MOSFETs. Several advantages of the Si/SiGe source/drain P-MOSFETs over Si devices are experimentally, demonstrated for the first time. These include reduction in off-state leakage and punchthrough susceptibility, degradation of parasitic bipolar transistor (PBT) action, suppression of CMOS latchup and suppression of PBT-induced breakdown. The improvements due to the Si/SiGe heterojunction are supported by numerical simulations. The second device structure makes use of Si/SiGe heterostructure as a buried channel to enhance the hole mobility of P-MOSFETs. The increase in the hole mobility will benefit the circuit speed and device packing density. Novel fabrication processes have been developed to integrate non-selective Si/SiGe MBE layers into self-aligned PMOS and CMOS processes based on Si substrate. Low temperature processes have been employed including the use of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition oxide and plasma anodic oxide. Low field mobilities, μ 0 are extracted from the transfer characteristics, Id-Vg of SiGe channel P-MOSFETs with various Ge

  4. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy, reduced graphene oxide (RGO, and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of PPy–RGO–nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au3+ in aqueous solution, a PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy–RGO–nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy–RGO–nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about −0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM–2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3 with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor.

  5. Synthesis of multilayered structure of nano-dimensional silica glass/reduced graphene oxide for advanced electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Miah, Milon; Majumder, Chinmoy; Bag, Shekhar; Chakravorty, Dipankar; Saha, Shyamal Kumar

    2018-03-28

    During the past few years, intensive research has been carried out to design new functional materials for superior electrochemical applications. Due to low storage capacity and low charge transport, silica based glasses have not yet been investigated for their supercapacitive behavior. Therefore, in the present study, a multilayered structure of silica-based nanoglass and reduced graphene oxide has been designed to remarkably enhance the specific capacitance by exploiting the porosity, large surface area, sufficient dangling bonds in the nanoglass and high electrical conductivity of rGO. The charge transport in the composite structure is also investigated to understand the electrochemical properties. It is found that Simmons tunneling or direct tunneling is the dominant mechanism of charge conduction between the graphene layers via the potential barrier of silica nanoglass phase. We believe that this study will open up a new area in the design of glass-based two-dimensional nanocomposites for superior supercapacitor applications.

  6. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2008-04-01

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement—MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.

  7. Solid-state electrochemical properties of oxygen-ion conducting ceramic materials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Young

    One of the primary objectives of this work was to develop a highly conductive and stable bilayer electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation, and for reduction of carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide in lower-temperature ceramic oxygen generators (COGS). Bilayer electrolytes were formed by depositing a thin and thick layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on samaria-doped ceria (SDC) substrates, via pulsed laser deposition and dip-coating techniques. Measurements of the conductivity of SDC coated with ESB exhibited slightly higher total conductance than SDC. The electro-motive force (EMF) measurements also showed a significant increase in open-circuit potential (OCP) and transference number (ti) with the bilayer structure, as compared to the cells with a single SDC electrolyte layer. Further, improvement in the OCP and ti of bilayer SOFCs was observed with increasing relative thickness of the ESB layers. The COGS with a novel bilayer ESB/SDC design were characterized to produce pure oxygen from CO2 at 400--700°C for potential use in NASA's manned Mars exploration mission. Major factors that influence oxygen generation include oxygen-ion conductivity of the solid-oxide electrolyte, applied electric potential, operating temperatures, and CO/CO2 ratios. Higher temperatures resulted in higher oxygen generation rates due to the reduced resistance of the electrolytes. However, oxygen production per watt power (power efficiency) decreased with increasing COG operating temperature. Hence, the bilayer ESB/SDC electrolytes showed promise for SOFCs and COGS at operation below 700°C, significantly reducing the power requirement, expanding ancillary material selection, and decreasing fabrication cost. The other objective of this study was to develop simple, cheap, and highly sensitive and selective electrochemical solid-state sensors for CO. Miniature yttria-stabilized zirconia potentiometric sensors, with various n-type, p

  8. Electrochemical characterization of FeMnO3 microspheres as potential material for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Ramachandran, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Ganesh, V.; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, uniform iron manganese trioxide (FeMnO3) microspheres were characterized as electrode for supercapacitor applications. The microspheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of different molar ratios of sucrose. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the obtained microsphere has body-centered lattice structure of space group 1213(199). The Raman peak observed at 640 cm-1 might be attributed to the stretching mode of vibration of Mn-O bonds perpendicular to the direction of MnO6 octahedral double chains. The photoluminescence peak at the 536 nm corresponded to Fe2+ ions in FeMnO3 lattice point of body-centered cubic structure. The characteristic strong infrared (IR) bands observed at 669 cm-1 corresponded to Fe-O stretching. The electrochemical characterization of the obtained FeMnO3 products could be understood by carrying out cyclic voltammeter, electroimpedance spectra, and galvanostatic charging and discharge studies in a three-cell setup that demonstrates the exceptional specific capacitance of 773.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and 763.4 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1.

  9. Investigation of Hemoglobin/Gold Nanoparticle Heterolayer on Micro-Gap for Electrochemical Biosensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we fabricated a hemoglobin/gold nanoparticle (Hb/GNP heterolayer immobilized on the Au micro-gap to confirm H2O2 detection with a signal-enhancement effect. The hemoglobin which contained the heme group catalyzed the reduction of H2O2. To facilitate the electron transfer between hemoglobin and Au micro-gap electrode, a gold nanoparticle was introduced. The Au micro-gap electrode that has gap size of 5 µm was fabricated by conventional photolithographic technique to locate working and counter electrodes oppositely in a single chip for the signal sensitivity and reliability. The hemoglobin was self-assembled onto the Au surface via chemical linker 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (6-MHA. Then, the gold nanoparticles were adsorbed onto hemoglobin/6-MHA heterolayers by the layer-by-layer (LbL method. The fabrication of the Hb/GNP heterolayer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The redox property and H2O2 detection of Hb/GNP on the micro-gap electrode was investigated by a cyclic voltammetry (CV experiment. Taken together, the present results show that the electrochemical signal-enhancement effect of a hemoglobin/nanoparticle heterolayer was well confirmed on the micro-scale electrode for biosensor applications.

  10. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  11. NIR-Selective electrochromic heteromaterial frameworks: a platform to understand mesoscale transport phenomena in solid-state electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, TE; Chang, CM; Rosen, EL; Garcia, G; Runnerstrom, EL; Williams, BL; Koo, B; Buonsanti, R; Milliron, DJ; Helms, BA

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first solid-state, NIR-selective electrochromic devices. Critical to device performance is the arrangement of nanocrystal-derived electrodes into heteromaterial frameworks, where hierarchically porous ITO nanocrystal active layers are infiltrated by an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte with mesoscale periodicity. Enhanced coloration efficiency and transport are realized over unarchitectured electrodes in devices, paving the way towards new smart windows technologies.

  12. Fundamentals of silicon carbide technology growth, characterization, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  13. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  14. Nanomaterials-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors operating through inhibition for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-03-15

    In recent years great progress has been made in applying nanomaterials to design novel biosensors. Use of nanomaterials offers to biosensing platforms exceptional optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Nanomaterials can increase the surface of the transducing area of the sensors that in turn bring an increase in catalytic behaviors. They have large surface-to-volume ratio, controlled morphology and structure that also favor miniaturization, an interesting advantage when the sample volume is a critical issue. Biosensors have great potential for achieving detect-to-protect devices: devices that can be used in detections of pollutants and other treating compounds/analytes (drugs) protecting citizens' life. After a long term focused scientific and financial efforts/supports biosensors are expected now to fulfill their promise such as being able to perform sampling and analysis of complex samples with interest for clinical or environment fields. Among all types of biosensors, enzymatic biosensors, the most explored biosensing devices, have an interesting property, the inherent inhibition phenomena given the enzyme-substrate complex formation. The exploration of such phenomena is making remarkably important their application as research and applied tools in diagnostics. Different inhibition biosensor systems based on nanomaterials modification has been proposed and applied. The role of nanomaterials in inhibition-based biosensors for the analyses of different groups of drugs as well as contaminants such as pesticides, phenolic compounds and others, are discussed in this review. This deep analysis of inhibition-based biosensors that employ nanomaterials will serve researchers as a guideline for further improvements and approaching of these devices to real sample applications so as to reach society needs and such biosensor market demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic feasibility of stationary electrochemical storages for electric bill management applications: The Italian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telaretti, E.; Graditi, G.; Ippolito, M.G.; Zizzo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are expected to become a fundamental element of the electricity infrastructure, thanks to their ability to decouple generation and demand over time. BESSs can also be used to store electricity during low-price hours, when the demand is low, and to meet the demand during peak hours, thus leading to savings for the consumer. This work focuses on the economic viability of BESS from the point of view of the electricity customer. The analysis refers to a lithium-ion (Li-ion), an advanced lead-acid, a zinc-based, a sodium-sulphur (NaS) and a flow battery. The total investment and replacement costs are estimated in order to calculate the cumulated cash flow, the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) of the investment. A parametric analysis is further carried out under two different assumptions: a) varying the difference between high and low electricity prices, b) varying the peak demand charges. The analysis reveals that some electrochemical technologies are more suitable than others for electric bill management applications, and that a profit for the customer can be reached only with a significant difference between high and low electricity prices or when high peak demand charges are applied. - Highlights: •We examine the convenience of using BESS to reduce customer electricity bill. •We make a comparison among different types of batteries for end-user applications. •We evaluate the convenience of using storage in presence of demand charges. •A parametric analysis changing the BESS cost, electricity prices and demand charges has been carried out. •A case study is performed to show the advantages/disadvantages of this approach.

  16. Mechanical and electrochemical characterisation of new Ti-Mo-Nb-Zr alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamchi, Paul S; Obayi, C S; Todd, Iain; Rainforth, M W

    2016-07-01

    The development and characterisation of new metallic biomaterials that contain non-toxic and non-allergic elements but possess low elastic modulus and low biodegradation rates, has become a topic of serious investigation in orthopaedic implant application. The lowering of elastic modulus and improving of corrosion resistance can be achieved by specific chemical alloying and super-elasticity effects, associated with a stress-induced phase transformation from the BCC metastable beta phase to the orthorhombic α″ martensite. Using this framework, this paper focuses on the effect of Nb and/or Zr micro-additions on the elastic modulus/yield strength balance and discusses microstructure, and the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of four new β-Ti-8Mo-xNb-xZr (x=2-5) alloys, using tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, SEM characterisation, ultrasound technique and potentiodynamic polarisation methods. The results reveal that the alloys exhibit a pronounced microstructural sensitivity response, with alloying elements and excellent agreement between β-stability and high mechanical strength, with increasing Nb additions. Although all the alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance and low Young׳s modulus, Ti-8Mo-4Nb-2Zr alloy, which consists of β+α'' phases, exhibits a low Young modulus of 35GPa, which is lower than those of the commercial alloys already used in biomedical implantation. The significant corrosion resistance, nontoxicity and better mechanical compatibility are properties pertinent to preventing stress shielding and bone resorption in orthopaedic implant applications. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optically Tunable Magnetoresistance Effect: From Mechanism to Novel Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Boyu; Si, Zhizhong; Cao, Kaihua; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-12-28

    The magnetoresistance effect in sandwiched structure describes the appreciable magnetoresistance effect of a device with a stacking of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic layer (i.e., a sandwiched structure). The development of this effect has led to the revolution of memory applications during the past decades. In this review, we revisited the magnetoresistance effect and the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) effect in magnetic sandwiched structures with a spacer layer of non-magnetic metal, semiconductor or organic thin film. We then discussed the optical modulation of this effect via different methods. Finally, we discuss various applications of these effects and present a perspective to realize ultralow-power, high-speed data writing and inter-chip connection based on this tunable magnetoresistance effect.

  18. New Photochemical and Electrochemical Methods for the Degradation of Pesticides in Aqueous media. Environmental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    AARON, Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The development of new electrochemical and photochemical methods for the decontamination of natural water containing significant concentrations of aromatic pesticides is described. The electrochemical method is based on the electro-Fenton process, i.e. the simultaneous reduction of O2 and Fe3+ ions. Hydroxyl (OH.) radicals are electrosynthesized in aqueous solutions, followed by complete mineralization of the initial pollutants. The photochemical methods involve either a direct pho...

  19. A compact microelectrode array chip with multiple measuring sites for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria; Vergani, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of a microchip with 12 identical but individually addressable electrochemical measuring sites, each consisting of a set of interdigitated electrodes acting as a working electrode as well as two circular electrodes f...... is highly symmetric to accommodate easy electronic integration and provides space for microfluidic inlets and outlets for integrated custom-made microfluidic systems on top. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  20. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-07

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a "brick wall"-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length × 50 μm width × 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide × 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a "bed" or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical on-chip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beads-trapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based immunoassays for various applications.

  1. III–V Nanowires: Synthesis, Property Manipulations, and Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available III–V semiconductor nanowire (NW materials possess a combination of fascinating properties, including their tunable direct bandgap, high carrier mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, and extraordinarily large surface-to-volume ratio, making them superior candidates for next generation electronics, photonics, and sensors, even possibly on flexible substrates. Understanding the synthesis, property manipulation, and device integration of these III–V NW materials is therefore crucial for their practical implementations. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent development in III–V NWs with the focus on their cost-effective synthesis, corresponding property control, and the relevant low-operating-power device applications. We will first introduce the synthesis methods and growth mechanisms of III–V NWs, emphasizing the low-cost solid-source chemical vapor deposition (SSCVD technique, and then discuss the physical properties of III–V NWs with special attention on their dependences on several typical factors including the choice of catalysts, NW diameters, surface roughness, and surface decorations. After that, we present several different examples in the area of high-performance photovoltaics and low-power electronic circuit prototypes to further demonstrate the potential applications of these NW materials. Towards the end, we also make some remarks on the progress made and challenges remaining in the III–V NW research field.

  2. Patients' Reactions to Local Anaesthetic Application Devices in Paediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrić, Elmedin; Kobasglija, Sedin; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2015-09-01

    Local anaesthesia is the most common medium for pain control in most dental treatments. Physical appearance of syringe itself can be considered as a provoking factor for the emergence of dental fear and anxiety (DFA). In this research the patient reactions to local anaesthesia application devices, as one of the main causes for DFA emergence, were inquired. The sample comprised of 120 patients, divided in three age groups, formed of 40 patients aged 8, 12 and 15 years. DFA prevalence was quantified by Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). Three different syringes were offered to the patients. Reasons for choosing one of the syringes were detected. Patients assigned statistically highest rank to plastic syringe. Boys chose metal and intraligamental syringe statistically more often than girls. Patients with higher CFSS-DS scores chose metal syringe as last option. None of the reasons for selection was dominant, except pain that could be caused by usage of any of the three syringes. A large number of patients did not mention any of the reasons for choosing particular syringes. Plastic syringe represented the most acceptable device for local anaesthetic application to our patients. Patients often linked pain with dental syringes.

  3. Applications of Transparent Conducting Oxides in Organic Light Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Yanghua; Yang, Jianping; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xing'ao

    2015-09-01

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) have received great attention in the field of flat panel display. The transparent metal oxide semiconductor materials play crucial roles in the applications of OLEDs and have strong influence on the performance of OLEDs. In this review, we mainly pay attention to the application of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as anodes and buffer layers in OLEDs. Currently indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used anode material in OLEDs owing to the advantage on electrical and optical properties, such as high work function, low resistivity and high transparency. TCO materials, such as ZnO et al., as the anode candidates also have been discussed and analyzed. The energy level can be controlled by semiconductor doping which improve the carrier density and Hall mobility. Interfacial engineering between the anodes and the overlying organic layers is an important process to obtain the high performance of the devices. Physical, chemical and the combined treatment methods to modify the TCO/organic interfaces are reviewed. The property of anode/organic interfaces can be modified and enhanced by introducing the buffer layers between anodes and hole transport layers.

  4. Interfacial characteristics of propylene carbonate and validation of simulation models for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinli

    simulations also provide basic data for construction of accurate information to assist in device- level modeling of EDLCs. The most serious uncertainty with previous simulations of CNT based EDLCs was definition of the actual composition of the pores. Therefore, direct simulations of filling of CNT forest based electrochemical double-layer capacitors with TEABF4 /P solution was performed. Those calculation characterize the charging and discharg- ing process, including rates of charging responses, the possibility of bubble forma- tion, and kinetic properties with confinement. The mobilities of ions and solvent was investigated through mean square displacement (MSD) and velocity autocorrela- tion functions (VACF). The memory kernel was extracted from VACF by discretized linear-equation solving and a specialized Fourier transform method, results implies the existence of dielectric friction. With the interest in chemical features of EDLCs, a multi-scale theory was de- veloped to embed high resolution ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods into studies of EDLCs. This theory was based on McMillan-Mayer theory, potential dis- tribution approach, and quasi-chemical theory. The quasi-chemical theory allow us to break-up the free energies into packing, outer-shell and chemical contributions, where the last part can be done by AIMD directly. For the primitive model of TEABF4 /P, Gaussian statistical models are effective for these outer-shell contributions. And the Gaussian approximation is more efficient than the Bennett method in achieving an accurate mean activity coefficient.

  5. Facile electrochemical-assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes and their role in Schottky barrier diode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Cirak, Burcu Bozkurt; Aydogan, Sakir; Grilli, Maria Luisa; Biber, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by electrochemical anodization of Ti foils. XRD measurements confirmed that properties of nanotube arrays belong to mixed anatase and rutile TiO2 phases with tetragonal crystal structure. Inter planar distance values of TiO2 nanotubes were determined with respect to Miller indices and varied from 0.16695 to 0.35339 nm. Furthermore, a Schottky diode made by Ag/TiO2 nano tube arrays/Ti was fabricated and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device were analyzed at room temperature to investigate device performance. Ideality factor and barrier height have been determined as 2.39 and 0.92 eV, respectively. Results have been discussed in details.

  6. Investigation of bipyridilium and Prussian blue systems for their potential application in electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillingham, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Analogues of 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridilium, 'paraquat' or methyl viologen, have been investigated. A series of symmetrical 1,1'-di-alkyl-4,4'-bipyridilium, methyl to n-nonyl viologen, were synthesised. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data in aqueous solution are reported. With the exception of n-heptyl, n-octyl and n-nonyl viologens, all the compounds in the series were successfully incorporated into films of the sulphonated perfluorinated polyether Nafion. Iso-propyl, iso-butyl, allyl and cinnamyl viologens were also synthesised. Electrochemical data in aqueous solution are reported and the influence of size/conformation of the molecules on incorporation into Nafion has been investigated. The incorporation of methyl viologen into two other solid electrolytes, DAIS and Flemion, has also been investigated and a comparison of the results is presented. 1,1'-Ethylene-2.,2'-dipyridilium, 'diquat', and its benzo-15-crown-5 and 1,2-dimethyloxybenzene derivatives were the second group of compounds to be investigated. Diquat has many similar properties to paraquat and thus it was striking that the electrochromic properties of diquat had not been previously reported. The thesis presents new electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data for diquat and its derivatives in aqueous solution. Iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II), Prussian blue, is an important and well studied electrochromic system. The present work surveys analogous transition metal hexacyanoferrates for electrochromic properties. Results are presented for the thin film deposition of metal hexacyanoferrates onto ITO glass working electrodes. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data are reported. Finally practical devices using the electrochromic systems studied above were constructed. An electrochromic device utilising, Prussian blue and Nafion is described and its optical switching behaviour is characterised and compared to a device containing only Prussian blue. Methyl viologen is also

  7. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    Highly capacitive (high surface area) electrodes that are electrochemically stable in strong alkaline electrolyte will form the basis for a new generation of electrical and electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices...

