WorldWideScience

Sample records for electricity industry development

  1. Steady development of the electric power industry in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsumov, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Application aspects of alternative energy sources as the most comprehensible and renewable sources are considered. Among them the paramount role in fuel and energy balance of the country plays an organic fuel using of which renders an irreparable harm to an environment. Therefore application of organic fuel admits unacceptable in the industrial countries as it does not provide sufficient development of power industry. With the purpose of more expedient development of power industry conducting of increase procedures of production efficiency of the electric power, and also using additional alternative energy sources, such as a solar energy, a wind power, biomass energy and also energy of water is necessary. It is important to mark that using of renewable sources of energy reduces emission of harmful waste products on an environment. Further in this each of the marked sources are separately described, and also ways of the further development of this branch of power industry are specified [ru

  2. Auction development for the price-based electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekrajangpetch, Somgiat

    The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets. A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies (GENCOs) when identical or similar generating units participate in a LR CDCA based auction. Supporting information for bidding strategies on how to change unit data to enhance the chances of bid acceptance has been developed. The majority of this work is based on Single Period Commodity Auction (SPCA). Alternative structures for the SPCA are outlined. Whether the optimal solution is degenerated is investigated. Good pricing criteria are summarized and the pricing method following good pricing criteria is developed. Electricity is generally considered as a homogeneous product. When availability level is used as additional characteristic to distinct electricity, electricity can be considered a heterogeneous product. The procedure to trade electricity as a heterogeneous product is developed. The SPCA is formulated as a linear program. The basic IPLP algorithm has been extended so that sensitivity analysis can be performed as in the simplex method. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine market reach. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used in combination with the investigation of historical auction results to provide raw data for power system expansion. Market power is a critical issue in electric power deregulation. Firms with market power have an advantage over other competitor firms in terms of market reach. Various approaches to

  3. Research and development in the electricity supply industry conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the views expressed in the conference papers. These are grouped into fuels for the future, coal fired powers stations, renewables, use of heat as a by-product of electricity generation, fuel cells, electric vehicles, and environmental issues in the electricity supply industry. The points and ideas from the two workshops held in conjunction with the conference are also summarized

  4. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run

  5. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing [School of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)]. E-mail: wbyf@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2007-10-15

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run.

  6. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing Wang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Public Administration

    2007-10-15

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. The coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. The paper next examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to the electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to the electricity industry. It is concluded that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect the electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harms the coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all

  8. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  9. The development of power generation by electricity supply undertakings and industries in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the events of recent years - the opening up of the east, efforts to stimulate international competition - the Western European electricity industry is strongly on the move. In spite of the non-uniformity of the electricity supply structures in the individual countries, the trend towards liberalization of the electricity market is characterized by different forms of expression. Against this background, this paper provides a review of the status and prospects of electricity demand developments and of primary energy supply. It considers the consequences which thereby arise for the power plant inventory of electricity supply undertakings and industries. (orig.) [de

  10. Development trends in the Rhineland-Palatinate electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Luettringhaus, G.; Schiffer, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    After a few introductory remarks on changes taking place on the world energy market, and their effects on the FRG, a historical survey is given on the energy and economic development of Rhineland-Palatinate during the last decade. Based on these facts, and in close connection with the development of the FRG the development of the power industry in Rhineland-Palatinate is described as projected until 1985. This plan envisages a strong development of the utilization of nuclear energy. The per capita consumption of primary energy with 5.67 tons CE per inhabitant was below the Federal average of 5.9 tons CE even later than 1974. It is to achieve the FRG-level with 8.1 tons CE in 1985, and is even to surpass it with 9.2 tons CE, according to a forecast variant. The increase in energy consumption, particularly in primary energy consumption, is mainly due to a strong increase in conversion processes taking place within the state itself, and to a pushback of supplies with secondary energy sources from other Federal states or from abroad. Resulting from a thorough analysis crucial points of regional energy policy in Rhineland-Palatinate are determined and discussed. (UA) [de

  11. Facilitating wind development: the importance of electric industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2008-04-15

    ISOs and RTOs, with their day-ahead and real-time markets, large geographies to aggregate diverse wind resources, large loads to aggregate with wind, large generation pools that tap conventional-generator flexibility, and regional transmission planning efforts, offer the best environments for wind generation to develop. (author)

  12. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  13. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  14. Risk Reduction Methods for Managing the Development of Regional Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kozhevnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the regional electric power industry has come to the forefront due to the changing scale, quality, and configuration of electric power infrastructure, and the spread of distributed generation. This gives rise to more stringent requirements regarding the reliability, safety, and environmental impact of electric power supply. This article aims to justify a package of methods that make it possible to identify and minimize investment, production, financial, and environmental risks in order to ensure sustainable development of the regional electric power industry that performs anti-crisis functions, and of individual energy companies. The key method to be employed is integrated resource planning (IRP. As a part of the method, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and combined heat and power production are considered as equally valid ways of meeting future demand. The authors have designed a methodology for taking into account uncertainty and risk when implementing IRP. The methodology includes analysis of scenarios and decision making processes by calculating past and projected values of profit indicators. When conducting the environmental and economic assessment of an investment project in the electric power industry, the authors suggest using an aggregate indicator of environmental and economic effectiveness that is calculated on the basis of a combination of locally significant positive and negative environmental and economic impacts of the project. The authors formulate conceptual provisions that serve as the foundation for a promising model of the regional electric power industry and which contain recommendations for managing the development of the industry while minimizing organizational, market, and technological risks.

  15. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  16. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  17. Barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy in the industrialized nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.; Leonardi, J.

