WorldWideScience

Sample records for electricity regulation dated

  1. Preparing for climate change regulation : an assessment of the current state of date reliability in the Canadian electrical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, C.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of current Canadian greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting requirements, predictions about GHG regulations, and the current state of GHGs data reliability in the Canadian electrical industry. The author argued that while potential management strategies are necessary, they are not sufficient to meet Kyoto or similar types of initiatives because they do not provide incentives for reductions, they do not establish accountability, nor do they encourage reliable data. It was predicted that the first climate change regulation will be a sectoral agreement enacted at the federal/provincial level. It was also predicted that future regulations will include a requirement to report GHG emissions in a reliable manner and that regulators will use the data to track performance. The final prediction was that the onus will be on the companies to prove that the data is reliable as regulators will have limited resources to check the data. It was noted that the current state of data is not suitable for analytical testing because of a lack of clear definitions, a lack of industry comparison, inability to compare between companies, inability to compare between different types of power generation, and the inability to compare between years. It was suggested that data reliability could be improved by having the regulators review and monitor the reported data, or by having a third party review and provide assurance on the reported data. It was concluded that there will have to be agreement at the industry level on common measurement and calculation methodology, as well as an agreement on a common scope of reporting. 4 figs

  2. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  3. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  4. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  5. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  6. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 1, 2016, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  7. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  8. 75 FR 71344 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FSIS-2010-0031] RIN 0583-AD Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety... regulations that require changes in the labeling of meat and poultry food products. Many meat and poultry... for new food labeling regulations is consistent with FDA's approach in this regard. FDA is also...

  9. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  10. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  11. Proposal from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from September 26, 2002 relative to the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003; Proposition de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite en date du 26 septembre 2002 relative au montant previsionnel des charges du service public de la production d'electricite pour 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003. This estimation is based on the detailed data supplied by the operators, like Electricite de France (EdF), who bear the charges and by the managers of the public networks. The calculation method used for the estimation is detailed in the appendix: production cost overruns in non-interconnected areas, cost overruns due to the obligation of electricity purchase and to the contracts of purchase anterior to the law from February 10, 2000, estimated amount of the charges to be compensated and of the treasury management costs, estimated number of kWh submitted to contribution in 2003 and unit estimated contribution. (J.S.)

  12. Integrating gas and electric markets and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The issues determining what energy companies must do to compete in an increasingly competitive energy market and what regulators must do to ensure fairness in competition were discussed. The similarities of gas and electric markets, and the factors driving their integration were highlighted. The importance of communications and customer service in the energy market and the nature of market power in the gas and electric industries was described. Three reasons were given why gas/electric mergers will be beneficial: (1) operating efficiency, (2) applying gas experience to electric markets, and (3) opportunity to exercise market power. Potential regulatory problems were also reviewed

  13. Electricity regulation and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity industry of China has been in a process of reforms since the 1980s. This paper gives a review on the three main stages of reforms in China so as to trace out key features of various reform measures including those for power investment financing, the separation between government and power enterprises, and the division between power generation firms and power grids. The findings suggest that further regulatory change in China's electricity market reform is necessary when integration of the electricity markets and increased competition are paving the way ahead for a market-oriented structure. Prospective electricity regulation in the form of a strong legal system and effective institutions that protect market competition and promote appropriate incentives for efficiency are suggested in the paper. (author)

  14. Final argument on regulation of electricity exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro addresses the request of the National Energy Board review that parties comment on the broader question of the need for federal regulation in electricity exports and the objectives which underlie the view expressed. Electricity exports benefit Canadian sellers and U.S. purchasers as well the Canadian economy in general. There is a clear consensus that these benefits exist and should be realized, but the evidence indicates that there is no consensus on how the benefits can best be distributed within Canada. The divergent views expressed by interested parties from across Canada clearly demonstrate the complexity associated with determining the overall Canadian interest and that there is a need for a balancing of these interests by a federal body. The regulation of electricity exports is clearly a matter of international commerce and Ontario Hydro submitted that the Constitution Act deems the province incompetent to regulate the export of electricity from Canada. Ontario Hydro submitted that a federal body is required in the regulation of electricity exports to protect the broader Canadian interest.

  15. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  16. 76 FR 42508 - Effective Date for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... the General Counsel, or Steven Kane, Consultant, 202-418-5911, [email protected] , Office of the Chief...., letter dated July 1, 2011, from R. Michael Sweeney, Jr., Hunton & Williams, on behalf of the Working...

  17. Basic study on electrically stimulated luminescence (ESL) as a dosimetry and dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Yamanaka, C.; Ikeya, M.

    2003-01-01

    Electrically stimulated luminescence (ESL) of calcium carbonate has been studied for application as dosimetry and dating. A powdered calcium carbonate was sandwiched by electrodes, which supplied electric field. Luminescence and surface current through a powdered sample were measured using a photomultiplier and a digital multimeter, respectively. A linear dependence of ESL on the absorbed dose by γ-rays was found when the applied voltage was below the breakdown threshold. Reciprocal electric charges through the sample had also linear relation with the absorbed dose. We propose that the luminescence and electric charge under intense electric field in calcium carbonate become new methods for dosimetry and dating on the basis of the surface defects of the calcium carbonate grains produced by the irradiation of γ-rays

  18. Legal bases of safety regulations in electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeiter, W

    1981-12-01

    Apart from the governmental regulations the rule for the prevention of accidents 'Electric plants and equipment' must be observed in order to protect the insurants. Actually, all these regulations do not contain any independent instructions. They rather utilize the VDE regulations and refer to them. The laws of electrical safety engineering are strongly influenced by harmonization efforts particularly within the European Communitties.

  19. Date palm biochar-polymer composites: An investigation of electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Anesh Manjaly; Elnour, Ahmed Yagoub; Anis, Arfat; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S M; George, Justin; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Usman, Adel R; Ok, Yong Sik; Tsang, Daniel C W; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2018-04-01

    The application of biochar (BC) as a filler in polymers can be viewed as a sustainable approach that incorporates pyrolysed waste based value-added material and simultaneously mitigate bio-waste in a smart way. The overarching aim of this work was to investigate the electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of biocomposite developed by utilizing date palm waste-derived BC for the reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) matrix. Date palm waste derived BC prepared at (700 and 900°C) were blended at different proportions with polypropylene and the resultant composites (BC/PP) were characterized using an array of techniques (scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy). Additionally the thermal, mechanical, electrical and rheological properties of the BC/PP composites were evaluated at different loading of BC content (from 0 to15% w/w). The mechanical properties of BC/PP composites showed an improvement in the tensile modulus while that of electrical characterization revealed an enhanced electrical conductivity with increased BC loading. Although the BC incorporation into the PP matrix has significantly reduced the total crystallinity of the resulted composites, however; a positive effect on the crystallization temperature (T c ) was observed. The rheological characterization of BC/PP composites revealed that the addition of BC had minimal effect on the storage modulus (G') compared to the neat (PP). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  1. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, M.; Lobban, S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the fist edition of OXERA's Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry in the UK. It is primarily intended as a work of reference, summarising the key statutory controls of the industry and the most important features of the companies' licences. The main features of the guide are as follows. It provides comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the industry. The roles of the key players are explained and a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents is given. It aims to bring the reader up to date with current regulatory issues and possible developments in the industry. It presents the information in a clear and concise form. The emphasis is on identifying and highlighting the key points in each area so that readers can rapidly familiarise themselves with the subject matter. It does not examine the process by which businesses are valued and the various price caps are set. These are issues which are best approached within the context of utility regulation in general. (author)

  2. Notification of the French Energy Regulator the 5 june 2001 on the order fixing the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by installations using the wind energy; Avis de la commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 5 juin 2001 sur l'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This document presents the economic analysis realized by the CRE, French Energy Regulator, to give its opinion on the order concerning the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by wind energy. An operating costs comparison with other energies forms shows that the proposed tariff will lead to a significant increase of the electric power. In consequence, the CRE is opposed to this order. (A.L.B.)

  3. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  4. A new sampling technique for surface exposure dating using a portable electric rock cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating using in situ cosmogenic nuclides has contributed to our understanding of Earth-surface processes. The precision of the ages estimated by this method is affected by the sample geometry; therefore, high accuracy measurements of the thickness and shape of the rock sample (thickness and shape is crucial. However, it is sometimes diffi cult to meet these requirements by conventional sampling methods with a hammer and chisel. Here, we propose a new sampling technique using a portable electric rock cutter. This sampling technique is faster, produces more precisely shaped samples, and allows for a more precise age interpretation. A simple theoretical modeldemonstrates that the age error due to defective sample geometry increases as the total sample thickness increases, indicating the importance of precise sampling for surface exposure dating.

  5. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry, part of the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation, is designed as an essential work of reference for those who work in regulation and for practitioners who need to understand the needs and mechanics of regulation. The 154-page document provides: comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the electricity industry; an examination of current regulatory issues and developments in the industry; explanations of the roles of the key players; a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents; coverage of the industry in Scotland and Northern Ireland. (Author)

  6. The regulation of the Polynesian electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challan Belval, Olivier; Janes, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This mission report aims at providing an opinion and recommendations regarding the methodology adopted for the calculation of the compensation paid to EDT (Electricite de Tahiti) for mandatory purchase of photovoltaic electricity, the institutional evolution and operating modes for the promotion of competition in the field of electricity production, adaptations of the pricing formula to improve transparency in sale prices to consumers, and institutional organisation modalities required to build up a Polynesian structure as Independent Administrative Authority (AAI) for the energy sector. In its first part, the report proposes an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Polynesia in terms of organisation, of production, of electricity demand, of photovoltaic production, of hydraulic production, of distribution, of tariff level, and of investments. In the second part, the authors report their analysis and give their recommendations, notably regarding sector control and transparency, financial balance, the compensation of EDT's losses due to the development of photovoltaic production, electricity demand management and reduction of production costs

  7. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Höning, Nicolas; La Poutré, Han; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys electricity on an ahead market and offers downward regulation on the balancing market. Bidding in two- set...

  8. Effect of demand management on regulated and deregulated electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrioglu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. The society relies on having a continuous supply of electrical energy. Some customers may willingly risk this continuous supply and participate in demand management programs for electrical power. If the power system grid is in trouble, electric utilities need to have demand relief. Customers willing to reduce their demand to help the system can receive an incentive fee for helping the utilities. Demand relief can be system wide or location specific. Sometimes it can be more effective to fix the electrical demand vs. supply imbalance from the demand side. The value of demand management contracts is greatly affected by customer location. Inclusion of locational attributes into the contract design procedure increases the effectiveness of the contracts by helping a utility get more value from its demand management programs. Independent System Operators and regulators, among others, can also benefit from effective demand management. This paper will investigate how this type of demand management contracts can help the electricity sector both in regulated and deregulated environments. - Highlights: • Demand management can help prevent forced electricity outages. • Both electric utilities and ISOs can use demand management. • Regulated and deregulated electricity sectors can benefit from demand management. • Demand management contracts can be effectively used in power system grids.

  9. Regulation and competition issues in Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisuttisak, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the issues related to regulatory reform and liberalisation leading toward competition in the Thai electricity sector, which is still under the monopoly control of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Following an overview of the current market structure of the Thai electricity sector, the process of liberalisation and deregulation that contributes to the uncompetitive market structure under SOEs’ control is examined. The author asserts that there are problems within the Energy Commission and the Energy Industry Act BE 2550 (2007) that contribute to the continuance of an uncompetitive electricity supply. Possible reforms to the Thai electricity regulation are proposed with the aim of creating market competition and efficiency in the Thai electricity sector. - Highlights: ► Author studies on the regulatory reform and a development of liberalisation plans on Thai electricity sector. ► The paper presents that the liberalisation plan was affected by the government implementation on electricity corporatisation. ► The paper asserts that the current energy regulation will not lead to market reform and competition in electricity. ► The paper also discusses on the current monopoly structure of Thai electricity sector under state owned enterprises. ► The paper concludes that Thailand needs an appropriate regulatory reform for building competition in electricity sector.

  10. Electrical energy industry regulation: trend in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the electric power industry is presently experiencing significative changes world-wide at an unprecedented pace. In these circumstances it is useless to attempt the preparation of a static snapshot of the current situation, because of the difficulties in capturing the exact position of each player and also because the picture would become obsolete in a very short time. This paper presents the specific features characterising power organisation, the regulatory approaches to the several services involved in supplying electricity, and alternative schemes for introduction of different levels of competition in traditionally regulated electric systems. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  12. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  13. Regulation and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, V.P.; Wenting, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution the authors provide an overview of regulatory issues and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors between the Netherlands and its neighbours. The Electricity Act 1998 has assigned management of the Dutch part of the interconnectors to exclusively TenneT, the national transmission system operator in the Netherlands. The authors conclude that the dust of many regulatory problems and conflicts concerning existing interconnectors has settled down. The preliminary proceedings regarding the long Sep priority which are pending with the EU Court of Justice must still produce an answer as to the compatibility of this priority with community law. Regarding construction and management of new interconnectors many regulatory and commercial challenges lie ahead. As regards congestion management on existing interconnectors the authors raise the question whether concentration on increasing physical interconnector capacity is the right approach. Interconnector capacity, even if substantially expanded, will continue to be liable to falling short of demand due to price differences and volatility of prices in the various national markets. Perhaps more effort should be put into attaining conditions for non-transaction based congestion management. The combined UCTE (Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity) grid is, technically speaking, a 'copper plate'. If it were only managed as such by the various national transmission system operators through co-ordinated control of production and load, almost all transports on this copper plate could be secured, irrespective of underlying commercial flows [nl

  14. Russian electricity market reform: Deregulation or re-regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Olga; Viljainen, Satu; Makkonen, Mari; Kuleshov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Russia commenced liberalization of electricity prices in 2007 increasing the liberalization rate by 10–25% every six months. It was planned to reach full liberalization by 2011. Currently, the degree of liberalization is uncertain because of intense price regulation and a highly concentrated market in the hands of four large generating companies. Increased regulation and further consolidation may drive the market towards its pre-reform state. This paper analyses the competitive landscape of the Russian electricity market by assessing the ownership structure of electricity generation, price drivers, and government involvement in the electricity wholesale market in Russia. The main research question is why the targeted level of market liberalization has not been fully achieved in the Russian electricity market. - Highlights: ► Congested grid; deficit of capacity and market concentration hinder competition. ► Investment needs of the power sector led to price shocks. ► Price increase and poor competition force the government to regulate prices. ► Low liberalization rate and non-cost-reflective pricing is a result of price regulation. ► Increased regulation and consolidation drive the market toward its pre-reform state.

  15. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  16. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-12-03

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries.

  17. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries

  18. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  19. Regulated Electric Drainage and its Interference with Track Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Kolar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric drainage is a power electronic device used to protect underground metal devices (such as piping from the corrosive effects of stray currents. Stray currents are usually caused by DC electric traction, such as trams or railways. In places where stray currents leave the underground device and return into rails, they cause significant electrochemical corrosion of buried devices. The principle of electric drainage is based on electrical connection between the underground device and electric traction rails, which ensures that current flows through this connection, instead of flowing into the ground. Nowadays, the most widely used type is regulated electric drainage, where current is regulated by means of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM. Because of this modulation, current flowing through the drainage contains harmonic components with different frequencies. In modern railways, track circuits are often used as an important part of the track security system. For safe operation, it is necessary to ensure that frequencies generated by the drainage do not interfere with track circuits. This paper describes the design of a regulated drainage control system, with regard to its compatibility with track circuits and this paper contains related computer simulations and discussion of the results

  20. Report on electricity sales regulated tariffs - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context of regulated tariffs for electricity sale, this report aims at assessing the level of tariff stacking for 2015 while taking some factors (EDF commercial costs, tariff for the use of electricity public network or TURPE) into account, at calculating the rate of EDF cost coverage by sales regulated tariffs, at assessing price adjustments made between November 2014 and July 2015. The first part proposes a detailed analysis of tariffing by cost stacking, and the second part a detailed analysis of EDF production costs

  1. The effect of costs and regulation on electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaf, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct econometric tests were performed to determine if state price regulation of public utilities has had a measurable impact on retail electricity prices. The results of both tests agree that, during the 1971-1985 period, average national electricity prices in each of the three major consuming sectors and the four Census regions were below the level which would have been preferred by profit-maximizing monopolists. Electricity consumers received price benefits during the sample period as a result of regulation. The first test of the effectiveness of state price regulation used a 'revealed preference' approach by comparing the actual prices set by regulatory commissioners with prices and outcomes predicted by three competing theories of regulatory motivation. The second test of the effectiveness of price regulation combined traditional cost function inputs with regulatory variables in reduced-form price equations to determine whether the amount of regulatory intensity, as measured by the number of staff members per regulated utility, is associated with declining electricity prices and whether appointed commissioners allow higher prices than elected commissioners

  2. Efficiency and regulation of the Slovenian electricity distribution companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hrovatin, Nevenka; Zoric, Jelena

    2004-01-01

    The Slovenian Energy Law, adopted in 1999, has opened the internal market to competition up to 64% of the final consumption. The opening of the internal market to foreign competition is envisaged for 2003. With regard to the methodology of price regulation, the Energy Law introduces the 'price-cap' regulation, which aims to give firms incentive for cost reduction. To provide information for effective price regulation, we estimated a cost frontier function on a sample of Slovenian electricity distribution utilities over the 1991-2000 period. The estimated efficient frontier could be used by Slovenian regulatory agency as a benchmark to regulate network access prices. Our results show that Slovenian distribution companies are cost inefficient. We have also proved the presence of increasing returns to scale with most utilities not achieving the minimum efficient scale. Thus, the Slovenian regulatory authority should consider how to induce mergers of small electricity distribution utilities into larger units

  3. Incentive Regulation and Utility Benchmarking for Electricity Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Nepal, R.

    2014-01-01

    The incentive regulation of costs related to physical and cyber security in electricity networks is an important but relatively unexplored and ambiguous issue. These costs can be part of cost efficiency benchmarking or, alternatively, dealt with separately. This paper discusses the issues and proposes options for incorporating network security costs within incentive regulation in a benchmarking framework. The relevant concerns and limitations associated with the accounting and classification ...

  4. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  5. Advice from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from April 4, 2002 about the by-law establishing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by facilities using, as main source, the energy coming from the combustion or explosion of non-fossil matter of vegetal origin; Avis de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 4 avril 2002 sur l'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant, a titre principal, l'energie degagee par la combustion ou l'explosion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about the by-law fixing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by biomass-fueled facilities: considerations common to all power generation files that benefit from the obligation of purchase (tariff of purchase of the electricity produced, advantages of a call for bids system, existing decrees and by-laws, estimation of saved costs and environmental benefits, impact on the greenhouse effect abatement and on the air quality, conformability with the European regulation); cost-benefit analysis of the present by-law: description of the proposed tariff of purchase for the electricity produced by biomass-fueled facilities; comparison of the proposed tariff with the saved costs and the environmental benefits; comparison of the tariff with the production costs and analysis of the technical modalities; advice of the CRE. (J.S.)

  6. 7 CFR 999.1 - Regulation governing the importation of dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY...) Dates in retail packages means whole or pitted dates, other than dates prepared or preserved, wrapped or... includes dates coated with a substance materially altering their color. (5) Dates prepared or preserved...

  7. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  8. Does electricity (and heat) network regulation have anything to learn from fixed line telecoms regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the lessons from the recent history of telecoms deregulation for electricity (and by implication heat) network regulation. We do this in the context of Ofgem's RPI-X rate at 20 review of energy regulation in the UK, which considers whether RPI-X-based price regulation is fit for purpose after over 20 years of operation in energy networks. We examine the deregulation of fixed line telecoms in the UK and the lessons which it seems to suggest. We then apply the lessons to electricity networks in the context of a possible increase in distributed generation directly connected to local distribution networks. We conclude that there is the possibility of more parallels over time and suggest several implications of this for the regulation of electricity and heat networks. (author)

  9. Ex Post Regulation as the Method of Sectoral Regulation in Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Nagaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The aim of the article is to present the essence of ex post approach to sectoral regulation, to show the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and to answer the question whether it is worth using in the electricity sector. Design/methodology/approach - For this purpose, a critical analysis of expert literature was made and an empirical analysis of countries that have applied ex post regulation in the electricity sector in the European Union. Two research methods were used: a case study and a comparison of changes in price and quality of services. The research period covered the period 2000-2016. Findings - It was found that ex post regulation reduces regulatory costs, does not adversely affect the quality of service and long-term rates, gives businesses the freedom of decision-making and the ability to react quickly to changes in the economy. The main disadvantages of ex post regulation are the tendency for companies to over-estimate bills for consumers, the difficulty of pursuing claims by consumers and the need to shift regulatory risk to consumers. Research implications/limitations - In the paper there was identified a research gap, i.e. the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector in European Union countries where such regulation was applied. Identifying the research gap will help us understand what are the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and will create a model for when it is good moment to implement this in the economy. Besides identifying the research gap, further studies will be required over ex post regulation. Originality/value/contribution - The additional value of the paper is the study of ex post regulation, its essence and types. The article analyzed the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector and provided valuable insights into the potential risks associated with this approach to economic regulation.