  8. Feedback about Astronomical Application Developments for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaff, A.; Boch, T.; Fernique, P.; Houpin, R.; Kaestlé, V.; Royer, M.; Scheffmann, J.; Weiler, A.

    2013-10-01

    Within a few years, Smartphones have become the standard for mobile telephony, and we are now witnessing a rapid development of Internet tablets. These mobile devices have enough powerful hardware features to run more and more complex applications. In the field of astronomy it is not only possible to use these tools to access data via a simple browser, but also to develop native applications reusing libraries (Java for Android, Objective-C for iOS) developed for desktops. We have been working for two years on mobile application development and we now have the skills in native iOS and Android development, Web development (especially HTML5, JavaScript, CSS3) and conversion tools (PhoneGap) from Web development to native applications. The biggest change comes from human/computer interaction that is radically changed by the use of multitouch. This interaction requires a redesign of interfaces to take advantage of new features (simultaneous selections in different parts of the screen, etc.). In the case of native applications, the distribution is usually done through online stores (App Store, Google Play, etc.) which gives visibility to a wider audience. Our approach is not only to perform testing of materials and developing of prototypes, but also operational applications. The native application development is costly in development time, but the possibilities are broader because it is possible to use native hardware such as the gyroscope and the accelerometer, to point out an object in the sky. Development depends on the Web browser and the rendering and performance are often very different between different browsers. It is also possible to convert Web developments to native applications, but currently it is better to restrict this possibility to light applications in terms of functionality. Developments in HTML5 are promising but are far behind those available on desktops. HTML5 has the advantage of allowing development independent from the evolution of the mobile

  9. Chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite films with enhanced interfacial interaction and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Linghao; Wang, Hongfang; Xia, Guangmei; Sun, Jing; Song, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocomposites by introducing graphene oxide (GO) into chitosan (CS) matrix were prepared and the effect of GO on the crystallization, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the films were investigated. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of the CS/GO modified electrode was comparatively studied with that of the neat CS-modified electrode. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) with well dispersion in the biopolymer chitosan (CS) matrix. • Detectable interactions do exist between the GO nanosheets and CS segments. • The addition of minor GO can improve the electrochemical activity of the neat CS. - Abstract: A series of chitosan (CS) nanocomposites incorporated with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were facilely prepared by sonochemical method. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the obtained nanocomposites showed fine dispersion of GO in the CS matrix. Meanwhile, a marked interfacial interaction was also revealed as the values of glass transition temperature, the decomposition temperature and the storage modulus were significantly increased with the addition of GO. Furthermore, the well dispersed GO nanosheets could significantly improve the electrochemical activity of the CS as demonstrated by the electrochemical behaviors of pure CS and the GO/CS composite electrodes. Hence, the GO/CS nanocomposites film could be a promising candidate in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

  10. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  11. Real-time electrochemical monitoring: toward green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2002-09-01

    This Account presents a survey of recent advances in electrochemical sensing technology relevant to green analytical chemistry and examines the potential advantages, limitations, and applications of these monitoring devices. Stricter environmental control and effective process monitoring have created considerable demands for innovative analytical methodologies. New devices and protocols, with negligible waste generation or no hazardous substances, and in situ real-time monitoring capability are particularly needed for addressing the challenges of green analytical chemistry. The coupling of modern electrochemical detection principles with recent advances in molecular recognition, microelectronics, and microfabrication has led to powerful, compact, and "user-friendly" analytical devices. The unique features of such electrochemical monitoring systems make them particularly attractive for addressing environmental and industrial problems and the challenges of green chemistry. These developments allow the instrument to be taken to the sample (rather than the traditional way of bringing the sample to the laboratory) and hence to ensure effective process or pollution control.

  12. Optofluidic devices and applications in photonics, sensing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lin; Chen, H Matthew; Freeman, Lindsay M; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2012-10-07

    Optofluidics integrates the fields of photonics and microfluidics, providing new freedom to both fields and permitting the realization of optical and fluidic property manipulations at the chip scale. Optofluidics was formed only after many breakthroughs in microfluidics, as understanding of fluid behaviour at the micron level enabled researchers to combine the advantages of optics and fluids. This review describes the progress of optofluidics from a photonics perspective, highlighting various optofluidic aspects ranging from the device's property manipulation to an interactive integration between optics and fluids. First, we describe photonic elements based on the functionalities that enable fluid manipulation. We then discuss the applications of optofluidic biodetection with an emphasis on nanosensing. Next, we discuss the progress of optofluidic lenses with an emphasis on its various architectures, and finally we conceptualize on where the field may lead.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of bioactive coatings on cp-Ti surface for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabella da Silva Vieira; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio Pedro; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T

    2015-11-01

    The surface characteristics and electrochemical properties of bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with calcium, phosphorous, silicon and silver on commercially pure titanium were evaluated. PEO treatment produced a porous oxide layer, which improved the surface topography, and enriched the surface chemistry with bioactive elements, responsible for mimicking bone surface. The surfaces with higher calcium concentration presented antibacterial and biocompability properties with better responses for corrosion and barrier properties, due to the presence of rutile crystalline structure. PEO may be a promising surface treatment option to improve the electrochemical behavior of dental implants mitigating treatment failures.

  14. Proton conducting polymer electrolyte based on plasticized chitosan-PEO blend and application in electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukur, M. F.; Ithnin, R.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-08-01

    Plasticized chitosan-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) electrolyte films are prepared by the solution cast technique. From Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, hydroxyl band of pure chitosan film is shifted from 3354 to 3425 cm-1 when blended with PEO. On addition of 40 wt.% NH4NO3, new peaks at 3207 cm-1 and 3104 cm-1 appear in the hydroxyl band region, indicating the polymer-salt complexation. The carboxamide and amine bands are observed to shift to 1632 and 1527 cm-1, respectively. The interaction of chitosan-PEO-NH4NO3-EC can be observed by the appearance of the doublet Cdbnd O stretching band of EC. The sample with 70 wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC) exhibits the highest room temperature conductivity of (2.06 ± 0.39) × 10-3 S cm-1. This result is further verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies. Proton battery is fabricated and shows an open circuit potential (OCP) of (1.66 ± 0.02) V and average discharge capacity at (48.0 ± 5.0) mA h. The maximum power density of the fabricated cell is (9.73 ± 0.75) mW cm-2. The polymer electrolyte is also employed as separator in electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) and is cycled for 140 times at room temperature.

  15. Modification of doping front migration in electrochemical devices and application to organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, Marius; Wan Xianglong; Kopp, Olga; Hermes, Ina; Panz, Jan; Rahmanian, Afsaneh; Knoll, Meinhard

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper we demonstrate several ways of tuning the doping front migration process in polymer electronic multilayer structures for the first time. By altering the migration layer thickness the migration velocity may be controlled and it is possible to switch between migration mechanisms. The mechanism of delamination produces rapid jumps in migration velocity, while the addition of 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) can inhibit this effect. In case of vapor activation the migration velocity may be influenced by the relative humidity or by varying the concentration of hygroscopic salts added to the migration layer. The migration mechanisms can be explained in terms of diffusion, capillary transport, and delamination. Tuning the migration process may be used to construct polymer electronic structures such as enhancement and depletion type pseudo transistors and electrical switches (ON-OFF and OFF-ON) with an improved switching time of several minutes. The doping front width is determined by microscopic optical absorption spectroscopy and can be controlled by the concentration of the doping solution. In case of low concentrations the electrochromic effect of the double front is observed. - Abstract: We demonstrate several methods of modifying the doping front migration process in multilayer structures, enabling control of migration velocity and switching between different migration mechanisms. Sharp jumps in migration velocity may be induced using a delamination effect. The influence of migration layer thickness and composition is examined. Migration velocity may also be influenced by exposing the system to a defined relative humidity or by varying the concentration of a hygroscopic salt in the migration layer. The migration mechanisms can be explained in terms of diffusion, capillary transport, and delamination. By tailoring the migration process a variety of polymer electronic structures such as pseudo transistors (enhancement and depletion type) and electrical switches (ON-OFF and OFF-ON) may be fabricated. Further examinations about the doping front width are given and the phenomenon of a double front is described.

  16. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  17. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  18. Growth of segmented gold nanorods with nanogaps by the electrochemical wet etching technique for single-electron transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Van; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2009-03-01

    The growth of multisegment nanorods comprising gold (Au) and sacrificial silver (Ag) segments (Au-Ag-Au or Au-Ag-Au-Ag-Au) using the electrochemical wet etching method is reported. The nanorods were fabricated using an alumina template of thickness 100 µm and pore size of 200 nm. A variety of nanorods from single to seven segments comprising alternate Au and Ag segments were fabricated with better control of growth rate. The multisegment nanorods were selectively etched by removing the Ag segments to create gaps in the fabricated nanorods. A careful investigation led to the creation of a wide variety of nanogaps in the fabricated multisegment nanorods. The size of the nanogap was controlled by the passage of current through the electrochemical process, and size below 10 nm was achievable at exchanged charges of ~1 mC. A further lowering in the size of nanogaps was achieved by diluting the silver plating solution and a segmented nanorod with nanogap (Au-nanogap-Au) of 3.8 nm at exchanged charges of 0.2 mC was successfully created. In addition, segmented nanorods with two or more nanogaps (Au-nanogap-Au-nanogap-Ag) placed symmetrically and asymmetrically on either side of the central Au segments were also created. A prototype of a single-electron transistor device based on segmented nanorods with two nanogaps is proposed. The results obtained could form the basis for the realization of quantum tunneling devices where the barrier thickness is very critical and demands values less than 5 nm. The encouraging results show the promise of multisegment nanorods for fabricating devices working at the de Broglie wavelength such as single-electron transistors.

  19. Research and Application of an Automatic Clam Collecting Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To collect clams automatically and effectively on coastal beach, an automatic clam collecting device was designed. The device consists of a connecting device, a shovelling device, a conveying device, and a filtering device. The mechanical device is designed based on some of the presented devices, such as a blade with slope, a pipelined conveyor belt, planar linkage mechanisms and a ski mechanism. The connecting device is connected to the device body by bolts. The shovelling device adopts a blade with slope, which can reduce the resistance between sandy soil and the device. The transmission device adopts a conveyor belt with a two-stage reducer, which can effectively control the speed of the transmission and avoid the splash of mud. A mesh structure is used for soil filtering, which is designed with a certain slope, thus sandy soil and other impurities fall from the mesh for its own weight. The designed device for clam collecting will improve efficiency and decrease cost effectively.

  20. Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Fuel Cell Characterization: Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) and Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Separation of different electrochemical and ohmic contributions to the current/voltage U(i) characteristics requires additional experimental techniques like Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The application of EIS is an approach to determine parameters which have proved to be indispensable for the characterization and development of fuel cell electrodes and electrolyte electrode assemblies. By varying the operating conditions of the fuel cell and by simulation of the measured ...

  1. The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingxia; Hong, Yang; Wang, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21634003, 21604012).

  2. Development and Application of Devices for Remote Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Contamination at RECOM Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for remote monitoring of gamma-ray contamination develop at RECOM Ltd. are described and typical examples of their application are show. The following devices are discussed: spectrum-sensitive collimated devices for mapping of radioactivity on contaminated surfaces- scanning collimated Gamma Locator, device for field Cs-137 contamination mapping-CORAD; devices for gamma-ray imaging computer-controlled High-Energy Radiation Visualizer (HERV) and Coded Mask Imager

  3. Electrochemical solid-phase microextraction of anions and cations using polypyrrole coatings and an integrated three-electrode device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, Gustav; Pettersson, Jean; Markides, Karin E; Nyholm, Leif

    2002-05-01

    A method for the extraction, transfer and desorption of anions and cations under controlled potential conditions employing a new integrated three-electrode device is described. The device, containing working, reference and counter electrodes, was prepared from tubes that could be moved vertically with respect to each other. In this way, a small amount of solvent, held by capillary force, remained between the electrodes when the device was lifted out of a solution after an extraction. This design allowed the potential control to be maintained at all times. With the new integrated device, it was possible to perform potential controlled desorption into vials containing as little as 200 microl of solution. The required ion exchange capacity was obtained by electrodeposition of a polypyrrole coating on the surface of the glassy carbon working electrode. Solid-phase microextractions of several cations or anions were performed simultaneously under potentiostatic control by doping the polypyrrole coating with different anions such as perchlorate and p-toluenesulfonate. The efficiency of the extractions, which could be altered by varying the potential of the working electrode, could be increased by 150 to 200% compared to extractions using normal solid-phase microextraction conditions under open circuit conditions. A constant potential of +1.0 V and -0.5 V with respect to the silver pseudo reference electrode, was found to be well-suited for the extraction of samples containing ppm concentrations of anions (chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate) and cations (cadmium, cobalt and zinc), respectively.

  4. Recent Advances on Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-04-17

    The climate change and energy crisis promote the rapid development of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Of many intriguing physicochemical properties such as excellent chemical stability, high electronic conductivity and large specific surface area, porous carbon materials have always been considering as a promising candidate for electrochemical energy storage. Up to date, a wide variety of porous carbon materials upon molecular design, pore control and compositional tailoring have been proposed for energy-storage applications. This focus review summaries recent advances in the synthesis of various porous carbon materials from the view of energy storage, especially in the past three years. Their applications in representative electrochemical energy storage devices like lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have been discussed in this review, looking forward to offering some inspirations and guidelines for the exploitation of advanced carbon-based energy-storage materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Determination of Critical Conditions for the Formation of Electrodeposited Copper Structures Suitable for Electrodes in Electrochemical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir G. Pavlovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of copper from acid sulfate solutions at overpotentials on theplateau of the limiting diffusion current density and at higher overpotentials wasexamined. The average current efficiencies for hydrogen evolution reaction aredetermined by a measurement of the quantity of evolved hydrogen and the overallelectrodeposition current as a function of electrodeposition time, while morphologies ofcopper deposits are examined by the use of the scanning electron microscopy (SEMtechnique. It is found that the open and porous structures of copper deposits (denoted andas honeycomb – like copper structures, suitable for electrodes in electrochemical devicessuch as fuel cells and chemical sensors, were reached by electrodeposition processesfrom solutions with the lower concentrations of Cu (II ions (0.15 M CuSO4 and less in0.50 M H2SO4 at overpotentials outside the plateau of the limiting diffusion currentdensity at which the quantity of evolved hydrogen was enough to change hydrodynamicconditions in the near – electrode layer. The main characteristics of these copperstructures were craters or holes formed primarily due to the attachment hydrogen bubbleswith agglomerates of copper grains between them.

  6. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Supercapacitor by Ag-Au Core-Shell Nanowire Network with High Electrochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Jinhwan; Suh, Young Duk; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Moon, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyeonseok; Yeo, Junyeob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2016-06-22

    Stretchable and transparent electronics have steadily attracted huge attention in wearable devices. Although Ag nanowire is the one of the most promising candidates for transparent and stretchable electronics, its electrochemical instability has forbidden its application to the development of electrochemical energy devices such as supercapacitors. Here, we introduce a highly stretchable and transparent supercapacitor based on electrochemically stable Ag-Au core-shell nanowire percolation network electrode. We developed a simple solution process to synthesize the Ag-Au core-shell nanowire with excellent electrical conductivity as well as greatly enhanced chemical and electrochemical stabilities compared to pristine Ag nanowire. The proposed core-shell nanowire-based supercapacitor still possesses fine optical transmittance and outstanding mechanical stability up to 60% strain. The Ag-Au core-shell nanowire can be a strong candidate for future wearable electrochemical energy devices.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior Of Bioactive Coatings On Cp-ti Surface For Dental Application.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Isabella da Silva Vieira; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio Pedro; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-01-01

    The surface characteristics and electrochemical properties of bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with calcium, phosphorous, silicon and silver on commercially pure titanium were evaluated. PEO treatment produced a porous oxide layer, which improved the surface topography, and enriched the surface chemistry with bioactive elements, responsible for mimicking bone surface. The surfaces with higher calcium concentration presented antibacterial and biocompatibility ...

  8. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B4-Based Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B 4 (VB 4 ). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB 4 -based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation

  9. Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Oxide/Resol Composites as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geon Woo; Jeon, Sang Kwon; Yang, Jin Yong; Choi, Sung Dae; Kim, Geon Joong

    2016-05-01

    RGO/Resol carbon composites were prepared from a mixture of reduced GO and a low-molecular-weight phenolic resin (Resol) solution. The effects of the calcination temperature, amount of Resol added and KOH treatment on the electrochemical performance of the RGO/Resol composites were investigated. The physical and electrochemical properties of the composite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface areas measurements, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The relationships between their physical properties and their electrochemical performance were examined for use as super-capacitors (SCs). The RGO/Resol composite calcined at 400 degrees C after the KOH loading showed dramatically improved electrochemical properties, showing a high BET surface and capacitance of 2190 m2/g and 220 F/g, respectively. The RGO/Resol composites calcined after the KOH treatment showed much better capacitor performance than those treated only thermally at the same temperature without KOH impregnation. The fabrication of high surface electrodes was essential for improving the SCs properties.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of electrochemically prepared bioanode (polyaniline/ferritin/glucose oxidase) for biofuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haque, Sufia; Inamuddin; Nasar, Abu; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2018-01-01

    Porous matrix of polyaniline (PANI) has been electrodeposited along with the entrapment of biocompatible redox mediator ferritin (Frt) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The characterizations have been carried out by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enhanced electrochemical signal transfer rate from enzyme to the electrode surface was due to the intimate contact of the enzyme with the electrochemically polymerized conducting PANI matrix. The PANI/Frt/GOx modified GC bioanode was used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity as a function of the concentration of glucose in the range of 10-60 mM. It was confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the thick deposition of PANI layer becomes more compact due to which the charge transfer resistance of PANI matrix becomes higher. All the electrochemical measurements of the electrode were carried out by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). CV curves were recorded at different scan rates (20-100 mV/s) at 50 mM of glucose in 0.3 M potassium ferrocyanide. A normalized saturation current density of 22.3 ± 2 mA/cm2 was observed for the oxidation of 50 mM glucose at a scan rate of 100 mV/s.