    2003-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market in the industrialized nations may considered as an opportunity to bring about a diversification of the energy sector which could help overcome the economic barriers to a more sustainable development By allowing new companies to boost their market share, in many countries increases have been obtained in the supply of electricity based on renewable energy or energy services offering greater efficiency. It is now possible to reduce the cost of the measures which encourage the sustainable development of the sector, taking account of those barriers which prevent the expansion of ENR, hold back further gains in energy efficiency and block a reduction in demand An active energy policy will make it possible to overcome the difficulties encountered in various countries. This study highlights the main barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy and outlines which solutions may be envisaged to overcome these barriers. (authors)

  18. Highlights of Electric Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Reform and Development of Electric Power Management Before 1978, China's electric power industry,managed by the Central Government, was a vertically monopoly sector. Along with China's reformation of economy structure started in 1978, electric power industry has step on its road of restructuring and deregulation. Up to now administration of China's electric power industry underwent following reciprocative changes:

  19. Ontario electricity industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of Ontario's electricity industry restructuring was described as an effort to enhance Ontario's competitiveness. It is believed that restructuring can be accomplished without an increase in electricity rates. In a series of charts, the report provides the timeline of restructuring from the time of the Macdonald report in 1995 to the beginning of open competition in Ontario electricity markets. It oulines the principles underlying the financial restructuring and the financial results of restructuring, including the size of the stranded debt ($ 7.8 billion). It lists the changes that have occurred since October 1998, explains some key factors in valuing the successor companies and profiles the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Restructuring of the industry is expected to have a neutral to positive impact on Ontario's fiscal position. The residual stranded debt of $7.8 billion will be retired through revenues generated by the electricity sector, without recourse to the Provincial Treasury. 9 figs

  20. Managing realities of the new market uncertainty : standards development in the North American electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2003-01-01

    Standards for the electricity industry are developed to ensure quality and serve as a basis to which utilities should conform. Standards specify agreed upon properties for a manufactured product. They should be used for equipment specifications as well as operational procedures. Standardization is performed by regulators, transmission owners/operators, and organizations such as the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB), and the Committee of Chief Risk Officers (CCRO). Before markets were opened to competition, operational standards were dictated by transmission owners and reliability issues were dealt with by NERC and NPCC. This presentation explained the process of standardization in the electric power industry in Canada, the derivation of standards, moving beyond NERC, and the transmission owners. Issues for Ontario Power Generation were highlighted. In contrast to the situation in the United States, there is no federal government backstop for developing Standards in Canada. There is no federal initiative toward open access. Canadian utilities participated in NERC, but compliance was voluntary. It is still questionable if Canadian utilities will implement NERC and NAESB Standards if they are codified

  1. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly wit...

  2. The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

  3. Advances in the development of ovonic nickel metal hydride batteries for industrial and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, S.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Dhar, S.K.; Ovshinsky, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that increasing concerns over urban pollution and continued uncertainties about oil supplies have forced the government and industry to refocus their attention on electric vehicles. Despite enormous expenditures in research and development for the ideal battery system, no commercially viable candidate has emerged. The battery systems being considered today due to renewed environmental concerns are still the same systems that were so extensively tested over the last 15 years. For immediate application, an electric vehicle designer has very little choice other than the lead-acid battery despite the fact that energy density is so low as to make vehicle range inadequate, as well as the need for replacement every 20,000 miles. The high energy density projections of Na-S and other so-called high energy batteries have proven to be significantly less in practical modules and there are still concern over cycle life which can be attained under aggressive conditions, reliability under freeze/thaw cycling and consequences resulting from high temperature operation. The conventional nickel-based systems (Ni- Zn, Ni-Fe, Ni-Cd) provide near term higher energy density as compared to lead-acid, but still do not address other important issues such as long life, the need for maintenance-free operation, the use of nontoxic materials and low cost. Against this background, the development of Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries for electric vehicles has been rapid and successful. Ovonic No-Mh battery technology is uniquely qualified for electric vehicles due to its high energy density, high discharge rate capability, non-toxic alloys, long cycle life. low cost, tolerance to abuse and ability to be sealed for totally maintenance free operation

  4. Electric industry restructuring review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry began in the early 1990's in many jurisdictions in the United States. Restructuring was an attempt to offer large industrial customers lower rates and freedom from regulation for generators and traditional public utilities. The move has gained most attention in the past two years as some utilities report high profits while others, such as Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the largest investor-owned utility in the United States, is in bankruptcy. The August 2003 blackout in the Midwest and Northeast United States and Canada also raised questions regarding electric reliability. The question now remains whether markets should be allowed to determine the need for services and the prices to be charged, and who is in charge in the imperfect market. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 2000 led to the formation of a Regional Transmission Organizations which is still in the implementation stage. Its influence on precursor Order numbers 888 and 889 were discussed in this paper with reference to independent system operators; regional transmission organizations; standard market design; rates and pricing devices; congestion management; market monitoring; market investigations; reliability measures; OASIS and other information access; interconnection policy; jurisdiction; mergers and merger policy; standards of conduct; policing affiliates; municipal utilities; stranded costs; and, state restructuring scorecards. refs

  5. Perceptions of the Quebec population regarding the development of the electric power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.; Deland, I.

    2000-04-01

    In March 2000 the Association de l'industrie electrique du Quebec hired the strategic marketing firm of Leger and Leger to conduct a survey of the Quebec population with the following three objectives in mind: (1) to evaluate the general opinion of the Quebec population regarding the development of new hydroelectric projects, (2) to determine the public opinion regarding the exportation of electricity, and (3) to evaluate the public opinion regarding certain hydroelectric projects that were already underway. 1000 adults were polled. It was determined that a large majority (84.2 per cent) of Quebecers are in favour of new hydroelectric development in the province as long as certain conditions are respected, such as maintaining jobs and not incurring an increase in the price of electricity. It was also determined that Quebecers are under the impression that the province exports much more electricity than it actually does. 66 per cent of the population believe that the province is exporting more than 20 per cent of its electric power production outside of the province. In reality, the province exports on average 10 per cent of its production. 71.5 per cent of Quebecers agree to new projects of exportation as long as the projects do not decrease the capacity for the province to fulfill its own power needs. In terms of environmental perceptions, hydroelectric power is considered to be the second least polluting source of energy both from an air pollution and visual pollution point of view. 72.6 per cent of the people said that hydro produces less greenhouse gases than electricity produced by natural gas or coal. Also 83.4 per cent recognized that hydro is a renewable resource. In general, the people surveyed were also in agreement with the development of new transmission lines. 86.8 per cent agreed with the construction of a transmission line between the Laurentians and the Outaouais. The polls are accurate to 3.1 per cent precision 19 times out of 20. tabs., figs

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917: ORIGINS, PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gibadullin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. During the period of the fall of technical and technological stability of the Russian electric power industry, the issues related to the study of the historical experience of the origin, construction and development of such large industrial complexes are actualized. The present study aims to analyze the history of the development of the Russian electric power industry after the October Revolution of 1917, to reveal the influence of the revolution on the electric power industry, to investigate the postwar period of the formation of the Unified Energy System and to assess the current state of the electric power industry in the absence of large-scale projects and programs for updating and modernizing production facilities, propose mechanisms to improve technical and technological stability of electricity of the Russian Federation.Materials and methods. In 1920, after the October Revolution of 1917, the first plan related to the development of economic activities of the national economy was adopted, which was called the State Plan for the Electrification of Russia. This document contained the main mechanisms and requirements for the formation and establishment of a new branch for the economy. Based on the use of data from the Government of the Russian Federation, Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Joint-stock company “United Energy System of Russia”, as well as electric power companies, the post-revolutionary period of the electric power industry development, the current state and the existing potential of the Russian electric power industry are analyzed. Using the economic-statistical, comparative and logical methods, the main results of the study were presented.Results. Analyzed indices of the electric power industry in the period 1920–1935 indicate a breakthrough in the development of the Russian energy sector, this period was marked by the