  10. Emotion Regulation Difficulties Moderate the Association Between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Cherf, Nicholas; Gulati, Natasha K.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2017-01-01

    Because of high rates of heavy drinking and dating violence (psychological or physical aggression toward a dating partner) among college men, we examined whether emotion regulation difficulties moderated the association between heavy drinking and dating violence perpetration. One hundred and fifty-eight men were recruited from a large northwestern US university between April 2014 and August 2014. Participants completed an online survey that assessed their emotion regulation difficulties as well as their past year history of heavy episodic drinking (HED; consuming 5+ drinks in 2 hours) and dating violence perpetration. Generalized linear models revealed that the positive association between HED and dating violence perpetration was stronger for men with greater impulse control difficulties and for those who reported limited access to emotion regulation strategies. In addition to continued efforts to reduce heavy drinking among college men, interventions targeting emotion regulation difficulties should be incorporated into standard dating violence intervention and prevention efforts to further reduce the likelihood of dating violence perpetration in this population. PMID:29147076

  11. Investment incentives: regulation of the Finnish electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Kaisa

    2006-01-01

    Investments into the electricity distribution network are needed to support competition and to guarantee the security of supply as well as a good quality of electricity. The aim of this paper is to study the ex post regulatory system in Finland in context of investment incentives. The second objective is to study how the investments in the sector have developed after the liberalisation and what seem to be the most important factors influencing investments in light of empirical information and how regulation affects them. The investment volumes vary much between years but on average, no drastic developments have taken place

  12. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  13. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  14. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Gulati, Natasha K; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration-particularly for those with low average eBACs-and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one's typical drinking pattern.

  16. Regulation of electricity distribution: Issues for implementing a norm model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette; Bjoernenak, Trond; Johnsen, Thore

    2005-01-01

    The Norwegian regulation of transmission and distribution of electricity is currently under revision, and several proposals, including price caps, various norm models and adjustments to the present revenue cap model, have been considered by the Norwegian regulator, NVE. Our starting point is that a successful and sustainable income-regulation-model for electricity distribution should be in accordance with the way of thinking, and the managerial tools of modern businesses. In the regulation it is assumed that decisions regarding operations and investments are made by independent, business oriented entities. The ambition of a dynamically efficient industry therefore requires that the regulatory model and its implementation support best practice business performance. This will influence how the cost base is determined and the way investments are dealt with. We will investigate a possible implementation of a regulatory model based on cost norms. In this we will distinguish between on the one hand, customer driven costs, and on the other hand, costs related to the network itself. The network related costs, which account for approximately 80% of the total cost of electricity distribution, include the costs of operating and maintaining the network, as well as capital costs. These are the ''difficult'' costs, as their levels depend on structural and climatic factors, as well as the number of customers and the load that is served. Additionally, the costs are not separable, since for instance maintenance and investments can be substitutable activities. The work concentrates on verifying the cost model, and evaluating implications for the use of the present efficiency model (DEA) in the regulation. Moreover, we consider how network related costs can be managed in a norm model. Finally, it is highlighted that an important part of a regulatory model based on cost norms is to devise quality measures and how to use them in the economic regulation. (Author)

  17. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  18. 75 FR 28004 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice Establishing Date for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Proposed Rulemaking on Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets.\\1\\ Specifically, the... counterparty to transactions in their markets \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, 130... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM10-13-000] Credit Reforms...

  19. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  20. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Tamer; Oguz, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly

  1. Regulators debate support of natural gas in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    State regulators recently tabled a controversial proposal to encourage natural gas use in electricity generation. Proponents of natural gas support such an endorsement since state regulators can influence utility fuel-supply choices through planning incentives and disincentives. Members of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners vowed to take up the matter at their Winter Committee Meetings, February 28 to March 4 in Washington, DC. NARUC's Gas Committee offered the resolution at the NARUC Annual Convention in Los Angeles in November. Presentations and debate covered the merits and drawbacks of formal support for natural gas. Natural gas generation has fast construction and low capital-cost benefits, air quality and fuel handling advantages over other fossil fuels. Still, regulators and utility representatives expressed concern over long-term availability, over reliance on one resource and price

  2. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, T.

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly. (author)

  3. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  4. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of final rules published by the... establish any requirements but rather delays the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the... delay of the 2012 Final Rule's effective date would generally benefit remittance transfer providers by...

  5. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Distributed resources and re-regulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly defines distributed resources (DR) and discusses the current status of DR. The main focus is on discussing the value DR can provide to re-regulated electricity markets. DR can, under certain circumstances, help to significantly reduce the main problem of re-regulation, i.e. market power. Distributed generation and demand-side resources may, even if only small quantities in terms of size of the entire market are utilised, be able to help to significantly reduce market power. This results in a significantly more efficient market. To achieve such benefits, however, DR must be in operation during times when market power issues are likely to arise. To a certain extent this is the case as demand-side resources are usually independent of established generation companies. In addition, many business cases for DG require DG to actually operate to capture the second revenue. (author)

  7. Wind integration in self-regulating electric load distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Simon; Wang, Dan; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, STN CSC, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and assess an alternative method of mitigating short-term wind energy production variability through the control of electric loads. In particular, co-located populations of electric vehicles and heat pumps are targeted to provide regulation-based ancillary services, as the inherent operational flexibility and autonomous device-level control strategy associated with these load-types provide an ideal platform to mitigate enhanced variability within the power system. An optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing these grid-side objectives with those typically expected on the demand-side is introduced. End-use digital communication hardware is used to track and control population dynamics through the development of online aggregate load models equivalent to conventional dispatchable generation. The viability of the proposed load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased online regulation reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently. (orig.)

  8. Resolution 29/003. It approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service with annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This decree approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service. It establishes that the public electricity service should be provided with an appropriate level of quality for the users

  9. Political institutions of electricity regulation: The case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Durakoglu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has been going through a liberalization process in its electricity market over the last decade. So far, the regulatory content of the market reforms has been in the center of attention in the literature, to the negligence of regulatory governance. However, recent studies, which applied the theoretical insights of new institutional economics to utilities regulation, have demonstrated that political endowments of the country draw the boundaries to which extent such regulatory content can be effectively implemented. In line with these studies, this paper adopts an institutional approach and attempts to identify the political endowments of Turkey in order to further analyze whether the market reforms succeeded in bringing about sufficient checks to cure the institutional problems. In other words, the paper takes a picture of the overall regulatory arena. The results show that the current regulatory structure, especially government-regulator relations, yet fails to meet good regulatory governance criteria. The paper also provides some policy suggestions. - Highlights: → Regulatory governance matters as much as regulatory content. → Political institutions draw boundaries to the implementation of regulatory content. → Market reforms have been insufficient to bring about a true institutional change. → Institutional checks must be devised to limit government interference to the market.

  10. 77 FR 16196 - Delaying the Compliance Date for Certain Requirements of the Regulations Implementing Titles II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... be received. The constraints imposed by the Regulations.gov/FDMS system do not apply to U.S. postal... pools, wading pools, and spas in compliance with the 2010 Standards. The proposed extension would run...

  11. 76 FR 57645 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... information about the original regulation, contact BOSN3 Joseph M. Edge, Coast Guard Sector North Carolina... page 55563, in the third column, in the third amendatory instruction, remove the words ``line No. 63...

  12. A NOx control regulation for electric utility boilers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions is becoming an increasingly important part of ozone attainment plans. As a part of its ozone attainment plan, the Ventura County (California) Air Pollution Control Board adopted in June, 1991, a regulation (Rule 59) to limit oxides of nitrogen emissions from four electrical utility boilers in the county. Rule development took two years and involved considerable public input. The emission limit for each of two 750 megawatt units is set at 0.10 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour net after June, 1994. The emission limit for each of two 215 megawatt units is 0.20 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour after June, 1996. Additional limitations are included for fuel oil operation. The rule does not specify an emission control technology. Conventional selective catalytic reduction, urea injection and combustion modifications are considered the technologies most likely to be used to comply. At $17,613 per ton of NO x reduced for the two large boilers and $8.992 per ton of NO x reduced for the small boilers, the rule is considered cost effective. The capital cost for conventional selective catalytic reduction systems on all four boilers is expected to be in excess of $210,000,000

  13. 76 FR 44877 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... filing. If you submit comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please... the Patrol Commander to transit. Any vessel transiting the regulated area must do so at a no-wake... safe course that minimizes wake near the swim course. The Patrol Commander will allow non-participating...

  14. New approach in electricity network regulation: an issue on effective integration of distributed generation in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, Martin J.J.; Wals, Adrian F.

    2003-11-01

    Technological developments and EU targets for penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction are decentralising the electricity infrastructure and services. Although, the liberalisation and internationalisation of the European electricity market has resulted in efforts to harmonise transmission pricing and regulation, hardly any initiative exists to consider the opening up and regulation of distribution networks to ensure effective participation of RES and distributed generation (DG) in the internal market. The SUSTELNET project has been created in order to close this policy gap. Its main objective is to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to an electricity market and network structure that creates a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and that facilitates the integration of RES, within the framework of the liberalisation of the EU electricity market. By analysing the technical, socio-economic and institutional dynamics of the European electricity system and markets, the project identifies the underlying patterns that provide the boundary conditions and levers for policy development to reach long term RES and GHG targets (2020-2030 time frame). This paper presents results of this analytical phase of the SUSTELNET project. Furthermore, preliminary results of the current work in progress are presented. Principles and criteria for a regulatory framework for sustainable electricity systems are discussed, as well as the development of medium to long-term transition strategies/roadmaps for network regulation and market transformation to facilitate the integration of RES and decentralised electricity generating systems.

  15. International benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators: A contrast between theory and practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking of electricity networks has a key role in sharing the benefits of efficiency improvements with consumers and ensuring regulated companies earn a fair return on their investments. This paper analyses and contrasts the theory and practice of international benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators. We examine the literature relevant to electricity transmission benchmarking and discuss the results of a survey of 25 national electricity regulators. While new panel data techniques aimed at dealing with unobserved heterogeneity and the validity of the comparator group look intellectually promising, our survey suggests that they are in their infancy for regulatory purposes. In electricity transmission, relative to electricity distribution, choosing variables is particularly difficult, because of the large number of potential variables to choose from. Failure to apply benchmarking appropriately may negatively affect investors’ willingness to invest in the future. While few of our surveyed regulators acknowledge that regulatory risk is currently an issue in transmission benchmarking, many more concede it might be. In the meantime new regulatory approaches – such as those based on tendering, negotiated settlements, a wider range of outputs or longer term grid planning – are emerging and will necessarily involve a reduced role for benchmarking. -- Highlights: •We discuss how to benchmark electricity transmission. •We report survey results from 25 national energy regulators. •Electricity transmission benchmarking is more challenging than benchmarking distribution. •Many regulators concede benchmarking may raise capital costs. •Many regulators are considering new regulatory approaches

  16. Guide to federal regulation of sales of imported electricity in Canada, Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Guide to Federal Regulation of Sales of Imported Electricity in Canada, Mexico, and the United States promotes cross-border electricity trade. It provides information on federal regulation of cross-border electricity trade and is intended to be used together with a companion guide called the North American Regulation of International Electricity Trade which outlines regulations for the construction and operation of cross-border power lines and the permitting requirements for electricity exports and imports between Canada, Mexico and the United States. The guide outlines the basic elements of the general federal regulatory process that applies to a given North American cross-border electricity trade. It offers an improved understanding of the applicable country's federal regulatory regime. Different federal government agencies within each country may regulate different aspects of a particular cross-border electricity trade. This guide does not examine the requirements that may apply at the state or provincial government levels. Rather, it is a collaborative effort of the 3 national energy departments and energy regulators that support the Experts Group on Electricity Regulatory Issues, a specialized unit assembled by the North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG). It was noted that the energy policies and regulations of each nation can change periodically

  17. DC microgrids providing frequency regulation in electrical power system - imperfect communication issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bašić, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model of multiple DC microgrids with battery energy storage systems and demand response capability, taking part in primary frequency regulation of electrical power system. Although DC microgrids can contribute to stability and efficiency of frequency regulation, these complex...... systems may cause serious stability issues due to the imperfect communication. This work presents possible scenarios of unstable primary frequency regulation in a simplified model of electrical power system with DC microgrids, which are controlled through communication network....

  18. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from December 12, 2002 about a disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company and the Power transportation Network (RTE), as manager of the public power transportation grid, relative to the tariffing of public networks use applicable to the consumers connected in 42 kV voltage; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 12 decembre 2002 sur un different qui oppose la societe PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) a Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (RTE), en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de transport d'electricite, relatif a la tarification d'utilisation des reseaux publics applicable aux consommateurs raccordes en tension 42 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a high voltage tariff disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company (La Defense, Courbevoie France) and RTE, the French manager of the power transportation grid. PEMAR company claims for a contract of power supply tariff conformable with the application of the decree from July 19, 2002 which, after comparison with the previous decrees, contains a mistake in the definition of voltage classes. (J.S.)

  19. Identifying options for regulating the coordination of network investments with investments in distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisten, E.

    2010-02-01

    The increase in the distributed generation of electricity, with wind turbines and solar panels, necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments and the frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the DSOs to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulation, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generators.

  20. Comparing welfare effects of different regulation schemes: An application to the electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2010-01-01

    We compare the welfare effects of different regulation schemes of electricity distribution utilities. The compared regulation schemes are Fixed Price regulation, Cost of Service regulation, Menu of Cost-Contingent Contracts and Simple Menu of Contracts. In our calculations we utilize the information of a firm's potential to improve cost efficiency. The firm-specific cost information of Finnish electricity distribution utilities is obtained by using various Stochastic Frontier models. Our basic result is that welfare can be improved by changing the Cost of Service regulation scheme to the Menu of Contracts regulation. Welfare also increases in the case of Fixed Price regulation and Simple Menu of Contract regulation. There is however, a significant difference among regulation regimes on how this improved welfare is distributed to consumers and producers.

  1. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.

  2. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  3. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  4. Investment and revenue cap under incentive regulation: The case study of the Norwegian electricity distributors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dengjun; Xie, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2017.1400900 Electricity distribution operators are regulated as monopolies around the world. Incentive regulation is further applied to relate their allowed revenues (revenue cap) to cost efficiency and investment. Incentive regulation varies cross countries and has evolved over time for individual countries. Norway is one of the first countries reforming the network distributors by incentive regulation. Using the long time series data, we eval...

  5. Electrical system regulations of the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2013-01-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), is a research reactor open pool type, designed and built by the U.S. firm Babcock and Wilcox, having, as coolant and moderator, deionized light water and beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. Until about 1988, the reactor safety systems received power from only one source of energy. As an example, it may be cited the control desk that was powered only by the vital electrical system 220V, which, in case the electricity fails, is powered by the generator group: no-break 220V. In the years 1989 and 1990, a reform of the electrical system upgrading to increase the reactor power and, also, to meet the technical standards of the ABNT (Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas) was carried out. This work has the objective of showing the relationship between the electric power system and the IEA-R1 reactor security. Also, it demonstrates that, should some electrical power interruption occur, during the reactor operation, this occurrence would not start an accident event. (author)

  6. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  7. Regulation of Electric Power Generation while Improving TTP Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking integrated power system of theRepublicofBelarusas an example the paper considers a possibility of heat accumulator use for TPP operation in accordance with the schedule of electric power consumption while maintaining daily supply of heat energy from turbine power takes-off and without involvement of peak-loader boilers used for covering energy loads.

  8. Nuclear regulation on the electrical sector's deregulation horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical sector is generally tending towards a deregulated system which will exert greater pressure on production costs. The author uses this article to reflect on the consequences this new conception will bring for nuclear energy and, particularly, for the activity of regulatory agencies and safety requirements. (Author)

  9. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from May 2, 2002 about a dispute between the manager of the power transportation network (RTE) and the autonomous administration of Parisian transports (RATP) relative to the conditions of consideration of the multiplicity of power supply points in the contractual system of access to the power grid; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 2 mai 2002 sur un different qui oppose le gestionnaire du Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (RTE) et la Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) relatif aux conditions de prise en compte de la multiplicite des points de livraison dans le dispositif contractuel d'acces au reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a dispute between the French manager of the power transportation grid (RTE) and the autonomous administration of Parisian transports (RATP) about its contract of access to the grid for the power supply of the underground railway of Paris. The RATP requested a regrouping of all its 7 supply points in a single contract. After analysis of the hearings, the CRE considers that no discrimination exists in the contractual system proposed by the RTE and thus the RATP request has been rejected. (J.S.)

  10. Negative Effects of Antimonopoly Regulation on the Russian Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena NEPRINTSEVA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the antimonopoly regulation in the domestic economy getting more stringent an analysis of the current measures of antimonopoly regulation in terms of their efficiency is now becoming ever more relevant. The aim of the study - analyze how the measures of antimonopoly regulation affect competitive relationships in the electric power industry. The following methods have been used in this work: empirical method, cause-effect method and scientific abstraction method. The article sets out an analysis of the antimonopoly regulation measures that the antimonopoly authority applies. It also provides an assessment of consequences that follow from such methods being applied for the promotion of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. A conclusion has been reached that the antimonopoly regulation measures being applied impede the progress of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. The continuing process of reformation in electric power industry aims to liberalize relationships in the area of electric power production. Yet, as a result of this process, generating capacities are becoming increasingly more concentrated mainly around state companies. This is mainly caused by the lack of certainty regarding the results of the industry reformation and a more stringent state regulation over the last years of the reforms. At the same time, for the purposes of limiting the market force, measures of antimonopoly regulation are being applied to generating companies. Such measures have an adverse effect on competitive relationships and stimulate further concentration.

  11. Europe of electricity and gas - Actors, markets, regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Emmanuelle; Veyrenc, Thomas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In about 20 years, radical transformations have deeply changed the electricity and natural gas sectors in Europe. Liberalization, deregulation and Europeanization have been the key words of a flood of change which is still going on today. With time, new issues have appeared: climate change, security of supplies, fossil fuels exhaustion, promotion of renewable energy sources have become part of energy policies. This book tackles this reconfiguration face on and offers some tools to understand the present day complexity of the electricity and gas sector in Europe. Using several schemes and taking into consideration the most recent data, it combines theory and practice to explain the evolutions in progress. It put them into perspective in a synthetic and pedagogical way with several concrete examples

  12. The consumers' role in a de-regulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Doehl, Oeystein; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Larsson, Jan; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The electricity market is market characterized by large price variations. This may have many causes, such as large variation of demand, large differences in the operating costs of the utilities or large variation in precipitation. Price variations caused by the supply side of the market may be counterbalanced by reducing consumption when the price is high, for example by using other energy sources, or by increasing consumption when the price is low

  13. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  14. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  15. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  16. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean; Lopez-Garcia, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  17. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han); K. Strunz

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work

  18. Stochastic Optimal Regulation Service Strategy for a Wind Farm Participating in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    in the stochastic optimization to deal with the uncertainty of the up regulation price and the up regulation activation of the power system.The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen to evaluate the effect of the proposed strategy. Simulation results showthe proposed......As modern wind farmshave the ability to provideregulation service for the power system, wind power plant operators may be motivated to participate in the regulating market to maximize their profit.In this paper, anoptimal regulation servicestrategy for a wind farm to participate...... strategy can increase the revenue of wind farms by leavinga certain amount of wind powerfor regulation service....

  19. Competition policy and regulation in hydro-dominated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Luiz Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the main competition issues that arise in electricity systems dominated by hydro generation, arguing that technological differences between hydro and thermal plants may allow hydropower producers to exert market power in different and subtler ways compared to thermal generators. The key for market power in hydro-based systems is the strategic allocation of a given amount of output across periods, rather than a straightforward reduction of total output. The paper examines the interaction between strategic hydro reservoir operation and transmission capacity constraints, and summarizes the implications of market power for system reliability. A review of recent relevant literature is included. Finally, possible interventions to mitigate market power are analysed

  20. A quantitative model of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yulong; Fu, Shijun [Economy and Business Administration School of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper explores quantification of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. Based on social welfare economics, we articulately depict RPF's qualitative concept and its economic meaning. Then, applying abstract functions (i.e., abstract social welfare function, abstract utility function, and abstract production function), we deduce the partial-social-welfare elasticity, and build the mathematics model of maximizing social welfare. We nest this elasticity into the model's Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and obtain RPF's definition formula. By solving the Kuhn-Tucker conditions, we get RPF's quantitative formula, which solves the problem of hard to quantify regulator's preference in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. The result shows that RPF only has relationship to subsystems' production function, and is independent of social welfare function and subsystems' utility function. Finally, we provide an empirical research based on the western region of China from year 1995 to 2004. It reveals that regulator has relative stability preference to mitigating pollutants. And validity test confirms that the empirical result is fit well to the practice. The RPF is truly a more general and valid instrument to measure regulator's preference in its regulated field. (author)

  1. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  2. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  3. Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

  4. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  5. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from June 27, 2002 about a disagreement between Semmaris company and Electricite de France, as manager of the public power distribution grid, relative to the conditions of consideration of the multiplicity of delivery points in the contractual system of access to the grid; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 27 juin 2002 sur un different, qui oppose la societe Semmaris a Electricite de France, en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de distribution d'electricite, relatif aux conditions de prise en compte de la multiplicite des points de livraison dans le dispositif contractuel d'acces au reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a disagreement between Semmaris company (Rungis, France) and Electricite de France (EdF) concerning the request by Semmaris for the subscription of a single contract of access to the grid for its 18 supply points instead of 9 contracts as proposed by EdF after acceptation of a partial regrouping of some supply points under the same contracts. After examination of the hearings, the CRE requested EdF to establish non-discriminatory objective criteria for the regrouping of different delivery points in a same contract before making a new examination of the disagreement between Semmaris and EdF. (J.S.)