  11. Potential applications of rapid/elementary nonparametric statistical techniques (NST) to electrochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    2009-01-01

    A major advantage of NST lies in the unimportance of the probability distribution of observations. In this paper, the sign test, the rank-sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Friedman test, and the runs test illustrate the potential of certain rapid NST for the evaluation of electrochemical process performance.

  12. An electrochemical method for determining hydrogen concentrations in metals and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical method was developed for the determination of hydrogen in metals using the EG&G-PARC Model 350A Corrosion Measurement Console. The method was applied to hydrogen uptake, both during electrolysis and electroplating, and to studies of hydrogen elimination and the effect of heat treatment on elimination times. Results from these studies are presented.

  13. Development and characterization of electrochemical cantilever sensor for bio/chemical sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Xueling; Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    We report the improvements made to our previously developed electrochemical cantilever (EC) sensor, where nanoporous gold material is employed as working electrodes in microcantilever arrays, while combined counter-reference electrodes are integrated on the chip. For a surface stress change of 1m...

  14. The strategies of DNA immobilization and hybridization detection mechanism in the construction of electrochemical DNA sensor: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sensor has recently emerged as promising alternative clinical diagnostic devices especially for infectious disease by exploiting DNA recognition events and converting them into an electrochemical signal. This is because the existing DNA diagnostic method possesses certain drawbacks such as time-consuming, expensive, laborious, low selectivity and sensitivity. DNA immobilization strategies and mechanism of electrochemical detection are two the most important aspects that should be considered before developing highly selective and sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor. Here, we focus on some recent strategies for DNA probes immobilization on the surface of electrochemical transducer such as adsorption, covalent bonding and Avidin/Streptavidin-Biotin interaction on the electrode surface for specific interaction with its complementary DNA target. A numerous approach for DNA hybridization detection based electrochemical technique that frequently used including direct DNA electrochemical detection and label based electrochemical (redox-active indicator, enzyme label and nanoparticles were also discussed in aiming to provide general guide for the design of electrochemical DNA sensor. We also discussed the challenges and suggestions to improve the application of electrochemical DNA sensor at point-care setting. Keywords: Electrochemical DNA sensor, DNA immobilization, DNA hybridization, Electrochemical mechanism

  15. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  16. Design and Application of Electrochemical Processes for Decolorization Treatment of Nylanthrene Red dye Bearing Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marmanis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the capability of electrochemical methods, such as electrocoagulation, electrooxidation and electro-Fenton for decolorization and degradation of synthetic aqueous solutions and actual dye house effluents containing nylanthrene red reactive dye. All electrochemical experiments with the synthetic dye solutions were conducted in electrochemical cell of volume 500 ml containing 200 mL of dye solution at concentration 50 mg/L and interelectrode distance of 1 cm. The three different electrochemical processes were analyzed, and their removal efficiencies were measured and evaluated. In addition, a flow diagram is designed for a continuously operated electrochemical process for remediation of synthetic and actual dye house effluents laden with nylanthrene dye. In the electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrodes, the colored aqueous dye solution was treated at the applied current densities of 5, 10 and 15 mA/cm2 and was quantitatively decolorized in 11, 9 and less than 6 minutes of electroprocessing time respectively. The electrooxidation process conducted with Ti/Pt and boron doped diamond (BDD electrodes, at the applied current density of 10 mA/cm2 led to the quantitative decolorization and destruction of the dye in 25 and 15 min respectively. In the electro-Fenton process with iron electrodes, supply of added hydrogen peroxide and applied current density of 10 mA/cm2, complete decolorization and degradation of the nylanthrene red dye occurred in 6 min. The actual polyamide textile dyeing effluent of same volume 200 mL with initial turbidity of 114 NTU and COD of 1755 mg/L was treated by electrocoagulation at the same applied current density of 10 mA/cm2. The turbidity was quantitatively eliminated in only 10 min, while COD was reduced by 74.5 % in 40 minutes of electrolysis time.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ELECTROCHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rct is about five times higher in acetonitrile relative to water. All these EIS results of the different types of PPy suggest a relation with the wettability of the polymer. KEY WORDS: Conducting polymers, Polypyrrole, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Equivalent- electrical circuit, Micellar media. INTRODUCTION.

  18. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  19. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & amp; Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  20. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  1. Real-time detection of sub-monolayer desorption phenomena during electrochemical reactions: Instrument development and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard

    This thesis presents the development of a novel analysis instrument for performing highly sensitive electrochemistry mass spectrometry (EC-MS) measurements in real-time. The instrument is based on a micofabricated membrane chip which is used to establish a direct loss-free coupling between wet...... EC-MS instrumentation. The potential for future application of the technique could be wide-spread and enable unique insight into electrochemical reaction mechanism through careful study of sub-monolayer desorbtion phenomena similar to the ones presented herein....

  2. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  3. Characteristics of Nanocrystallite-CdS Produced by Low-Cost Electrochemical Technique for Thin Film Photovoltaic Application: The Influence of Deposition Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Kingsley Echendu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical deposition and characterization of nanocrystallite-CdS thin films for thin film solar cell application are reported. The two-electrode system used provides a relatively simple and cost-effective approach for large-scale deposition of semiconductors for solar cell and other optoelectronic device application. Five CdS thin films were deposited for 45 minutes each at different cathodic deposition voltages in order to study their properties. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the as-deposited films contain mixed phases of hexagonal and cubic CdS crystallites with large amounts of internal strain and dislocation density. Postdeposition annealing results in phase transformation which leaves the films with only the hexagonal crystal phase and reduced strain and dislocation density while increasing the crystallite sizes from 21.0–42.0 nm to 31.2–63.0 nm. Photoelectrochemical cell study shows that all the CdS films have n-type electrical conductivity. Optical characterization reveals that all samples show similar transmittance and absorbance responses with the transmittance slightly increasing towards higher growth voltages. All the annealed films show energy bandgap of 2.42 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses show that grains on the surface of the films tend to get cemented together after annealing with prior CdCl2 treatment while all the films are S-rich.

  4. Integrated optic polymer waveguide devices for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dilip K.

    1994-11-01

    Organic polymeric materials and devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Non-linear optical polymers have show promise of very high electro-optical coefficients and useful device characteristics with compatible device processing on semiconductor wafers leading to development of compact, high reliability OEICs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art technology and performance of polymeric integrated optical waveguide devices will be received and feasibility of using these devices as sensor elements (e.g., to measure temperature, pressure, displacement, vibration, chemical analysis, etc.) and also as components in optical sensor subsystems (e.g., optical gyro chip) explored.

  5. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  6. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications.

  7. Devices Based on Parallel-Plate Waveguides for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.

    The promise of terahertz (THz) frequencies for technological applications is wide, spanning from wireless communications for faster downloads to non-destructive imaging for security screening. Although the potential is high, there is a lack of the basic devices necessary to make these prospects a reality. One essential component for any electromagnetic wave technology is a waveguide, which as the name implies can guide light waves, like a hose would direct water from the source to the desired target location. Several waveguide types have been introduced for THz frequencies, one of the most promising of which is the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG). The PPWG is attractive based on its superior waveguiding performance of efficient input coupling and low losses, but additionally it serves as an excellent platform for other purposes. The projects presented in this dissertation highlight a few new functionalities incorporated into, and enabled by, a PPWG for sensing, filtering, and splitting. First, we characterize a high quality factor resonator integrated into a PPWG used for microfluidic sensing. Typically, the characterization of the frequency-dependent electric field profile inside a narrowband resonator is challenging, either due to limited optical access or to the perturbative effects of invasive probes. In our situation however, the geometry of the PPWG allows for direct access to the resonant cavity via the open sides of the waveguide and a novel implementation of the air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) method permits non-invasive probing. Through both experiment and simulation, we see the narrowband frequencies trapped in the resonator and also discover an unexpected broadband asymmetric field distribution due to the resonator inside the waveguide, yielding new information that is not available in the far field. Second, we investigate a narrowband tunable filter based on extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a 1D array of subwavelength holes inside

  8. Disease-Related Detection with Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of diseases at their initial stage is critical for effective clinical outcomes and promotes general public health. Classical in vitro diagnostics require centralized laboratories, tedious work and large, expensive devices. In recent years, numerous electrochemical biosensors have been developed and proposed for detection of various diseases based on specific biomarkers taking advantage of their features, including sensitivity, selectivity, low cost and rapid response. This article reviews research trends in disease-related detection with electrochemical biosensors. Focus has been placed on the immobilization mechanism of electrochemical biosensors, and the techniques and materials used for the fabrication of biosensors are introduced in details. Various biomolecules used for different diseases have been listed. Besides, the advances and challenges of using electrochemical biosensors for disease-related applications are discussed.

  9. Nanostructured platinum as an electrochemically and mechanically stable electrode coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, C; Oberueber, F; Stieglitz, T; Asplund, M

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured materials exhibit large electrochemical surface areas and are thus of high interest for neural interfaces where low impedance and high charge transfer characteristics are desired. While progress in nanotechnology successively enabled smaller feature sizes and thus improved electrochemical properties, concerns were raised with respect to the mechanical stability of such nano structures for use in neural applications. In our study we address these concerns by investigating the mechanical and electrochemical stability of nanostructured platinum. Neural probes with nano-Pt were exposed to exaggerated stress tests resembling insertion into neural tissue over 60 mm distance or long-term stimulation over 240 M biphasic current pulses. Thereby only insignificant changes in electrochemical properties and morphological appearance could be observed in response to the test, proving that nanostructured platinum exhibits outstanding stability. With this finding, a major concern in using nanostructured materials for interfacing neural tissue could be eliminated, demonstrating the high potential of nanostructured platinum for neuroprosthetic devices.

  10. Disease-Related Detection with Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Xu, Jin; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Xiangyang; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of diseases at their initial stage is critical for effective clinical outcomes and promotes general public health. Classical in vitro diagnostics require centralized laboratories, tedious work and large, expensive devices. In recent years, numerous electrochemical biosensors have been developed and proposed for detection of various diseases based on specific biomarkers taking advantage of their features, including sensitivity, selectivity, low cost and rapid response. This article reviews research trends in disease-related detection with electrochemical biosensors. Focus has been placed on the immobilization mechanism of electrochemical biosensors, and the techniques and materials used for the fabrication of biosensors are introduced in details. Various biomolecules used for different diseases have been listed. Besides, the advances and challenges of using electrochemical biosensors for disease-related applications are discussed. PMID:29039742

  11. Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzan, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance

  12. A Compact Microelectrode Array Chip with Multiple Measuring Sites for Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of a microchip with 12 identical but individually addressable electrochemical measuring sites, each consisting of a set of interdigitated electrodes acting as a working electrode as well as two circular electrodes functioning as a counter and reference electrode in close proximity. The electrodes are made of gold on a silicon oxide substrate and are passivated by a silicon nitride membrane. A method for avoiding the creation of high edges at the electrodes (known as lift-off ears is presented. The microchip design is highly symmetric to accommodate easy electronic integration and provides space for microfluidic inlets and outlets for integrated custom-made microfluidic systems on top.

  13. Characterisation and application of WO3 films for electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Thomas; Marszalek, Konstanty; Swatowska, Barbara; Stanco, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Electrochromic system is the one of the most popular devices using color memory effect under the influence of an applied voltage. The electrochromic system was produced based on the thin WO3 electrochromic films. Films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from tungsten targets in a reactive Ar+O2 gas atmosphere of various Ar/O2 ratios. The technological gas mixture pressure was 3 Pa and process temperature 30°C. Structural and optical properties of WO3 films were investigated for as-deposited and heat treated samples at temperature range from 350°C to 450°C in air. The material revealed the dependence of properties on preparation conditions and on post-deposition heat treatment. Main parameters of thin WO3 films: thickness d, refractive index n, extinction coefficient k and energy gap Eg were determined and optimized for application in electrochromic system. The main components of the system were glass plate with transparent conducting oxides, electrolyte, and glass plate with transparent conducting oxides and WO3 layer. The optical properties of the system were investigated when a voltage was applied across it. The electrochromic cell revealed the controllable transmittance depended on the operation voltage.

  14. Electrospinning of Nanofibers and Their Applications for Energy Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing demand of energy for economic development, it is urgent to develop renewable energy technologies to sustain the economic growth. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for one-dimensional (1D nanostructured fibers of metals, metal oxides, hydrocarbons, composites, and so forth. The resulting nanofibers (NFs with controllable diameters ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale possess unique properties such as a high surface-area-to-volume and aspect ratio, low density, and high pore volume. These properties make 1D nanomaterials more advantageous than conventional materials in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage devices. In this review, the key parameters for e-spinning are discussed and the properties of electrospun NFs and applications in solar cells, fuel cells, nanogenerators, hydrogen energy harvesting and storage, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of electrospinning and an outlook on the possible future directions are also discussed.

  15. Electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sejin; Boo, Hankil; Chung, Taek Dong

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical determination of glucose concentration without using enzyme is one of the dreams that many researchers have been trying to make come true. As new materials have been reported and more knowledge on detailed mechanism of glucose oxidation has been unveiled, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor keeps coming closer to practical applications. Recent reports strongly imply that this progress will be accelerated in 'nanoera'. This article reviews the history of unraveling the mechanism of direct electrochemical oxidation of glucose and making attempts to develop successful electrochemical glucose sensors. The electrochemical oxidation of glucose molecules involves complex processes of adsorption, electron transfer, and subsequent chemical rearrangement, which are combined with the surface reactions on the metal surfaces. The information about the direct oxidation of glucose on solid-state surfaces as well as new electrode materials will lead us to possible breakthroughs in designing the enzymeless glucose sensing devices that realize innovative and powerful detection. An example of those is to introduce nanoporous platinum as an electrode, on which glucose is oxidized electrochemically with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. Better model of such glucose sensors is sought by summarizing and revisiting the previous reports on the electrochemistry of glucose itself and new electrode materials

  16. Some Applications of Electrochemistry in Biomedical Chemistry. Emphasis on the Correlation of Electrochemical and Bioactive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Fabiane C. de; Ferraz, Patrícia A. de L.; Goulart, Marília O. F.

    2002-01-01

    This review summarises some of the more relevant achievements in the correlation between electrochemical processes and parameters and bioactive properties, mainly related to cancer and tropical diseases. Despite the broad range of possibilities and the complexity of cell/tissue/extracell chemistry, it is possible to rationalise the role of electrochemistry in few basic theoretical frameworks, mainly, the one based on electron transfer-oxidative stress and in situ generation of toxic species, ...

  17. Model Biological Membranes and Possibilities of Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Their Characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalová, Štěpánka; Vyskočil, V.; Barek, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2018), s. 207-219 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05387S; GA ČR GA17-03868S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) * Liposomes * Model membrane * Phospholipid bilayer * Planar lipid bilayer * Supported lipid bilayers * Tethered lipid bilayers Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  18. Development of an electronic device quality aluminum antimonide (AlSb) semiconductor for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, John W; Yee, Jick Hong; Combs, III, Arthur W

    2014-11-11

    Electronic device quality Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystals produced by controlled atmospheric annealing are utilized in various configurations for solar cell applications. Like that of a GaAs-based solar cell devices, the AlSb-based solar cell devices as disclosed herein provides direct conversion of solar energy to electrical power.

  19. Value-based procurement of medical devices: Application to devices for mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippoli, Sabrina; Caccese, Erminia; Marinai, Claudio; Messori, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    In the acute ischemic stroke, endovascular devices have shown promising clinical results and are also likely to represent value for money, as several modeling studies have shown. Pharmacoeconomic evaluations in this field, however, have little impact on the procurement of these devices. The present study explored how complex pharmacoeconomic models that evaluate effectiveness and cost can be incorporated into the in-hospital procurement of thrombectomy devices. As regards clinical modeling, we extracted outcomes at three months from randomized trials conducted for four thrombectomy devices, and we projected long-term results using standard Markov modeling. In estimating QALYs, the same model was run for the four devices. As regards economic modeling, we firstly estimated for each device the net monetary benefit (NMB) per patient (threshold = $60,000 per QALY); then, we simulated a competitive tender across the four products by determining the tender-based score (on a 0-to-100 scale). Prices of individual devices were obtained from manufacturers. Extensive sensitivity testing was applied to our analyses. For the four devices (Solitaire, Trevo, Penumbra, Solumbra), QALYs were 1.86, 1.52, 1,79, 1.35, NMB was $101,824, $83,546, $101,923, $69,440, and tender-based scores were 99.70, 43.43, 100, 0, respectively. Sensitivity analysis confirmed findings from base-case. Our results indicate that, in the field of thrombectomy devices, incorporating the typical tools of cost-effectiveness into the processes of tenders and procurement is feasible. Bridging the methodology of cost-effectiveness with the every-day practice of in-hospital procurement can contribute to maximizing the health returns that are generated by in-hospital expenditures for medical devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Fabrication and Application of a PDMS Micro Through-Holes Mask in Electrochemical Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical micromanufacturing process, as a key micromanufacturing technology, plays an important role in diverse industries. In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is employed as a mask in the electrochemical micromanufacture of microstructures because of its chemical resistance, low cost, flexibility, and high molding capability. A new method for fabricating a PDMS micro through-holes mask is proposed. In this method, a thin resist film is employed to enhance the adhesion between the substrate and the SU-8 pillar array which is used as a mold. A vacuum-aided process is used to inject the PDMS gel into the SU-8 mold and the PDMS micro through-holes mask can be peeled off from the SU-8 mold when the gel is cured. Experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach and PDMS microholes of various shapes were obtained. The PDMS mask can then be successfully applied in the electrochemical micromanufacturing process to generate microstructures and microdimple and embossment arrays have been successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the PDMS mask can be reused, as it is not damaged during the manufacturing process.

  1. Coffee Waste-Derived Hierarchical Porous Carbon as a Highly Active and Durable Electrocatalyst for Electrochemical Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Young; Son, Yoon Jun; Yoo, Ji Mun; Kang, Jin Soo; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Park, Subin; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2017-11-29

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials have been highlighted as promising alternatives to high-cost platinum in various electrochemical energy applications. However, protocols to generate effective pore structure are still challenging, which hampers mass production and utilization of carbon materials. Here, we suggest a facile and effective method for hierarchical porous carbon by a single-step carbonization of coffee waste (CW) with ZnCl 2 . The CW, which is one of the most earth-abundant organic waste, can be successfully converted to nitrogen-doped porous carbon. It shows outstanding oxygen reduction activity and durability comparable to the state-of-the-art platinum, and the half-wave potential is also comparable to the best metal-free electrocatalysts in alkaline media. Finally, we apply it to counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell, whose photovoltaic efficiency surpasses the one made with conventional platinum electrode. We demonstrate the feasibility of our strategies for highly efficient, cheap, and environment-friendly electrocatalyst to replace platinum in various electrochemical energy applications.