  7. Study on developing a business index using electric power demand for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, In Kang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In this study, it examined a business index using the amount of electric power used for industry and studied a method to distinguish business fluctuations. Using a measuring model, it applied a method to distinguish economy to the amount of electric power used. First of all it used a dynamic factor analysis of Stock-Watson(SW) for a multivariable analysis, and for a single variable analysis, it used Markov Switching method by Hamilton to verify the capability of distinguishing business situation by the amount of electric power used. As a result of using monthly amount of electric power used, it showed a big difference between the peak and low point of data from the National Statistical Office. Looking at the depression rate at the end of 1997, most of measuring models realized that depression started in December 1997 and expected to end in August 1998. This study aims to improve existing foreign measuring models to be adjusted in Korean situation. (author). 23 refs., 38 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Czechoslovakia's electrical energy industry with special regard on the development of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulina, A.

    1979-01-01

    In electric energy production and consumption, Czechoslovakia holds a remarkable place. Its development after the second world war can be divided into four characteristic periods. The author summarizes the features of the past development and points out the tasks of the future in which the extension of nuclear power plant building plays an important role. (author)

  9. Electric industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of electricity in 1992 is analyzed. The increase (0,4%) of electricity consumption and the decrease of its production are the main characteristics of 1993 in Spain. These aspect with the UNESA data are studied. In 1992 30000 Kw of 216.505 Kw total were produced by wind mills

  10. Competition in the electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mel

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry is changing the 'personality' of utilities and the way they operate in order to survive in a more competitive marketplace. This paper will identify and discuss key issues NAC International believes will arise as the nuclear industry responds to deregulation. The regulatory treatment of such issues as retail wheeling, recovery of stranded costs, divestiture of assets and securitization will have a significant impact on how utilities, particularly those with nuclear assets, proceed into the new marketplace. While some will survive as a result of innovative thinking, cost control, and entrance into new niche markets, others will be forced to reassess their viability altogether. Increased mergers and acquisitions and early plant closures are potential consequences of these struggles. Meanwhile, innovative companies will develop and enter into new nuclear markets including most notably the acquisition of generating assets. Other key drivers that will significantly impact the competitiveness of nuclear versus other fuels will be the resolution of the nuclear waste issue, the reduction of O and M and decisions regarding whether to make expensive capital additions. Additionally, this paper will present an overview of key regulatory and legislative initiatives impacting electricity. Finally, this paper will examine the roles of regulating bodies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and state utility commissions, and will provide an outlook for further legislative and regulatory actions in this competitive environment. (author)

  11. Optimal allocation of energy sources for sustainable development in South Korea: Focus on the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joongha; Woo, JongRoul; Lee, Jongsu

    2015-01-01

    National energy planning has become increasingly complex owing to a pressing need to incorporate sustainability considerations. In this context, we applied least-cost and cost-risk optimization models to allocate energy sources for sustainable development in the Korean electric power generation industry. The least-cost model determined an electricity generation mix from 2012 to 2030 that incurs minimum generation cost to meet electricity demand. The cost-risk model determined electricity generation mixes in 2030 considering the risks associated with each energy source in order to lessen external risks. In deriving these optimal electricity generation mixes, we considered both conventional and renewable energy sources in conjunction with physical and policy constraints that realistically reflect Korean circumstances. Moreover, we accounted for CO 2 and external costs within the electricity generation costs for each energy source. For sustainable development in Korea, we conclude that a portion of the coal and gas in the electricity generation mix must be substituted with nuclear and renewable energy. Furthermore, we found that least-cost allocation is sub-optimal from cost-risk perspective and that it limits the adoption of renewables. Finally, we also discuss the implications of decisions taken by the Korean government regarding the electricity generation mix for next-generation energy planning to achieve sustainability. - Highlights: • Optimal least-cost/cost-risk energy mix for sustainable development in Korea. • We account for CO 2 and external costs of generation from each energy source. • Externalities and physical/policy constraints in Korea produce realistic energy mix. • Nuclear and renewables should replace coal and gas for sustainability in Korea. • Least-cost approach limits uptake of renewables and produces high-risk energy mix

  12. Development of superconducting wire and cable for the SSC project in Sumitomo Electric Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashida, T.; Saito, S.; Oku, G.; Kurimoto, K.; Yamada, Y.; Yokota, M.; Ohmatsu, K.; Nagata, M.

    1991-01-01

    As a large production volume of NbTi superconducting wire and cable is required for the SSC project, a production process has been developed at Sumitomo Electric to optimize critical variables of wire properties. To achieve high electrical properties and a high overall yield of NbTi alloy in the fabrication process, the authors have employed carefully designed large size multifilament billets weighing more than 350kg to decrease the number of billets in large production scale. The collider dipole magnet consists of inner and outer cables, and the cable should be as uniform as possible to ensure the performance of the magnets. The authors studied two aspects to obtain such uniformity of superconducting wire; one is the selection of unit weight and the other is the property of critical current density of a strand

  13. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  14. Economic development, energy demand and electricity necessities in some emergent and industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos A, L.

    2009-01-01

    The electricity has become a strategic support for the operation of the societies in its group, because it is being used intensively in the production, transport, communication, administration, science, education and the daily life through the personal computer, for what we can affirm that the electricity is in full expansion. Nevertheless, at the present time more of half of petroleum consumed in the world it is used for the terrestrial, air and marine transport. Many texts have been published in energy that they remind that the success of an industrial society, the growth of their economy, the quality of their inhabitants life and their impact in other societies and in the environment they are largely determined by the quantity and class of energy sources that it exploits and for the effectiveness of their systems to transform the potential energy into work and heat. In this work we observe tendencies in the energy consumption of 21 countries with complete conscience that the energy situation of each one of them depends, in first place, of the availability of its energy resources and its costs, besides its energy politicians, its laws and its maneuver margins. This way, the effect of the interrelations that here are analyzed for the period 1980-2004, is illustrated by means of a comparison of the energy consumption per capita in each one of those 21 countries. The work is very illustrative not alone regarding the inequality in the energy consumption in the world, moreover it mentions that countries are those that have the control of the world energy resources and it detects others that are participating actively in that battle by means of the use of new technologies and equipment s that seek to look for a bigger energy efficiency and to impel low economies in carbon and not based on fossil fuels. (Author)

  15. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  16. The internationalization of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, F.; Indigenti, S.; Ninni, A.