  6. Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector for the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Newbery, D.; Tjin, T.; Verdonkschot, I.; Buitelaar, T.; Van Gent, C.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in this report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector

  7. Utility regulation-The scope and structure of electrical safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Malcolm; Cohen, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition in the utilities sector, regulatory agencies have been created in each state to provide independent and authorative advice on matters such as electricity pricing, access to infrastructure, service quality and security of supply. In addition arrangements have been established to maintain safety standards in the industry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major issues that have arisen in the creation of regulatory agencies responsible for electrical safety standards in Australia and New Zealand, and how they have impacted on liberalised electricity markets. - Highlights: → Policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition have led to the creation of electrical safety agencies. → These agencies have been created in response to perceived market failures. → There is a variance in agencies in terms of their independence and industry coverage. → These agencies have been created at a time of falling fatalities.

  8. Investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. Movements in the regulation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeuwen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an overview is given of the regulation framework for investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. The overview describes which options regulations and regulation practice offer to grid operators for recovering the cost of investing in grids. Attention is paid to possible discrepancies between the European and the Dutch regulation framework. The article illustrates that grid operators currently lack any clarity and hence certainty about the options for recovering their investment costs. At the same time the fact that investments are needed to secure quality and capacity is not under debate. [nl

  9. The Efficiency of the Regulation for Horizontal Mergers Among Electricity Distribution Operators in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Gammeltvedt, Thor Erik

    2015-01-01

    the attractiveness of mergers. Norway is one country having implemented an ex ante regulation for mergers among electricity distribution operators (DSOs). We investigate whether the actual mergers of Norwegian DSOs in the period 1995-2004 can be rationalized as cost saving exercises or whether they should...... to identify plausible pre-merger motivations. We also discuss the possibility to gain from strategic gaming in the regulation. We compare the regulated revenues and the regulated efficiency improvement requirements before and after the mergers. We find limited potential cost gains ex ante but some improvement...

  10. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  11. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  12. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  13. Increasing penetration of renewable and distributed electricity generation and the need for different network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joode, J. de; Jansen, J.C.; Welle, A.J. van der; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of decentralised electricity generation (DG) connected to distribution networks increases across EU member states. This increasing penetration of DG units poses potential costs and benefits for distribution system operators (DSOs). These DSOs are regulated since the business of electricity distribution is considered to be a natural monopoly. This paper identifies the impact of increasing DG penetration on the DSO business under varying parameters (network characteristics, DG technologies, network management type) and argues that current distribution network regulation needs to be improved in order for DSOs to continue to facilitate the integration of DG in the network. Several possible adaptations are analysed.

  14. Regulation of electricity distribution in Spain. Principles and mechanisms for distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez San Roman, T.

    2007-01-01

    First, a conceptual framework for electricity network regulation is presented. In the second part, this paper reviews the current situation of electricity distribution regulation in Spain highlighting its main shortcomings. Finally, some guidelines for the design of a new remuneration model for each distribution company are proposed. This new regulatory model will increase efficiency, promoting the required investment for improving quality of supply and reducing energy losses. This model is based on two new regulatory tools: regulatory accounting and network reference models. (Author) 15 refs

  15. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  16. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  17. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  18. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries

  19. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries.

  20. Exploring the determinants of “best practice” benchmarking in electricity network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brophy Haney, Aoife; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a best practice index constructed from the survey responses of regulators in 40 countries to explore the determinants of the methods used in electricity network regulation. Drawing from the incentive regulation and institutional economics literature, we construct an empirical model to investigate the impact of industry size, political and economic institutions on the degree of best practice regulation. Our results suggest that the existence and experience of an independent regulator is the most important institutional determinant of best practice regulation. In addition, small numbers of network companies act as a constraint on the use of advanced benchmarking methods. Finally, regional effects are also important. These findings lead us to question whether one “best practice” model is in fact applicable to countries with very different political and economic contexts. - Highlights: ► Political institutions are strong determinants of best practice electricity regulation. ► Behavior of neighboring regulators may shape regulatory outcomes. ► One “best practice” model may not be appropriate.

  1. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition

  2. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances. To achieve this objective, we will make use of the reversible fair scheduling algorithm originally developed for telecommunication networks. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregati...

  3. Control and distribution of electrical energy as mirrored by the relevant VDE regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E [Metzenauer und Jung G.m.b.H., Wuppertal (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with the regulations issued by the VDE in the fields of electrical energy distribution and control on national and international level. Starting from an interesting historical survey the author deals with VDE stipulations, introduces new control systems and explains the latest switching units.

  4. The effect of plant growth regulators and their interaction with electric current on winter wheat development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Koscielniak, J.; Filek, M.; Marcinska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Kubon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2010), s. 987-995 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : In vitro culture * Plant growth regulators * Electric current Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  5. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...

  6. Incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: Lessons of experience from Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent experience of the UK electricity distribution sector under incentive regulation. The UK has a significant and transparent history in implementing incentive regulation in the period since 1990. We demonstrate the successes of this period in reducing costs, prices, and energy losses while maintaining quality of service. We also draw out the lessons for other countries in implementing distribution sector reform. We conclude by discussing the place of incentive regulation of networks within the wider reform context, the required legislative framework, the need for appropriate unbundling, the importance of quality of service incentives, the regulatory information requirements, and the role of sector rationalisation. (author)

  7. X - FACTOR EVALUATION UNDER RPI-X REGULATION FOR INDIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVAN KHETRAPAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With regulators’ growing interest in improving operational efficiency and quality supply, the time is nearing when performance based regulation will become norm for regulating the distribution tariff in Indian electricity distribution sector. In this context, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions proposed replacing rate-of-return regulation with most commonly used performance based regulatory regime, i.e., Price Cap regulation also known as RPI-X (Retail Price Index - Productivity Offset regulatory framework. However, the potential problem associated with applying price cap regulation scheme in practice is the determination of productivity offset or X factor used in price caps setting. This paper proposed an approach to calculate the X-factor for 58 government-owned and privately-owned electricity distribution utilities in India during a five year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. A Stochastic Frontier model through an input distance function is first applied to compute the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the estimated TFP is then used to calculate the utility-specific X-factor. With rely on calculated X-factor, the distribution utilities would be able to cap either on prices or revenues thus accounting the inflation in the tariff determination. This will be more realistic approach as compared to cost plus approach.

  8. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  9. Radical Prosumer Innovations in the Electricity Sector and the Impact on Prosumer Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Lavrijssen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations, enabling social innovations such peer to peer trading and the participation in local energy collectives, on the regulation of the rights and obligations of consumers and prosumers in the electricity sector. It identifies the main radical innovations in the electricity market and analyses the legal and related non-legal obstacles that may impede the empowerment of energy consumers and prosumers. Some recommendations are provided to ensure that consumers and prosumers are empowered and can benefit from these new technological and social innovations in the electricity market. The recommendations relate to an accurate definition of prosumers and active consumers, the integration of demand response, the evolving role of distribution network operators and the birth of peer-to-peer trading.

  10. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  11. Competition, regulation, and energy efficiency options in the electricity sector: Opportunities and challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Amol Anant

    This dissertation explores issues related to competition in and regulation of electricity sectors in developing countries on the backdrop of fundamental reforms in their electricity sectors. In most cases, electricity sector reforms promoted privatization based on the rationale that it will lower prices and improve quality. In Chapter 2, I analyze this rationale by examining the stated capital cost of independent (private) power producer's (IPPs) power projects in eight developing countries and find that the stated capital cost of projects selected via competitive bidding is on an average about 40% to 60% lower than that of the projects selected via negotiations, which, I argue, represents the extent to which the costs of negotiated projects are overstated. My results indicate that the policy of promoting private sector without an adequate focus on improving competition or regulation has not worked in most cases in terms of getting competitively priced private sector projects. Given the importance of facilitating effective competition or regulation, In Chapter 3, I examine the challenges and opportunities of establishing a competitive wholesale electricity market in a developing country context. I model a potential wholesale electricity market in Maharashtra (MH) state, India and find that it would be robustly competitive even in a situation of up-to five percent of supply shortage, when opportunities for demand response are combined with policies such as divestiture and requiring long-term contracts. My results indicate that with appropriate policies, some developing countries could establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. In Chapter 4, I focus on the demand side and analyze the cost effectiveness of improving end-use efficiency in an electricity sector with subsidized tariffs and electricity shortages and show that they offer the least expensive way of reducing shortages in Maharashtra State, India. In Chapter 5, I examine the costs of reducing carbon

  12. Determinants of investment under incentive regulation: The case of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    Investment in electricity networks, as regulated natural monopolies, is among the highest regulatory and energy policy priorities. The electricity sector regulators adopt different incentive mechanisms to ensure that the firms undertake sufficient investment to maintain and modernise the grid. Thus, an effective regulatory treatment of investment requires understanding the response of companies to the regulatory incentives. This study analyses the determinants of investment in electricity distribution networks using a panel dataset of 129 Norwegian companies observed from 2004 to 2010. A Bayesian Model Averaging approach is used to provide a robust statistical inference by taking into account the uncertainties around model selection and estimation. The results show that three factors drive nearly all network investments: investment rate in previous period, socio-economic costs of energy not supplied and finally useful life of assets. The results indicate that Norwegian companies have, to some degree, responded to the investment incentives provided by the regulatory framework. However, some of the incentives do not appear to be effective in driving the investments. - Highlights: • This paper investigates determinants of investment under incentive regulation. • We apply a Bayesian model averaging technique to deal with model uncertainty. • Dataset comprises 129 Norwegian electricity network companies from 2004 to 2010. • The results show that firms have generally responded to investment incentives. • However, some of the incentives do not appear to have been effective.

  13. Regional differences in electricity distribution costs and their consequences for yardstick regulation of access prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wild, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 59 Swiss local and regional electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Shleifer (1985) proposed yardstick competition in terms of price to regulate local monopolies producing a homogeneous good. The regulated price for the individual firms depends on the average costs of identical firms. The yardstick competition concept can also be applied to firms that produce heterogeneous goods if these goods differ only in observable characteristics. To correct the yardstick for heterogeneity the regulator can use a multivariate estimation of an average-cost function. In the case of electricity distribution, the heterogeneity of output consists mainly of different characteristics of the distribution service areas. In this paper we follow Shleifer's suggestion to estimate a multivariate average-cost function that can be employed by the regulatory commission to benchmark network access prices at the distribution level. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the cost model specification. We find that the regional differences of the service areas - e.g. area shares of forests, agricultural areas or unproductive land and population density - significantly influence electricity distribution costs

  14. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  15. Theoretical fundamentals for the new regulation of the electric power sector; Fundamentos teoricos de la nueva regulacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1998-12-01

    Regulatory models for the electric power industry throughout the world are experiencing significative changes at a umprecedented pace. It is then justified to speak of a new regulation of the electric power sector, with features of its own. This paper presents the theoretical background for this new regulation, focusing on the identification characterization and analysis of the several activities comprised in electricity supply, as well as the most suitable regulatory approach for each one of them. (Author)

  16. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  17. Regulations and monitoring of the financial part of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Svante; Eliasson, Torben; Jenssen Aasmund

    2001-11-01

    The electricity derivatives market has grown significantly during the last few years. It refers to all commodity derivatives (options, futures and forwards) based on electricity and traded either on the Nord Pool Exchange or bilaterally between single parties. The growth of the derivatives market has also led to an increasing need for relevant regulation and monitoring. In this report ECON describes how the common financial regulations (e.g. Sweden's Securities Operations Act) affect power sector companies and how the electricity derivatives market is being monitored by the Swedish and the Norwegian financial supervisory authorities. The aim of the report is to give ideas about possible future research projects about the electricity derivatives market. In Sweden commodity derivatives based on electricity are generally considered to be 'financial instruments' according to The Trading in Financial Instruments Act. At least this seems to be the case with contracts traded on Nord Pool and bilateral contracts that can be subject to clearing by Nord Pool. In some cases, companies wanting to offer services regarding financial instruments in the Swedish market need a special licence and it comes from the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority. The services that require a special permit are: trading financial instruments, in one's own name, on behalf of another party, brokering of contacts between purchasers and sellers, trading in financial instruments on one's own account, management of another party's financial instruments, and underwriting or other participation in issuances of securities or offers to purchase or sell financial instruments directly to the public. A licence to conduct a securities operation brings with it, among other things, certain mandatory capital requirements. Securities operations should also be conducted in such a manner that public confidence is maintained in the securities markets. Regulation should insure that for example, insider trading is

  18. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago (United States); Jamasb, Tooraj [Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, Sidgwick Avenue, Austin Robinson Building, Cambridge, CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tooraj.jamasb@econ.cam.ac.uk; Pollitt, Michael [Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches.

  19. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches

  20. 16th edition IEE wiring regulations design and verification of electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This book builds on the basic knowledge and techniques covered in 16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, providing the information and revision materials needed for the City & Guilds 2400 (Design, Erection and Verification ofElectrical Installations) exam. All Qualifying Managers will be required to gain this qualification, and Brian Scaddan's book is the ideal text for all students undertaking C&G 2400 courses.

  1. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  2. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering.

  3. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  4. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  5. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  6. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  7. The Impact of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Regulation on Electricity Saving in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Eqwan Roslan, Mohd; Isa, Aishah Mohd; Faizal Basri Nair, Mohd; Syafiqah Salleh, Siti

    2018-03-01

    One of Malaysia’s key strategies to promote efficient energy use in the country is to implement the minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) through the Electricity Regulations (Amendment) 2013. Five selected electrical appliances (refrigerator, air conditioner, television, domestic fans and lamp fittings) must comply with MEPS requirement in order to be sold in Malaysian market. Manufacturers, importers or distributors are issued Certificate of Approval (COA) if products are MEPS-compliant. In 2015, 1,215 COAs were issued but the number of MEPS products in the market is unknown. This work collects sales data from major manufacturers to estimate the annual sales of MEPS appliances and the cumulative electricity consumption and electricity saving. It was found that most products sold have 3-star rating and above. By year 2015, total cumulative electricity savings gained from MEPS implementation is 3,645 GWh, with air conditioner being the highest contributor (30%). In the future, it is recommended that more MEPS products and related incentives be introduced to further improve efficiency of energy use in Malaysia.

  8. Regulation of distributed generation. A European Policy Paper on the Integration of Distributed Generation in the Internal Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-06-01

    In the SUSTELNET project criteria and guidelines have been developed that can create a level playing field in electricity markets between distributed generation (DG) and large scale power generation and will improve the network and market access of DG and electricity supply from renewable energy resources (RES). This report focuses on the European dimensions of DG regulation. The key findings of the SUSTELNET project are compared with the EU legislation, i.e. the current Electricity, Renewables and CHP Directives. Additional EU policy, regulation and initiatives are identified that can help Member States in developing future economically efficient and sustainable electricity supply systems

  9. Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Marie, S.M.

    1999-11-01

    As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete.

  10. Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Marie, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete

  11. 75 FR 17103 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... include sailing regattas, power boat races, swim races and holiday parades. For a description of the... Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have analyzed this proposed rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or...

  12. 76 FR 36308 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... hour, make special local regulations necessary. However, the Coast Guard will provide advance... dangers posed by hydroplane speed boats, operating in speeds excess of 150 miles per hour, make special... includes but is not limited to sail boat regattas, boat parades, power boat racing, swimming events, crew...

  13. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  14. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  15. PAT Design Strategy for Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks by Electrical Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic convenience are still required. In water distribution networks, an additional design problem comes out from the necessity of ensuring a required head drop under variable operating conditions, i.e., head and discharge variations. Both a hydraulic regulation (HR—via a series-parallel hydraulic circuit- and an electrical regulation (ER—via inverter- are feasible solutions. A design procedure for the selection of a production device in a series-parallel hydraulic circuit has been recently proposed. The procedure, named VOS (Variable Operating Strategy, is based on the overall plant efficiency criteria and is applied to a water distribution network where a PAT (pump as a turbine is used in order to produce energy. In the present paper the VOS design procedure has been extended to the electrical regulation and a comparison between HR and ER efficiency and flexibility within a water distribution network is shown: HR was found more flexible than ER and more efficient. Finally a preliminary economic study has been carried out in order to show the viability of both systems, and a shorter payback period of the electromechanical equipment was found for HR mode.

  16. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers. Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.-L.; Goeransson, L.; Karlsson, S.; Johnsson, F.; Elofsson, A.K.; Galus, M.D.; Andersson, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 EUR per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented. (author)

  17. Main tasks of studying strong regulation of excitation of complex electrical system generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Yekimova, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is made of the current state of studies of the damping properties of complex electricity systems. The calculation programs of stability are based on frequency methods using the method of D-division. Now, when ARV of strong effect dominates at the SG, the task of coordinating their adjustments develops. Consequently, the following questions are discussed: study of the properties of quality functional with several points of regulation in the circuits of different structure; development of the efficient procedures for coordinating the ARV adjustment of the related energy systems; and creation of resources for solving these tasks. Results are presented of coordinating the ARV adjustments of the generators of the 3-machine electricity system. As an example, nonlinear relationships are shown between the obtained degree of stability and the coefficient of stabilization.

  18. Regulation on governmental quality control during erection and reconstruction of nuclear power plants in the GDR dated 20 July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Regulation enters into force on 1 October 1988 and provides for governmental quality control of products, plants and services intended for the erection and reconstruction of nuclear power plant systems. It covers the following provisions: quality control; licensing of enterprises; approval of the use of products manufactured in the GDR; acceptance of products manufactured in the GDR; clearance of plants and services; clearance of imported products; labelling; consulting of experts; penalties, and interim provisions

  19. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, Belen; Illueca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) (Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ), managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings

  20. Influence of Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Somatic Embryo Development in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Sahelian Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Sané

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a physiological analysis of somatic embryogenesis in four elite cultivars of date palms: Ahmar, Amsekhsi, Tijib, and Amaside, from the initial callogenesis to establishment and proliferation of embryogenic suspension cultures. Somatic embryos development and in vitro plants rooting were also studied. For each step, auxins and cytokinins concentrations were optimised. The primary callogenesis from leaf explants of seedlings appeared highly dependent on genotype. Ahmar (80% and Amsekhsi (76% appeared highly callogenic, whereas Tijib (10% and Amaside (2% produced low amounts of calluses. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid appeared favorable to the induction of primary callogenesis and its effect was enhanced by the addition of benzyl adenine or adenine sulfate. Secondary friable calli obtained from chopped granular calli were used to initiate embryogenic cell suspensions in media supplied with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Suspension cultures showed a growth rate of fourfold after four subcultures in presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2 mg/L. Our results showed that a seven-day transitory treatment with benzyl adenine 0,5 mg/L was necessary to optimize embryos development. Naphthalene acetic acid induced the development of primary orthogravitropic roots during embryos germination. The comparison with cytofluorometry of nuclear DNA amounts showed no significant difference in ploidy level between regenerated plants and seedlings.

  1. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Weyant, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO 2 , NOx and CO 2 . This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. DC microgrids with energy storage systems and demand response for providing support to frequency regulation of electrical power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandzic, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Frequency regulation of electric power systems efficiency depends on response time and on power reserves for frequency regulation. As integration of non-dispatchable renewable generation in the power system results with increased need for power reserves from fast responding power units, the idea ...

  3. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  4. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  5. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  7. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  9. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  11. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [de

  12. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  13. The Norwegian electricity industry: a deregulated market in a regulated Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesen, E

    1994-12-01

    According to the 1990 Energy Act, the hydro power based Norwegian electricity supply industry was deregulated. The main aim of the act was to promote efficient utilisation of resources through introduction of competition. The act introduced open access for everyone to the network and fair and non-discriminatory pricing for network services. The consumers have now a free choice of suppliers. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, NVE, has the responsibility for regulating the monopolized parts of the industry - the network - As well as supervising the competitive parts - production and trading. The Norwegian transmission grid has several connections with the neighbouring countries. Connections to Germany and the Netherlands are planned. The foreign power exchange is primarily based on exploiting the specific properties of the hydro based system by exporting peak power at high prices and import base load in off peak periods. (author).