  2. A novel method for observation by unaided eyes of nitrogen ion tracks and angular distribution in a plasma focus device using 50 Hz–HV electrochemically-etched polycarbonate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M.; Roshani, G.H.; Ramezani, V.

    2012-01-01

    A novel ion detection method has been developed and studied in this paper for the first time to detect and observe tracks of nitrogen ions and their angular distribution by unaided eyes in the Amirkabir 4 kJ plasma focus device (PFD). The method is based on electrochemical etching (ECE) of nitrogen ion tracks in 1 mm thick large area polycarbonate (PC) detectors. The ECE method employed a specially designed and constructed large area ECE chamber by applying a 50 Hz–high voltage (HV) generator under optimized ECE conditions. The nitrogen ion tracks and angular distribution were efficiently (constructed for this study) amplified to a point observable by the unaided eyes. The beam profile and angular distribution of nitrogen ion tracks in the central axes of the beam and two- and three-dimensional iso-ion track density distributions showing micro-beam spots were determined. The distribution of ion track density along the central axes versus angular position shows double humps around a dip at the 0° angular positions. The method introduced in this paper proved to be quite efficient for ion beam profile and characteristic studies in PFDs with potential for ion detection studies and other relevant dosimetry applications.

  3. Plasmonic Devices for Near and Far-Field Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-11-30

    Plasmonics is an important branch of nanophotonics and is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the free electrons in a metal at metallic/dielectric interfaces or in small metallic nanostructures. The electric component of an exciting electromagnetic field can induce collective electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Such oscillations lead to the localization of the fields that can be at sub-wavelength scale and to its significant enhancement relative to the excitation fields. These two characteristics of localization and enhancement are the main components that allow for the guiding and manipulation of light beyond the diffraction limit. This thesis focuses on developing plasmonic devices for near and far-field applications. In the first part of the thesis, we demonstrate the detection of single point mutation in peptides from multicomponent mixtures for early breast cancer detection using selfsimilar chain (SCC) plasmonic devices that show high field enhancement and localization. In the second part of this work, we investigate the anomalous reflection of light for TM polarization for normal and oblique incidence in the visible regime. We propose gradient phase gap surface plasmon (GSP) metasurfaces that exhibit high conversion efficiency (up to ∼97% of total reflected light) to the anomalous reflection angle for blue, green and red wavelengths at normal and oblique incidence. In the third part of the thesis, we present a theoretical approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the near-field intensity at a plasmonic dimer gap (hot spot) through coupling the electric localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of a silver hemispherical dimer with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. In the fourth part of this work, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. In the fifth and final part of the

  4. Voltage equilibration for reactive atomistic simulations of electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce electrochemical dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom (EChemDID), a model to describe electrochemical driving force in reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The method describes the equilibration of external electrochemical potentials (voltage) within metallic structures and their effect on the self-consistent partial atomic charges used in reactive molecular dynamics. An additional variable assigned to each atom denotes the local potential in its vicinity and we use fictitious, but computationally convenient, dynamics to describe its equilibration within connected metallic structures on-the-fly during the molecular dynamics simulation. This local electrostatic potential is used to dynamically modify the atomic electronegativities used to compute partial atomic changes via charge equilibration. Validation tests show that the method provides an accurate description of the electric fields generated by the applied voltage and the driving force for electrochemical reactions. We demonstrate EChemDID via simulations of the operation of electrochemical metallization cells. The simulations predict the switching of the device between a high-resistance to a low-resistance state as a conductive metallic bridge is formed and resistive currents that can be compared with experimental measurements. In addition to applications in nanoelectronics, EChemDID could be useful to model electrochemical energy conversion devices

  5. An Electrochemical Capacitor with Applicable Energy Density of 7.4 Wh/kg at Average Power Density of 3000 W/kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Teng; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Mathis, Tyler; Liu, Tianyu; Li, Cheng; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2015-05-13

    Electrochemical capacitors represent a new class of charge storage devices that can simultaneously achieve high energy density and high power density. Previous reports have been primarily focused on the development of high performance capacitor electrodes. Although these electrodes have achieved excellent specific capacitance based on per unit mass of active materials, the gravimetric energy densities calculated based on the weight of entire capacitor device were fairly small. This is mainly due to the large mass ratio between current collector and active material. We aimed to address this issue by a 2-fold approach of minimizing the mass of current collector and increasing the electrode performance. Here we report an electrochemical capacitor using 3D graphene hollow structure as current collector, vanadium sulfide and manganese oxide as anode and cathode materials, respectively. 3D graphene hollow structure provides a lightweight and highly conductive scaffold for deposition of pseudocapacitive materials. The device achieves an excellent active material ratio of 24%. Significantly, it delivers a remarkable energy density of 7.4 Wh/kg (based on the weight of entire device) at the average power density of 3000 W/kg. This is the highest gravimetric energy density reported for asymmetric electrochemical capacitors at such a high power density.

  6. Application of energy storage devices in power systems | Gupta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the major disadvantages in electric power supply system have been flickering and deviations in power supply which make some of the electronic equipments and domestic devices highly sensitive to it. To avoid such problems we need to find out devices that can provide a backup during the time of voltage sags ...

  7. Silver UPD ultra-thin film modified nanoporous gold electrode with applications in the electrochemical detection of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Fang

    2009-03-15

    Nanoporous noble metals are usually expected to exhibit much higher surface areas than smooth ones, making them of particular importance in many electrochemical applications. This paper describes a simple electrochemical method to modify a nanoporous Au (NPG) surface by using an under potentially deposited (UPD) Ag adlayer. The NPG electrode was obtained by the dealloying of Zn from Au(x)Zn(1-x) in a 40-60mol% zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ZnCl(2)-EMIC) ionic liquid. The Ag UPD modified nanoporous gold (NPG/Ag(UPD)) electrode possessed dual properties, including an intrinsic high surface area from the nanoporous structure and the characteristics of the Ag UPD adlayer. The potential utility of using NPG/Ag(UPD) for sensors was demonstrated by its excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the electrochemical determination of chloride ions. An atomic scale metal monolayer obtained in the UPD process was selected as a sensing agent. The long-term storability and operational stability of the electrode were strongly demonstrated. Specifically, two couples of redox waves at approximately 552mV and approximately 272mV, respectively, were observed in the cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the NPG/Ag(UPD) after the adsorption of chloride ions. The first couple of redox waves was related to the UPD and silver stripping and the second couple of redox waves was induced by the adsorption of Cl(-). The Cl(-) adsorption process on the NPG/Ag(UPD) electrode followed the transient Langmuir adsorption kinetic model. The ratio of the integrated charges for these two anodic stripping peaks was selectively used to determine dilute chloride ion levels. The calibration curve was linear in the Cl(-) concentration range of 0.5-30.0muM.

  8. 77 FR 39733 - Certain Ink Application Devices and Components Thereof and Methods of Using the Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-832] Certain Ink Application Devices and Components Thereof and Methods of Using the Same Determination To Review in Part an Initial Determination... the United States after importation of certain ink application devices and components thereof and...

  9. Novel electrochemical redox-active species: one-step synthesis of polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd and its application for multiplexed immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical redox-active species play crucial role in electrochemically multiplexed immunoassays. A one-pot method for synthesizing four kinds of new electrochemical redox-active species was reported using HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 as dual oxidating agents and aniline derivatives as monomers. The synthesized polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd composites, namely poly(N-methyl-o-benzenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd and poly(3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine)-Au/Pd, exhibited electrochemical redox activity at −0.65 V, −0.3 V, 0.12 V, and 0.5 V, respectively. Meanwhile, these composites showed high H2O2 electrocatalytic activity because of the presence of Au/Pd. The as-prepared composites were used as electrochemical immunoprobes in simultaneous detection of four tumor biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA724), and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)). This immunoassay shed light on potential applications in simultaneous gastric cancer (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, CA724) and liver cancer diagnosis (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, AFP). The present strategy to the synthesize redox species could be easily extended to other polymers such as polypyrrole derivatives and polythiophene derivatives. This would be of great significance in the electrochemical detection of more analytes. PMID:26577799

  10. The preparation and electrochemical properties of PEDOT:PSS/MnO_2/PEDOT ternary film and its application in flexible micro-supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Yajie; Zhao, Yuetao; Yang, Wenyao; Mao, Xilin; He, Xin; Li, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Here, we develop a facile method to fabricate a hierarchically structured film as electrode material of micro-supercapacitor. A poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate)/manganese dioxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS/MnO_2/PEDOT) ternary film is prepared via a two-step process. Firstly, MnO_2 nanoparticles are directly synthesized in the PEDOT:PSS matrix and the PEDOT:PSS/MnO_2 mixed solution is spin-coated on the substrate. Then a porous PEDOT film is synthesized by the vapor phase polymerization (VPP) on the PEDOT:PSS/MnO_2 precursor film. Electrochemical tests reveal that the ternary film exhibits a high specific capacitance of 391.36 F/cm"3 at current density of 3.75 A/cm"3, as well as excellent cycle stability with capacitance retention of 92% after 5500 cycles. The volumetric capacitance of PEDOT:PSS/MnO_2/PEDOT-microsupercapacitor achieves 13.64 F/cm"3. The excellent electrochemical performances indicate that each component in the hybrid film provides unique and crucial function to achieve optimized electrochemical properties. As a result, this ternary composite film shows promising future as electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  11. Topics in high voltage pulsed power plasma devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao

    Pulsed power technology is one of the tools that is used by scientists and engineers nowadays to produce gas plasmas. The transient ultra high power is able to provide a huge pulse of energy which is sometimes greater than the ionization energy of the gas, and therefore separates the ions and electrons to form the plasma. Sometimes, the pulsed power components themselves are plasma devices. For example, the gas type switches can "turn on" the circuit by creating the plasma channel between the switch electrodes. Mini Back Lighted Thyratron, or as we call it, mini-BLT, is one of these gas type plasma switches. The development of the reduced size and weight "mini-BLT" is presented in this dissertation. Based on the operation characteristics testing of the mini-BLT, suggestions of optimizing the design of the switch are proposed. All the factors such as the geometry of the hollow electrodes and switch housing, the gas condition, the optical triggering source, etc. are necessary to consider when we design and operate the mini-BLT. By reducing the diameter of the cylindrical gas path between the electrodes in the BLT, a novel high density plasma source is developed, producing the plasma in the "squeezed" capillary. The pulsed power generator, of course, is inevitably used to provide the ionization energy for hydrogen gas sealed in the capillary. Plasma diagnostics are necessarily analyzed and presented in detail to properly complete and understand the capillary plasma. This high density plasma source (1019 cm-3) has the potential applications in the plasma wakefield accelerator. The resonant oscillation behavior of the particles in plasmas allows for dynamically generated accelerating electric fields that have orders of magnitude larger than those available in the conventional RF accelerators. Finally, the solid state switches are introduced as a comparison to the gas type switch. Pulsed power circuit topologies such as the Marx Bank, magnetic pulse compression and diode

  12. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X.

    2016-01-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H 2 O 2 (Cl), H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (S); sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 (Sb), Al 2 O 3 followed by HCl + H 2 O 2 (SbCl), and Al 2 O 3 followed by H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R p ) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I corr ) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R p values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I corr values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp-Ti. • Acid etching is a promising dental implants surface treatment.

  13. High-aspect ratio micro- and nanostructures enabled by photo-electrochemical etching for sensing and energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaili, Badriyah; Dryden, Daniel M.; Vidu, Ruxandra; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Gao, Yang; Saif Islam, M.

    2018-03-01

    Photo-electrochemical (PEC) etching can produce high-aspect ratio features, such as pillars and holes, with high anisotropy and selectivity, while avoiding the surface and sidewall damage caused by traditional deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) RIE. Plasma-based techniques lead to the formation of dangling bonds, surface traps, carrier leakage paths, and recombination centers. In pursuit of effective PEC etching, we demonstrate an optical system using long wavelength (λ = 975 nm) infra-red (IR) illumination from a high-power laser (1-10 W) to control the PEC etching process in n-type silicon. The silicon wafer surface was patterned with notches through a lithography process and KOH etching. Then, PEC etching was introduced by illuminating the backside of the silicon wafer to enhance depth, resulting in high-aspect ratio structures. The effect of the PEC etching process was optimized by varying light intensities and electrolyte concentrations. This work was focused on determining and optimizing this PEC etching technique on silicon, with the goal of expanding the method to a variety of materials including GaN and SiC that are used in designing optoelectronic and electronic devices, sensors and energy harvesting devices.

  14. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  15. Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to monitor seawater fouling on stainless steels and copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy may be applied to detect and to follow seawater fouling. Experiments have been conducted with natural seawater flowing inside tube-electrodes at temperatures between 30 deg C and 85 deg C. With stainless steel tubes, mineral and organic foulings have been followed; a linear relationship between the dry weight of the organic fouling and its electrical resistance, has been observed. On copper alloy tubes, only mineral deposits have occurred and so have been detected by impedance spectroscopy. (Author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  16. Electrochemical properties and electrochemical impedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films of different thickness were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, containing 0.1 M NaClO4 or sodium dodecylsulfate as the dopant. The PPy films were electrochemically deposited on Pt, and their electrochemical ...

  17. Nanometric MgFe2O4: Synthesis, characterization and its application towards supercapacitor and electrochemical uric acid sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S.; Kumar, S.; Banerjee, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized nanocrystalline MgFe2O4 (S1) by auto-combustion assisted sol-gel method. The structure and morphology and elemental study of S1 are examined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. The FESEM images reveal that the morphology of the sample is rough and average particle size is 50 nm. The PXRD study indicates that the samples are well crystalline and single phase in nature. Moreover, we have performed supercapacitor study by electrochemical galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurement, which shows pseudo capacitive behavior. S1 contains a high specific capacitance of 428.9 Fg-1 at the current density 0.0625 Ag-1 and can deliver high energy and power density of 18.01 Wh kg-1 and 21468 Wkg-1 respectively. Moreover, uric acid (UA) sensing study has also been performed by cyclic voltmetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement (EIS) of S1. We can use nanocrystalline MgFe2O4 as supercapacitor and UA sensor applications purpose.

  18. Influence of Thermal Modification and Morphology of TiO₂ Nanotubes on Their Electrochemical Properties for Biosensors Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkusz, Katarzyna; Paradowska, Ewa; Nycz, Marta; Krasicka-Cydzik, Elżzbieta

    2018-05-01

    The morphology of self-assembled TiO2 nanotubes layer plays a key role in electrical conductivity and biocompatibility properties in terms of cell proliferation, adhesion and mineralization. Many research studies have been reported in using a TiO2 nanotubes for different medical applications, there is a lack of unified correlation between TNT morphology and its electrochemical properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diameter and annealing conditions on TiO2 nanotubes with identical height and their behaviour as biosensor platform. TiO2 nanotubes layer, 1000 nm thick with nanotubes of diameters in range: 25 ÷ 100 nm, was prepared by anodizing of the titanium foil in ethylene glycol solution. To change the crystal structure and improve the electrical conductivity of the semiconductive TiO2 nanotubes layer the thermal treatment by annealing in argon, nitrogen or air was used. Basing on the electrochemical tests, the XPS and scanning microscopy examinations, as well as the contact angle measurements and the amperometric detection of potassium ferricyanide, it was concluded that the 1000 nm thick TiO2 nanotubes layer with nanotubes of 50 nm diameter, annealed in argon, showed the best physicochemical properties, which helps investigate the adsorption immobilization mechanism. The possibility of using TNT as a biosensor platform was confirmed in hydrogen detection.

  19. Application of electrochemically generated ozone to the discoloration and degradation of solutions containing the dye Reactive Orange 122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Mario H.P.; Da Silva, Leonardo M.; Freitas, Admildo C.; Boodts, Julien F.C.; Fernandes, Karla C.; De Faria, Luiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions containing the commercial azo dye Reactive Orange 122 (RO122) were ozonated in acid and alkaline conditions. Ozone was electrochemically generated using a laboratory-made electrochemical reactor and applied using semi-batch conditions and a column bubble reactor. A constant ozone application rate of 0.25 g h -1 was used throughout. Color removal and degradation efficiency were evaluated as function of ozonation time, pH and initial dye concentration by means of discoloration kinetics and COD-TOC removal. Experimental findings revealed that pH affects both discoloration kinetics and COD-TOC removal. A single pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constant, k obs , for discoloration was found for ozonation carried out in alkaline solutions, contrary to acidic solutions where k obs depends on ozonation time. COD-TOC removal supports degradation of RO122 is more pronounced for alkaline conditions. Evaluation of the oxidation feasibility by means of the COD/TOC ratio indicates that the ozonation process in both acid and alkaline conditions leads to a reduction in recalcitrance of the soluble organic matter

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of a Polymer Inclusion Membrane Made of Cellulose Triacetate and Aliquat 336 and Its Application to Sulfonamides Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Benavente

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical characterization of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM fabricated with the ionic liquid (IL Aliquat 336 (26% and the polymer cellulose triacetate (CTA (76% is presented. Considering the use of PIMs in separation systems to remove pollutants from water, the characterization was performed with NaCl solutions by measuring membrane potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and salt diffusion and results were compared with those obtained from dry membranes. Results showed a significant reduction in the membrane diffusive permeability and electrical conductivity as well as the transport number of cation Na+ across the PIM when compared with solution values, which could be mainly related to the dense character of the membrane. Membrane application in the separation of different sulfonamides (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole from water, with 1 M NaCl solution as striping phase, was also considered. These results indicated that the different chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as the compact structure of the PIM, limited the transport of the organic molecules though it.

  1. Fabrication and nanoindentation properties of TiN/NiTi thin films and their applications in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Singh, Devendra; Goyal, Rajendra N; Kaur, Davinder

    2009-05-15

    Nanocrystalline TiN/NiTi thin films have been grown on silicon substrate by dc magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi based shape memory alloys without sacrificing the phase transformation effect. Interestingly, the preferential orientation of the TiN films was observed to change from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0) with change in nature of sputtering gas from 70% Ar+30% N(2) to 100% N(2). In present study the influence of crystallographic orientation of TiN on mechanical and corrosion properties of TiN/NiTi thin films was investigated. TiN (2 0 0)/NiTi films were found to exhibit high hardness, high elastic modulus, and thereby better wear resistance as compared to pure NiTi and TiN (1 1 1)/NiTi films. Electrochemical test revealed that TiN coated NiTi film exhibits better corrosion resistance in 1M NaCl solution as compared to uncoated NiTi film. The application of TiN/NiTi films in the electrochemical sensing of dopamine, which has a critical physiological importance in Parkinson's disease, has been demonstrated. A comparison of voltammetric response of dopamine at silicon based electrodes modified with different nanocrystalline coatings indicated that these films catalyze the oxidation of dopamine.