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the evolution of the electricity industry has been featured by a marked development of the internationalization processes. Several companies started huge foreign investment programmes; construction of power plants; acquisition of generation, distribution and integrated companies. The goal of this study is to analyse the determinants in the internationalization process of the world electricity industry. This topic is introduced in the first, part with a hint on the main theoretical contributions regarding the companies internationalization. In the second part, an attempt is made to define the size of the phenomenon adopting the results yielded by a detailed inquiry about the international strategies of the leading electric companies. In the third part, an econometric analysis, referring to a significant sample of electric companies, is aimed at identifying the main determining factors affecting the international development is mainly due to both organization and regulation of the single national markets [it

  17. Developing a green lending model for renewable energy project (case study electricity from biogas fuel at Palm Oil Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, development initiatives solely aimed to generate economic growth has been placed under scrutiny, particularly amidst the rampant discussion on the quality decline of the environment, growing social divide and climate change along with its implications thereof. Considerations of the negative impacts brought about by the economic development process prompted the move to adopt the sustainable financing model that gives precedence to economic, environmental and social aspects. We introduced Green Lending Model for Renewable Energy Project (Case Study Electricity From Biogas at Palm Oil Industry) based on sustainability financing, which is used as variable to implementing financial institutions’ lending policies. There are two major trends in the literature relating to sustainability and the banking industry: external and internal practices. The external practices strand analyzes the relevance of sustainability to the bank’s communication with shareholders and other stakeholders, and how investors use it as a measure to help achieve optimal portfolio allocation. The internal practices literature, more relevant to the present work, studies how sustainability criteria are integrated into risk management models and lending practices. Its first implementation is in the Palm Oil industry at South Sumatera. The results explained that sustainability is not related to profit either from a short- or long-term perspective. The Sustainable Green Lending Model is related to the Equator Principles and its application is driven to project financing. It also related with short- and long-term risks and opportunities, instead of short-term sustainability impacts.

  18. Industry's use of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Alternative energy supplies and adaptation to energy demand are elucidated, primarily concerning space heating and industry. The consequences of the alternatives on the economic development of Sweden, the growth of industry, the situation of households and the effects of health and environment are being analysed. It is concluded that considerable portions of the industry will loose their competitive advantages. There will be restricted possibilities to solve the technical adaptation to the year 1997

  19. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  20. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  1. Industrial consumers and electricity sector deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukic, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the electricity sector deregulation from the point of view of major industrial consumers (MIC). Possibilities and limitations of MIC's impact on the introduction and development of an open power market in some European countries, the USA and Croatia are discussed. (author)

  2. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  3. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  4. Some perspectives on the electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, J.H. [Mountain Energy, Inc., South Burlington, VT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding future directions of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. Pertinent historical aspects and current industry rules are summarized. Major issues and trends in the electricity market are outlined, and recommendations are presented. It is concluded that new rules in the industry will be set directly by customers, and that customers want renewable energy resources.

  5. Renewable energies - Industrials, produce your own electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    As a public bidding has been launched at the initiative of the French government on self-consumption in industrial and office building sites, this article discusses this issue of self-production and consumption, and its perspectives. Professionals and individuals could be interested in the recent evolutions as it was before more interesting to sell the produced photovoltaic electricity to EDF than to consume it. Some industries (warehouses, supermarkets, oil production, and airport) have already implemented this solution, and its development could boost the use of photovoltaic panels

  6. The Mexican electricity industry - cogeneration potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    A brief history of Mexico's electric power industry is given. Diagrams show (i) the increase in primary energy production from 1990-1998; (ii) energy consumption by sector and (iii) the change in capacity between 1990 and 1998. The projected energy development for 1998-2007 is discussed. The Mexican government has chosen cogeneration to be an important contributor to future energy-efficient power production. Data on installed cogeneration capacity for years 2000 and 2001 are given according to sector

  7. Technical results French electricity supply industry 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents provisional results for the French electricity supply industry (excluding overseas territories). Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE. Data from 2001 to 2005 were updated in order to take into account additional information given by different actors of the electrical energy sector. Contents: 1 - General results in France (National consumption, Physical exchanges with foreign countries, Net generation, Energy consumed, Electrical energy balance in France, Energy generated); 2 - Consumption in France (Annual consumption, Weekly consumption in 2007, Temperature, Daily consumption); 3 - Electrical energy flows (End consumption by type of customer, Physical flows of electrical energy, Physical exchanges with foreign countries); 4 - Trend of the electricity market (Cross-border contractual exchanges, Balance Responsible Entities, Sales of generation capacity auction, Energy sales on Powernext Day-Ahead TM , Balancing mechanism); 5 - Generation in France (Installed capacity and generation by type of facility, thermal, hydro, other renewable energy sources); 6 - Equipment on the electricity network (Equipment in operation as of 31 December); 7 - Power system operation (Equivalent time of interruption, Long outage frequency, Short outage frequency, Number of annual Significant System Events by severity); 8 - Access to the RTE network; 9 - Development over the past 15 years (Facilities in France at year-end, Annual results in France); 10 - International comparisons (Energy data of UCTE countries in 2006); 11 - Terminology

  8. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  9. Electricity Self-Generation Costs for Industrial Companies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diboma Benjamin Salomon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production in developing countries (DC is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.