  14. Smart regulation of rural electricity grids. Modern communications technology reduces the voltage fluctuations and regulates the storage of surplus electricity; Laendliches Stromnetz smart geregelt. Moderne Kommunikationstechnik reduziert Spannungsschwankungen und regelt die Speicherung ueberschuessigen Stroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Anna

    2012-07-01

    In the ''Smart Country'' model project, researchers in Bitburg- Pruem were testing out the distribution network of the future. It is designed to respond flexibly to the increasingly decentralised generation of renewable electricity in the grid. For this purpose various operating resources were further developed: an optimised biogas plant, which controls the electricity supplied by the grid, virtually stores surplus electricity with an efficiency of 98 %. In addition, voltage regulators double the usable output capacity in the grid. The Eifel project successfully passed the field test after around one year. (orig.)

  15. Electricity regulation in Germany - in the context of the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1994-06-01

    Electric utilities (EU) in Germany are semi-public or private enterprises of a wide variety of size. The large producer utilities operate the high voltage grid on the basis of private contracts. Regional distribution companies mostly without a considerable share in production often in cooperation with local distributors deliver electricity (el) in the non-urban areas whereas mostly city owned EU supply the large cities often on the basis of considerable parts of autoproduction and often also with a considerable share of el produced in cogeneration plants. The equilibrium between the parts of this system in the past was ensured by a legal framework protecting local monopolies as well as long term contracts between producers and distributors. This equilibrium derived its stability from political more than from economic factors. Deregulation trends inherent in European legislation on competition have threatened this stability. - In the first phase resistance against a more competitive order seemed unanimous. In the meantime however the different actors had time to rethink their position. - The European Council has now proposed a more moderate regulation taking into account the large differences in the ESI in the different member countries. - The German Government has made a proposal for some important changes in the Energy Law and connected passages in the Competition Law, which would introduce some more competitive elements into the system without anticipating the results of a competitive process. - Wholesale producers and regional distributors as well as customer groups are in favour of this reform, whereas the local distributors fear to become the losers in the ongoing reform process. - Environmentalists express concern that a more competitive order could lead to a lowering of environmental standards. This paper gives a short survery of the ESI in Germany, its regulations and the ongoing reform. (orig.)

  16. Regulating the electrical behaviors of 2D inorganic nanomaterials for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-11

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in inorganic 2D nanomaterials for their unique dimensional confinement and diverse electronic energy bands. Precisely regulating their intrinsic electrical behaviors would bring superior electrical conductivity, rendering 2D nanomaterials ideal candidates for active materials in electrochemical applications when combined with the excellent reaction activity from the inorganic lattice. This Concept focuses on highly conducting inorganic 2D nanomaterials, including intrinsic metallic 2D nanomaterials and artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials. The intrinsic metallicity of 2D nanomaterials is derived from their closely packed atomic structures that ensure maximum overlapping of electron orbitals, while artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials could be achieved by designed methodologies of surface modification, intralayer ion doping, and lattice strain, in which atomic-scale structural modulation plays a vital role in realizing conducting behaviors. Benefiting from fast electron transfer, high reaction activity, as well as large surface areas arising from the 2D inorganic lattice, highly conducting 2D nanomaterials open up prospects for enhancing performance in electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical capacitors. Conductive 2D inorganic nanomaterials promise higher efficiency for electrochemical applications of energy conversion and storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  18. The procedure for amendment of the technical conditions for electricity and natural gas. An essay on certain generally binding regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The energy law for the regulated Electricity and gas market has a stratified structure. The tariff structures and conditions that are established by the executive board of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), based on article 36 of the Electricity Act 1998 and article 12f of the Gas Act, are in a way the tailpiece. This article focuses mainly on the procedure for amendment of these conditions. [nl

  19. Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Policies and Regulations for Electricity and Town Gas Supply Industries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, a series of changes were made to policies and regulations governing electricity and town gas supply industries in Japan. To evaluate how such regulatory changes, channeled through the behavior of power/gas companies, have affected the economic welfare of the electricity and town gas markets, it is necessary to first quantitatively analyze how the power/gas companies reacted to the regulatory changes in terms of management behavior. Specifically, it must be examined what decision...

  20. Recycling of electric appliances. Utilization of the new EU regulation; Recycling von Elektrogeraeten. Nutzen der neuen EU-Richtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friege, Henning [Awista GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In the light of a shortage of resources the recycling of secondary raw materials and especially of metals from electric appliances is increasingly gaining importance. If one is to believe the announcements, everything is regulated in the best way. But when one considers closer the data from the recycling of resources and especially the non-ferric (NF) metals from electric and electronic appliances, this still is not a success story - we ought to write it.

  1. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  2. Deregulating with no regulator: Is the German electricity transmission regime institutionally correct?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Ute; Perez, Yannick

    2008-01-01

    From 1998 to 2005, the German transmission grid has been put under a self-regulated arrangement. It seems hard to believe that transmission lines can be opened to 'third-party access' only with a 'negotiated access regime' and no regulator supervision. It seems contradictory with the notion of 'ex post contractual hazards' promoted by V. Goldberg and O. Williamson. If a weak institutional arrangement is implemented, one might assume that it has to be harmful to network and market access. If it is not to be inefficient, why and how could it work? When looking at rules and prices for accessing the transmission network and the corresponding wholesale markets in Germany, the 'club' arrangement for transmission opening does not appear so harmful. Accordingly, we have to reconsider the ex ante and ex post institutional mechanism of such a 'club' arrangement. Ex ante, we first reconsider skills and strengths of industrial consumers and German Business associations in defining and assessing rules of transmission access. We underline that incomplete vertical and horizontal integration of German electricity companies impeded extensive cartel collusion. Ex post, we first look at a strong Competition Authority backing. Then we discover that ex ante and ex post dimensions are much more mixed and reinforced in an open 'cumulative pro-competition process' framed by the Competition Authority

  3. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  4. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  5. Myths of electric regulation: Looking at the future of energy through entrepreneurial eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    The US will shortly experience a building boom of new, efficient distributed power plants and a resultant drop in the cost of energy and the pollution associated with energy production. This is a predictable result of unleashing competition in the electric business. The speed of these advances will depend on how fast lawmakers modernize present regulations to eliminate barriers to efficiency. Deregulation has started and the industry is already on the slippery slope of competition, where no monopolist can continue to cling to the old and inefficient ways. It is possible to discern the direction of a competition-driven energy industry from the patterns in other recently deregulated industries. Winners will focus on extracting more value from all raw material and will offer sophisticated energy generation, energy distribution, and energy management to each industrial and commercial firm and each institution. Proven technology will be packaged in small, mass produced CHP plants placed at the sites of thermal users. Costs of CHP will fall due to emerging mass production and growing knowledge of installers and designers. The current electric transmission and distribution system will prove to have been tremendously overbuilt. Gas distribution pipes will enjoy increased use. Fossil fuel use will drop significantly. Finally, the unleashing of this competition will cause the US to drop its carbon dioxide emissions to well below the targets of the Kyoto protocol, while reducing the cost of energy to industry and all citizens. This may not reduce greenhouse gas emissions enough to mitigate climate change, but it is low-hanging fruit and will buy time for advances in renewable energy economics

  6. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  7. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  8. Notice of the Electric Power Control Commission at the 1 february 2001 on the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities; Avis de la Commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 1 fevrier 2001 sur le decret relatif a la confidentialite des informations detenues par les gestionnaires de reseaux publics de transport ou de distribution d'electricite pris pour l'application des articles 16 et 20 de la loi no 2000-108 du 20 fevrier 2000 relative a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the decree concerning the information confidentiality held by the public networks of transportation or electric power distribution, taking into account for the application of the 16 and 20 sections of the law number 2000-108 of the 20 february 2000 related to the modernization and the development of the electrical utilities and a comment of this decree by J. Syrota. (A.L.B.)

  9. Legislation development of the Spanish electric power act vol 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Of this Book: 1) Royal decree 277/2000, dated february 25th setting out the procedure for legal unbundling of the activities involved in the supply of electricity. 2) Royal decree 1663/2000, dated september 29th on the connection of photovoltaic installations to the low voltage network. 3) Royal decree 1955/2000, dated december 1st regulating transmission, distribution, and authorization procedures for electric power installations. 4) Royal decree 3490/2000, Dated december 29th setting the electricity tariff for 2001

  10. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  11. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  12. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  13. On the Use of Energy Storage Technologies for Regulation Services in Electric Power Systems with Significant Penetration of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bo; Makarov, Yuri; Desteese, John

    2008-01-01

    Energy produced by intermittent renewable resources is sharply increasing in the United States. At high penetration levels, volatility of wind power production could cause additional problems for the power system balancing functions such as regulation. This paper reports some partial results...... and frequently changing regulation signal. Several energy storage options have been analyzed based on thirteen selection criteria. The evaluation process resulted in the selection of flywheels, pumped hydro electric power (or conventional hydro electric power) plant and sodium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries...... of a project work, recently conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project proposes to mitigate additional intermittency with the help of Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) that would provide a two-way simultaneous regulation service...

  14. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  15. Electrically Reversible Redox-Switchable Polydopamine Films for Regulating Cell Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guoxin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yuxuan; Ouyang, Kongyou; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Liao, Jinwen; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The phenolic/quinone groups on polydopamine can redox-switchable reversible under electrical stimulation. • The quinone groups on PDA (oxidized PDA) enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. • The phenolic groups on PDA (reduced PDA) induced cell differentiation. - Abstract: Switchable surfaces that respond to external stimuli are important for regulating cell behavior. The results herein suggest that the redox process of polydopamine (PDA) is a switching reaction between oxidized polydopamine and reduced polydopamine, involving an interconversion of coupled two-proton (2H + ) and two-electron (2e − ) processes. The redox-switchable reversible surface potential arising from the potential-tunable redox reaction of the phenolic and quinone groups on PDA on titanium induced both cell adhesion and spreading. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the quinone groups on PDA greatly enhanced pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cell spreading and proliferation. Phenolic groups enhanced the induction of differentiation. The proposed methodology may allow further investigation of switchable surfaces for biological and medical applications.

  16. jurisprudence precedent on the instruments of environmental regulation of the electrical colombian sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcila R, Jaime Leon; Velasquez A, Hector I

    2009-01-01

    What the authors of the Law of the Environment have named the green Constitution or the ecological Constitution of 1991, necessarily it has consequences in the legal practice of the instruments of environmental management in all the levels and sectors of the economy, especially if the previous thing is analyzed in the frame of the Social State of Law in the Constitution of 1991, under this perspective, it is possible to understand the emptiness and inconsistencies of the environmental management in the electrical Colombian sector (SEC), from the critical analysis of the instruments of environmental regulation established in the in the Law in addition it is possible to check these instruments in his role of tools for the environmental management, to identify a constitutional and legal conceptualization adapted for the development of the same ones and to determine the necessary adjustments to realize in his environmental role of management tools in the SEC. The attainment of the previous aims carries an own methodology of the social qualitative research in his juridical political levels. The content of this article realizes the first advances in order to study from a juriprudential and not merely legal optics, since up to the moment the topic has been approached.

  17. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  18. Neural regulation of duodenal alkali secretion: Effects of electrical field stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampton, J.R.; Gibbons, L.G.; Rees, W.D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of transmitters released from enteric neurons in regulating bicarbonate secretion by the proximal duodenum has been studied using electrical field stimulation (EFS). Stripped duodenal mucosa from Rana catesbeiana was mounted as an intact tube over circular platinum electrode,s and luminal alkalinization was measured by pH stat titration before, during, and after EFS. Transmucosal potential difference (PD) was simultaneously measured before and after EFS by paired electrodes. Square-wave pulses 50 V, 2 ms in duration, at 10 Hz were delivered in trains of 0.5 s at 1 Hz for periods of 15 min after stable basal secretion. This resulted in a 63 ± 27% increase in alkalinization that returned to basal values after cessation of the stimulus, without change in transmucosal PD. Serosal-to-lumen [ 3 H]mannitol flux was not affected. Repetition of the stimulus resulted in a similar responses for as long as the tissue remained viable. The response to EFS was abolished by tetrodotoxin and veratrine indicating that intrinsic neurons were responsible for mediating the effect. In addition, the effect was blocked by serosal dinitrophenol, indicating that the secretory response occurred by a metabolically dependent process. These results indicate that alkalinization by proximal duodenum may be controlled by neurotransmitter release from local enteric neurons

  19. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  20. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators in 2015. Follow-up Report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator (Enedis, former ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and Enedis is made according to these indicators. An annex contains all individual quality reports of Enedis, DSOs and TSOs

  1. From regulation through integration to? Three scenarios for the future of electricity in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.R. [Department of Management, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-04-01

    A major change is underway in the European Union electricity sector, where the electricity market will be partly opened for competition. There is a required minimum opening of the generation market, although countries may exceed it. However, given the very different structures, technological mixes and national cultures, will a single market be possible? This paper outlines three different scenarios of how the European electricity market might evolve. (au)

  2. Differences in regulation and efficiency on the electricity market. A preliminary study in the Market Design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, Goeran; Lindblom, Ted; Olsson, Sven-Olof; Sandoff, Anders

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a pilot study focusing on corporate governance and mechanism design issues concerning the electricity industry. With respect to the on-going deregulation, enlargement and internationalisation of electricity markets, especial emphasis is put on exploring the importance of the regulatory environment for accomplishing overall market efficiency. Throughout this preliminary study a central assumption has been that the actors on electricity markets are trying to maximise profits under conditions of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This means that transaction costs should be taken into consideration when studying and analysing the efficiency of electricity markets. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of this paper is resting largely on information theories, like 'Transaction Cost Economics', 'Agency Theory', 'Public Choice and Regulation' and 'Information Economics'. The pilot study consists of three parts. The first part is focusing on the development of a relevant theoretical framework. This part is demonstrating important pricing principles and regulatory incentives for accomplishing an efficient electricity market and, thus, a fair competition between electricity actors, i.e. power companies and other traders of electricity. In such a market design we have distinguished three cornerstones: 1. Marginal cost based electricity pricing, both for energy and capacity. 2. Long-range planning of production and transmission expansions. 3. Transparent transmission pricing and open access to all regional and local transmission grids. The following areas are examples of theoretical research issues that are of a particular interest in practice: The production and transmission of electricity is characterised by considerable economies of scale. The financing of new production and transmission capacity is, however, hard to manage with internal funding when electricity prices are based on marginal costs. What methods or (pricing) strategies

  3. Rate design, yardstick regulation, and franchise competition: An integrated approach to improving the efficiency of 21st century electric distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, H.L.; Cook, C.

    1999-09-01

    Regulators need to take a hard look at stranded cost policies that make it difficult for municipalities to replace incumbent distributors, and also reconsider whether distributors should be allowed to roll expansion costs into systemwide rates. This article focuses on the importance of efficient electric distribution in the post-restructuring era and how regulators can promote that efficiency by (1) protecting and encouraging franchise competition, (2) employing regulatory yardsticks, and (3) designing rate structures that send proper price signals about the relative costs of expanding distribution plant and substituting distributed generation, conservation services, or other alternatives.

  4. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  5. The nuclear safety regulation in Japan and the response to changes of circumstances surrounding the nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombu, K.; Hirota, M.; Taniguchi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Akimoto, S.

    2001-01-01

    The influences of external factors on nuclear safety are discussed in this paper, based on the views on the circumstances of nuclear electricity generation. The following external factors, which might have some potential impacts on nuclear safety, are selected for discussion: (1) The deregulation in the electricity generation industry; (2) The modification of approval/certification system in the regulation of electricity generation; (3) The influences on social atmosphere due to the occurrence of a series of troubles; (4) The government reform and the structural adjustment of industry and (5) Others. Our further discussion seems to focus on the following 2 issues: (a) Whether nuclear power and the other electrical sources should compete with each other for short term economical cost, or whether factors of cost stability and competitiveness as well as longer term energy supply security and global environmental issues ranging over several decades should be considered; (b) How to realize the appropriate regulation from the perspective of public acceptance and confidence (when a series of troubles occur) without imposing unnecessary burdens on industry and without jeopardizing safety. These issues may be common among many countries and can be widely discussed. (author)

  6. Effects of regulation and economic environment on the electricity industry's competitiveness: A study based on OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chulwoo; Jung, Euy-Young; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a competitiveness index for the electricity industry based on efficiency, stability, and growth factors identified from previous studies subject to data accessibility. These are then weighted appropriately through the application of the analytical hierarchy process. This index is an alternative tool to capture the diverse characteristics of the electricity industry in order to analyze performance after deregulation. Using the competitiveness index, we analyze the effect of regulation change in specific economic environments represented by the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share, for example. According to the results, deregulation generally increases competitiveness, but the effect depends on the economic environment and the type of regulation. Deregulating entry and vertical integration to increase competitiveness is more effective in countries where the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share are low. The manner in which the privatization effect is related to the economic environment is, however, unclear. - Highlights: • This study proposes a competitiveness index for the electricity industry. • It examines the effects of electricity industry deregulation in OECD countries. • It suggests an economic environment in which deregulation can contribute to competitiveness

  7. 76 FR 14587 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Multiyear Contract Authority for Electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... cost effectiveness of the proposed purchase has been made based upon a business case analysis, and (2... determined, on the basis of a business case analysis prepared by DoD, that-- (1) The proposed purchase of electricity under such contract is cost effective; and (2) It would not be possible to purchase electricity...

  8. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  9. Legal regulations in the field of electrotechnics. New regulations by the State and the professional associations concerning electrical appliances. Texts and explanations. Rechtsvorschriften im Bereich der Elektrotechnik. Neue staatliche und berufsgenossenschaftliche Rechtsvorschriften fuer elektrische Betriebsmittel. Texte und Erlaeuterungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethlichs, M; Jeiter, W [Bundesministerium fuer Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Bonn-Duisdorf (Germany, F.R.); Stuerk, P [Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e.V., Bonn (Germany, F.R.). Zentralstelle fuer Unfallverhuetung und Arbeitsmedizin

    1979-01-01

    Apart from the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE), also the State and the professional associations have discussed the hazards of electric power. Protection against these hazards is provided by a large number of legal regulations differing greatly in their form, text, addressers, and supervisory authorities. One point which all these regulations have in common is the statement that VDE regulations have the ultimate binding force for the safety of electrical plant and equipment. The regulations issued by the State and the professional regulations are rendered in full wording and discussed under the aspects of accident insurance, consumer protection and protection duties of producers and importers.

  10. Impact of Distribution Feeders that do not have Voltage Regulators on the number of Charged Electric Vehicles using IEEE 34 Bus Test Feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allehyani, Ahmed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Voltage regulators help maintain an acceptable voltage profile for the system. This paper discusses the effect of installing voltage regulators to the system to fix the voltage drop resulting from the electrical vehicles loading increase when they are being charged. The effect will be studied in the afternoon, when the peak load occurs, using the IEEE 34 bus test feeder. First, only one spot node is used to charge the electric vehicles while a voltage regulator is present. Second, five spot nodes are loaded at the same time to charge the electric vehicles while voltage regulators are installed at each node. After that, the impact of electric vehicles on distribution feeders that do not have voltage regulators will appear.

  11. Incentives of carbon dioxide regulation for investment in low-carbon electricity technologies in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Anya; Linn, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the incentives a carbon dioxide emissions price creates for investment in low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies in the electricity sector. We consider the extent to which operational differences across generation technologies - particularly, nuclear, wind and solar photovoltaic - create differences in the incentives for new investment, which is measured by the operating profits of a potential entrant. First, astylized model of an electricity system demonstrates that the composition of the existing generation system may cause electricity prices to increase by different amounts over time when a carbon dioxide price is imposed. Differences in operation across technologies therefore translate to differences in the operating profits of a potential entrant. Then, a detailed simulation model is used to consider a hypothetical carbon dioxide price of $10-$50 per metric ton for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. The simulations show that, for the range of prices considered, the increase in electricity prices is positively correlated with output from a typical wind unit, but the correlation is much weaker for nuclear and photovoltaic. Consequently, a carbon dioxide price creates much stronger investment incentives for wind than for nuclear or photovoltaic technologies in the Texas market. - Highlights: → Compare incentives for new investment in low-emission electricity technologies created by carbon dioxide price. → Focus on ERCOT power system using stochastic unit commitment model. →Find a greater incentive for wind than solar or nuclear because of correlation between wind generation and increase in electricity prices.

  12. Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity Regulation in Solution-Gated Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-04-20

    In the biological nervous system, synaptic plasticity regulation is based on the modulation of ionic fluxes, and such regulation was regarded as the fundamental mechanism underlying memory and learning. Inspired by such biological strategies, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors gated by aqueous solutions were proposed for synaptic behavior emulations. Short-term synaptic plasticity, such as paired-pulse facilitation, high-pass filtering, and orientation tuning, was experimentally emulated in these EDL transistors. Most importantly, we found that such short-term synaptic plasticity can be effectively regulated by alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and salt (potassium chloride) additives. Our results suggest that solution gated oxide-based EDL transistors could act as the platforms for short-term synaptic plasticity emulation.