  2. Application of electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO layers on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Kliment Ohridski N° 8, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (UCTM bul. St. Kliment Ohridski N° 8, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria))" >Georgieva, B; Petrov, M; Lovchinov, K; Ganchev, M; Dimova-Malinovska, D; Georgieva, V

    2014-01-01

    The research was fixed on sensing behavior of ZnO nanostructured (NS) films to NO 2 concentrations in the environment. The ZnO NS layers are deposited by electrochemical method on quartz resonators with Au electrodes. The sorption properties of ZnO layers were defined by measuring the resonant frequency shift (Δf) of the QCM-ZnO structure for different NO 2 concentrations. The measurements were based on the correlation between the frequency shift of the QCM and additional mass loading (Δm) on the resonator calculated using Sauerbrey equation for the AT-cut quartz plate. Frequency – Time Characteristics (FTCs) of the samples were measured as a function of different NO 2 concentrations in order to define the sorption abilities of ZnO layers. The experiments were carried out on a special set up in a dynamical regime. From FTCs the response and the recovery times of the QCM-ZnO structure were measured with varying NO 2 . Frequency shift changed from 23 Hz to 58Hz when NO 2 was varied in the range of 250ppm – 5000ppm. The process of sorption was estimated as reversible and the sorption as physical. The obtained results demonstrated that QCM covered with the electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO films can be used as application in NO 2 sensors

  3. Reversible pH Stimulus-Response Material Based on Amphiphilic Block Polymer Self-Assembly and Its Electrochemical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-responsive microporous solid thin films were successfully fabricated by simple molecular self-assembly via an amphiphilic block polymer, polystryene–b–polyacrylic acid (PS–b–PAA. The solid thin films exhibit different surface morphologies in response to external stimuli, such as environments with different pH values in aqueous solutions. The experiments have successfully applied atomic force microscope (AFM technology to observe in-situ surface morphological changes. There is a reversible evolution of the microstructures in buffer solutions over a pH range of 2.4–9.2. These observations have been explained by positing that there is no conventional PAA swelling but that the PAA chains in the micropores stretch and contract with changes in the pH of the solution environment. The hydrophobicity of the solid thin film surface was transformed into super-hydrophilicity, as captured by optical contact angle measurements. The stimulus-responsive dynamics of pore sizes was described by a two-stage mechanism. A promising electrochemical application of this film is suggested via combination with an electrochemical impedance technique. This study is aimed at strategies for the functionalization of stimulus-responsive microporous solid thin films with reversible tunable surface morphologies, and exploring new smart materials with switch-on/switch-off behavior.

  4. Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudy, M.; Grabowska, I.; Ciosek, P.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various miniaturized devices and technologies developed by our group. Innovative, fast and cheap procedures for the fabrication of laboratory microsystems based on commercially available materials are reported and compared with well-established microfabricatio...

  5. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements. PMID:25939038

  6. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  7. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hong, Jun Ki; Kjeang, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  8. STUDYING THE STRUCTURAL, OPTICAL, CHEMICAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL ETCHING CHANGES OF CR-39 FOR DOSEMETRIC APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M F; Elshaer, Y H; Taha, Doaa H

    2017-12-01

    The present work shows the induced modification of the structural, optical, chemical etching and electrochemical etching parameters of CR-39 irradiated with alpha-particles. CR-39 polymer track detectors were irradiated with different fluences (1.62 × 106, 2.72 × 106, 3.82 × 106 and 5.21 × 106 particles/cm2) of alpha-particles using 241Am source. The structural and optical properties were measured by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV/Vis spectroscopy, respectively. The FT-IR spectra reveal that no major changes in the typical functional groups of irradiated polymer detectors. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that a broad band in the region of 12° 27°, which refers to the presence of the combination of amorphous and crystalline phases. UV/Vis responses of irradiated polymer track detectors exhibit a single absorption band in the range of 254-352 nm that is correlated to the occurrence of electronic transition. Also, the changes in the chemical and electrochemical parameters due to alpha-irradiation are examined and thoroughly discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Application of Electrochemical Process in Removal of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Municipal landfill leachate contains high concentrations of heavy metals, organics, ammonia. The efficeincy of electrochemically removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate was studied. Materials & Methods The leachate was obtained from Kahrizak landfill in south of Tehran. The experiments were carried out by batch process. The 2liter batch reactor was made of glass. There were eight anodes and cathodes electrodes. The electrodes were placed vertically parallel to each other and they were connected to a digital DC power supply. The pH and conductivity were adjusted to a desirable value using NaOH or H2SO4, and NaCl. All the runs were performed at constant temperature of 25°C. In each run, 1.5liter of the leachate was placed into the electrolytic cell. Samples were extracted every 10min and then filtered through a mixed cellulose acetate membrane (0.42μm. The amount of Lead, Zinc and Nickel removal was measured at pH=7 and in current density of 0.5, 0.75, and 1A. Findings When current density and time reaction increased, removal efficiency of heavy metals such as Lead, Zinc and Nickel increased. At initial pH=7, density 1A and reaction time= 60min, Lead, Nickel and Zinc were removed up to 86, 93 and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Electrochemical process can be proposed as a suitable technique to remove heavy metal from landfill leachate.

  10. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  11. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others

    2016-08-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  12. GaN power devices for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, T.; Kachi, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    GaN is an attractive material for high performance power devices. Vertical GaN power devices are suitable for high current operation, on the other hand, lateral GaN power devices, namely GaN lateral HEMTs have both low on-resistance and low parasitic capacitance. In addition, the GaN lateral HEMTs can be fabricated on Si substrate. We can get low conduction loss and low switching loss devices with low cost. So the GaN lateral HEMTs are suitable for subsystems like an air conditioner and an electric power steering. Serious technical issues about GaN power devices are a normally-off operation, a current collapse, and a high quality gate insulator. Several normally-off operation techniques have been proposed but there is no decisive method. An NH3 surface treatment and a SiO2 passivation are useful to suppress the current collapse. An Al2O3 deposited by ALD is excellent for gate insulator in breakdown and it has enough TDDB reliability under room temperature and 150°C.

  13. Flexible Thick-Film Electrochemical Sensors: Impact of Mechanical Bending and Stress on the Electrochemical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaying; Cizek, Karel; Long, Brenton; McAferty, Kenyon; Campbell, Casey G.; Allee, David R.; Vogt, Bryan D.; La Belle, Jeff; Wang, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the mechanical bending, rolling and crimping of flexible screen-printed electrodes upon their electrical properties and electrochemical behavior has been elucidated. Three different flexible plastic substrates, Mylar, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and Kapton, have been tested in connection to the printing of graphite ink working electrodes. Our data indicate that flexible printed electrodes can be bent to extremely small radii of curvature and still function well, despite a marginal increase the electrical resistance. Below critical radii of curvature of ~8 mm, full recovery of the electrical resistance occurs upon strain release. The electrochemical response is maintained for sub-mm bending radii and a 180° pinch of the electrode does not lead to device failure. The electrodes appear to be resistant to repeated bending. Such capabilities are demonstrated using model compounds, including ferrocyanide, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nitronaphthalene (NN). These printed electrodes hold great promise for widespread applications requiring flexible, yet robust non-planar sensing devices. PMID:20160861

  14. Real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy diagnosis of the solid oxide fuel cell for marine power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hironori; Kitahara, Tatsumi

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated the behavior of an operating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with supplying a simulated syngas to develop diagnosis method of the SOFC for marine power applications fueled with liquefied natural gas (LNG). We analyze the characteristics of a syngas-fueled intermediate temperature microtubular SOFC at 500 ∘C for accelerated deterioration by carbon deposition as a model case by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to in-situ find parameters useful for the real-time diagnosis. EIS analyses are performed by complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) curve fitting to measured impedance spectra with an equivalent electric circuit model consisting of several resistances and capacitances attributed to the anode and cathode processes as well as Ohmic resistance of the cell. The characteristic changes of those circuit parameters by internal reforming and anode degradation are extracted, showing that they can be used for the real-time diagnosis of operating SOFCs.

  15. Electrochemical tuning of vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and its application in improving hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haotian; Lu, Zhiyi; Xu, Shicheng; Kong, Desheng; Cha, Judy J; Zheng, Guangyuan; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yan, Kai; Bradshaw, David; Prinz, Fritz B; Cui, Yi

    2013-12-03

    The ability to intercalate guest species into the van der Waals gap of 2D layered materials affords the opportunity to engineer the electronic structures for a variety of applications. Here we demonstrate the continuous tuning of layer vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms through electrochemical intercalation of Li(+) ions. By scanning the Li intercalation potential from high to low, we have gained control of multiple important material properties in a continuous manner, including tuning the oxidation state of Mo, the transition of semiconducting 2H to metallic 1T phase, and expanding the van der Waals gap until exfoliation. Using such nanofilms after different degree of Li intercalation, we show the significant improvement of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity. A strong correlation between such tunable material properties and hydrogen evolution reaction activity is established. This work provides an intriguing and effective approach on tuning electronic structures for optimizing the catalytic activity.

  16. Electrochemical tuning of vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and its application in improving hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haotian; Lu, Zhiyi; Xu, Shicheng; Kong, Desheng; Cha, Judy J.; Zheng, Guangyuan; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yan, Kai; Bradshaw, David; Prinz, Fritz B.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to intercalate guest species into the van der Waals gap of 2D layered materials affords the opportunity to engineer the electronic structures for a variety of applications. Here we demonstrate the continuous tuning of layer vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms through electrochemical intercalation of Li+ ions. By scanning the Li intercalation potential from high to low, we have gained control of multiple important material properties in a continuous manner, including tuning the oxidation state of Mo, the transition of semiconducting 2H to metallic 1T phase, and expanding the van der Waals gap until exfoliation. Using such nanofilms after different degree of Li intercalation, we show the significant improvement of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity. A strong correlation between such tunable material properties and hydrogen evolution reaction activity is established. This work provides an intriguing and effective approach on tuning electronic structures for optimizing the catalytic activity. PMID:24248362

  17. Fabrication, Modification, and Emerging Applications of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays by Electrochemical Synthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania nanotube arrays (TNAs as a hot nanomaterial have a unique highly ordered array structure and good mechanical and chemical stability, as well as excellent anticorrosion, biocompatible, and photocatalytic performance. It has been fabricated by a facile electrochemical anodization in electrolytes containing small amounts of fluoric ions. In combination with our research work, we review the recent progress of the new research achievements of TNAs on the preparation processes, forming mechanism, and modification. In addition, we will review the potential and significant applications in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, solar cells, water splitting, and other aspects. Finally, the existing problems and further prospects of this renascent and rapidly developing field are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  20. Molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors for applications in photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meinhardt, G

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on molecular as well as polymeric semiconductors were investigated and characterized. The organic materials presented here exhibit the advantages of low price, low processing costs and the possibility of tuning their optical properties. The photovoltaic properties were investigated by photocurrent action spectroscopy and I/V-characterization and the electric field distribution in each layer by electroabsorption spectroscopy. Single layer devices of molecular semiconductors and semiconducting polymers like methyl-substituted polyparaphenylene, CN-Ether-PPV, copper-phthalocyanine, the terryleneimide DOTer, the perylene derivatives BBP-perylene and polyBBP-perylene show low photocurrents as well as a small photovoltaic effect in their pristine form. One way to enhance the performance is to blend the active layer with molecular dopands like a soluble form of titaniumoxophthalocyanine or the aromatic macromolecule RS19 or to combine two organic semiconductors in heterostructure devices. ...

  1. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  2. Electrochemical Corrosion Characteristics of Arc-Ion-Plated AlTiN Coating for Marine Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Kim, MyoungJun; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) coating was deposited by arc ion plating onto mirror finish STS 304 plate. The surface and cross-section of the coating was characterized by SEM and EDX analysis. Several electrochemical corrosion experiments were performed including rest potential measurement, potentiodynamic polarization experiment and Tafel analysis. The result of the experiments indicated that the AlTiN coating presented lower corrosion current density than the substrate material (STS 304) under uniform corrosion environment. It was also observed that AlTiN coating may have a risk of being attacked by localized corrosion attack such as pitting when pores or micro/nano particles in the coating are exposed to chloride ion containing corrosion environment, especially marine environment.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of loop diuretic furosemide in aqueous acid medium and its analytical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikandar D. Bukkitgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of oxidative–reductive mechanisms of pharmaceutically important molecules gives us information about the metabolic fact of targeted drug. As compared to recent ongoing, time-consuming and costly techniques, there is an urgent needing for development of a sensitive technique, which can help easy understanding of these pathways. Therefore, in the present work, an effective, low-cost and time-saving technique to investigate the reaction mechanism of furosemide in aqueous acid medium is attempted. Furosemide undergoes two-proton and two-electron transfer reaction. The product obtained was analysed by UV spectra. It was found that the chemical oxidation and electrochemical oxidation of furosemide follows two different pathways. In addition, an effective technique has been developed to determine furosemide in its trace level. Good recoveries and low detection limit accomplished the magnitude of the proposed method. The proposed method was adopted for furosemide determination in human urine and pharmaceutical samples.

  4. CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES OF (PEO +KHCO3 SOLID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION AS AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte system, polyethylene oxide (PEO complexed with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 salt was prepared by solution-cast technique. Several experimental techniques such as infrared radiation (IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and composition dependence conductivity, temperature dependence conductivity in the temperature range of 308–368 K and transport number measurements were employed to characterize this polymer electrolyte system. The conductivity of the (PEO+KHCO3 electrolyte was found to be about 3 times larger than that of pure PEO at room temperature. The transference data indicated that the charge transport in these polymer electrolyte systems is predominantly due to K+ ions. Using this polymer electrolyte an electrochemical cell with configuration K+/(PEO+KHCO3/(I2+C+electrolyte was fabricated and its discharge characteristics are studied. A number of other cell parameters associated with the cell were evaluated and are reported in this paper.

  5. Application of o-tolidine as substrate for the electrochemical determination of hemoglobin or hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper hemoglobin (Hb was used to catalyze the oxidative reaction of ο-tolidine (OT with H2O2. The oxidative product of OT with H2O2 was an azo substrate, which was electroactive and had a sensitive linear sweep voltammetric reductive peak at -0.52 V (vs. SCE on hanging mercury drop working electrode (HMDE in pH 5.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R solution. The conditions of Hb catalytic reaction and voltammetric detection were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical behaviour of the oxidative product was carefully investigated and the electrode process of the product on mercury electrode was proposed. Based on the increase of the reductive peak current of the oxidative product with the concentration of the H2O2 or Hb, a new electrochemical method for the determination of trace amount of H2O2 or Hb was proposed. The calibration graph had a linear range of 6.0 x 10-8 to 4.0 x 10-5 M for H2O2 and 1.0 x 10-9 to 7.0 x 10-7 M for Hb with the detection limit of 1.0 x 10-8 M H2O2 and 5.0 x 10-10 M Hb (3σ, respectively. This new proposed method was further attempted to determine the content of H2O2 in fresh rainwater with satisfactory results.

  6. Synthesis of nanosized vanadium pentoxide/carbon composites by spray pyrolysis for electrochemical capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Wexler, David; Liu Hao; Wang Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured vanadium pentoxide/carbon (V 2 O 5 /carbon) composite powders with enhanced specific capacitance were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique. Electrochemical properties were examined by the cyclic voltammetry technique. Following analysis of powders sprayed at different temperatures, composite powders obtained at an optimum temperature of 450 deg. C yielded a maximum specific capacitance of 295 F g -1 in 2 M KCl electrolyte at a 5-mV s -1 scan rate. The weight percentage of carbon-related species was 2.7 wt% in this V 2 O 5 /carbon composite, as detected by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confirmed by transmission electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) analysis. Following initial X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) imaging revealed a specific morphology of spherical shell agglomerates of V 2 O 5 nanorods and nanoribbons, with each shell comprising a network of these one- and two-dimensional nanoparticles in an amorphous carbon matrix. The V 2 O 5 network was not fully dense, and the majority of the nanorod sizes were in the range of 50-150 nm, with additional long nanoribbons extending from the outsides of the spherical shells. The specific surface area was 18 m 2 g -1 for the composite powders, and the pore size distribution revealed that the majority of pores had diameters in the range of 40-50 A, which was relatively larger than the pore diameters obtained at 500 deg. C and would be beneficial for electrochemical performance. The enhancement of the specific capacitance in V 2 O 5 /carbon composites was attributed to the distribution of amorphous carbon throughout the V 2 O 5 and the particular open nanostructure

  7. Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography: Theoretical investigations and applications from the perspectives of chromatography and interfacial electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, David W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) employs a conductive material as both a stationary phase for chromatographic separations and as a working electrode for performing electrochemistry experiments. This dual functionality gives EMLC the capacity to manipulate chromatographic separations by changing the potential applied (Eapp) to the stationary phase with respect to an external reference. The ability to monitor retention as a function of Eapp provides a means to chromatographically monitor electrosorption processes at solid-liquid interfaces. In this dissertation, the retention mechanism for EMLC is examined from the perspective of electrical double layer theory and interfacial thermodynamics. From the chromatographic data, it is possible to determine the interfacial excess (Λ) of a solute and changes in interfacial tension (dγ) as a function of both Eapp and the supporting electrolyte concentration. Taken together, these two experimentally manipulated parameters can be examined within the context of the Gibbs adsorption equation to delineate the contribution of a variety of interfacial properties, including the charge of solute on the stationary phase and the potential of zero charge (PZC), to the mechanism behind EMLC-based retention. The chromatographic probing of interfacial phenomena is complemented by electroanalytical experiments that exploit the ability to monitor the electronic current flowing through an EMLC column. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of an EMLC column are used to determine the electronic performance characteristics of an EMLC column. An electrochemical flow injection analysis of a column is provided in which the current required to maintain a constant Eapp is monitored and provides a way to examine the influence that acetonitrile and supporting electrolyte composition, flow rate, column backpressure, and ionic strength have on the structure of electrified interfaces.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of pulsed layer deposited hydroxyapatite-zirconia layers on Ti-21Nb-15Ta-6Zr alloy for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Javier [Department of Chemistry, Universidad de La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bolat, Georgiana [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 Prof. Dr. Doc. D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Cimpoesu, Nicanor [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science, 61-63 Prof. Dr. Doc. D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Trinca, Lucia Carmen [Science Department, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, M. Sadoveanu Alley 3, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Mareci, Daniel, E-mail: danmareci@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 Prof. Dr. Doc. D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Souto, Ricardo Manuel, E-mail: rsouto@ull.es [Department of Chemistry, Universidad de La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • New quarternary Ti-based alloy for biomaterial application. • Combined hydroxyapatite-zirconia coating produced by pulsed laser deposition. • Porous layer formed on the coated alloy blocks electron transfer reactions. • Electrochemical behaviour consistent with passive film with duplex structure. • HA–ZrO{sub 2} coated Ti-21Nb-15Ta-6Zr exhibits high potential for osseointegration. - Abstract: A new titanium base Ti-21Nb-15Ta-6Zr alloy covered with hydroxyapatite-zirconia (HA–ZrO{sub 2}) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique was characterized regarding its corrosion resistance in simulated physiological Ringer’s solution at 37 °C. For the sake of comparison, Ti-6Al-4V standard implant alloy, with and without hydroxyapatite-zirconia coating, was also characterized. Multiscale electrochemical analysis using both conventional averaging electrochemical techniques, namely electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization, and spatially-resolved microelectrochemical techniques (scanning electrochemical microscopy, SECM) were used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the materials. In addition, scanning electron microscopy evidenced that no relevant surface morphology changes occurred on the materials upon immersion in the simulated physiological solution, despite variations in their electrochemical behaviour. Although uncoated metals appear to show better performances during conventional corrosion tests, the response is still quite similar for the HA–ZrO{sub 2} coated materials while providing superior resistance towards electron transfer due to the formation of a more dense film on the surface, thus effectively behaving as a passive material. It is believed corrosion of the HA–ZrO{sub 2} coated Ti-21Nb-15Ta-6Zr alloy will have negligible effect upon biochemical and cellular events at the bone-implant interface and could facilitate osseointegration.