  10. Ontario electricity rates and industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose significantly after the opening of the competitive Ontario electricity market in 2002, thereby widening the gap between industrial electricity prices in Ontario and those in other Canadian provinces. Navigant Consulting Ltd. conducted this study at the request of the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) to research and compare current and historical electricity prices in Ontario and other jurisdictions in North America. The study provided an independent analysis of how industrial electricity prices in Ontario compare to those in other jurisdiction in which AMPCO members operate. It also formed the basis for comparing the impacts of electricity policy on the economic competitiveness of major power consumers in Ontario. The relative electricity intensity in the United States, Ontario and other Canadian provinces was reviewed for specific industries, including forest products, steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing and cement manufacturing. Publicly available aggregate data from Statistics Canada and the United States Bureau of the Census was then used to compare average electricity prices for industrial customers in Ontario. The data confirmed that Ontario has experienced a decline in its competitive price advantage in industrial electricity. Delivered industrial electricity prices in Ontario have increased by more than 60 per cent since 2001. Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia and New Brunswick. In addition, industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in competing states such as Ohio and Illinois, in part due to the increase in the value of the Canadian dollar. It was concluded that the price increase may lead to a greater decline in economic output in Ontario compared to competing jurisdictions. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 1 appendix

  11. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  12. Electricity distribution industry restructuring in South Africa: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    For 20 years there has been vigorous debate about restructuring the large, developed electricity industry in South Africa, but the plans have not been implemented. The justification of the proposed restructuring illustrates the different expectations of the participants in the electricity industry. The case study reviews what has occurred against a background of some theories about organisations, and identifies six key issues. Some lessons include the need to adopt an industry structure compatible with the objectives of electricity distribution in developing countries, the unsuitability of orthodox approaches to organisations, that no industry structure appears to be significantly better than others, industry restructuring of public sector utilities has a significant political dimension, restructuring can fail even if there is support from a high level of government, and indecision and uncertainty have serious negative consequences. The experience should be helpful for other developing countries considering structural change of their electricity industry

  13. Industrial manufacturing of electric insulators; Fabricacion industrial de aisladores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    Porcelain is the insulating material more extensively used for electric insulators manufacturing, due to its dielectric properties; nevertheless, it presents fragility problems of manufacture and of resistance to the thermal shock, among others. For this reason studies are being conducted for the substitution of porcelain in the electric insulators manufacturing. In this area, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas developed an improved insulating formulation - the polymeric concrete- and an industrial prototype machine for the manufacture of high voltage electric insulators for outdoors use. [Espanol] La porcelana es el material aislante electrico mas utilizado en la elaboracion de aisladores electricos, debido a sus propiedades dielectricas; sin embargo, presenta problemas de fragilidad, de fabricacion y de baja resistencia al choque termico, entre otros. Es por ello que se realizan estudios para sustituir la porcelana en la fabricacion de aisladores electricos. En este campo, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas desarrollo una formulacion aislante mejorada -el concreto polimerico- y una maquina prototipo industrial para fabricar aisladores electricos de alto voltaje para uso en exteriores.

  14. Industrial manufacturing of electric insulators; Fabricacion industrial de aisladores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    Porcelain is the insulating material more extensively used for electric insulators manufacturing, due to its dielectric properties; nevertheless, it presents fragility problems of manufacture and of resistance to the thermal shock, among others. For this reason studies are being conducted for the substitution of porcelain in the electric insulators manufacturing. In this area, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas developed an improved insulating formulation - the polymeric concrete- and an industrial prototype machine for the manufacture of high voltage electric insulators for outdoors use. [Espanol] La porcelana es el material aislante electrico mas utilizado en la elaboracion de aisladores electricos, debido a sus propiedades dielectricas; sin embargo, presenta problemas de fragilidad, de fabricacion y de baja resistencia al choque termico, entre otros. Es por ello que se realizan estudios para sustituir la porcelana en la fabricacion de aisladores electricos. En este campo, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas desarrollo una formulacion aislante mejorada -el concreto polimerico- y una maquina prototipo industrial para fabricar aisladores electricos de alto voltaje para uso en exteriores.

  15. Localisation for industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhugwandin, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on localisation for industrial development, and is presented by Ashley Bhugwandin at The 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria...

  16. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  17. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear energy technology innovation and restructuring electric power industry for sustainable development in Korea in 21st century - issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.; Chae, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    After TMI and Chernobyl accidents, concerns on nuclear safety and radiation health risk from radioactive wastes become the target issues for anti-nuclear. Nevertheless, nuclear power is a substantial contributor to the world electricity production, supplying more than 16 % of global electricity. The objectives of Korean nuclear energy technology innovation are to improve safety, economic competitiveness, energy security and the effectiveness of radioactive waste management in harmony with environment. Meeting such objectives, public concerns on safety and health risks would be cleared. Innovative nuclear energy system will certainly enhance socio-political acceptance and enable wider application of nuclear energy for sustainable development in Korea in the 21st Century. In parallel to such technology innovations, the effective first phase restructuring of electric power industry is in progress to enhance management efficiency and customer services. The power generation division of the former state-run utility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was separated and divided into six companies - five thermal power and one hydro and nuclear power generation companies - in last April. After the reorganization of KEPCO and the break-up of monopoly, the new electric power industry will be driven by market force. (author)

  19. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  20. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 5. Application of the system for industries except electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Hayase, Kenichi; Sasou Kunihide; Takano, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a safety evaluation system which clarifies the safety level of an organization. As a basic method of evaluation using a questionnaire had been established, now that the generalization is needed for the system. Hence, this paper is intended to verify the applicability of the system for eight manufacture industries. The investigation using a questionnaire was conducted for 125 factories' workers. The following results were obtained: 1) The Comprehensive Safety Index (CSI) taking into account individual and organizational factors was identified using the principal component analysis. 2) Although the criterion-related validity of CSI was confirmed for some industries, ti will be necessary for the advancement of the system's reliability to compile more data into the system. 3) According to the result of investigations on safety management in secure companies and the causes of current industrial accidents, it was clarified that the CSI had the content validity. 4) It seemed possible to evaluate the safety level using two different industries' data if there were similarities between the industries in the score of the CSI and the aspects to which were attached importance for the improvement of the safety. (author)

  1. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  2. Commercial and industrial electric installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, Carreno; William

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of computers and other sensitive elements in the office ambient and of factory it has fomented the necessity to design the electric systems of the buildings considering topics of quality in the supply of the electric power (Power Quality). Exists great quantity of literature regarding the diagnosis and solution of quality problems of the supply in existent structures, but little allusion is made, to the design considerations to minimize this problem from the construction moment. The main focus of this article is of wired technical and on setting to earth recommended for the design of new structures

  3. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  4. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  5. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry, part of the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation, is designed as an essential work of reference for those who work in regulation and for practitioners who need to understand the needs and mechanics of regulation. The 154-page document provides: comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the electricity industry; an examination of current regulatory issues and developments in the industry; explanations of the roles of the key players; a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents; coverage of the industry in Scotland and Northern Ireland. (Author)

  6. An introduction to electric industry restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J.F.; Berry, L.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the electric industry, its residential markets, industry structure and current trends. Its purpose is to provide Weatherization grants managers with the background necessary to assess their leveraging opportunities in an industry that is experiencing sweeping changes, commonly known as electric industry restructuring. The study describes the terrain of a changing industry topography on a national and regional basis, with some state and local information also provided. Weatherization managers and subgrantees who read this paper should be better able to understand the leveraging opportunities that are emerging now in the electricity market place. The reader will be introduced to the basics of the electric industry as it presently operates, the nature of the changes that are in the process of occurring, and the driving forces that are behind those changes. The major industry players are described by type and their interests are explored in further depth. There will also be an overview of the regulatory process as it has operated historically, as well as the changes now underway at both the state and federal levels. Finally, the paper will conclude with a description of some of the assets and opportunities available to those who may be interested in participating in the restructuring process in order to expand or protect low-income programs in their own states.