  13. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  14. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  15. What is the best practice for benchmark regulation of electricity distribution? Comparison of DEA, SFA and StoNED methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuosmanen, Timo; Saastamoinen, Antti; Sipiläinen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Electricity distribution is a natural local monopoly. In many countries, the regulators of this sector apply frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) or stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to estimate the efficient cost of operation. In Finland, a new StoNED method was adopted in 2012. This paper compares DEA, SFA and StoNED in the context of regulating electricity distribution. Using data from Finland, we compare the impacts of methodological choices on cost efficiency estimates and acceptable cost. While the efficiency estimates are highly correlated, the cost targets reveal major differences. In addition, we examine performance of the methods by Monte Carlo simulations. We calibrate the data generation process (DGP) to closely match the empirical data and the model specification of the regulator. We find that the StoNED estimator yields a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 4% with the sample size 100. Precision improves as the sample size increases. The DEA estimator yields an RMSE of approximately 10%, but performance deteriorates as the sample size increases. The SFA estimator has an RMSE of 144%. The poor performance of SFA is due to the wrong functional form and multicollinearity. - Highlights: • We compare DEA, SFA and StoNED methods in the context of regulation of electricity distribution. • Both empirical comparisons and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. • Choice of benchmarking method has a significant economic impact on the regulatory outcomes. • StoNED yields the most precise results in the Monte Carlo simulations. • Five lessons concerning heterogeneity, noise, frontier, simulations, and implementation

  16. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  17. The economics of electric energy storage and its interaction with market regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to expose the interaction between the economics of EES and market regulation. An exhaustive investigation of relevant market regulations for the business of storage is conducted by examining (a) spot and futures markets, (b) ancillary services' procurement and (c) possible capacity enhancement. It is concluded that market regulation can be and should be improved in a number of ways to better recognize the value of EES. (author)

  18. Determination of the Regulatory Asset Base of power distribution companies. Background report of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjin, T.; Buitelaar, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the subject of 'Price Cap Regulation in the Dutch Electricity Sector'. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to a method to determine the Regulatory Asset Base (RAB)

  19. The rule of law approach to regulating electricity supply in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... It assesses potential conflict between principles of market orthodoxy and those of constitutional governance and argues for a rule-of-law approach to regulation post-privatization ... Keywords: Liberalization, Privatization, Regulation, Market Efficiency, Rule of Law ...

  20. Failure modes of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications in deep discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yonglang; Tang, Shengqun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Meng, Gang; Yang, Shijun [Hubei Camel Storage Battery Co. Ltd., Gucheng 441705 (China)

    2009-06-01

    The 36 or 48 V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery packs have been widely applied to the power sources of electric bicycles or light electric scooters in China. The failure modes of the 12 V/10 Ah VRLA batteries have been studied by the cycle life test at C{sub 2} discharge rate and 100% depth of discharge (DOD). It indicates that the main cause of the battery failure in this cycle duty is the softening and shedding of positive active mass (PAM) rather than individual water loss, recombination efficiency or sulfation, etc. When the electrolyte saturation falls to a certain extent, the high oxygen recombination current leads to the depolarization of the negative plate and the shift of the positive plate to a higher potential. The violent oxygen evolution accelerates the softening of PAM and the end of cycle life. (author)

  1. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...... requests from the Danish TSO are used as a proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the EV test bed power response. Test results have proven the capability to respond to frequent power control requests and they reveal the potential EV ability for contributing to regulating power reserves....

  2. Instruments for the regulation of the electric power projects: An integrated vision of the socio-environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regini Nutti, Miriam; Milazzo, Maria Luiza; Rodriguez Garcia, Eduardo; Menezes, Carlos Frederico; Pompeu Serran, Flavia; Sebastiao Costa, Luiz; Neves Mundim, Rogerio

    1999-01-01

    The process of institutional change in the Brazilian electric sector accelerated the revision or elaboration of relating normative documents to the elaboration of studies and generation projects and electric power transmission. These documents were produced in a cooperative way by initiative of the organ federal regulator, under the coordination of ELETROBRAS and with the collaboration of technical teams of about ten Brazilian companies of energy. The aspects socio-environmental was absorbed in the normative documents, starting from an integrated vision of content and of the activities proposed with the energy studies and of engineering, allowing to diminish the relating uncertainties to the implementation of the projects and to assist to the national and sector environmental politics

  3. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  4. Competition and regulation in the European network industries. From general case to the case of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonquieres, F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper focuses on the institutional arrangements present situation in the European Electricity Supply Industry, which is characterized by its diversity. There is unquestionably, a trend to put pressure on the national electricity systems by the European Union organisms to accept the unbundling, Third Party Access to the network, deregulation etc. An opposing reaction appears, trying to underline the potential important drawbacks of such a trend. The conclusion of the author can be summarised as follows: Competition at the generation level? Yes[ Access to the network ? No[ (author)

  5. Choice of models and data availability for the efficiency analysis of the Dutch distribution and supply companies in the electricity sector. Background document of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Huggins, M.; Riechmann, C.; Weyman-Jones, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to the most appropriate models by means of which the efficiency of the electricity companies in the Netherlands can be analyzed

  6. Provision of regulating - and reserve power by electric vehicle owners in the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvliet, Tim; Litjens, G.B.M.A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have shown a large increase in electric vehicles (EVs), which could make a significant contribution meeting European, national and municipal energy- and climate goals. However, most EVs are not used for about 90% of the time, which makes their batteries available for other purposes. One

  7. Radical prosumer innovations in the electricity sector and the impact on prosumer regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, Saskia; Carrillo, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations, enabling social innovations such as peer to peer trading and the participation in local

  8. Concurrent Provision of Frequency Regulation and Overvoltage Support by Electric Vehicles in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Expected deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) introduces big technical challenges for power system operation, but also offers advantages provided that EVs are not considered merely as passive loads. With the development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs will be able to provide a number...... of ancillary services for grid support, e.g. implemented electronic equipment will allow them to exchange reactive power with the grid for voltage regulation while using active power for other services. This paper investigates the concurrent provision of local and system wide services from EVs in a real Danish...

  9. Report of the French Energy Regulator on electricity interconnection management and use in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report aims at, first, evaluating the congestion management methods in force at interconnected power systems managed by the French transmission system operator RTE as required by article 1.10 of the guidelines of 1228/2003 European regulation which foresees that: 'the national regulation authorities regularly evaluates the congestion management methods, in particular by controlling the respect of rules and principles established by the European regulation, and of trends, modalities and conditions fixed by the regulation authorities according to the above principles and rules'. It aims also at sharing the opinions of the commission of energy regulation (CRE) with other European regulating authorities and with all stakeholders involved in the domestic power market, about the management and use of European power interconnections in 2006. Content: 1 - 2005-2006, the turning point for congestion management; 2 - consequences of 2055-2006 changes in interconnections with Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy; 3 - further improvements still required: allocation system, capacity bids, short-term trades, capacity management in compliance with European law; 4 - conclusion: an indispensable regional approach. (J.S.)

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station and surrounding area, Glen Rose, Texas. Date of Survey: March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 1 to 9 March 1982 over a 260-square-kilometer area centered on the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located in Somervell County, Texas. The survey was conducted by the Energy Measurements Group of EG and G for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with the average background ranging from 6 to 8 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.8 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in typical background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  11. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  12. Electric Signals Regulate the Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (OPCs via β1 Integrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangfu Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors. We also observed that F-actin, an important component of the cytoskeleton, was re-distributed towards the leading edge of the migrating cells, and that this asymmetric rearrangement was associated with β1 integrin function.

  13. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  14. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  15. Re-regulation of the Russian electricity sector; Neuregulierung der russischen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telke, Juergen [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Osteuropaeisches Recht

    2011-04-15

    The Russian electricity sector is going through a phase of radical change. Time-honoured structures are being modernised through privatisation, unbundling and liberalisation, creating a number of interesting investment opportunities. However, prospective investors should take the specifics of the Russian market into account in order to gain a fuller picture of investment opportunities and risks in the areas of production, transmission, wholesale and retail trade.

  16. Real option valuation of a decremental regulation service provided by electricity storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dávid Zoltán; Martyr, Randall

    2017-08-13

    This paper is a quantitative study of a reserve contract for real-time balancing of a power system. Under this contract, the owner of a storage device, such as a battery, helps smooth fluctuations in electricity demand and supply by using the device to increase electricity consumption. The battery owner must be able to provide immediate physical cover, and should therefore have sufficient storage available in the battery before entering the contract. Accordingly, the following problem can be formulated for the battery owner: determine the optimal time to enter the contract and, if necessary, the optimal time to discharge electricity before entering the contract. This problem is formulated as one of optimal stopping, and is solved explicitly in terms of the model parameters and instantaneous values of the power system imbalance. The optimal operational strategies thus obtained ensure that the battery owner has positive expected economic profit from the contract. Furthermore, they provide explicit conditions under which the optimal discharge time is consistent with the overall objective of power system balancing. This paper also carries out a preliminary investigation of the 'lifetime value' aggregated from an infinite sequence of these balancing reserve contracts. This lifetime value, which can be viewed as a single project valuation of the battery, is shown to be positive and bounded. Therefore, in the long run such reserve contracts can be beneficial to commercial operators of electricity storage, while reducing some of the financial and operational risks in power system balancing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  18. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (author)

  19. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  20. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  1. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  2. The atomic energy regulations, 2012: Statutory instruments supplement no. 4 to the Uganda gazette no. 5 volume CV dated 27 January, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The regulations specifies minimum requirements for the protection of individuals, society and environment from the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. It also provides for the safety and security of radiation sources

  3. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  4. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  5. The end of regulated electricity sales prices: thinking transition in a strategic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Pablo; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors state that the end of regulated tariffs is inevitable, and present the guidelines of the transition mode. Then, they highlight that this transition must be designed in a strategic way by preparing the negotiation, by pooling providers and enterprises, by valorising flexibilities of the industrial or tertiary asset, and by putting energy efficiency forward

  6. It extended for come into force the Electric Energy Whole Sale Market regulation and annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    It has seen seen the deadline set by the decree no. 86 March 5, 2003 for entry into force of the Regulation of wholesale power market and the desirability to adapt the wording of its provisions and for reasons of urgency.

  7. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  8. Electrical regulation of Schwann cells using conductive polypyrrole/chitosan polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Ye, Zhengxu; Zhang, Quanyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) can dramatically enhance neurite outgrowth through conductive polymers and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Therefore, conductive tissue engineering graft in combination with ES is a potential treatment for neural injuries. Conductive tissue engineering graft can be obtained by seeding Schwann cells on conductive scaffold. However, when ES is applied through the conductive scaffold, the impact of ES on Schwann cells has never been investigated. In this study, a biodegradable conductive composite made of conductive polypyrrole (PPy, 2.5%) and biodegradable chitosan (97.5%) was prepared in order to electrically stimulate Schwann cells. The tolerance of Schwann cells to ES was examined by a cell apoptosis assay. The growth of the cells was characterized using DAPI staining and a MTT assay. mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells were assayed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the amount of NGF and BDNF secreted was determined by an ELISA assay. The results showed that the PPy/chitosan membranes supported cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation with or without ES. Interestingly, ES applied through the PPy/chitosan composite dramatically enhanced the expression and secretion of NGF and BDNF when compared with control cells without ES. These findings highlight for the first time the possibility of enhancing nerve regeneration in conductive scaffolds through ES-increased neurotrophin secretion.

  9. Reference models and incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: An evaluation of Sweden's Network Performance Assessment Model (NPAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Electricity sector reforms across the world have led to a search for innovative approaches to regulation that promote efficiency in the natural monopoly distribution networks and reduce their service charges. To this aim, a number of countries have adopted incentive regulation models based on efficiency benchmarking. While most regulators have used parametric and non-parametric frontier-based methods of benchmarking some have adopted engineering-designed 'reference firm' or 'norm' models. This paper examines the incentive properties and related aspects of the reference firm model-NPAM-as used in Sweden and compares this with frontier-based benchmarking methods. We identify a number of important differences between the two approaches that are not readily apparent and discuss their ramifications for the regulatory objectives and process. We conclude that, on balance, the reference models are less appropriate as benchmarks than real firms. Also, the implementation framework based on annual ex-post reviews exacerbates the regulatory problems mainly by increasing uncertainty and reducing the incentive for innovation

  10. Electrical stimulation of dog pudendal nerve regulates the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-he Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudendal nerve plays an important role in urine storage and voiding. Our hypothesis is that a neuroprosthetic device placed in the pudendal nerve trunk can modulate bladder function after suprasacral spinal cord injury. We had confirmed the inhibitory pudendal-to-bladder reflex by stimulating either the branch or the trunk of the pudendal nerve. This study explored the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex in beagle dogs, with intact or injured spinal cord, by electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk. The optimal stimulation frequency was approximately 15-25 Hz. This excitatory effect was dependent to some extent on the bladder volume. We conclude that stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk is a promising method to modulate bladder function.

  11. The role of technology in the de-regulated electricity marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seckington, B.

    1999-01-01

    There are certain priorities for a power generation company in a deregulated market including: low cost client satisfaction, end-use technologies and quality and reliability performance; low cost/high marginal profit generation for the shareholder's values; and minimum environmental impacts, that are economically affordable and consistent with or better than regulations requirements. R and D strategic directions over time include the short term, medium term and long term, corresponding to 1-3 years, 4-6 years, and 7-10 years. In the short term, technology is operational, while in the medium term it is transitional and includes existing new technology. In the long term, there is a new generation technology emerging, and in the strategic long term of 11-20 years, there is new technology enhancement and visionary technology emerging. For short term technology in order to optimize profitability and assets, certain things are essential: for nuclear, get existing units back on track; for hydro, life management of existing equipment; and for coal, improve efficiency, optimize OMA/re-investment and improve environmental performance. Other minor means of generation and corresponding comments are added. For medium term technology in order to optimize profitability and assets, certain things are necessary including: for nuclear, get and maintain existing units on track; for hydro, life management of existing equipment; and for coal, improve efficiency, optimize OMA/re-investment and improve environmental performance. Other minor generation means are mentioned in the near term. For generation R and D in the long term, brief comments are made concerning what can be done to optimize profitability and meet new regulations, with existing assets to improve cost and environmental performance, with new generation and environmental technologies, and taking risks with developing visionary technologies, both environmental and generational. Further comments concerning optimizing

  12. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  13. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  14. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cateura, O.

    2007-11-01

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  15. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading; Marktmissbrauchsrechtliche Regelungen des WpHG und der REMIT-VO im Stromspothandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-07-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  16. Regulation of the wind power production. Contribution of the electric vehicles and other energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES) introduced additional difficulties regarding the management of the Portuguese Power System. This is mainly due to the high temporal variability and low controllability, characteristics of these kinds of sources. There is a real need to reduce the impact of non-dispatchable RES sources; maximizing their penetration and minimizing curtailment. This is especially true for wind power and run-of-the-river hydro (ROR); as it appears beneficial to combine their variable production with added capacity of energy storage and demand side management; thereby increasing the flexibility of the power system as a whole. This paper aims to assess the excess wind generation (and other non-dispatchable sources); this for periods of production's excess in a 2020 timeframe, and assuming different weather scenarios. The adjustment of wind power generation (WPG) profile to the load profile is also addressed; the result is computed in the form of the value of the energy temporally deferred, using Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants as well as electric Vehicles (EVs). (orig.)

  17. Regulation in the electric power industry. A practical manual. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salje, Peter; Schmidt-Preuss, Matthias; Baur, Juergen F.

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition is taking place with dynamism and breakneck pace. The legislation and process of regulations, European legislation and the practice of FNA and courts form a regulatory framework, which means growing challenges for all players in the energy sector. the cutting-edge issues and developments of practice and theory discussed Edition - After the encouraging uptake of the 1st edition of the best practice manual ''regulation in the energy sector'' the current questions and developments for practice and theory are dealed in a new - second edition. The specifics of the work to be maintained: On the one hand the interdisciplinary - regulatory economic as well as economic - anchoring and on the other hand taking into account the European requirements which are becoming more and more important. Against this background, in particular, the problems raised by the energy transition issues of excellent writers are explained. Here numerous additional topics are included in the manual, such as the investment stimulatory instruments (as the decommissioning ban). Moreover, in the last part, the energy of civil law has been newly added to its width. The same applies to the increasingly important topic of metrology. Other highly topical - in the new edition treated first - Topics include among others the easement agreements and the 20-year time limit and re-allocation of concession contracts, customer equipment, and closed distribution systems. As part of the energy transition the EEG 2014 with conceptual new approaches is a reason for a significant expansion of the relevant chapter. Finally is pointed to the entirely new network planning - from network development plan over the federal requirements planning to final project approval -, which will now be discussed in depth. Authors: Proven experts from science and practice Audience: courts, public authorities and institutions in the energy sector, energy businesses, advocacy and science. [de

  18. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  19. Regulation No. 55/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic dated as of January 12, 2006 on details concerning emergency planning in case of nuclear incident or accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Regulation provides details on (a) the content of emergency plans, procedure for their submission and approval; (b) the measures, procedures and activities including degrees of severity of the events according to international criteria; (c) informing the Authority and the public; (d) contents of the documents necessary for application approval of the size of the area at risk, the size of the common area at risk, including the date of its submission; (e) monitoring systems; (f) training, practicing and updating emergency plans; (g) provided data and time during an incident or accident to nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials; (h) notification of operational events and events during shipment. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  20. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  1. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  2. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  3. Critical analysis of mechanisms of incentive regulation operators of electricity and natural gas networks and infrastructures. Final report. Public version, 23 November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As the first mechanisms of incentive regulation of electricity and gas network operators have been introduced by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) since 2008 (the report recalls the main objectives of these mechanisms and their consequences), this report proposes a critical analysis of such mechanisms related to investments and to exploitation expenses of operators and which have been implemented in Germany, Spain, Ireland and in the United Kingdom. For each country, the report proposes a detailed description of these mechanisms for the electric power sector and the gas sector (general overview of the regulation framework, objectives, determination of the authorised income, shift processing, specific incentive mechanisms, modalities of management by the regulator), and a feedback of the different concerned actors (operators and regulators). The last part proposes a description of the status of the French regulation, and an analysis of transposition of the four foreign regulations, and states some propositions for evolutions (objectives, overview of recommended evolutions, focus on three types of regulation evolution: processing of arbitral charges, processing of other incited capital charges, processing of arbitral charges)

  4. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  6. Smart electricity metering as an energy efficiency instrument: Comparative analyses of regulation and market conditions in Europe. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Parsons, John; Kester, Josco C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The new European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services (ESD) (EC 2006/32, 2006) states the importance of installing metering and billing systems allowing consumers to regulate and steer their consumption. Extra information provided by these 'Smart Meters', is proposed as an important technological innovation to improve energy efficiency. In the next few years the European energy markets will face a challenging task - implementation of Smart Metering systems for small and middle-size customers. The public policies and implementation paths of Smart Metering today vary across Europe from full-scale implementation to very limited. Implementation of Smart Metering systems provides a technological basis, which makes it possible to implement new market-based products and services encouraging the Final Customers to save energy. Electricity suppliers and Distribution System Operators play a key role in a full utilisation of the energy saving potential from Smart Metering, but need a benefit for doing this. These new market opportunities could provide this benefit

  7. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  8. 16 CFR 314.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 314.5 Section 314.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.5 Effective date. (a) Each financial institution subject to the...

  9. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities; L'ouverture des marches du gaz et de l'electricite en Europe, la mise en place des instances de regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  10. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities; L'ouverture des marches du gaz et de l'electricite en Europe, la mise en place des instances de regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  11. The economic impact of carbon pricing with regulated electricity prices in China—An application of a computable general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji Feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ya Xiong; Kou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    We use a dynamic CGE model (SICGE) to assess the economic and climate impacts of emissions trading system (ETS) in China with a carbon price of 100 Yuan/ton CO2. A particular focus is given to the regulated electricity price regime, which is a major concern of electricity sector’s cost-effective participation in ETS in China. We found: (1) Carbon pricing is an effective policy for China to reduce CO 2 emissions. Total CO 2 emissions reduction ranges from 6.8% to 11.2% in short-term. (2) Rigid electricity price entails lower CO 2 emissions reduction but can be considered as a feasible starting point to introduce carbon pricing policies in short-term as long as governmental subsidies are given to electricity production. (3) In mid- and long-term, the efficient policy is to earmark carbon revenue with competitive electricity price. We propose to use carbon revenue to reduce consumption tax in the first year of the introduction of carbon price and to use the carbon revenue to reduce production tax in following years. - Highlights: • We use a CGE model to assess the impacts of carbon pricing in China. • We test different scenarios of carbon cost pass-through in electricity price. • Carbon pricing policy cost-efficiency is examined with double-dividend hypothesis

  12. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  13. POTENTIAL FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT RESOURCE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MOTORS THROUGH AN EXTENSION OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR PRODUCT GROUP REGULATION UNDER THE EU ECODESIGN DIRECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Machacek, Erika; Dalhammar, Carl

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the EU Ecodesign Directive can promote resource efficiency through relevant ecodesign requirements. This paper examines the potential for rare earth element (REE) resource efficiency improvements in the event the current regulation for electric motors under the Ecodesign Directive is to be extended to comprise REE-based permanent magnet motors. The research is based on literature studies, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with representatives from industr...