  9. Fundamentals of photoelectric effects in molecular electronic thin film devices: applications to bacteriorhodopsin-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F T

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial lecture focuses on the fundamental mechanistic aspects of light-induced charge movements in pigment-containing membranes. The topic is relevant to molecular electronics because many prototypes optoelectronic devices are configured as pigment-containing thin films. We use reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin membranes as an example to illustrate the underlying principle of measurements and data interpretation. Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, is the only protein component in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. It resembles the visual pigment rhodopsin chemically but performs the function of photosynthesis. Bacteriorhodopsin thus offers an unprecedented opportunity for us to compare the visual photoreceptor and the photosynthetic apparatus from a mechanistic point of view. Bacteriorhodopsin, well known for its exceptional chemical and mechanical stability, is also a popular advanced biomaterial for molecular device construction. The tutorial approaches the subject from two angles. First, the fundamental photoelectric properties are exploited for device construction. Second, basic design principles for photosensors and photon energy converters can be elucidated via 'reverse engineering'. The concept of molecular intelligence and the principle of biomimetic science are discussed.

  10. Method for making an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Harry L.; Kramer, Steve A.; Spears, Marlene A.; Pal, Uday B.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is provided.

  11. Electrochemical Biosensors - Sensor Principles and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Dorothee; MacKenzie, Robert; Vörös, Janos; Reimhult, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate

  12. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  13. The Application of Mobile Devices in the Translation Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    While the presence of mobile electronic devices in the classroom has posed real challenges to instructors, a growing number of teachers believe they should seize the chance to improve the quality of instruction. The advent of new mobile technologies (laptops, smartphones, tablets, etc.) in the translation classroom has opened up new opportunities…

  14. Device Realization, Characterization and Modeling for Linear RF Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, K.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis work addresses semiconductor device technology, characterization and modeling solutions that support the development of future generations of mobile phones, which are able to handle various wireless services in flexible manner. Today’s plurality of high data-rate communication signals

  15. Simple and Large Scale Construction of MoS2-g-C3N4 Heterostructures Using Mechanochemistry for High Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitor and Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The design of heterojunctions for efficient electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation are promising for future energy and environment applications. In this study, a molybdenum disulfide-graphitic carbon nitride (MoS2-g-C3N4) heterojunction was designed by applying simple mechanochemistry, which can be scaled up for mass production. The physical-chemical and photophysical properties of the as-prepared MoS2-g-C3N4 heterojunction were analyzed using a range of characterization techniques. The supercapacitance performance was determined by electrochemical half-cell measurements, and visible light-induced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance was studied using photocurrent and model organic pollutant degradation experiments. The resulting MoS2-g-C3N4 under the optimized experimental conditions showed significantly higher photocatalytic activity and photoelectrochemical performance under similar visible photoirradiation conditions compared to the bare materials. The resulting heterostructure electrode delivered a higher capacitance of 240.85 F/g than the bare material (48.77 F/g) with good capacitance retention. The superior performance was attributed mainly to the robust light harvesting ability, improved charge separation, high surface area, increased mass transfer, and capacitive and conductive behavior. The convenient and mass production of heterojunctions using a simple and cost-effective method will provide a good example for the efficient design of visible light active photocatalysts and capacitor electrode materials for environmental remediation and energy storage device applications. PMID:28240228

  16. Simple and Large Scale Construction of MoS2-g-C3N4 Heterostructures Using Mechanochemistry for High Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitor and Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2017-02-01

    The design of heterojunctions for efficient electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation are promising for future energy and environment applications. In this study, a molybdenum disulfide-graphitic carbon nitride (MoS2-g-C3N4) heterojunction was designed by applying simple mechanochemistry, which can be scaled up for mass production. The physical-chemical and photophysical properties of the as-prepared MoS2-g-C3N4 heterojunction were analyzed using a range of characterization techniques. The supercapacitance performance was determined by electrochemical half-cell measurements, and visible light-induced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance was studied using photocurrent and model organic pollutant degradation experiments. The resulting MoS2-g-C3N4 under the optimized experimental conditions showed significantly higher photocatalytic activity and photoelectrochemical performance under similar visible photoirradiation conditions compared to the bare materials. The resulting heterostructure electrode delivered a higher capacitance of 240.85 F/g than the bare material (48.77 F/g) with good capacitance retention. The superior performance was attributed mainly to the robust light harvesting ability, improved charge separation, high surface area, increased mass transfer, and capacitive and conductive behavior. The convenient and mass production of heterojunctions using a simple and cost-effective method will provide a good example for the efficient design of visible light active photocatalysts and capacitor electrode materials for environmental remediation and energy storage device applications.

  17. Analysis of multi cloud storage applications for resource constrained mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage, which can be a surrogate for all physical hardware storage devices, is a term which gives a reflection of an enormous advancement in engineering (Hung et al., 2012. However, there are many issues that need to be handled when accessing cloud storage on resource constrained mobile devices due to inherent limitations of mobile devices as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup (Yeo et al., 2014. There are many multi cloud storage applications available, which handle issues faced by single cloud storage applications. In this paper, we are providing analysis of different multi cloud storage applications developed for resource constrained mobile devices to check their performance on the basis of parameters as battery consumption, CPU usage, data usage and time consumed by using mobile phone device Sony Xperia ZL (smart phone on WiFi network. Lastly, conclusion and open research challenges in these multi cloud storage apps are discussed.

  18. Structural characterisations of AlN/diamond structures used for surface acoustic wave device applications

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; Elmazria, O; NESLADEK, Milos; Elhakiki, M; VANHOYLAND, Geert; D'HAEN, Jan; D'OLIESLAEGER, Marc; Alnot, P

    2003-01-01

    Diamond based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are extremely versatile devices that are just beginning to realize their commercial potential for use from sensors till high frequency (HF) filters for wireless telecommunications. One of the most promising piezoelectric materials for diamond based HF-SAW devices is aluminium nitride (AlN) thin film. The ability of AlN and diamond to be used for SAW applications depends both on the piezoelectric AlN layer properties and the diamond substrate p...

  19. Discrete Fourier Transform as applicable technique in electrochemical detection of hydrazine using multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyacrylonitrile ceramic fiber as working electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-05-01

    Effect of "Discrete Fourier Transform" (DFT) is studied for electrochemical detection of some electroactive species using multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyacrylonitrile ceramic fiber as ultra micro electrode. Based on DFT theory, two independent phases i.e. the imaginary and real phases are evaluated during the oxidation/reduction of the quasi-reversible or irreversible electroactive species, revealing the independent components of imaginary (IImaginary) and real (IReal) currents. The results show that, in different electrochemical modes such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), the contribution of DFT to the electrochemical signals significantly improves the detection limit of the electrochemical technique. More sensitive signals are obtained at high scan rates according to the combination of electrochemical techniques with the DFT theory. The reliability of DFT algorithm was evaluated for rapid determination of trace amount of hydrazine (N2H4) at a scan rate up to 800 V s(-1). In this study, the amounts of phase and amplitude were estimated to 1.69 and 31.57, respectively. The detection limit of hydrazine was 4.13×10(-9) M. The application of this technique was also evaluated for determination of hydrazine in different industrial wastewater samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. One-step electrochemical deposition of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and application for detection of organophosphorus agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-04-27

    This paper described the preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite (GZN) and its application for both the enrichment and detection of methyl parathion (MP). GZN was fabricated using electrochemical deposition and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed the successful formation of nanocomposites. Due to the strong affinity to the phosphoric group and the fast electron-transfer kinetics of GZN, both the extraction and electrochemical detection of organophosphorus (OP) agents at the same GZN modified electrochemical sensor was possible. The combination of solid-phase extraction and stripping voltammetric analysis allowed fast, sensitive, and selective determination of MP in garlic samples. The stripping response was highly linear over the MP concentrations ranging from 0.5 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. This new nanocomposite-based electrochemical sensor provides an opportunity to develop a field-deployable, sensitive, and quantitative method for monitoring exposure to OPs.

  1. Application range of micro focus radiographic devices associated to image processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Ferriani, S.; Verre, F.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray devices having a focus area less than 100 μ are called micro focus X-ray equipment. Here the range of application and the characteristics of these devices including the possibility of employing the coupling with real time image enhancement computers are defined

  2. Ferroelectric Thin Films Basic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films continue to attract much attention due to their developing, diverse applications in memory devices, FeRAM, infrared sensors, piezoelectric sensors and actuators. This book, aimed at students, researchers and developers, gives detailed information about the basic properties of these materials and the associated device physics. All authors are acknowledged experts in the field.

  3. [Preparation of chemically modified carbon electrodes by anodization in 1-alkanols and their application to electrochemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, H

    2000-02-01

    Anodization of a glassy carbon (GC) in a 1-alkanol in a cycled or constant potential mode serves as a useful tool for preparing a chemically modified GC electrode. By this treatment, 1-alkanol molecules are fixed on the GC surface via ether linkage. As the 1-alkanol in the anodic modification, CH3(CH2)nOH (1: n = 0-7), HO(CH2)nOH (2: n = 1-5), and HO(CH2CH2O)nR (3: n = 1-4, R = H; 4: n = 1-3, R = CH3) are utilized. The surface of a GC electrode anodized in the 1-alkanol remarkably reflects the identities of the modifiers. Some of the modified GC electrodes exhibit surface characteristics useful for electroanalytical application as follows: (1) the surface of the GC electrode anodized in 3 or 4 is hydrophilic and resists protein adsorption. An HPLC system equipped with an electrochemical detector employing the GC plate anodized in triethylene glycol as a working electrode has proven to provide a useful analytical method for a protein-containing sample; (2) in the course of anodization of the GC electrode in 2, the diol molecules are first fixed on the surface via ether linkage with one of hydroxyl groups, and the remaining terminal hydroxyl groups in some of the fixed molecules are then oxidized to carboxyl groups. Thus, the GC electrode anodically modified with 2 has carboxyl groups on the surface, which allow dopamine to be voltammetrically discriminated from ascorbic acid in a large excess; (3) when the GC electrode is anodized in triethylene glycol containing HOCH2CH2SO3Na, carboxyl groups are effectively introduced on the surface. On the basis of the formation of an amide bond formation through chemical reaction between the functional groups and amino compounds, electrochemical catalysts such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and catechol are immobilized on the surface of the GC electrode. The obtained electrodes shows stable voltammetric and electrochemically catalytic performance probably because the catalytic molecules are confined on the

  4. Controllable Synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays and Their Application for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Zhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rational design/fabrication of integrated porous metal oxide arrays is critical for the construction of advanced electrochemical devices. Herein, we report self-supported CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by the combination of electro-deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. CuO/C nanowires with diameters of ~400 nm grow quasi-vertically to the substrates forming three-dimensional arrays architecture. A thin carbon shell is uniformly coated on the CuO nanowire cores. As an anode of lithium ion batteries, the resultant CuO/C nanowire arrays are demonstrated to have high specific capacity (672 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C and good cycle stability (425 mAh·g−1 at 1 C up to 150 cycles. The core/shell arrays structure plays positive roles in the enhancement of Li ion storage due to fast ion/electron transfer path, good strain accommodation and sufficient contact between electrolyte and active materials.

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays and Their Application for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiye; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2015-10-09

    Rational design/fabrication of integrated porous metal oxide arrays is critical for the construction of advanced electrochemical devices. Herein, we report self-supported CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by the combination of electro-deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. CuO/C nanowires with diameters of ~400 nm grow quasi-vertically to the substrates forming three-dimensional arrays architecture. A thin carbon shell is uniformly coated on the CuO nanowire cores. As an anode of lithium ion batteries, the resultant CuO/C nanowire arrays are demonstrated to have high specific capacity (672 mAh·g -1 at 0.2 C) and good cycle stability (425 mAh·g -1 at 1 C up to 150 cycles). The core/shell arrays structure plays positive roles in the enhancement of Li ion storage due to fast ion/electron transfer path, good strain accommodation and sufficient contact between electrolyte and active materials.

  6. Appdaptivity: An Internet of Things Device-Decoupled System for Portable Applications in Changing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Martín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, applications in the Internet of Things (IoT are tightly coupled to the underlying physical devices. As a consequence, upon adding a device, device replacement or user’s relocation to a different physical space, application developers have to re-perform installation and configuration processes to reconfigure applications, which bears costs in time and knowledge of low-level details. In the emerging IoT field, this issue is even more challenging due to its current unpredictable growth in term of applications and connected devices. In addition, IoT applications can be personalised to each end user and can be present in different environments. As a result, IoT scenarios are very changeable, presenting a challenge for IoT applications. In this paper we present Appdaptivity, a system that enables the development of portable device-decoupled applications that can be adapted to changing contexts. Through Appdaptivity, application developers can intuitively create portable and personalised applications, disengaging from the underlying physical infrastructure. Results confirms a good scalability of the system in terms of connected users and components involved.

  7. Graphene–Gold Nanoparticles Hybrid—Synthesis, Functionalization, and Application in a Electrochemical and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a single-atom-thick two-dimensional carbon nanosheet with outstanding chemical, electrical, material, optical, and physical properties due to its large surface area, high electron mobility, thermal conductivity, and stability. These extraordinary features of graphene make it a key component for different applications in the biosensing and imaging arena. However, the use of graphene alone is correlated with certain limitations, such as irreversible self-agglomerations, less colloidal stability, poor reliability/repeatability, and non-specificity. The addition of gold nanostructures (AuNS with graphene produces the graphene–AuNS hybrid nanocomposite which minimizes the limitations as well as providing additional synergistic properties, that is, higher effective surface area, catalytic activity, electrical conductivity, water solubility, and biocompatibility. This review focuses on the fundamental features of graphene, the multidimensional synthesis, and multipurpose applications of graphene–Au nanocomposites. The paper highlights the graphene–gold nanoparticle (AuNP as the platform substrate for the fabrication of electrochemical and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS-based biosensors in diverse applications as well as SERS-directed bio-imaging, which is considered as an emerging sector for monitoring stem cell differentiation, and detection and treatment of cancer.

  8. Graphene–Gold Nanoparticles Hybrid—Synthesis, Functionalization, and Application in a Electrochemical and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Yehye, Wageeh A.; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a single-atom-thick two-dimensional carbon nanosheet with outstanding chemical, electrical, material, optical, and physical properties due to its large surface area, high electron mobility, thermal conductivity, and stability. These extraordinary features of graphene make it a key component for different applications in the biosensing and imaging arena. However, the use of graphene alone is correlated with certain limitations, such as irreversible self-agglomerations, less colloidal stability, poor reliability/repeatability, and non-specificity. The addition of gold nanostructures (AuNS) with graphene produces the graphene–AuNS hybrid nanocomposite which minimizes the limitations as well as providing additional synergistic properties, that is, higher effective surface area, catalytic activity, electrical conductivity, water solubility, and biocompatibility. This review focuses on the fundamental features of graphene, the multidimensional synthesis, and multipurpose applications of graphene–Au nanocomposites. The paper highlights the graphene–gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the platform substrate for the fabrication of electrochemical and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensors in diverse applications as well as SERS-directed bio-imaging, which is considered as an emerging sector for monitoring stem cell differentiation, and detection and treatment of cancer. PMID:28773528

  9. A hydrogel pen for electrochemical reaction and its applications for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosuk; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun

    2014-12-01

    A hydrogel pen consisting of a microscopic pyramid containing an electrolyte offers a localized electroactive area on the nanometer scale via controlled contact of the apex with a working electrode. The hydrogel pen merges the fine control of atomic force microscopy with non-linear diffusion of an ultramicroelectrode, producing a faradaic current that depends on the small electroactive area. The theoretical and experimental investigations of the mass transport behavior within the hydrogel reveal that the steady-state current from the faradaic reaction is linearly proportional to the deformed length of the hydrogel pen by contact, i.e. signal transduction of deformation to an electrochemical signal, which enables the fine control of the electroactive area in the nanometer-scale regime. Combined with electrodeposition, localized electrochemistry of the hydrogel pen results in the ability to fabricate small sizes (110 nm in diameter), tall heights (up to 30 μm), and arbitrary structures, thereby indicating an additive process in 3 dimensions by localized electrodeposition.A hydrogel pen consisting of a microscopic pyramid containing an electrolyte offers a localized electroactive area on the nanometer scale via controlled contact of the apex with a working electrode. The hydrogel pen merges the fine control of atomic force microscopy with non-linear diffusion of an ultramicroelectrode, producing a faradaic current that depends on the small electroactive area. The theoretical and experimental investigations of the mass transport behavior within the hydrogel reveal that the steady-state current from the faradaic reaction is linearly proportional to the deformed length of the hydrogel pen by contact, i.e. signal transduction of deformation to an electrochemical signal, which enables the fine control of the electroactive area in the nanometer-scale regime. Combined with electrodeposition, localized electrochemistry of the hydrogel pen results in the ability to fabricate

  10. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  11. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  12. Symposium on applications of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The abstracts are given of thirteen papers presented at a ''SQUID Symposium'' organized by the Division of Materials Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and held March 23--25, 1978, at the University of Virginia. Since SQUID systems have already been utilized in feasibility demonstration in geothermal reservoir exploration, it was recognized that these devices also hold great potential for many other important scientific measurements. Many of these are energy-related, and others include forefront investigations in a diverse group of scientific areas, from biomedical to earthquake monitoring. Research in SQUIDs has advanced so rapidly in recent years that it was felt that a symposium to review the current status and future prospects of the devices would be timely. The abstracts given present an overview of work in this area and hopefully provide an opportunity to increase awareness among basic and applied scientists of the inherent implications of the extreme measurement sensitivity in advanced SQUID systems

  13. Marine Applications of Power Supply and Conditioning Interfaces for High Power Pulse Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutan, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    ...), Capacitors, Compulsators, and Batteries as energy storage devices and graphically illustrates pertinent data (weight, volume, etc) per pulse power application for the ship designer to determine suitability for marine vessels.