  7. Technical development of industry for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book mentions the history for 30 years since 1979 on industrial technology, which records change of system and environment of industrial technology development, like economical and social environment, industrial technology policy, support system on technical development and enterprise institute, assignment for future and product of industrial technology by field such as electric electronic, information and communications, machine material and fiber chemistry, and the way which Korea industrial technology association walked on.

  8. Moves towards privatization and market liberalization in Ukraine's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problems surrounding Ukraine's electricity industry and the safety of its nuclear reactors have attracted much international concern. This paper describes the political and economic developments in the country since it became independent in 1991, and highlights the electricity sector reforms which have been aided by the EBRD, the IMPF and the World Bank. (author)

  9. Industrial structure and privatisation of the Slovenian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper first analyses the existing structure of the Slovenian electricity industry and gives recommendations for its restructuring so as to conform to efficiency criteria and to comply with European Union provisions on the internal European electricity market. Then the paper outlines the necessity for privatisation and draws some conclusions on it such as determination of market values companies, the proportion for sale, privatisation methods and the general public's participation [it

  10. Addressing the human resource challenge in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The electricity industry is facing significant challenges in terms of its labour forces in the years ahead due to an aging workforce and pending retirements in an industry already challenged by increasing demand, technological change and regulatory instability. A shortage of skilled labour could compromise the electricity sector in a variety of ways including: reduced reliability, increased cost of production, infrastructure projects delays, and decreased safety and productivity due to less experienced employees and worker shortages. This report presented a briefing of recommendations developed by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) that offered concrete solutions to addressing the electricity industry's workforce challenges. The recommendations focused around three areas: building Canadian skills base by investing in education, skills training and apprenticeships, particularly in underrepresented communities; ensuring trained, skilled workers are able to work and flourish in their area of expertise by streamlining certification and credential recognition, and facilitating workforce mobility; and attracting and retaining skilled foreign workers by ensuring successful community and workplace integration. Background information on the electricity industry in Canada was also presented. The CEA also proposed a list of policy initiatives to ensure the Canadian electricity industry can maintain and enhance its human and electricity potential. It was concluded that the CEA is prepared to develop detailed implementation plans and programs to operationalize any and all of the recommendations in the briefing. 2 figs.

  11. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  12. Development of electric drive for centrifugal mine pumps in Solikamsk Potassium Mine Group Based on Industrial OMRON Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarev, S. N.; Sereda, T. G.; Tatarnikova, N. A.; Kochetova, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The electric drive for automation pumping out of filtration waters in the Second Solikamsk Potasssium Mine Group is developed. The emergency situation of flooding of the Mine has been considered in the course of development of the Upper Kama deposits of potash-magnesium salts. The functional scheme of automation of a drive of the pump is developed. The scheme is stipulated with manual and automatic control. To decrease the risk of flooding of mine, it is recommended to establish gauges of both bottom and top level control of a brine and other equipment in the collector of a brine: the gauge of measurementof a level, the gauge of the signal system of a level, the gauge of the pump control, the gauge of the signal system of a level with remote data transmission. For regulation of the charge of sewage, the P-regulator with the executive mechanism is stipulated. The ladder diagram of a pump control is developed to improve the work of centrifugal pumps and to prevent the cases of mines flooding.

  13. Topical problems of the German electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Worm, N [Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Brohmeyer, M [Schleswig-Holsteinische Stromversorgungs A.G., Rendsburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Anwendungstechnik und Beratung; Deuster, G [Energieversorgung Oberhausen A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Heitzer, H; Holzer, J [Bayernwerk A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Deparade, K [Verband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Marnet, C [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Oberlack, H W [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Segatz, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-A.G. (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    On the occasion of the general meeting of the VDE high-ranking personalities of the German Power Supply Industry were interviewed on current affairs. The following subjects were discussed: (1) problems involved in energy policy; (2) energy problems due to newly formed regions; (3) utilization of electric power in agriculture; (4) development prospects of district heating; (5) problems of power generation far from coal districts; (6) rationalization in the commercial sector; (7) opportunities and limits of industrial combined heat and power generation; (8) environmental protection and electric power supply; (9) possible utilization of imported coal; and (10). assuring the primary energy basis for electric power supply.

  14. Using restructured electricity supply industries to understand oligopoly industry outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that many determinants of generic oligopoly market outcomes can be studied in bid-based wholesale electricity markets under much weaker assumptions than in other oligopoly industries because of their rich data, regulatory history, and clearly specified market rules. These methods are compared to those used in existing studies of oligopolistic industries where the best data available are market-clearing prices and quantities and demand and cost shifters. The extent to which the methods used in bid-based wholesale electricity markets generalize conventional methods is explained in detail and major applications of these techniques are summarized. Lessons from the study of wholesale electricity markets for the monitoring and design of other oligopolistic markets are also discussed. (author)

  15. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirhart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SO 2 tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry's incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies

  16. Shock to the system: Restructuring America's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, T.J.; Palmer, K.L.; Kopp, R.J.; Krupnick, A.J.; Stagliano, V.