  14. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  16. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  17. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  18. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  19. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  20. Europe-United States: two diverging evolutions of electricity restructuring? a prospective study on the functioning and the regulation of electrical markets on both sides of the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.; Veyrenc, Th.

    2008-01-01

    On both sides of the Atlantic, the same broad purpose was at the heart of electricity restructuring policies: substituting competition to the monopolistic organisation as a means of increased efficiency, and transforming sets of local markets into large continental-wide integrated markets. The current diversity between European and American systems is thus intriguing. The relative homogeneity of electrical systems in the old continent, which is being reinforced by the gradual though delicate elaboration of shared principles on the general organisation of the electricity industry at the European level, compares to a genuine diversity on the American side, where each State remains responsible for conducting its own restructuring policy, even if similar rules on wholesale markets are acknowledged and implemented at a federal level. Yet Europe and the United States face the same kind of issues regarding the future of the energy industry: which status for grid operators, how to respond to growing concerns on security of supply, what to do to mitigate the sharp increase in energy prices? Evidence thereof are the similar attempts by some States to retain direct price control methods, rather than to bank on the virtues of competition to prompt investments in generation and lead prices to drop. It currently appears that the answers to these shared challenges are not converging. On behalf of a comparatively strong freedom of action relatively to the initial competitive paradigm, the array of polio/ responses available in the United States seems broader than in Europe, where the approach recommended by the European Commission consists of further deepening the initial model without altering it. The future will show whether that trend is lasting, or if two structurally different models can emerge from such differences. (authors)

  1. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  2. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  3. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  4. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  5. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  6. The role of power exchanges for the creation of a single European electricity market. Market design and market regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boisseleau, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity sector worldwide is undergoing a fundamental transformation of its institutional structure as a consequence of the complex interactions of political, economic and technological forces. The way the industry is organized is changing from vertically integrated monopolies to unbundled

  7. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  8. La regulación de los servicios de electricidad en Argentina y Brasil (1890-1962 Electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil (1890-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la regulación del sector eléctrico en Argentina y Brasil entre 1890 y 1960. Desde la instalación de las primeras usinas eléctricas a fines del siglo diecinueve hasta los años treinta, el control de las empresas concesionarias estuvo a cargo de las autoridades municipales en ambos países. No obstante, la similar estructura de los sistemas eléctricos en Argentina y en Brasil, la participación del estado en la regulación de este sector estratégico para el desarrollo económico, se produjo en diferentes coyunturas. Como resultado de la crisis de 1930, el gobierno brasileño transformó los principios jurídicos que reglamentaban la gestión de la electricidad aplicando un criterio de regulación discrecional; mientras que el estado argentino intervino una década más tarde, nacionalizando las empresas. Mediante la comparación de las trayectorias regulatorias en ambos países, se identifican las divergencias en las políticas eléctricas y su impacto en los sistemas eléctricos en los años de la segunda posguerra.This article compares the evolution of electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1960. From the installation of electrical systems in the 19th century until the 1930s, electrical utility companies were controlled by the local authorities in both countries. The structure of electrical systems was similar in Argentina and Brazil, however the state regulation of electric utilities took place at different times. As a result of the 1930's crisis, the Brazilian government introduced a new legal approach by applying a discretionary regulation. On the other hand, the Argentinean government intervened one decade later, nationalizing the companies. By comparing both regulatory trajectories, the divergences as well as the effects of each policy on the electrical utility systems in the second postward period, are identified.

  9. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  10. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  11. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  12. Gas and electricity suppliers in front of the end of regulated tariffs. Market predictions and competition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report first proposes an analysis of the gas and electricity markets between 2000 and 2014, and of their perspectives: identification of 8 determining factors to understand the market dynamics, analysis of the activity (electricity and natural gas consumption, electricity and gas distribution among sectors like agriculture, industry, housing, office building, and energy, and prices), and forecast scenario for electricity and natural gas consumption by 2017. The next part analyses the competition and its perspectives: analysis for the electricity and natural gas distribution market, discussion of dynamics and perspectives for different strategic groups. Then, the report proposes an analysis of structural brakes and drivers, and of the main markets (housing, office buildings, industries). The competition context and the involved forces are then discussed. Highlights for the sector and the evolution of supply are then addressed by outlining the improvement of commercial focus, the adaptation of supply with respect to customers, an image-based differentiation, and the development of innovating offers including solutions for energy efficiency. An overview of the competition context is then proposed with sheet providing key data for different types of operators (historical operators, alternative independent operators, foreign energy operators, local suppliers)

  13. Natural gas and the generation of electricity in relation to environmental protection regulations in EC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosenbauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account is given of regulations governing the use of gas in power plants, of emission limits for some substances such as SO 2 , NO x and dust, and of regulations concerning existing and newly built facilities, specifying the highest permissible emissions of environmental pollutants. (J.B.)

  14. The role of power exchanges for the creation of a single European electricity market: market design and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseleau, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity sector worldwide is undergoing a fundamental transformation of its institutional structure as a consequence of the complex interactions of political, economic and technological forces. The way the industry is organized is changing from vertically integrated monopolies to unbundled structures that favor market mechanisms. This process in Europe, known as the liberalization process, has had a wide impact on the European electricity industry. The focus of this dissertation is an analysis of the role of electricity power exchanges in the recently liberalized electricity markets of Europe. In the context of creating a competitive electricity market at a European level, the key questions considered are the functioning of these power exchanges with respect to electricity characteristics, market design and regulatory framework. In Europe, very little attention has been paid to the role of these new marketplaces and to the issue of market design in general. Hence the main purpose of this work was to analyze how these marketplaces facilitate the trading of electricity and the role they can play in the construction of a pan-European competitive electricity market. An analysis of power exchange requires taking into account the 'double-duality' of such institutions. One, power exchanges are both a market and an institution. As a market they facilitate the trading of electricity and determine an equilibrium price. As an institution power exchanges have their own objectives and constraints, and play a role in the market design of the overall electricity market. Two, the relationship between electricity power exchanges and liberalization is neither linear nor one way: liberalization encourages the birth of such marketplaces yet marketplaces are more than the results of such process, they are also a driving force of the liberalization process. This thesis is divided into three parts. The current situation in Europe and different existing theoretical approaches in

  15. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  16. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  17. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  18. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  19. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  20. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  1. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  2. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  3. Designing an EU energy and climate policy portfolio for 2030: Implications of overlapping regulation under different levels of electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flues, Florens; Löschel, Andreas; Lutz, Benjamin Johannes; Schenker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The European Union's current climate and energy policy has to operate under an ex ante unforeseen economic crisis. As a consequence prices for carbon emission allowances in the EU Emissions Trading System collapsed. However, this price collapse may be amplified by the interaction of a carbon emission cap with supplementary policy targets such as minimum shares for renewables in the power sector. The static interaction between climate and renewable policies has been discussed extensively. This paper extends this debate by analysing the efficiency and effectiveness of a policy portfolio containing a cap and trade scheme and a target for a minimum renewable share in different states of aggregate electricity demand. Making use of a simple partial equilibrium model of the power sector we identify an asymmetric interaction of emissions trading and renewable quotas with respect to different states of aggregate electricity demand. The results imply that unintended consequences of the policy interaction may be particularly severe and costly when aggregate electricity demand is low and that carbon prices are more sensitive to changes in economic activity if they are applied in combination with renewable energy targets. Our analysis of the policy interaction focuses on the EU, yet the conclusions may also be of relevance for fast growing emerging economies like China. - Highlights: • A minimum renewable quota that is added to an existing emissions trading system causes excess costs. • Excess costs depend on electricity demand and are highest when electricity demand is low. • Excess costs can reach up to 1.2 Billion Euro annually in the European Union in 2030. • CO 2 prices are more sensitive to changes in electricity demand if combined with minimum renewable quota

  4. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  5. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  6. Cogeneration new electric power purchase contract. What is the impact of the new regulation framework approved in december 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffler, P.; Guenaire, M.; Balaguier, Ph.; Haushalter, J.; Fraisse, J.L.; Bernard, L.; Gauthier, J.M.; Tronche, D.; Ravetto, P.

    2003-06-01

    This conference deals with the following topics: the new legal framework and the future contracts evolution, is it possible and interesting to take advantage of the new purchase contract, energy efficiency and technical innovation, the problems of the electric power network integration, the organization of a cogeneration project, experiences examples. (A.L.B.)

  7. Constructing nanoporous carbon nanotubes/Bi2Te3 composite for synchronous regulation of the electrical and thermal performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihao; Xu, Leilei; Zhou, Zhenxing; Wang, Lianjun; Jiang, Wan; Chen, Lidong

    2017-02-01

    Porous nanograined thermoelectric materials exhibit low thermal conductivity due to scattering of phonons by pores, which are favorable for thermoelectric applications. However, the benefit is not large enough to overcome the deficiency in the electrical performance. Herein, an approach is presented to reduce the thermal conductivity and synchronously enhance the electrical conductivity through constructing a nanoporous thermoelectric composite. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are truncated and homogeneously dispersed within the Bi2Te3 matrix by a cryogenic grinding (CG) technique for the first time, which efficiently suppress the Bi2Te3 grain growth and create nanopores with the size ranging from dozens to hundreds of nanometers. The lattice thermal conductivity is substantially decreased by broad wavelength phonon scattering resulting from nanopores, increased grain boundaries, and newly formed interfaces. Meanwhile, the electrical conductivity is improved due to the enhanced carrier mobility, which may originate from the bridging effect between the Bi2Te3 grains and CNTs. The maximum ZT is improved by almost a factor of 2 due to the simultaneous optimization of electrical and thermal performances. Our study demonstrates the superiority of constructing a bulk thermoelectric composite with nanopores by the uniform dispersion of CNTs through a CG technique for enhanced thermoelectric properties, which provides a wider approach to thermoelectric nanostructure engineering.

  8. Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeto, Dewey; Woo, C.K.; Horowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

  9. Record date in Serbian company law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of the shareholder to participate in and vote at the general meeting is determined based on the shares he holds on a certain date prior to the general meeting (record date. However, the rules regulating the record date deviate from the principle of indivisibility of shares. In extreme cases it is possible to have persons, none of which are shareholders at a given time, to participate in and vote at the general meeting. Hence, it is possible to have persons with no investment interest in the company to decide, for example, on adoption of financial reports, or on disposal of high-value assets. This issue, by its virtue, is not put forward in cases where there was no transfer of shares in the period between the record date and the date of the general meeting.

  10. Effect and potential of grid price regulation on the promotion of electrical efficiency; Wirkung und Potenzial der Netzpreisregulierung fuer die Foerderung der Stromeffizienz. Eine Modellbetrachtung - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettori, A.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Worm, H.; Vaterlaus, S. [Polynomics AG, Olten (Switzerland); Spielmann, Ch. [IWB, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a theoretical analysis concerning the question if further development of grid pricing regulations can help increase efficiency in the use of electricity. Two possible stages in the implementation of grid price regulation are examined and discussed. Knowledge gained from theoretical analysis and from experience made in foreign countries is discussed. Various pricing models are examined and their cost-effectiveness discussed. The models and data used and the results obtained from the analysis are presented and discussed. The report is complemented with an appendix with details on selected results, modelling methods and tools used along with a glossary and a literature list.

  11. Talk of Mr Jean Syrota, head of the commission of electricity regulation, given at the 'confrontations' colloquium; Intervention de M. Jean Syrota President de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite au colloque confrontations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper is a reprint of the talk given on November 30, 2001, by J. Syrota, head of the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE), at the 'confrontations' conference about the European energy policy. In his talk, J. Syrota analyses the importance of competition in the development of a European energy market, the role of CRE as independent managing authority in keeping competition alive, and the importance of the development of international interconnections in the creation of a unique (European) energy market. (J.S.)

  12. 24 CFR 232.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 232.840 Section 232.840 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered as...

  13. 17 CFR 230.417 - Date of financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of financial statements... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.417 Date of financial statements. Whenever financial statements of any person are required to be furnished as of a date within a...

  14. Designing an electricity tax system in presence of international regulations and multiple public goals: An empirical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.; Faehn, Taran; Aasness, Jorgen

    2008-01-01

    The European competition rules restrict governments' opportunity to differentiate terms of energy accessibility among firms and industries. This easily runs counter with regional and industrial goals of national energy policies. Norway levies a tax on use of electricity, but exempts main industrial usages. This analysis assesses alternative, internationally legal, designs of the system in terms of their effects on efficiency and distribution, including industrial objectives. Among the reforms we explore, removing the exemptions would be the most effective way of raising revenue, but it would be politically costly by deteriorating the competitiveness of today's favoured industries. An entire abolishment of the electricity tax, and replacing revenue by increased VAT, would generate a more equal distribution of standard of living and, at the same time, avoid the trade-off between efficiency and competitiveness

  15. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  16. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  17. Dynamics of risk management in the regulated contracting environment of the Brazilian electrical sector; Dinamica da gestao de riscos no ambiente de contratacao regulada do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Cavaliere de

    2008-11-15

    This thesis analyses the dynamics of risk management in the regulated contracting environment of the Brazilian electrical sector. As in the new model the distribution utilities are obliged to ensure energy contracting to supply their whole markets, these companies became exposed to volume risks related to the demand uncertainties. So the new model following similar directives from the first phase developed management tools to mitigate the new risks mentioned above. As in a well structured market it is expected that the risks should be evenly shared or that risk management tools should be provided for all, this work intended to analyze the dynamics of the designed mechanisms and their impacts over the regulated market. In this work the risks of the electricity markets are studied and the management tools devised for the Brazilian market are identified. Finally for understanding the dynamics a thorough analysis of the auctions, of the mechanism for compensation of surplus and deficits and tariffs are carried on. The results show that the management tools were regularly employed by distribution companies, but the risks were merely transferred to the captive customers leading to distortions and asymmetries that conflict with the basis that guided the second phase of the reform. The work proposes remedial actions to mitigate the observed impacts and to provide risk management tools to the captive customer. (author)

  18. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  19. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  20. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  1. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  2. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  3. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  4. The political economy of (de)regulation: Theory and evidence from the U.S. electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerriero, C.

    2010-01-01

    The decision to introduce competition into regulated industries is a key issue in economics. Provided that the demand is sufficiently inelastic, competition assures lower allocative distortions at the cost of weaker cost-reducing investment incentives via lower profits. Hence, deregulation is more

  5. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

    2001-07-01

    After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

  7. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  8. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on Yongquan acupoint reduces CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats via down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Yang, Lianxue; Gao, Xiulai

    2010-07-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and its involvement in regulating gene expression in spinal dorsal horn, cortical and subcortical neurons by peripheral noxious stimulation contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment used in physiotherapy practice to promote analgesia in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, a total number of 114 rats were used for three experiments. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and TENS analgesia on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos protein expression were examined by using behavioral test, Western blot, and immunostaining methods. We found that CFA injection caused an area of localized swelling, erythema, hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, the decreased response time of hind paw licking (HPL), as well as upregulation of c-Fos protein expression and ERK2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn and the contralateral primary somatosensory area of cortex and the amygdala of rats. TENS on Yongquan acupoint for 20 min produced obvious analgesic effects as demonstrated with increased HPL to thermal stimuli of CFA-treated rats. In addition, TENS application suppressed the CFA-induced ERK2 activation and c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were involved in TENS inhibition on CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats.

  10. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  11. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  12. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  13. Thermoluminescence dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  14. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  15. 50 CFR 216.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.212 Effective dates...

  16. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  17. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  18. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  19. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  20. The impact of economic regulation on attempts to curb expense preference behavior: a micro-data analysis of CEO compensation schemes for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixon, F.G.; Upadhyaya, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study uses a large, micro data set to present evidence which suggests that owners of regulated electric utilities have little incentive to structure CEO compensation packages in an effort to curb potential expense preference behavior. Because such potential behavior occurs, or would occur, at no cost to the firm (or the firm's owners), little incentive exists to structure compensation schemes in a way that would curb such behavior (e.g. by compensating them with incentive bonus plans and stock options). The results presented here augment those which examine other industries (e.g. banking) in an effort to point out the relationships between ownership organization, political involvement and expense preference behavior. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  2. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  3. A Bi-Level Optimization Approach to Charging Load Regulation of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Based on a Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast charging stations enable the high-powered rapid recharging of electric vehicles. However, these stations also face challenges due to power fluctuations, high peak loads, and low load factors, affecting the reliable and economic operation of charging stations and distribution networks. This paper introduces a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging load control, which is a more user-friendly approach and is more robust to perturbations. With the goals of peak-shaving, total electricity cost reduction, and minimization of variation in the state-of-charge (SOC range, a BESS-based bi-level optimization strategy for the charging load regulation of fast charging stations is proposed in this paper. At the first level, a day-ahead optimization strategy generates the optimal planned load curve and the deviation band to be used as a reference for ensuring multiple control objectives through linear programming, and even for avoiding control failure caused by insufficient BESS energy. Based on this day-ahead optimal plan, at a second level, real-time rolling optimization converts the control process to a multistage decision-making problem. The predictive control-based real-time rolling optimization strategy in the proposed model was used to achieve the above control objectives and maintain battery life. Finally, through a horizontal comparison of two control approaches in each case study, and a longitudinal comparison of the control robustness against different degrees of load disturbances in three cases, the results indicated that the proposed control strategy was able to significantly improve the charging load characteristics, even with large disturbances. Meanwhile, the proposed approach ensures the least amount of variation in the range of battery SOC and reduces the total electricity cost, which will be of a considerable benefit to station operators.

  4. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  5. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  6. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  7. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  8. Updating dating down under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of reforming Israel's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow

  10. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  11. Regulation in the electric power industry. A practical manual. 2. ed.; Regulierung in der Energiewirtschaft. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, Peter [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Schmidt-Preuss, Matthias (ed.) [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Baur, Juergen F.

    2016-04-01

    The energy transition is taking place with dynamism and breakneck pace. The legislation and process of regulations, European legislation and the practice of FNA and courts form a regulatory framework, which means growing challenges for all players in the energy sector. the cutting-edge issues and developments of practice and theory discussed Edition - After the encouraging uptake of the 1st edition of the best practice manual ''regulation in the energy sector'' the current questions and developments for practice and theory are dealed in a new - second edition. The specifics of the work to be maintained: On the one hand the interdisciplinary - regulatory economic as well as economic - anchoring and on the other hand taking into account the European requirements which are becoming more and more important. Against this background, in particular, the problems raised by the energy transition issues of excellent writers are explained. Here numerous additional topics are included in the manual, such as the investment stimulatory instruments (as the decommissioning ban). Moreover, in the last part, the energy of civil law has been newly added to its width. The same applies to the increasingly important topic of metrology. Other highly topical - in the new edition treated first - Topics include among others the easement agreements and the 20-year time limit and re-allocation of concession contracts, customer equipment, and closed distribution systems. As part of the energy transition the EEG 2014 with conceptual new approaches is a reason for a significant expansion of the relevant chapter. Finally is pointed to the entirely new network planning - from network development plan over the federal requirements planning to final project approval -, which will now be discussed in depth. Authors: Proven experts from science and practice Audience: courts, public authorities and institutions in the energy sector, energy businesses, advocacy and science. [German

  12. Tapping the energy storage potential in electric loads to deliver load following and regulation, with application to wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Duncan S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops new methods to model and control the aggregated power demand from a population of thermostatically controlled loads, with the goal of delivering services such as regulation and load following. Previous work on direct load control focuses primarily on peak load shaving by directly interrupting power to loads. In contrast, the emphasis of this paper is on controlling loads to produce relatively short time scale responses (hourly to sub-hourly), and the control signal is applied by manipulation of temperature set points, possibly via programmable communicating thermostats or advanced metering infrastructure. To this end, the methods developed here leverage the existence of system diversity and use physically-based load models to inform the development of a new theoretical model that accurately predicts - even when the system is not in equilibrium - changes in load resulting from changes in thermostat temperature set points. Insight into the transient dynamics that result from set point changes is developed by deriving a new exact solution to a well-known hybrid state aggregated load model. The eigenvalues of the solution, which depend only on the thermal time constant of the loads under control, are shown to have a strong effect on the accuracy of the model. The paper also shows that load heterogeneity - generally something that must be assumed away in direct load control models - actually has a positive effect on model accuracy. System identification techniques are brought to bear on the problem, and it is shown that identified models perform only marginally better than the theoretical model. The paper concludes by deriving a minimum variance control law, and demonstrates its effectiveness in simulations wherein a population of loads is made to follow the output of a wind plant with very small changes in the nominal thermostat temperature set points.