  14. Application of methods of discrete mathematics at modular synthesis of mechatronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforov, S.; Nikiforov, B.; Mandarov, E.; Rabdanova, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to application of methods of discrete mathematics (the theory of counts, the method of matrix code and others) and synthesis of executive mechanisms of mechatronic handling devices

  15. Love-Mode MEMS Devices for Sensing Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Love-wave-based MEMS devices are theoretically investigated in their potential role as a promising technological platform for the development of acoustic-wave-based sensors for liquid environments. Both single- and bi-layered structures have been investigated and the velocity dispersion curves were calculated for different layer thicknesses, crystallographic orientations, material types and electrical boundary conditions. High velocity materials have been investigated too, enabling device miniaturization, power consumption reduction and integration with the conditioning electronic circuits. The electroacoustic coupling coefficient dispersion curves of the first four Love modes are calculated for four dispersive coupling configurations based on a c-axis tilted ZnO layer on wz-BN substrate. The gravimetric sensitivity of four Love modes travelling at a common velocity of 9318 m/s along different layer thicknesses, and of three Love modes travelling at different velocity along a fixed ZnO layer thickness, are calculated in order to design enhanced-performance sensors. The phase velocity shift and attenuation due to the presence of a viscous liquid contacting the device surface are calculated for different thicknesses of a c-axis inclined ZnO layer onto BN half-space.

  16. Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures Novel Devices, Potential Device Applications and Basic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stroscio, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    This volume provides valuable summaries on many aspects of advanced semiconductor heterostructures and highlights the great variety of semiconductor heterostructures that has emerged since their original conception. As exemplified by the chapters in this book, recent progress on advanced semiconductor heterostructures spans a truly remarkable range of scientific fields with an associated diversity of applications. Some of these applications will undoubtedly revolutionize critically important facets of modern technology. At the heart of these advances is the ability to design and control the pr

  17. The estimation of corrosion behaviour of ZrTi binary alloys for dental applications using electrochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareci, Daniel [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania); Bolat, Georgiana, E-mail: georgiana20022@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania); Chelariu, Romeu [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Iasi (Romania); Sutiman, Daniel [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania); Munteanu, Corneliu [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanical, Iasi (Romania)

    2013-08-15

    Titanium and zirconium are in the same group in the periodic table of elements and are known to have similar physical and chemical properties. Both Ti and Zr usually have their surfaces covered by a thin oxide film spontaneously formed in air. However, the cytotoxicity of ZrO{sub 2} is lower than that of TiO{sub 2} rutile. Treatments with fluoride are known as the main methods to prevent plaque formation and dental caries. The corrosion behaviour of ZrTi alloys with Ti contents of 5, 25 and 45 wt.% and cp-Ti was investigated for dental applications. All samples were tested by linear potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) performed in artificial saliva with different pH levels (5.6 and 3.4) and different fluoride (1000 ppm F{sup −}) and albumin protein (0.6%) contents. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the surface morphology of the test materials after linear potentiodynamic polarisation. The corrosion current densities for the ZrTi alloys increased with the titanium content. The Zr5Ti and Zr25Ti alloys were susceptible to localised corrosion. The role that Ti plays as an alloying element is that of increasing the resistance of ZrTi alloy to localised corrosion. The presence of 0.6% albumin protein in fluoridated acidified artificial saliva with 1000 ppm F{sup −} could protect the cp-Ti and ZrTi alloys from attack by fluoride ions. - Highlights: • Electrochemical and corrosion behaviour of the new ZrTi alloys were investigated. • The passive behaviour for all the ZrTi alloys is observed. • Addition of Ti to Zr improves the corrosion resistance in some fluoridated saliva. • The presence of albumin could prevent the ZrTi alloys from attack by fluoride ions.

  18. Cobalt and Vanadium Trimetaphosphate Polyanions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrochemical Evaluation for Non-aqueous Redox-Flow Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Julia M; Zhang, Shiyu; Gvozdik, Nataliya; Jiang, Yanfeng; Avena, Laura; Stevenson, Keith J; Cummins, Christopher C

    2018-01-17

    An electrochemical cell consisting of cobalt ([Co II/III (P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 4-/3- ) and vanadium ([V III/II (P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3-/4- ) bistrimetaphosphate complexes as catholyte and anolyte species, respectively, was constructed with a cell voltage of 2.4 V and Coulombic efficiencies >90% for up to 100 total cycles. The [Co(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 4- (1) and [V(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3- (2) complexes have favorable properties for flow-battery applications, including reversible redox chemistry, high stability toward electrochemical cycling, and high solubility in MeCN (1.09 ± 0.02 M, [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN; 0.77 ± 0.06 M, [PPN] 3 [2]·DME). The [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN and [PPN] 3 [2]·DME salts were isolated as crystalline solids in 82 and 68% yields, respectively, and characterized by 31 P NMR, UV/vis, ESI-MS(-), and IR spectroscopy. The [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN salt was also structurally characterized, crystallizing in the monoclinic P2 1 /c space group. Treatment of 1 with [(p-BrC 6 H 4 ) 3 N] + allowed for isolation of the one-electron-oxidized spin-crossover (SCO) complex, [Co(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3- (3), which is the active catholyte species generated during cell charging. The success of the 1-2 cell provides a promising entry point to a potential future class of transition-metal metaphosphate-based all-inorganic non-aqueous redox-flow battery electrolytes.

  19. 78 FR 64534 - Certain Ink Application Devices and Components Thereof and Methods of Using the Same Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-832] Certain Ink Application Devices and..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ink application devices and... certain ink application devices and components thereof that are manufactured abroad by or on behalf of, or...

  20. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  1. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  2. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  3. Characteristics for electrochemical machining with nanoscale voltage pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E S; Back, S Y; Lee, J T

    2009-06-01

    Electrochemical machining has traditionally been used in highly specialized fields, such as those of the aerospace and defense industries. It is now increasingly being applied in other industries, where parts with difficult-to-cut material, complex geometry and tribology, and devices of nanoscale and microscale are required. Electric characteristic plays a principal function role in and chemical characteristic plays an assistant function role in electrochemical machining. Therefore, essential parameters in electrochemical machining can be described current density, machining time, inter-electrode gap size, electrolyte, electrode shape etc. Electrochemical machining provides an economical and effective method for machining high strength, high tension and heat-resistant materials into complex shapes such as turbine blades of titanium and aluminum alloys. The application of nanoscale voltage pulses between a tool electrode and a workpiece in an electrochemical environment allows the three-dimensional machining of conducting materials with sub-micrometer precision. In this study, micro probe are developed by electrochemical etching and micro holes are manufactured using these micro probe as tool electrodes. Micro holes and microgroove can be accurately achieved by using nanoscale voltages pulses.

  4. Establishment and application of a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingkao; Zhang Jiyun; Wang Xinxing; Zhang Sheng

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of the application fields of nuclear techniques and the development of economy, more and more airborne/vehicle and other large γ spectrometers are applied in the environment radiation monitoring of artificial radioactive nuclides. In order to ensure the reliability of the monitoring results, a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source is established. The paper introduces the device's built history and the results of application. (authors)

  5. A low-cost man-portable free-space optics communication device for ethernet applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alrasheedi, Mohammad H.

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis sought to design and implement a low-cost, portable, Free-Space Optics (FSO) communications device for Ethernet applications. Under some circumstances such a device would have utility at a Combat Operations Center (COC), a Field Artillery Position, or wherever else fiber optic cable is used in garrison or field. The design was based on commercial off the shelf components originally designed for fiber optic applications. Bas...

  6. A novel electrochemical ion exchange system and its application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Tao; Tian, Ying

    2011-06-01

    A novel electrochemical ion exchange system with porous cylinder electrodes is proposed for treatment of wastewater. This system can be used for desalination without the costly ion-exchange membrane and extra chemical reagents. Since the electrodes are completely uniform and no ion-exchange membrane was used in this system, it can be operated by switching anodes and cathodes flexibly for eliminating the scaling on the surface of electrodes. The strong base ion-exchange resin grains placed among the anode and cathode have played as supporting electrolyte, which is capable for the treatment of wastewater with low conductivity. The concentrated and neutralized anolyte containing chlorine is effective for disinfection and contaminants removal. Under the experimental conditions, the removal percentage of total dissolved salts was 83% and the removal percentage of chemical oxygen demand was 92% without consumption of extra chemical reagents. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stainless steel electrochemical behaviour - application to the decontamination of steel parts contaminated by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-01-01

    This purpose of this work is the study of an electrochemical decontamination process of stainless steel in which tritium is present on the surface of the metal, in the oxide layer and in the metal. We have first investigated the behaviour of the oxide layer. Then we have studied the hydrogen evolution, its diffusion and retrodiffusion in the metal. The results are applied to the decontamination of steel parts contamined by tritium. Part of the tritium can be eliminated by reducing the oxyde layer, which contains large amounts of tritium. However, it is more beneficial to electrolyse at the potential at which the H + ions are reduced. The hydrogen on the steel surface enters in the metal and displaces most of tritium located in the metallic layers near the surface. The tritium surface elimination rate is about 95%. The tritium eliminated through electrolysis is only a small fraction of all the tritium contained in the metal. However, according to conservation experiments of parts after electrolysis, it can be concluded that hydrogen, probably more strongly bound than tritium to steel, forms near the surface a barrier that prevents tritium retrodiffusion. Electrolysis appears as a satisfactory process for the surface decontamination of slightly tritiated steel parts. A decontamination automaton based on the preceding results is described using a pad electrolyser. This type of decontamination is little polluting, and the parts can be recycled after the in situ treatment [fr

  8. Preparation and application of a novel electrochemical sensing material based on surface chemistry of polyhydroquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Wang, Yingkai; Hu, Chengguo; Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2014-01-01

    A new analogue of polydopamine (PDA), i.e., polyhydroquinone (PH 2 Q), was polymerized and its surface chemistry was studied by different ways of characterization. PH 2 Q was produced by the self-polymerization of H 2 Q mediated by dissolved oxygen, and the self-polymerization process was strongly dependent on the type and the pH value of the buffer solutions. PH 2 Q can not only achieve surface hydrophilization of different substrates like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, graphite strip, C 12 SH/Au and wax slice, but also possess several unique properties like reversible adsorption, good solubility and low cost. These properties made PH 2 Q an ideal polymeric modifier for the noncovalent functionalization of some nanomaterials. By simply grinding with PH 2 Q, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be readily dispersed in water with high solubility and good stability. The resulting MWNT–PH 2 Q composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, which was employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). - Highlights: • Polyhydroquinone (PH 2 Q) was produced by the self-polymerization of hydroquinone (H 2 Q) mediated by dissolved oxygen. • PH 2 Q can achieve surface hydrophilization of a variety of substrates. • PH 2 Q is an ideal polymeric modifier for the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). • The MWNT–PH 2 Q composite can be employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)

  9. Electrochemical Sensor Array and Its Application to Real Time Imaging of a Brain Slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Nahoko; Shimada, Akiyoshi; Nyberg, Tobias; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    An electrochemical sensing system using a planar microelectrode array has been developed to monitor biological molecules with relatively high special and temporal resolutions. This enables us a real time imaging of the biological molecules release from a tissue invasively. In this study, we have established a multichannel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing system to monitor the real time H2O2 distribution in a tissue using a planar sensor array. H2O2 has been recognized in association with the pathology of neurological diseases because it is a by-product of a degenerative reaction of reactive oxygen species, one of the major causes of oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The sensor array is based on a 64-channel ITO electrode array of 50x50 μm electrodes modified with an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, and an electron transfer mediator. Then we place a cultured rat hippocampal slice on the array and measure the current at each sensor using a multipotentiostat. When we introduce bicuculline into the solution as a stimulant, in the presence of a catalase inhibitor, we can observe a distinct increase in the H2O2 concentration. This real-time H2O2 distribution monitoring system will be a powerful tool with which to explore the neuronal cell death mechanism in biological systems.

  10. Electrochemical behavior of polypyrrole/chitosan composite coating on Ti metal for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhari, Bhavana; Pugal Mani, S; Rajendran, N

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the corrosion resistance performance and biocompatibility of polypyrrole/chitosan (PPy/CHI) composite coated Ti was studied. The deposition of composite coating was carried out by electropolymerization method. The deposited PPy/CHI composite coatings were different in morphology, structural, surface roughness and wettability compared PPy coated Ti. The presence of composite coating was confirmed by solid 13 C NMR. The PPy/CHI composite coating showed enhanced microhardness and adhesion strength compared to the PPy coating. The corrosion protection ability of PPy/CHI composite coatings at various applied potentials was analyzed by dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), exhibited higher impedance in all the potentials compared to uncoated and PPy coated Ti. The lower corrosion current density obtained for PPy/CHI-2 composite coating from polarization studies revealed increased corrosion protection ability in SBF solution. The stability of composite coating was confirmed by immersion studies. PPy/CHI-2 composite coating immersed in SBF solution enhances hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical pre anodization of glassy carbon electrode and application to determine chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Nguyen Minh; Mortensen, John; Anh, Nguyen Ba Hoai

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggested a method to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The sensitivity and the reproducibility of the carbon electrodes could be enhanced easily by electrochemical pretreatment. Some kinds of carbon material were studied including glassy carbon, graphite carbon and pyrolytic carbon. Numerous kinds of supporting electrolyte have been tried. For glassy carbon electrode, the acidic solution, H 2 SO 4 5 mM, resulted in best performance at pretreated voltage of +2.1V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 250 second. However, for graphite and pyrolytic carbon electrodes, the phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0 gave the best performance at +1.7V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 20 seconds. The detection limit could be at very low concentration of CAP: 0.8 ng/ ml for glassy carbon electrode, 3.5 ng/ ml for graphite carbon electrode. The method was successful applied to aqua-agriculture water sample and milk sample with simple extraction as well as direct ointment sample analysis. (author)

  12. Principles and applications of superconducting quantum interference devices

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    Principles and applications of SQUIDs serves as a textbook and a multi-author collection of critical reviews. Providing both basic aspects and recent progress in SQUIDs technology, it offers a realistic and stimulating picture of the state of the art. It can also contribute to a further development of the field for commercial applications.

  13. Device-independent point estimation from finite data and its application to device-independent property estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Sheng; Rosset, Denis; Zhang, Yanbao; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2018-03-01

    The device-independent approach to physics is one where conclusions are drawn directly from the observed correlations between measurement outcomes. In quantum information, this approach allows one to make strong statements about the properties of the underlying systems or devices solely via the observation of Bell-inequality-violating correlations. However, since one can only perform a finite number of experimental trials, statistical fluctuations necessarily accompany any estimation of these correlations. Consequently, an important gap remains between the many theoretical tools developed for the asymptotic scenario and the experimentally obtained raw data. In particular, a physical and concurrently practical way to estimate the underlying quantum distribution has so far remained elusive. Here, we show that the natural analogs of the maximum-likelihood estimation technique and the least-square-error estimation technique in the device-independent context result in point estimates of the true distribution that are physical, unique, computationally tractable, and consistent. They thus serve as sound algorithmic tools allowing one to bridge the aforementioned gap. As an application, we demonstrate how such estimates of the underlying quantum distribution can be used to provide, in certain cases, trustworthy estimates of the amount of entanglement present in the measured system. In stark contrast to existing approaches to device-independent parameter estimations, our estimation does not require the prior knowledge of any Bell inequality tailored for the specific property and the specific distribution of interest.

  14. Electrochemical biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosnier, Serge

    2015-01-01

    "This is an excellent book on modern electrochemical biosensors, edited by Professor Cosnier and written by leading international experts. It covers state-of-the-art topics of this important field in a clear and timely manner."-Prof. Joseph Wang, UC San Diego, USA  "This book covers, in 13 well-illustrated chapters, the potential of electrochemical methods intimately combined with a biological component for the assay of various analytes of biological and environmental interest. Particular attention is devoted to the description of electrochemical microtools in close contact with a biological cell for exocytosis monitoring and to the use of nanomaterials in the electrochemical biosensor architecture for signal improvement. Interestingly, one chapter describes the concept and design of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells. Each topic is reviewed by experts very active in the field. This timely book is well suited for providing a good overview of current research trends devoted to electrochemical...

  15. Rapid deposition process for zinc oxide film applications in pyroelectric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Yu, Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a rapid process for the deposition of films. Zinc oxide is a low toxicity and environmentally friendly material, and it possesses properties such as semiconductivity, pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity without the poling process. Therefore, AD is used to accelerate the manufacturing process for applications of ZnO films in pyroelectric devices. Increasing the temperature variation rate in pyroelectric films is a useful method for enhancing the responsivity of pyroelectric devices. In the present study, a porous ZnO film possessing the properties of large heat absorption and high temperature variation rate is successfully produced by the AD rapid process and laser annealing for application in pyroelectric devices. (paper)

  16. Managing Electrochemical Noise Data by Exception Application of an On Line EN Data Analysis Technique to Data From a High Level Nuclear Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical noise has been used a t the Hanford Site for a number of years to monitor in real time for pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms in high level nuclear waste tanks. Currently the monitoring technique has only been implemented on three of the 177 underground storage tanks on the site. Widespread implementation of the technique has been held back for of a number of reasons, including issues around managing the large volume of data associated with electrochemical noise and the complexity of data analysis. Expert review of raw current and potential measurements is the primary form of data analysis currently used at the Hanford site. This paper demonstrates the application of an on-line data filtering and analysis technique that could allow data from field applications of electrochemical noise to be managed by exception, transforming electrochemical noise data into a process parameter and focusing data analysis efforts on the important data. Results of the analysis demonstrate a data compression rate of 95%; that is, only 5% of the data would require expert analysis if such a technique were implemented. It is also demonstrated that this technique is capable of identifying key periods where localized corrosion activity is apparent

  17. Ophthalmic applications of the digital micromirror device (DMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Sandstedt, Chris

    2009-02-01

    Cataract surgery with IOL implantation is performed on millions of patients every year. Despite 25 years of technological innovation, post-surgical refractive errors have remained a problem. Now these errors can be corrected using Calhoun Vision, Inc's light adjustable lens (LAL). The correction is accomplished by implanting a light-sensitive lens, then illuminating it with a spatially varying irradiance profile during a postoperative treatment. This irradiance profile is provided by a Light Delivery Device (LDD), which projects an image of a Texas Instruments DMD onto the implanted lens. Commercial sales of this system began in the summer of 2008 in Europe; US clinical trials began in January 2009.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation screening of semiconductor devices for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. C.; Brammer, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    A review is presented of the mechanism of interaction of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges, with various semiconductor device defects. Previous work conducted in this area was analyzed as to its pertinence to the current problem. The task was studied of implementing electromagnetic screening methods in the wavelength region determined to be most effective. Both scanning and flooding type stimulation techniques are discussed. While the scanning technique offers a considerably higher yield of useful information, a preliminary investigation utilizing the flooding approach is first recommended because of the ease of implementation, lower cost and ability to provide go-no-go information in semiconductor screening.