    1996-01-01

    Recent decades have seen revolutions in communications, finance, and transportation. In a similar way, technological, economic, and political developments are reshaping the US electricity industry. This concise, balanced, and readable primer, produced by a team of economic analysts at Resources for the Future, introduces the concepts, crucial elements, and terminology used in discussions about electricity restructuring. A Shock to the System provides the background necessary to understand the increasing role of competition in electricity markets. The authors present the history of public policy regarding electricity, identify the significant proposals for implementing competition, and examine their potential consequences for utility regulation, industry structure, cost recovery, and the environment. This volume is an instructive guide to the decisions that electricity providers, customers, and policy makers will face, what forms the decisions are likely to take, and what the long-term ramifications may be

  17. Values in the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    A basic conclusion established by the seven essays presented is that nowhere within the complex decision-making process of the electric power industry is there any provision for systematically considering the curtailment of consumption as a serious alternative to continued expansion of power production. Six recommendations are summarized for concrete steps toward remedying this deficiency as a result of examining the essays. Continued expansion of power generation could result in desirable consequences of economic growth, jobs, ready transportation, and many consumer conveniences; undesirable consequences are: increasing air and water pollution, further depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased dependence on foreign sources of energy. The papers are: A Cybernetic Analysis of Certain Energy Consumption Patterns, by Kenneth Sayre; Social and Environmental Value in Power Plant Licensing: A Study in the Regulation of Nuclear Power by Vaughn McKim; Legal and Economic Aspects of the Electric Utility's ''Mandate to Serve'', by Charles Murdock; Economies of Scale in the Electric Power Industry, by Kenneth Jameson; Dynamics of Growth in the U.S. Electric Power Industry, by Ellen Maher; Utilitarianism and Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Essay on the Relevance of Moral Philosophy to Bureaucratic Theory, by Alasdair MacIntyre; and An Ethical Analysis of Power Company Decision-Making, by Kenneth Goodpaster and Kenneth Sayre. (MCW)

  18. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  19. Electricity privatisation and the Scottish coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.

    1988-09-01

    In the run up to the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) is involved in a battle for power with British Coal's Scottish area over the price of its coal, the bulk of which has been purchased by the SSEB in recent years. The SSEB has been trying to persuade British Coal to bring its prices down to those currently available on the world market. This would require a reduction of some 30%. The SSEB has backed up its requests by threatening to import more foreign coal if British Coal refuses to comply.

  20. Electricity pricing: optimal operation and investment by industrial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outhred, H.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Sutanto, D.; Manimaran, R.; Bannister, C.H.; Lee, Y.B.

    1988-08-01

    Ongoing research in the areas of economically efficient electricity pricing and industrial consumer response is described. A new electricity pricing theory is described that incorporates future uncertainty and intertemporal linkages between decisions. It indicates that electricity prices should contain two terms - short-run marginal cost plus a term that reflects how each particular decision is likely to affect future global welfare. A practical implementation using spot prices and forward contracts plus financial instruments for risk sharing and decision coordination is explored, and a procedure for developing long-term pricing policy is considered. The operation of industrial plant has been investigated and models developed to optimize plant behaviour in response to spot prices and forward contracts for electricity. These models are described and results of simulation studies discussed. The economic efficiency and risk sharing advantages of this advanced tariff structure compared with a conventional time-of-use tariff are illustrated.

  1. Alberta electric industry annual statistics for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Tables containing data on electric energy generation and capacity for Alberta are provided for the following aspects: capacity and generation of power plants for 1998; capacity of power plants by type, unit, and energy resource for 1998; generating units approved for construction for 1998; generating units completed in 1998; transmission additions approved for construction and completed for 1998; net annual generating capacity and generation for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by plant for 1998; net annual generation by energy resource and type for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by energy resource and type for 1998; generation capacity reserve; relative capacity and generation by type of energy resource for 1998; capacity, generation and fuel consumption of isolated plants for 1998; other industrial on-site plant capacity and generation for 1998. Also listed are: energy resource consumption and energy conversion efficiency of thermal power plants for 1998; stack emissions from thermal generating plants for 1998; non-utility electric generators, wind and hydro for 1998; and hydroelectric energy utilization and conversion efficiency for 1998. Tables contain information on electric energy generation and capacity for hydroelectric energy stored in reservoirs in 1998; details of non-coincident net peak generation and load by utility operators for the Alberta electric system for 1998; and Alberta electric system generation and load at peak load hour for 1998. Further tables cover electric energy distribution for interchange and distribution for 1998 and 1981-1998; annual energy distribution to ultimate customers for 1988-1998 and to ultimate customers for 1998; and the number of electric utility customers in 1998. Final tables cover the transmission and distribution systems with data on: circuit km of such lines for 1988-1998; total circuit km of such lines by major electric utility for 1998 and number of rural electric utility customers for 1998

  2. RISKS OF LOSING CONTROLLABILITY WHILE LIBERALIZING THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Petrusha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses controllability qua a reliability characteristic of the electric-power grid controlling system. The following notions are used: the object (environment susceptibility towards the control stimuli, the controlling system adequacy, environment of the secure functioning. The author points to the necessity of accounting for the limitations of technological and organizational character. While liberalizing the electric-power industry, the backbone control-principle “the industry functioning reliability” is being replaced with the principle of “profit-making” that requires complete restatement of the control philosophy.The conflict between commercial benefit gaining and the reliability assurance expenses leads to losing controllability in all the managerial links and to probable catastrophic consequences. The recapitulation of the Russian Federation power industry privatization substantiates concerns of the liberal ideas poor survivability in the ex-Soviet territories. The results of degradation of the secure-functioning environment demonstrate affinity of the mechanisms that triggered the Chernobyl NPP, Fukusima NPP, and Sayan-Shushenskya HPP disasters. Securing reliability of the strategic objects leaves the competence boundaries of the electricpower industry.The topical issue of Belorussian electric-power industry functioning and developing is the combination of technical re-equipment (developing the operational dispatch management and the control-system organizational modernizing in general with gradual and controllable transition to the market mechanisms of functioning. Herewith, preserving the state monopoly on regime provision for the operation of the electric-power system should not leave out the industry appeal for outside investment and is regulated by the optimal degree and intensity of the state participation in governing the electric-power supply industry. The distinction of privatization models and the stages

  3. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  4. Deregulation of Electricity Supply Industry in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Al-Maghderi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the opportunities available and the conditions needed for the deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI, with particular reference to the Sultanate of Oman. The paper highlights the general issues of regulation required to encourage competition in the ESI.  After that, the discussion focuses on regulation methods in the privatized ESI by describing the regulators control through price caps setting for regulatees, the conduct regulation process, the rate of return regulation setting, and the spot market (the pool contract. Finally, the prospects of restructuring and privatizing the ESI in the Sultanate of Oman are examined by reviewing the current structure of the industry and government objectives in deregulation of the electricity sector as well as the regulation framework.