  13. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  14. Decree 234/003. Is derogate decree 317/987, from the date of entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This decree allows the entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA (The regulatory unit of energy and water service)

  15. Regulation No. 54/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic dated as of January 12, 2006 on accountancy and control of nuclear material as well as notification of selected activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Regulation provides details on (a) keeping operating records; (b) preparing and submitting reports on inventory change; c) the manner of reporting and information on events related to the operation of surveillance equipment and nuclear materials; (d) the content, scope and method of reporting activities under par. 3 Subs. 11 and 12 of the Act No. 541/2006 Coll. (the 'Selected Activities'). This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  16. The effects of the evolution of fuel prices and the environmental regulations on the producers of electric power based on fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, Constantin; Alecu, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    The production of electric power in the context of the concept of human society's lasting development is influenced in the recent years by a series of external factors, both circumstantial and derived from internal and international regulations. This work proposes a theoretical analysis of additional costs induced by the evolution of fuel prices as well as of the short, medium and long term environmental restrictions for the producers of lignite based electric power in Romania. To this purpose, the authors have considered as theoretical elements of analysis, a 330 MW functioning power station, working entirely on lignite GEL (70% expenses on fuel) with a production cost of 40 Euros/MWh at a 70% degree of usage capacity and 36 Euros/MWh at 100%. The paper addresses the following items: 1. The periods of analysis and the influential factors; 2. The evaluation of additional costs for the observance of EU Directive 2001/80/EC; 3. The evaluation of additional costs induced by the stipulations of the Kyoto Protocol; 4. The evaluation of additional costs induced by the evolution of the price of the fuel. In conclusion accumulating all the influences described in the chapters of this material, the impact in the rise of production costs for the described lignite based power plant is summarized by taking into account: the impact of CO 2 emissions; the impact Directive 2001/80/EC; the impact of the fuel price; the total rise. One can notice, that the biggest influence on the additional production costs comes from the impact of CO 2 emissions, in the outlook of the integration in the EU ETS, which depends on: 1) The way in which the National Allocation Plan for the allowances of CO 2 emissions is made in the power sector. The higher D utl.ref is, the stronger will be their place on the market. 2) The evolution of the price of CO 2 emissions on the EU ETS

  17. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  18. THE ROLE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE REGULATION OF ELECTRICAL AND CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS OF THE GUINEA PIG URETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kovalyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide CO, as well as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, make up the family of labile biological mediators termed gasotransmitters. We hypothesized that CO may be involved in the mechanisms of regulation electrical and contractile properties of smooth muscles.The effects of carbon monoxide donor CORM II (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II-dimer on the electrical and contractile activities of smooth muscles of the guinea pig ureter were studied by the method of the double sucrose bridge. This method allows to register simultaneously the parameters of the action potential (AP and the contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs, caused by an electrical stimulus.CORM II in a concentration of 10 mmol has reduced the amplitude of contractions SMCs to (86.5 ± 9.7% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (88.9 ± 4.2% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the plateau of the AP to (91.7 ± 6.0% (n = 6, p < 0.05. On the background of the action of biologically active substances (phenylephrine, 10 µmol or histamine, 10 µmol, these effects of CORM II amplified. The inhibitory action of СORM II on the parameters of the contractile and electrical activities of the smooth muscles of guinea pig ureter has been decreased by blocking potassium channels in membrane of SMCs by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA оr inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ [1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-l-one]. On the background of TEA (5 mmol, a donor of CO (10 mmol caused a reduction the amplitude of contraction SMCs to (87.0 ± 10.8% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (91.7 ± 6.4% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the plateau of the AP to (93.4 ± 7.5% (n = 6, p < 0.05. After the pretreatment of ODQ (1 µmol adding CORM II (10 mmol in solution has resulted to augment of the amplitude of contraction ureteral smooth muscle strips to (90.9 ± 4.2% (n = 6, p < 0.05, the amplitude of the AP to (97.2 ± 10.3% (n = 6, p < 0.05 and the duration of the

  19. 7 CFR 201.30a - Date of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30a Date of test. When the percentage of germination is required to be shown, the label shall show the month and year in which the germination test was completed. No... germination test was completed and the date of transportation or delivery for transportation in interstate...

  20. 7 CFR 201.22 - Date of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.22 Date of test. (a) The label shall show the month and year in which the germination test was completed. No more than 5 calendar months shall have elapsed between the last day of the month in which the germination test was completed and the date of transportation or...

  1. 26 CFR 1.383-0 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.383-0 Section 1.383-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.383-0 Effective date. (a) The regulations under section 383 (other...

  2. 5 CFR 831.701 - Effective dates of annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates of annuities. 831.701... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Computation of Annuities § 831.701 Effective dates of annuities. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an annuity of an employee or Member commences...

  3. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market; Wettbewerbskonforme Stromgrosshandelspreise. Eine Untersuchung der Verordnung ueber die Integritaet und Transparenz des Energiegrosshandelsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-07-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [German] Die Entwicklung der Stromgrosshandelspreise zeigte in den letzten Jahren einen sehr schwankenden Verlauf. Ausgangspunkt fuer die Gewaehrleistung wettbewerbskonformer Strompreise sind einheitliche Bestimmungen, die im gesamten Stromgrosshandel einen funktionierenden Wettbewerb etablieren, fuer mehr Transparenz am Markt sorgen und marktmissbraeuchliche Einflussnahmen auf den Grosshandelspreis verbieten. Die REMIT-Verordnung schafft als erstes unionsrechtliches Regelwerk hierzu einheitliche Vorgaben. Der Band untersucht zunaechst die Transparenz-, Wettbewerbs-, und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel vor Erlass der Verordnung. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die Transparenz- und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel idealerweise ausgestaltet sein sollten. Auf dieser Grundlage

  4. Control of compliance of the regulation for labelling of electricity and origins of guarantee 2006. Final report; Toezicht op de naleving van de regeling stroometikettering en garanties van oorsprong in 2006. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The objective of the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) in 2006 was to increase the added value of the electricity label of energy suppliers by increasing the compliance with the regulations, improving the feasibility of these regulations and to make a better match between the label and the needs of the consumer. The result is a reliable, comprehensible and uniform electricity label per supplier, enabling consumers to consider the origin of electricity in their choice. In view of the feasibility of the regulations and decreasing the administrative burden the DTe advised the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs to adjust the regulations. [mk]. [Dutch] Doel van DTe in 2006 was het vergroten van de meerwaarde van het stroometiket van energieleveranciers door het vergroten van de naleving van de regels, verbeteren van de uitvoerbaarheid van deze regels en het etiket beter te laten aansluiten op de wensen van de consument. Het resultaat is een betrouwbaar, begrijpelijk en uniform stroometiket per leverancier, zodat consumenten ook de herkomst van stroom kunnen laten meewegen in hun keuze. Met het oog op de uitvoerbaarheid van de regels en het verlagen van de administratieve lasten heeft DTe de Minister van Economische Zaken geadviseerd de regels aan te passen.

  5. The analysis of the influence of the current regulation on the parameters of the MHD-genarator Faraday's type and on the mutual work of the generator and electric power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, K.

    1988-07-01

    This paper contains: comparison of the influence of the I=const. and U=const. regulation on the gasdynamic characteristics of the MHD-generator Faraday's type with segmented electrodes, comparison of the influence of the I=const. and U=const. regulation on choice of the compressor which causes the gas flow in the MHD generator, analysis of the influence of the I=const. regulation on the mutual work of the MHD-generator and electric power network in nonsteady states caused by the stagnation temperature drop at the MHD-duct inlet. In the work was assumed: one dimensional mathematical model of the MHD-generator, mathematical model of the inverter was constructed by means of the ''zero-one'' model of the thyristor, multichannel, synchronous control system of the inverters, inflexible electric power network. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  6. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  7. Hydrogen sulfide-mediated regulation of contractility in the mouse ileum with electrical stimulation: roles of L-cysteine, cystathionine β-synthase, and K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Kanno, Toshio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2014-10-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered to be a signaling molecule. The precise mechanisms underlying H2S-related events, including the producing enzymes and target molecules in gastrointestinal tissues, have not been elucidated in detail. We herein examined the involvement of H2S in contractions induced by repeated electrical stimulations (ES). ES-induced contractions were neurotoxin-sensitive and increased by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase, but not by D,L-propargylglycine, a selective inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase, in an ES trial-dependent manner. ES-induced contractions were markedly decreased in the presence of L-cysteine. This response was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid and an antioxidant, and accelerated by L-methionine, an activator of CBS. The existence of CBS was confirmed. NaHS transiently inhibited ES- and acetylcholine-induced contractions, and sustainably decreased basal tone for at least 20 min after its addition. The treatment with glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, reduced both the L-cysteine response and NaHS-induced inhibition of contractions. The NaHS-induced decrease in basal tone was inhibited by apamin, a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker. These results suggest that H2S may be endogenously produced via CBS in ES-activated enteric neurons, and regulates contractility via multiple K+ channels in the ileum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Control Performance of General Electric Fuel and Torque Regulator Operating on T31-3 Turbine-Propeller Engine in Sea-Level Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Frank L.; Lazar, James

    1951-01-01

    A .General Electric fuel and torque regulator was tested in conjunction with a T31-3 turbine-propeller engine in the sea-level static test stand at the NACA Lewis laboratory. The engine and control were operated over the entire speed range: 11,000 rpm, nominal flight idle, to 13,000 rpm, full power. Steady-state and transient data were recorded and are presented with a description of the four control loops being used in the system. Results of this investigation indicated that single-lever control operation was satisfactory under conditions of test. Transient data presented showed that turbine-outlet temperature did overshoot maximum operating value on acceleration but that the time duration of overshoot did not exceed approximately 1 second. This temperature limiting resulted from a control on fuel flow as a function of engine speed. Speed and torque first reached their desired values 0.4 second from the time of change in power-setting lever position. Maximum speed overshoot was 3 percent.

  9. 7 CFR 987.56 - Outlets for utility and cull dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., utility dates and cull dates may be disposed of without inspection, but only in feed, non-table syrup... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for utility and cull dates. 987.56 Section 987... DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Disposition of Other...

  10. State child health; revisions to the regulations implementing the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Interim final rule with comment period; revisions, delay of effective date, and technical amendments to final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-25

    Title XXI authorizes the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to assist State efforts to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. On January 11, 2001 we published a final rule in the Federal Register to implement SCHIP that has not gone into effect. This interim final rule further delays the effective date, revises certain provisions and solicits public comment, and makes technical corrections and clarifications to the January 2001 final rule based on further review of the comments received and applicable law. Only the provisions set forth in this document have changed. All other provisions set forth in the January 2001 final rule will be implemented without change.

  11. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  12. Directive 96/ EC of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, as of 25 July 1996, announcing their common regulations for the EU internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The supplement to this issue of the journal, RdE 5/96, presents the German version of the full authentic text of the EU Directive 96/EC. This Directive lays down the regulations applicable within the EU, relating to electric power generation, transmission, and distribution in the EU internal electricity sector, as well as access to the internal market, criteria and procedures for bids and tenders, granting of license, and network operation. The text is also accessible under the following www address: http://www.heymanns.com. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Electricity sequence control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heung Ryeol

    2010-03-01

    The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.

  14. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  15. Regulation No. 504/2006 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic dated as of August 18, 2006 on the method of reporting, registration and recording of sickness occupational hazards and occupational disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic pursuant to par. 30 section 3 point b of the Act no. 124/2006 Coll. safety and health at work and amending certain laws provides the method of reporting occupational diseases and the threat of occupational disease. Occupational disease and risk of occupational disease notified in writing on a form which appears in the Annex, the Clinical Occupational Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Department of Clinical occupational medicine and clinical toxicology or occupational medicine clinic and clinical toxicology in Bratislava, Martin or Kosice (as 'specialized work'), which is an occupational disease and risk of occupational disease admitted. This Regulation came into force on October 1, 2006.

  16. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  17. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Baer

    Full Text Available Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  18. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs) in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Matthew L; Henderson, Scott C; Colello, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs) at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  19. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  20. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area

  1. On distributive effects of optimal regulation for power grid expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Luis Ángel; Rosellón, Juan

    2014-01-01

    To date, the distributive implications of incentive regulation on electricity transmission networks have not been explicitly studied in the literature. More specifically, the parameters that a regulator might use to achieve distributive efficiency under price-cap regulation have not yet been identified. To discern these parameters is the motivation for the research presented in this paper. We study how different weight parameters affect the distributive characteristics of optimal price-cap incentive regulation for electricity transmission. We find that a regulator's use of ideal (Laspeyres) weights tends to be more beneficial for the Transco (consumers) than for consumers (the Transco). - Highlights: • Distributive implications of incentive regulation on transmission networks have not been studied in the literature. • The parameters that a regulator might use to achieve distributive efficiency have so far not been explicitly analyzed. • Analyze how different weights affect the distributive characteristics of price-cap regulation in electricity transmission. • Results: ideal (Laspeyres) weights tend to be more beneficial for the Transco (consumers) than for consumers (the Transco)

  2. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  3. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  4. The isotopic dating of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  5. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  6. New electricity act brings in private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Opening up the State's electricity industry, previously the domain of the former Queensland Electricity Commission (QEC), is part of an overall restructuring of the industry under the new Queensland Electricity Act. Under this Act, the QEC was split into generating and transmission and supply corporations. The Act provides for the regulation of the electricity industry and the regulation of the use of electricity and safety in relation to the supply and use of electricity.(Author). 6 photos

  7. Electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Historical background; The Nationalisation Law of 1946 and the present electricity regulatory framework; Other regulations and policies having an impact on the French electricity system; Forces for and against Liberalisation; The legislative framework in preparation; Electricity costs and prices; The main industrial player. EdF; Key nuclear issues; EdF and the HV transmission network; The non-nationalised distributors; Other players on the generation side; Conclusions. (Author)

  8. Eligibility in the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, F.

    2003-01-01

    The true liberalization of the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain was initiated in 1997 and 1998 respectively with the approval of the Electricity Act and the Hydrocarbons Act that set up the regulatory framework for both sectors. The initial eligibility calendars established were speeded up by later legal dispositions which set the full eligibility in January 2003. Therefore in January the number of eligible consumers increased from 65,000 electricity consumers to 22 million and from around 5,000 gas consumers to 4.5 million. In Spain there has been however a coexistence of a liberalized market and a regulated market. While in the liberalized market the consumer will pay a regulated Third Party Access (TPA) tariff for the use of the network and a free price for the energy, in the regulated market the consumer will pay all-inclusive tariffs which are established by the Government in the case of the electricity tariffs and by the Ministry of Economy in the case of the gas tariffs. Today any electricity and gas consumer can choose whether he wants to be supplied through the regulated market or through the liberalized one. Only the electricity HV (High Voltage Supply) all-inclusive tariffs are to disappear in 2007. No date has been set for the others. Also important is to highlight the increase in the consumption of both energy sources. The electricity demand has increased about 38 percent from 1997 (155 TWh/year) to 2002 (214 TWh/year). The gas sector, on the other hand, has increased at a higher rate. From 150 TWh/year in January 1999 to almost 270 TWh/year in July 2003, an 80 percent increase in four and a half years.(author)

  9. The missions of the regulator confronted with the collusive behaviour of the actors in a deregulated electricity market (the case of France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    Regulatory Commissions play a major role in a competitive electricity market. Some missions are positive: public service objectives, third party access pricing on the transmission and distribution networks, anticipation of necessary production capacities. Other missions are rather defensive: avoiding collusive behaviour on the electricity spot markets, reducing market power position and avoiding 'shadow congestions' on the inter-states networks. (author)

  10. AHP 47: A NIGHT DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.

  11. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  12. Deliberation of the commission of electricity regulation relative to the definition of the modalities of allocation, for the year 2002, of the transfrontier transit capacities between France and Italy; Deliberation de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite relative a la definition des modalites d'attribution pour l'annee 2002 des capacites de transit transfrontalier entre la France et l'Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This regulatory text from the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) defines the annual and secondary allocation of electricity transit capacity between France and Italy. Transit capacity allocations are jointly implemented by the French and Italian public network management authorities (RTE and GRTN, respectively). (J.S.)

  13. Dating the humans by radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon has become a very powerful tool used for dating. This paper deals with a specific application of 1 4C i.e. dating of humans. Attention is focused on those aspects that, if neglected, might lead to a misinterpretation of the results or to an unsatisfying accuracy of the measurement. After a brief description of the main principles on which the radiocarbon method is based and of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, examples taken from the research activity of INFN-LABEC (Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per I Beni Culturali) in Florence are presented. The case of the relic of St. Francis represents an example of dating not directly human remains but other objects that can be associated to them. The case of two burials from the archaeological area of Baratti-Populonia, in Tuscany, gives the possibility to show the importance of estimating the human palaeodiet when dating bone samples.

  14. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-15

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  15. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  16. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  18. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1997-12-31

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points. Paper no. 41; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.

    1997-01-01

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points

  20. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  1. Direct dating of human fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  3. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  4. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  5. 48 CFR 952.231-70 - Date of incurrence of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have been negotiated regarding costs incurred prior to the contract effective date: Date of Incurrence of Cost (APR 1984) The Contractor shall be entitled to reimbursement for costs incurred in an amount... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Date of incurrence of cost...

  6. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  8. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  9. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2004-01-01

    Brief explanation of the use of 32 Si in the dating of sediments. 32 Si , with a half-life of c.140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years. An appropriate dating tool for that time range is essential because it includes three very important epochs: the impact of human colonisation and industrialisation during the last 150 years, the Little Ice Age between about 1650 AD and 1850 AD, and the last part of the Medieval Climatic Optimum. 23 refs

  10. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  11. Analysis of the spontaneous variations in wind power and necessary continuous regulation of hydro-electric and thermal power, related to a future Swedish power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J O; Lindstrom, P O

    1982-09-01

    Wind power is unlike conventional electric power generation, since the output fluctuates uncontrollably. These fluctuations must be balanced by controlled generation from other power sources. This will create new and interesting demands on the reserves in the power system. The short-term fluctuations have a low simultaneity factor and must be balanced by an automatic frequency control reserve. In Sweden, this consists of automatically controlled hydro-electric power. The report contains calculations of the amount by which the demand on reserves will increase when wind power is introduced.

  12. Recent advances in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Initially the application of thermoluminescent dating was to ancient pottery and other baked clay, the detection of forgeries in art ceramics having a particularly powerful impact. In recent years there has been a growing extension of TL into non-pottery materials. Heated flints from paleolithic fire-places is one application. Another is in the dating of igneous rocks from recent volcanic events; formerly this had been impossible on account of the malign phenomenon of non-thermal ('anomalous') fading exhibited by volcanic minerals but this is now being circumvented by utilising TL in the 600 0 C region of the glow curve. TL dating has also been extended to unburnt calcite, one application being stalagmitic floors in paleolithic caves. Another recent development is the use of TL for dating aeolian sediment and some types of waterborne sediment. These developments give prospect of establishing a TL-based chronology, both for archaeology and quaternary research, extending back well beyond the range of radiocarbon, perhaps reaching a million years ago. (author)

  13. Sexual Intimacy in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)

  14. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  15. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  16. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Sanchez, Ruth.

    1986-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  17. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  18. The latest electrical installation (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Su

    1976-04-01

    This book deals with the latest electrical installation. The contents of this book are construction electrical installation, regulations related electrical installation, foundation and principle of wiring, main line feeder, lighting installation, power of wiring, main line feeder, lighting installation, power installation, method to read structure drawing for electrical construct drawing electric lamp wiring diagram, working drawing, material and tools and method of construction of electrical installation on types of wiring construction, metallic conduit, rigid poly-vinyl conduit wiring, bus duct work, cable work and insulation out of metal lathed.

  19. 77 FR 76824 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...). Executive Order (E.O.) 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing....) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille... for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health professionals, and other individuals who...

  20. 76 FR 65999 - Effective Date for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... Category 1 covers statutory provisions which by their express terms require rulemaking to implement... amended by title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act that reference one or more terms regarding entities or... provisions specifically relate to such referenced terms and do not require a rulemaking. The second part...

  1. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  2. Altered long non-coding RNA expression profile in rabbit atria with atrial fibrillation: TCONS_00075467 modulates atrial electrical remodeling by sponging miR-328 to regulate CACNA1C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Wang, Ximin; Wang, Weizong; Du, Juanjuan; Wei, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jiangrong; Hou, Yinglong

    2017-07-01

    Electrical remodeling has been reported to play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly recognized as contributors to the pathology of heart diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in electrical remodeling during AF remain unknown. In this study, the lncRNA expression profiles of right atria were investigated in AF and non-AF rabbit models by using RNA sequencing technique and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A total of 99,843 putative new lncRNAs were identified, in which 1220 differentially expressed transcripts exhibited >2-fold change. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to predict the functions and interactions of the aberrantly expressed genes. On the basis of a series of filtering pipelines, one lncRNA, TCONS_00075467, was selected to explore its effects and mechanisms on electrical remodeling. The atrial effective refractory period was shortened in vivo and the L-type calcium current and action potential duration were decreased in vitro by silencing of TCONS_00075467 with lentiviruses. Besides, the expression of miRNA-328 was negatively correlated with TCONS_00075467. We further demonstrated that TCONS_00075467 could sponge miRNA-328 in vitro and in vivo to regulate the downstream protein coding gene CACNA1C. In addition, miRNA-328 could partly reverse the effects of TCONS_00075467 on electrical remodeling. In summary, dysregulated lncRNAs may play important roles in modulating electrical remodeling during AF. Our study may facilitate the mechanism studies of lncRNAs in AF pathogenesis and provide potential therapeutic targets for AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Report of the French Energy Regulator on electricity interconnection management and use in 2006; Rapport de la Commission de Regulation de l'Energie sur la gestion et l'utilisation des interconnexions electriques en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report aims at, first, evaluating the congestion management methods in force at interconnected power systems managed by the French transmission system operator RTE as required by article 1.10 of the guidelines of 1228/2003 European regulation which foresees that: 'the national regulation authorities regularly evaluates the congestion management methods, in particular by controlling the respect of rules and principles established by the European regulation, and of trends, modalities and conditions fixed by the regulation authorities according to the above principles and rules'. It aims also at sharing the opinions of the commission of energy regulation (CRE) with other European regulating authorities and with all stakeholders involved in the domestic power market, about the management and use of European power interconnections in 2006. Content: 1 - 2005-2006, the turning point for congestion management; 2 - consequences of 2055-2006 changes in interconnections with Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy; 3 - further improvements still required: allocation system, capacity bids, short-term trades, capacity management in compliance with European law; 4 - conclusion: an indispensable regional approach. (J.S.)