  19. Transition Metal Coatings for Energy Conversion and Storage; Electrochemical and High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falola, Bamidele Daniel

    Energy storage provides sustainability when coupled with renewable but intermittent energy sources such as solar, wave and wind power, and electrochemical supercapacitors represent a new storage technology with high power and energy density. For inclusion in supercapacitors, transition metal oxide and sulfide electrodes such as RuO2, IrO2, TiS2, and MoS2 exhibit rapid faradaic electron-transfer reactions combined with low resistance. The pseudocapacitance of RuO2 is about 720 F/g, and is 100 times greater than double-layer capacitance of activated carbon electrodes. Due to the two-dimensional layered structure of MoS2, it has proven to be an excellent electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors. Cathodic electrodeposition of MoS2 onto glassy carbon electrodes is obtained from electrolytes containing (NH4)2MoS 4 and KCl. Annealing the as-deposited Mo sulfide deposit improves the capacitance by a factor of 40x, with a maximum value of 360 F/g for 50 nm thick MoS2 films. The effects of different annealing conditions were investigated by XRD, AFM and charge storage measurements. The specific capacitance measured by cyclic voltammetry is highest for MoS2 thin films annealed at 500°C for 3h and much lower for films annealed at 700°C for 1 h. Inclusion of copper as a dopant element into electrodeposited MoS2 thin films for reducing iR drop during film charge/discharge is also studied. Thin films of Cu-doped MoS2 are deposited from aqueous electrolytes containing SCN-, which acts as a complexing agent to shift the cathodic Cu deposition potential, which is much more anodic than that of MoS2. Annealed, Cu-doped MoS2 films exhibit enhanced charge storage capability about 5x higher than undoped MoS2 films. Coal combustion is currently the largest single anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, and due to the growing concerns about climate change, several new technologies have been developed to mitigate the problem, including oxyfuel coal combustion, which makes CO2

  20. Transduction mechanisms and their applications in micromechanical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Blom, F.R.; Bouwstra, S.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; van de Pol, F.C.M.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Popma, T.J.A.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Transduction mechanisms and their applications in micromechanical actuators and resonating sensors are presented. They include piezoelectric, dielectric, electro-thermo-mechanic, opto-thermo-mechanic, and thermo-pneumatic mechanisms. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to technology and

  1. Integrated graphene-based devices for optoelectronic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultralarge absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. Here I present novel integrated grapheneplasmonic waveguide modulator showing high modulation depth, thus giving a promising way...

  2. Preparation and application of a novel electrochemical sensing material based on surface chemistry of polyhydroquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Wang, Yingkai [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Chengguo, E-mail: cghu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia; Wang, Shengfu [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hu, Shengshui, E-mail: sshu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China)

    2014-07-01

    A new analogue of polydopamine (PDA), i.e., polyhydroquinone (PH{sub 2}Q), was polymerized and its surface chemistry was studied by different ways of characterization. PH{sub 2}Q was produced by the self-polymerization of H{sub 2}Q mediated by dissolved oxygen, and the self-polymerization process was strongly dependent on the type and the pH value of the buffer solutions. PH{sub 2}Q can not only achieve surface hydrophilization of different substrates like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, graphite strip, C{sub 12}SH/Au and wax slice, but also possess several unique properties like reversible adsorption, good solubility and low cost. These properties made PH{sub 2}Q an ideal polymeric modifier for the noncovalent functionalization of some nanomaterials. By simply grinding with PH{sub 2}Q, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be readily dispersed in water with high solubility and good stability. The resulting MWNT–PH{sub 2}Q composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, which was employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). - Highlights: • Polyhydroquinone (PH{sub 2}Q) was produced by the self-polymerization of hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) mediated by dissolved oxygen. • PH{sub 2}Q can achieve surface hydrophilization of a variety of substrates. • PH{sub 2}Q is an ideal polymeric modifier for the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). • The MWNT–PH{sub 2}Q composite can be employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)

  3. Post-modification by γ-radiation of VDF-based polymers: Electrochemical capacitor membrane application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the modification of VDF-based polymer induced by γ-radiation as the polymer may be used in electrochemical super-capacitors. The main objective was to limit the swelling of the fluorinated matrix with a given electrolyte while a good wetting of the polymer by the liquid was also required. As the main basic process involved in polymer radiolysis is the formation of radicals, a part of the work was dedicated to the study of such species by using Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy. A simulation model of ESR spectra was established in order to identify and quantify each radical species. The effect of several parameters such as radiation dose, annealing time or the nature of polymer matrix on the concentration of each species where investigated. A relation with the evolution of the crosslink density of the network formed during the radiolysis was proposed. In addition, one of the key steps of this work was to study the radiation crosslinking ability of VDF-based polymers and find a way to increase the crosslink density. This was achieved by incorporating, prior to the radiation process, a radiation sensitive cross linker: TAIC. Finally, a new strategy based on the modification of surface properties of PVDF was investigated. It consists in the radiation grafting of penta-fluor-styrene onto PVDF surface followed by the chemo-selective functionalization of the grafted segments. As a conclusion, the different approaches used in this thesis allowed us to understand the radiolysis of VDF-based polymers and take advantage of the elementary process involved in this type of chemistry, to build up robust and promising strategies for tuning properties. (author)

  4. Cauliflower-derived porous carbon without activation for electrochemical capacitor and CO2 capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yu, Yifeng; Lv, Haijun; Chen, Chunlin; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Aibing

    2018-01-01

    Carbon materials have attracted great attention in CO2 capture and energy storage due to their excellent characteristics such as tunable pore structure, modulated surface properties and superior bulk conductivities, etc. Biomass, provided by nature with non-toxic, widespread, abundant, and sustainable advantages, is considered to be a very promising precursor of carbons for the view of economic, environmental, and societal issues. However, the preparation of high-performance biomass-derived carbons is still a big challenge because of the multistep process for their synthesis and subsequent activation. Herein, hierarchically porous structured carbon materials have been prepared by directly carbonizing dried cauliflowers without any addition of agents and activation process, featuring with large specific surface area, hierarchically porous structure and improved pore volume, as well as suitable nitrogen content. Being used as a solid-state CO2 adsorbent, the obtained product exhibited a high CO2 adsorption capacity of 3.1 mmol g-1 under 1 bar and 25 °C and a remarkable reusability of 96.7% retention after 20 adsorption/regeneration cycles. Our study reveals that choosing a good biomass source was significant as the unique structure of precursor endows the carbonized product with abundant pores without the need of any post-treatment. Used as an electrode material in electrochemical capacitor, the non-activated porous carbon displayed a fairly high specific capacitance of 228.9 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and an outstanding stability of 99.2% retention after 5000 cycles at 5 A g-1. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide composite films for electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, E.A. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Mazanik, A.V., E-mail: mazanikalexander@gmail.com [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Korolik, O.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}/GO composites with mass fraction of carbon phase 0.01% ≤ w{sub C} ≤ 80% have been formed. • 400 °C annealing was applied for GO reduction in the composites. • SnO{sub 2}/rGO composites demonstrate a high electrocatalytic activity in anodic processes. • Exchange current density grows linearly with carbon phase concentration at w{sub C} ≤ 10%. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}/GO (GO is graphene oxide) composite films with GO mass fraction w{sub C} ranging from 0.01 to 80% have been prepared using colloidal solutions. Heat treatment of SnO{sub 2}/GO films in Ar atmosphere at 400 °C leads to GO reduction accompanied by partial exfoliation and decreasing of the particle thickness. SnO{sub 2}/rGO (rGO is reduced GO) film electrodes demonstrate a high electrocatalytic activity in the anodic oxidation of inorganic (iodide-, chloride-, sulfite-anions) and organic (ascorbic acid) substances. The increase of the anodic current in these reactions is characterized by overpotential inherent to the individual rGO films and exchange current density grows linearly with rGO concentration at w{sub C} ≤ 10% indicating that the rGO particles in composites act as sites of electrochemical process. The SnO{sub 2}/rGO composite films, in which the chemically stable oxide matrix encapsulates the rGO inclusions, can be considered as a promising material for applied electrochemistry.

  6. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, Lisa M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and Eapp on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  7. Highly Efficient Laser Scribed Graphene Electrodes for On-Chip Electrochemical Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pranati

    2016-08-11

    This study reports the fabrication of flexible electrochemical sensors using a direct-write laser scribing process that transforms commercial polyimide sheet into graphitic carbon with self-standing porous 3D morphology, and abundant edge planes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate (k0) of the laser scribed graphene (LSG) electrodes for both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox mediators, ferrocyanide ([Fe(CN)6]4-) and hexaammineruthenium ([Ru(NH3)6]3+) are estimated to be 0.1150 and 0.0868 cm s-1, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those for similar carbon based materials, which this study ascribes to the binder free 3D porous network of LSG with enriched edge plane sites. Further, k0 is enhanced up to 0.2823 and 0.2312 cm s-1 for inner and outer-sphere redox mediators by selective anchoring of Pt nanoparticles over LSG. The LSG electrodes exhibit significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). Consequently, the detection of these biomarkers is achieved with high sensitivity of 237.76 and 250.69 μA mm-1 cm-2 (AA), 2259.9 and 6995.6 μA mm-1 cm-2 (DA) and 5405 and 8289 μA mm-1 cm-2 (UA) for LSG and Pt/LSG electrodes, respectively, in a wide concentration range. These results outperform previously reported 2D/3D graphene based electrodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Boronization study for application to large helical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, N.; Sagara, A.; Yamada, H.; Kubota, Y.; Inoue, N.; Akaishi, K.; Motojima, O.; Iwamoto, K.; Hashiba, M.; Fujita, I.; Hino, T.; Yamashina, T.; Okazaki, K.; Rice, J.; Yamage, M.; Toyoda, H.; Sugai, H.

    1995-04-01

    An experimental device named SUT ( SUrface modification Teststand) was constructed for a boronization study. An ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition, a changeable high temperature liner and in situ AES are three distinctive feature of the SUT device. Saturation density of oxygen atoms was as large as 1.2 × 10 17/cm 2 on a boronized surface, whereas 1.5 × 10 16/cm 2 on a bare stainless steel surface. It is found by AES analysis that the oxygen-contained layer was as thick as 50 nm from the top surface of the boron film. From such a large oxygen-saturation density, we expect that the oxygen-gettering ability of the boronized surface is likely to be maintained during one-day experiment of LHD. The oxygen-saturation behavior was quite similar between the boronized surfaces obtained with decaborane and diborane, which indicates that, as a working gas of the boronization, the decaborane works well compared with diborane, as far as oxygen gettering is concerned.

  9. Guided-wave acousto-optics interactions, devices, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    The field of integrated- or guided-wave optics has experienced significant and continuous growth since its inception in the late 1960s. There has been a considerable increase in research and development activity in this field worldwide and some significant advances in the realization of working in­ tegrated optic devices and modules have been made in recent years. In fact, there have already been some commercial manufacturing and technical ap­ plications of such devices and modules. The guided-wave-acoustooptics involving Bragg interactions between guided optical waves and surface acoustic waves is one of the areas of in­ tegrated-optics that has reached some degree of scientific and technological maturity. This topical volume is devoted to an in-depth treatment of this emerging branch of science and technology. Presented in this volume are concise treatments on bulk-wave acoustooptics, guided-wave optics, and surface acoustic waves, and detailed studies of guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction in thr...

  10. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  11. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  12. Application of a microfluidic device for counting of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, K-I; Izuo, S-I; Lee, S-S

    2006-09-01

    To develop a miniaturized analytical system for counting of bacteria. Escherichia coli cells were used throughout the experiments. The system consists of a microfluidic chamber, a fluorescence microscope with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and syringe pumps. The chamber was made of a silicone rubber (30 x 30 mm and 4 mm high). The E. coli cells were flowed from a micro-nozzle fabricated in the chamber and detected with the CCD camera. The individual cells were indicated as signal peaks on a computer. The cell counts showed a good correlation compared with that of a conventional plate counting method, and results of the simultaneous detection of live and dead cells were also presented. The system having a small disposable nozzle has the advantages for low cost and safe medical or environmental analysis, when compared with a conventional flow cytometer. This is the first step of the development of a one-chip microbe analyzer.

  13. Research and application of devices for synchronously tracking the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ming; Sun, Youhong; Wang, Qinghua; Wu, Xiaohan [Jilin Univ. Changchun (China). College of Construction Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces a concept of apparent motion orbit of the sun, and put forward the theory of synchronous (linear) tracking the sun. Using solarium mechanism to trail the running path of solar hour angel, and using modified sine function framework to trace solar apparent declination path, and then connect these two mechanisms with linear transmission chain. More than 45%{proportional_to}122% electricity can be output by the synchronous tracking photovoltaic (PV) devices compare with those fixed PV ones with the same area between the spring equinox to the summer solstice. The 17m{sup 2} heat collector of synchronous tracking, its static wind-driven power consumption is less than 3.5W (0.2W/m{sup 2}), and the gale consumption is less than 7W(0.34W/m{sup 2}). The apparatus can be utilized widely in solar power, heating, lighting systems and other solar energy utilization. (orig.)

  14. Establishment and application of Competitive Intelligence System in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass El Haddadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy concept has changed dramatically: from a long range planning to strategic planning then to strategic responsiveness. This response implies moving from a concept of change to a concept of continuous evolution. In our context, the competitive intelligence system presented aims to improve decision‐making in all aspects of business life, particularly for offensive and innovative decisions. In the paper we present XPlor EveryWhere, our competitive intelligence system based on a multidimensional analysis model for mobile devices. The objective of this system is to capture the information environment in all dimensions of a decision problem, with the exploitation of information by analyzing the evolution of their interactions

  15. Graphene Ink Film Based Electrochemical Detector for Paracetamol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene ink is a commercialized product in the graphene industry with promising potential application in electronic device design. However, the limitation of the graphene ink is its low electronic performance due to the ink preparation protocol. In this work, we proposed a simple post-treatment of graphene ink coating via electrochemical oxidation. The electronic conductivity of the graphene ink coating was enhanced as expected after the treatment. The proposed electrochemical oxidation treatment also exposes the defects of graphene and triggered an electrocatalytic reaction during the sensing of paracetamol (PA. The overpotential of redox is much lower than conventional PA redox potential, which is favorable for avoiding the interference species. Under optimum conditions, the graphene ink-based electrochemical sensor could linearly detect PA from 10 to 500 micro molar (μM, with a limit of detection of 2.7 μM.

  16. Characterization of polyelectrolytes and lithium salts for electrochemical energy storage devices using novel measurement systems; Charakterisierung von Polyelektrolyten und Lithiumsalzen fuer elektrochemische Energiespeicher unter Verwendung neu entwickelter Messsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Benedikt

    2013-04-08

    properties. LiN(Pfp)2 decomposes around 100 C, whereas LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and LiN(Pfp)(Nf) show a much higher thermal stability up to temperatures above 300 C. The ionic conductivity at 100 C, measured by means of impedance spectroscopy, decreases in the order LiN(Pfp)(Tf) > LiN(Tf)2 > LiN(Pfp)(Nf). Both, the activation energy and entropy for ion conduction in the new salts are lower than in LiN(Tf)2, most likely due to the lower symmetry of the new anions. The electrochemical stability and ionic conductivity of LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and LiN(Pfp)(Nf) solutions in alkyl carbonates are slightly lower than that of the LiN(Tf)2 solution, but still sufficient for application in lithium ion batteries.

  17. A flexible mobile-device biosensing instrumentation platform for point-of-care medical diagnostics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    for this work. We present a mobile-device based, PoC biosensing instrumentation platform, designed for multiplexed high-impedance sensing and the electrochemical detection of biological species on a LoC. The proposed system is thus designed as a flexible, user-friendly hardware and software platform allowing...... programmable electrical readout from LoCs potentially comprehending varied transducers addressing different targeted biological markers. A smart-phone/tablet docking-station embeds the hardware interface necessary for the implementation of a smart-phone digital lock-in amplifier. The platform is tested...... with high-impedimetric measurements from Silicon-nanowire Field Effect Transistors embedded in a LoC. Programmable firmware and flexible hardware will in turn allow for standard voltammetry and electrical impedance spectroscopy to be performed. The design of a mobile app and standard mobile software...

  18. Nanomaterials for diagnosis: challenges and applications in smart devices based on molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Iost, Rodrigo M; Siqueira, José R; Crespilho, Frank N; Caseli, Luciano

    2014-09-10

    Clinical diagnosis has always been dependent on the efficient immobilization of biomolecules in solid matrices with preserved activity, but significant developments have taken place in recent years with the increasing control of molecular architecture in organized films. Of particular importance is the synergy achieved with distinct materials such as nanoparticles, antibodies, enzymes, and other nanostructures, forming structures organized on the nanoscale. In this review, emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials for biosensing based on molecular recognition, where the recognition element may be an enzyme, DNA, RNA, catalytic antibody, aptamer, and labeled biomolecule. All of these elements may be assembled in nanostructured films, whose layer-by-layer nature is essential for combining different properties in the same device. Sensing can be done with a number of optical, electrical, and electrochemical methods, which may also rely on nanostructures for enhanced performance, as is the case of reporting nanoparticles in bioelectronics devices. The successful design of such devices requires investigation of interface properties of functionalized surfaces, for which a variety of experimental and theoretical methods have been used. Because diagnosis involves the acquisition of large amounts of data, statistical and computational methods are now in widespread use, and one may envisage an integrated expert system where information from different sources may be mined to generate the diagnostics.

  19. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  20. Photo-thermal hybrid module with photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric devices for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-11-30

    Based upon the assumption that higher efficeint thermoelectric device will come in practice, a feasibility study was carried out to investigate the performance of photo-thermal hybrid module for space application. The photo-thermal hybrid modules consist of laminate of photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric devices and radiators. Solar energies collected are converted to the power generation by the photovoltaic cells and to heat them to the moderate temperature level, and then the thermoelectric devices generate the electric power, utilizing the temperature difference of thermoelectric devices between the junction surface with the photovoltaic cells (high temperature side) and one with the radiators (low temperature side). As an experimental result on the photo-thermal hybrid module which was constituted of the combination of a GaAs photovoltaic cell and a BiTe thermoelectric device, the hybrid module was able to have higher efficiency than a concentration type GaAs system. The photo-thermal arrays for space application with higher efficiency and lower specific weight might be realized, when a high performance thermoelectric device, such as a FeSi thermoelectric device, the performance of which is able to expect to be one digit higher than a BiTe thermoelectric device, is developed. 4 references, 10 figures, 1 table.