  4. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1494-2 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Transfers to Avoid Income Tax § 1.1494-2 Effective date. Chapter 5 (section 1491 and following) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and the regulations prescribed thereunder apply with respect...

  6. 30 CFR 62.100 - Purpose and scope; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.100 Purpose and scope; effective date. The purpose of these standards is to prevent the occurrence and reduce the progression of occupational noise-induced hearing loss among miners. This part sets forth mandatory health standards for each surface and...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.404-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.404-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.406-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.406-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.409-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.409-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.408-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.408-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.405-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.405-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.403-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.403-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.407-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.407-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.401-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.401-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.402-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.402-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  16. 77 FR 56539 - Revision to Vintage Date Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... published in the Federal Register (42 FR 30517) on June 15, 1977, ATF noted that the wine industry advocated... document adopts, as a final rule, a proposal to amend the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau wine labeling regulations to allow a vintage date to appear on a wine that is labeled with a country as an...

  17. 76 FR 68373 - Proposed Revision to Vintage Date Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... published in the Federal Register (42 FR 30517) on June 15, 1977, ATF noted that the wine industry advocated... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau proposes to amend its wine labeling regulations to allow a vintage date to appear on a wine that is labeled with a country as an appellation of origin. The proposal...

  18. Fission tracks dating for obsidian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Obsidian from South America are dated by fission tracks methods. Samples are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 . Results, corrected by 'Plateau' methods, are the following: obsidian from Bolivia: 4.14 x 10 6 yr., Ecuador: 8.79 x 10 5 yr., Colombia: 3.52 x 10 6 yr., Peru: 6.55 x 10 6 yr., Chile: 1.13 x 10 6 yr. (MMZ). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Radiokrypton dating coming of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Tian Lu

    2016-01-01

    The dream of radiokrypton dating began in 1969 when Heinz Hugo Loosli and Hans Oeschger of the University of Bern first detected the decay of81Rr(half-life=230 000 yr)in krypton gas extracted from air[1].This isotope is produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray-induced spallation and neutron-activation of stable krypton.Due to its long residence time(105 yr)in the atmosphere,81Rr is uniformly

  20. Current topics in ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    After over 25 years, the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) is well-established in dating sites of geological, paleontological and archaeological interest. Like any scientific technique, there have been changes in understanding and in methodology. Improvements have not, however, changed the observation that external dose calculations are still a significant source of uncertainty in ages. Examples from Europe, Africa and the Americans illustrate this point. For Pradayrol Cave (France), the occupation age, 330 ka, is unchallenged, making this the oldest known Neanderthal site in France. For Roc de Marsal, also in France, on the other hand, discrepancies between TL and sedimentary dose rates imply substantial differences in interpretation. In the Western Egyptian Desert, where artifacts and datable material are not well-correlated, the dating results show consistency with expectations based on global climate change, even in deflated sites. Climate change is also the question in geological studies in the Bahamas where, despite concerns about cosmic dose history, ESR dates confirm other evidence for sea level changes. We show that an uncertain age is not the same as an impossible one.

  1. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  2. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  3. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  4. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia, E-mail: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, E-mail: vparente@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  5. Incentive policies for promoting wind power production in Brazil: Scenarios for the Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) under the New Brazilian electric power sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) was designed in 2002 to stimulate the electricity generation from three energy sources (wind, biomass and small-scale hydro) in Brazil. The Program was divided into two phases. The first one uses feed-in tariffs for promoting the development of 3300 MW. The second one that was originally based on feed-in tariffs was modified in 2003, in order to be based on biddings for renewables. These biddings are capped to limit their impact on the final electricity tariff. Due to this bound, the highest-cost power option promoted by PROINFA (wind power generation) might have development problems. Simulating different scenarios for the biddings, it was verified that the only way to reach the original goal set by PROINFA (10% of the annual electricity consumption provided by alternative sources up to 2020) and, simultaneously, not overcome the bidding bound is to promote biomass-fired power generation alone, during the Program's second phase. However, this action contradicts one of the targets of the Program, which is to diversify the energy matrix. An alternative option could be biddings for renewables according to specific criteria (complementarities, industrial and technological development and cost), based not only on their cost-effectiveness. (author)

  6. Variables contributing to an excellent customer service management profile within the regulated electric utility industry: A comparison of self-concept with customer satisfaction for customer service management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This research sought to address the relationship between self-concept and customer satisfaction: can customer satisfaction with a major electric utility be explained in terms of the self-reported, self-concept of the utility's managers The population to which the results of this study were generalized consisted of customer service managers in public electric utilities across the United States. In order to represent this population, a sample was selected consisting of customer service managers at a midwestern electric utility based in a large metropolitan area. Participants in this study were managers of four direct customer contact service organizations within six geographic division organizations. The methodology included comparisons of these four customer contact service organizations on twelve independent, self-concept variables and six customer satisfaction dependent variables using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe' tests, Chi-Square, and Stepwise multiple regression. The groups were found not to be significantly different and knowledge of the self-concept scores for managers will not increase the ability to predict customer satisfaction over no knowledge of self-concept scores.

  7. Contextual Risk Profiles and Trajectories of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Markiewitz, Nathan; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2018-04-09

    Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and used variable-centered approaches that fail to capture the configurations of factors that may jointly explain involvement in dating violence. The current study used a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis, to identify key configurations (or profiles) of contextual risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration across the neighborhood, school, friend and family contexts. We then examine the longitudinal associations between these contextual risk profiles, assessed during middle school, and trajectories of psychological and physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. Five contextual risk profiles were identified: school, neighborhood, and family risk; school and family risk; school and friend risk; school and neighborhood risk; and low risk. The highest levels of psychological and physical perpetration across grades 8 through 12 were among adolescents in the profile characterized by high levels of school, neighborhood, and family risk. Results suggest that early interventions to reduce violence exposure and increase social regulation across multiple social contexts may be effective in reducing dating violence perpetration across adolescence.

  8. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution - Case Network Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost-effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM is under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slightly changes in the results can occur if calculations were made with latest parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters. (orig.)

  9. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution. Case network performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost- effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent ones available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM have been under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slight changes might occur in the numerical results of calculations if they were made with the latest set of parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters

  10. Electricity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Soung

    2006-12-01

    The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

  11. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O' Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  12. Electric scooter pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Dedek, Jan; Golembiovsky, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.

  13. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  14. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  15. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  17. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  18. Analysis of electricity price in Danish competitive electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system. 10 year actual data from the Danish competitive electricity market are collected and analyzed. The relationship among the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price), the consumption and the wind power generation...... in an electricity market is investigated in this paper. The spot price and the regulation price generally decrease when the wind power penetration in the power system increases or the consumption of the power system decreases. The statistical characteristics of the spot price and the regulation price for different...... consumption periods and wind power penetration are analyzed. Simulation results show that the findings of this paper are useful for wind power generation companies to make the optimal bidding strategy so that the imbalance cost of trading wind power on the electricity market could be reduced....

  19. Etiology of Teen Dating Violence among Adolescent Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Eiden, Rina D; Lessard, Jared; Casey, Meghan; Henrie, James; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2018-03-01

    Family processes in early life have been implicated in adolescent involvement in teen dating violence, yet the developmental pathways through which this occurs are not well understood. In this study, etiological pathways from parental psychopathology and marital conflict in infancy to involvement in dating violence in late adolescence were examined in a sample of children at high-risk due to parental alcohol problems. Families (N = 227) recruited when the child was 12 months of age were assessed at 12-, 24-, 36-months, kindergarten, 6th, 8th, and 12th grades. Slightly more than half of the children were female (51%) and the majority were of European American descent (91%). Parental psychopathology in infancy was indirectly associated with teen dating violence in late adolescence via low maternal warmth and self-regulation in early childhood, externalizing behavior from kindergarten to early adolescence, and sibling problems in middle childhood. Marital conflict was also indirectly associated with teen dating violence via child externalizing behavior. Maternal warmth and sensitivity in early childhood emerged as an important protective factor and was associated with reduced marital conflict and increased child self-regulation in the preschool years as well as increased parental monitoring in middle childhood and early adolescence. Family processes occurring in the preschool years and in middle childhood appear to be critical periods for creating conditions that contribute to dating violence risk in late adolescence. These findings underscore the need for early intervention and prevention with at-risk families.

  20. REC profile 2: Southern Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented of South Electric plc, one of the United Kingdom's Regional Electricity Companies (RECs), at present distributing electric power in central southern England. Known in financial markets as an efficient performer, the staff reductions and changes of employment conditions undertaken to achieve this end are described. The need to maintain success in its core business, while simultaneously seeking diversification, drive the company's keen competitive edge. The relationship between the RECs and the electricity regulator is also explored, as Southern Electric considers a friendly merger with another REC to improve its market competitiveness in price terms. (UK)

  1. Real business of electrical skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This book introduces electrical structure and duty of electric security officials with definition, kinds, safe system for electrical structure and position, mission, duty, license and revocation of one's license of officials. It also deals with plan for non utility electric installation such as condition control, the cost of materials and the cost of construction, important equipment and materials, supervisory control, design on non utility power substation, construction of non utility power substation, high voltage substation by cubicle interior wiring, utilization equipment, communication installation and safe work and safe education of electricity and related regulations.

  2. Regulations on the limitation of exposure to electrical, magnetic and eletromagneticos fields in the radiofrequencies range between 9 kHz and 300 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinhao, Maximiliano Salvadori; Silva, Maria Aparecida Muniz Fidelis da; Gontijo, Jose Gustavo Sampaio

    2005-01-01

    The work refers to the known and scientifically proven effects, arising from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Accordingly, the regulations on the matter of national telecommunications Agency ANATEL - and the 'state of the art', worldwide, more specifically with regard to the treatment of the issue by the International Telecommunications Union (UIT) and the World Health Organization - OMS. The present work presents the initiatives of ANATEL, for the provision of telecommunications services, using transmitting stations of radiocommunication is performed safely and not detrimental to the population

  3. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.

  4. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  5. Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Alsenaien; R.A. Alamer; Zhen-Xing Tang; S.A. Albahrani; M.A. Al-Ghannam; S.M. Aleid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dates powder and dates syrup as a sugar substitution, on the physical properties and sensory attributes of cookies were studied. An increase in firmness and moisture content of cookies supplemented with dates was obtained. The diameter and spread ratio of cookies showed a decrease with increasing levels of date powder or date syrup. Partial replacement of sugar with date powder or date syrup produced cookies with more dark and red color. Sensory evaluation result...

  6. Lean and Obese Zucker Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES Data: Regulation of p70S6kinase Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic exercise has been advocated as a prescribed treatment for the management of diabetes: however, alterations in exercise-induced signaling remain largely unexplored in the diabetic muscle. Here, we compare the basal and the in situ contraction-induced phosphorylation of the AKT, GSK3beta, mTor, p70s6K, Pten, and Shp2 in the lean and obese (fa/fa Zucker rat Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle following a single bout of contractile stimuli. This article represents data associated with prior publications from our lab (Katta et al., 2009a, 2009b; Tullgren et al., 1991 [1–3] and concurrent Data in Brief articles (Ginjupalli et al., 2017a, 2017b; Rice et al., 2017a, 2017b [4–7]. Keywords: Diabetes, Skeletal muscle, High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES, Zucker rat, Extensor Digitorum Longus, p70s6k

  7. Use of electrical imaging and distributed temperature sensing methods to characterize surface water–groundwater exchange regulating uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Andy; Strickland, Christopher; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensor (FO‐DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the Columbia River corridor at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington. We first inverted resistivity and induced polarization CWEI data sets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse‐grained, high‐permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer‐grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ∼3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The FO‐DTS data recorded along 1.5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 min sampling interval revealed subreaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water–groundwater exchange. The FO‐DTS data sets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the CWEI and reveal a pattern of highly focused exchange, concentrated at springs where the Hanford Formation is thickest. Our findings illustrate how the combination of CWEI and FO‐DTS technologies can characterize surface water–groundwater exchange in a complex, coupled river‐aquifer system.

  8. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  9. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  10. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  11. Making a date with radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of 14 C dating techniques for samples of organic materials up to 50,000 years old is discussed with especial reference to adjustment necessary to take account of both the most recent figure for the 14 C half-life and also the natural fluctuations in the production of 14 C over 50,000 years. Methods of detection and the accuracy of the measurements are considered. It is hoped that future developments including both the possibility of counting 14 C ions directly using an accelerator as a mass spectrometer, and also the use of laser enrichment techniques will not only push back the radiocarbon calendar to 100,000 years but will also allow the use of much smaller samples than before. (U.K.)

  12. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  13. Make a date with a tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, M.; Pilcher, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the use of dendrochronology to check the accuracy of radiocarbon dating. The Belfast chronology is described - this involves wood samples precisely dated by tree ring analysis and analysed by high-precision radiocarbon analysis. The analysis resulted in the first continuous high-precision calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale, and confirmed the relationship between radiocarbon dates and tree-ring dates. The use of radiocarbon dating to reveal the age of wood samples that have too few rings to produce an accurate date, is also outlined. (U.K.)

  14. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  15. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  16. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  17. 17 CFR 248.128 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 248.128 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a) Effective date. This subpart is effective September 10, 2009. (b) Mandatory compliance date. Compliance with this... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date, compliance...

  18. Radiocarbon dates for Rangitoto and Motutapu, a consideration of dating accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The carbon dates for the eruptions of Rangitoto and the occupation of Maori sites on Motutapu contain inconsistencies which are explicable only after the dates have been corrected to allow for the nature of the dating method. The only date which is reasonably established is a 14th or 15th century dating for the ash shower covering Motutapu. (auth.)

  19. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  20. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  1. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  2. Geophysical Insights from Archaeomagnetic Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, R.; Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report on work which has been undertaken towards developing an improved methodology for archaeomagnetic dating of archaeological samples through the use of a dedicated field model. In this talk, we focus on the more general (non-archaeological) implications of our results. Our work has focused on Europe, taking advantage of the better spatial and temporal coverage of available samples. Nevertheless, we model the field globally, using an a priori model (such as, for example, CALS7K) to constrain the field away from the regions of available data. This is advantageous over the use of a local field modelling methodology, as it allows us to examine the physical consequences of structure in our model (for example, in terms of the spectra of the field and secular variation at the core-mantle boundary), and to control possible edge effects in the model, which in a local model might produce an unphysical solution. By focusing on one particular region, we produce models that may not be optimal in terms of global structure, but allow us to investigate the data content in the region where it may provide the most information on core-field evolution. In parallel, we have been expanding the archaeointensity record for Great Britain, towards producing an archaeointensity curve for the UK which could ultimately be used for dating of unoriented samples (such as pot sherds). This new record, combined with other recently acquired high-quality intensity data, allows us to consider the evolution of global geomagnetic field strength in parallel with a good model of directional measurements; from 1590, the GUFM model is appropriate. Recent attempts to determine global intensity variation have used all available data (some of uncertain quality) to quantify variations in field strength. By instead focusing on a more limited dataset of known quality, we are able to examine intensity trends in greater detail. We present evidence that the intensity of the field was higher prior to 1840 than

  3. Regulation of adipose-tissue-derived stromal cell orientation and motility in 2D- and 3D-cultures by direct-current electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Long, Haiyan; Ren, Xiaomei; Ma, Kunlong; Xiao, Zhenghua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yingqiang

    2017-02-01

    Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers. Rat ADSCs were exposed to various physiological-strength EFs in a homemade EF-bioreactor. Changes of morphology and movements of cells affected by applied EFs were evaluated by time-lapse microphotography, and cell survival rates and intracellular calcium oscillations were also detected. Results showed that EF facilitated ADSC morphological changes, under 6 V/cm EF strength, and that ADSCs in 2D-culture aligned vertically to EF vector and kept a good cell survival rate. In 3D-culture, cell galvanotaxis responses were subject to the synergistic effect of applied EF and scaffold materials. Fast cell movement and intracellular calcium activities were observed in the cells of 3D-culture. We believe our research will provide some experimental references for the future study in cell galvanotaxis behaviors. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  5. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  6. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  7. Operation of photovoltaic plants on governmentally operated properties with electricity self-supply - considerations on tax and charges regulations; Der Betrieb von Photovoltaik-Anlagen mit Strom-Eigenverbrauch in hoheitlichen Einrichtungen. Eine steuerrechtliche und gebuehrenrechtliche Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronawitter, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The practice of levying taxes on the operation of photovoltaic plants by private persons or legal entities governed by private law seems reasonable enough. By contrast, when photovoltaic plants are installed on the roof or land of a governmental institution (such as wastewater treatment or waste disposal facilities) and operated by a legal entity governed by public law, in particular a municipality or special-purpose association, the issue of taxation raises many questions. The present article considers various conceivable possibilities along with their implications for profit and sales tax. In regard to input tax deduction it takes account of the strict separation between the different areas of activity of the legal entity in question as prescribed by the German Federal Ministry of Finance in its letter dated 2 January 2012. The article also discusses whether and, if so, to what extent expenditures and income from photovoltaic electricity production should be considered in the calculation of fees charged by the governmental institution in question.

  8. Dates and Times Made Easy with lubridate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Grolemund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lubridate package for R, which facilitates working with dates and times. Date-times create various technical problems for the data analyst. The paper highlights these problems and oers practical advice on how to solve them using lubridate. The paper also introduces a conceptual framework for arithmetic with date-times in R.

  9. Electrical Safety During a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    Power outages and flooding can cause electrical hazards. Never touch a downed power line or anything in contact with one.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/22/2007.

  10. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0

  11. 46 CFR 221.111 - Status of prior transactions-controlling dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Status of prior transactions-controlling dates. 221.111 Section 221.111 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... MARITIME INTERESTS Savings Provisions § 221.111 Status of prior transactions—controlling dates. (a) The...

  12. 76 FR 42470 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date... rule under part 614 on May 25, 2011 (76 FR 30246) amending our regulations on loan policies and...

  13. 76 FR 77053 - Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Reform Act of 1984. The regulations affect qualified employee benefit plans, welfare benefit funds, and... gift taxes; effective dates and other issues arising under the employee benefit provisions of the tax..., Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates and Other Issues Arising Under the Employee Benefit...

  14. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  15. Bulgarian electricity market restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The energy sector in Bulgaria has undergone major restructuring in recent years. It faces the dual challenges of achieving regulatory stability to attract private investors, and creating a functioning competition energy market. As of the EU Accession in 2007, Bulgaria has fully liberalized power and gas markets. The 2003 Energy Law establishes the energy sector legal framework and sets the basis for creation of a transparent and predictable regulatory environment where the key regulatory responsibilities are vested with the State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission (SEWRC). The energy sector experienced significant problems in the first half of 2007 due to lost production capacities and regulatory failures on the electricity market. Excess price regulations on the market of electricity supplies to household, coupled with insufficient liberalization of imports and exports, create unfavorable conditions for power producers and large electricity users. The energy regulator has tried to achieve several incompatible targets as of July 1, 2007 for maintaining low electricity prices for households in response to political pressure, low power generation prices amid rising input costs, and market opening in compliance with EU regulations. (author)

  16. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  17. The economics of electricity markets

    CERN Document Server

    Biggar, Darryl R

    2014-01-01

    With the transition to liberalized electricity markets in many countries, the shift to more environmentally sustainable forms of power generation and increasing penetration of electric vehicles and smart appliances, a fundamental understanding of the economic principles underpinning the electricity industry is vital. Using clarity and precision, the authors successfully explain economic theory of all liberalized electricity market types from a cross-disciplinary engineering and policy perspective. No prior engineering knowledge or economics expertise is assumed in introducing key ideas such as nodal pricing, optimal dispatch and efficient pricing or in extending those models to areas including investment, risk management and the handling of contingencies. Key features: Comprehensively covers the principles of all liberalized electricity market types, including the US, Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Provides up to date coverage of research and policy iss es, including design of financial transmission rig...

  18. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  19. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  20. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.