  5. Restructuring in the electricity industry: [proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Restructuring is the pivotal concept in today's marketplace, implying new organizational structures for a more effective and efficient delivery of goods and services to an increasingly discriminating community of consumers. The conference was held in Toronto in February 1995, to examine the forces driving the change in organizational structures and methods for delivering services, and to examine the most effective ways to bring about change specifically in the electrical industry. Problems of definition, open access, the role of provincial governments, the perspectives of individual utilities, competitive electric power systems in the UK and elsewhere, impact of industry restructuring on municipal utilities, and implications for public policy were debated at length. Regulatory control, steps in implementing a new structure, and ways of balancing regulatory and commercial constraints were also discussed

  6. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, G.

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed

  7. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is the February 1992 'Industry Briefs' portion of the 'Recent Developments' section. Issues mentioned are: (1) closure of San Onofre Unit 1, (2) start-up of Penly Unit 2, (3) signing of a safeguards agreement with North Korea, (4) Canadian nuclear activities in Romania, and (5) the merger of two Japanese fuel cycle companies

  8. Guide to Alberta's competitive electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    A crucial point was reached at the beginning of 2001 in the process of competitive electricity market in Alberta, when record high prices were reached in both the natural gas and electricity markets. In this document, the intent was to present, in a non-technical way, the new electricity market. It was designed to cover issues as they flow, from generator to consumer. Therefore, it began with a market model illustration going through each step of the process. Frequently asked questions, developed using the input from 160,000 Albertans, were answered in each section. The first section of the document dealt with a competitive market. In section 2, the electricity supply was discussed, followed by section 3 and the wholesale electricity market. In section, 4, the reader was invited to explore customer choice, and consumer information was provided in section 5. tabs., figs

  9. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's July 1992 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items mentioned include: (1) the merger of Entergy and Gulf States Utilities, (2) restart of the Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, (3) development of the 7th and 8th nuclear units in Taiwan, (4) purchase of interest in Rio Algom, Ltd, and (5) acquisition of the Italian firm AGIP by a Canadian company

  10. Industrialized Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    The production of application software is rapidly being industrialized. Computer manufacturers and software houses produce a rapidly growing number of generic software applications and systems, and more and more user companies choose to build their computer-based information systems...... with such generic products, instead of custom made software. We discuss how the move away from traditional in-house development and the increasing use of generic software is likely to transform IS development in the near future. We conclude that these developments will make new demands on the information systems...

  11. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  12. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  13. Distribution reliability in the reformed New Zealand electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlinchy, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The process of deregulating the electric power industry in New Zealand, which began in 1984, and is now a fully competitive system, was described. The industry is not only fully competitive, but enjoys the distinction of being subject only to very light-handed regulation. The regulation requires each company within the industry to publish an annual financial statement, the rate of profit and some performance indicators including reliability indices. Companies also report on faults in lines and cables, and on a voluntary basis they contribute to a 'by cause' survey, using indicators developed by the Canadian Electricity Association. It is expected that the indices that will be developed from this data will be used as benchmarks for performance. The data could also be used for probability analysis in system expansion programs. 6 refs., 7 figs

  14. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  15. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  16. Strategic prospects of the electric power industry of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Novikova, T. V.; Pankrushina, T. G.

    2017-11-01

    The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country's economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem

  17. Industrial electricity demand for Turkey: A structural time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish industrial electricity consumption, industrial value added and electricity prices in order to forecast future Turkish industrial electricity demand. To achieve this, an industrial electricity demand function for Turkey is estimated by applying the structural time series technique to annual data over the period 1960 to 2008. In addition to identifying the size and significance of the price and industrial value added (output) elasticities, this technique also uncovers the electricity Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) for the Turkish industrial sector and is, as far as is known, the first attempt to do this. The results suggest that output and real electricity prices and a UEDT all have an important role to play in driving Turkish industrial electricity demand. Consequently, they should all be incorporated when modelling Turkish industrial electricity demand and the estimated UEDT should arguably be considered in future energy policy decisions concerning the Turkish electricity industry. The output and price elasticities are estimated to be 0.15 and - 0.16 respectively, with an increasing (but at a decreasing rate) UEDT and based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish industrial electricity demand will be somewhere between 97 and 148 TWh by 2020. -- Research Highlights: → Estimated output and price elasticities of 0.15 and -0.16 respectively. → Estimated upward sloping UEDT (i.e. energy using) but at a decreasing rate. → Predicted Turkish industrial electricity demand between 97 and 148 TWh in 2020.

  18. Development of sensors for in-situ monitoring of corrosion and water chemistry parameters for the electric power utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.

    1993-01-01

    The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved, new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from ∼250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly

  19. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoesung.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market

  20. Waste utilization in electric energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parate, N.S.; Harris, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electric energy is an integral element of today's economy and the standard quality of life. The availability of energy at an affordable cost has always been of basic concern because of the intimate relationship of energy to our societal development and progress. Coal and Uranium are the primary alternative energy sources for large electric power plants. Coal remains the dominant fuel for electric generation. The pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology has the potential of utilizing all types of coal, including coal with high ash, high sulphur, and high moisture content. Fluidized bed combustion is a firing technique which fulfills today's pollution control requirements without downstream flue gas cleaning plants like scrubbers, baghouses, and precipitators

  1. What happened to efficiency in electricity industries after reforms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed widespread power market reforms in both developed and developing countries that have cost billions of dollars. Among the key aims (and assumptions) of these reforms, there has always been realization of improvements in power sector efficiency. This paper questions the validity of this hypothesis. Using panel data from 92 countries covering the period 1982-2008, empirical models are developed and analyzed. The research findings suggest that the impact of the reforms on electricity industry performance is statistically significant but also limited. The results imply that, after controlling for country-specific variables, application of liberal market models in electricity industries slightly increases efficiency in power sector. Besides, we detect a positive relationship between reform process and the percentage share of network (transmission and distribution) losses in total electricity supplied, meaning that as countries take more reform steps the network losses as a fraction of power generated tend to increase. Moreover, the study puts forward that income level and other country specific features are more important determinants of industry efficiency than the reform process. Overall, contrary to expectations of substantial increases in sector efficiency, the paper concludes that introducing a decentralized market model with competition in the electricity sector has a limited increasing effect on power industry performance. - Highlights: → The paper questions whether the reforms increase efficiency in the power sector. → Panel data from 92 countries covering the period 1982-2008 are employed. → Models are developed by fixed/random effect panel data estimation methods. → The paper concludes the reforms have a limited effect on the industry performance. → We also find that as countries take more reform steps the network losses increase.

  2. Efficiency and environmental factors in the US electricity transmission industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Manuel; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The electricity industry in most developed countries has been restructured over recent decades with the aim of improving both service quality and firm performance. Regulated segments (e.g. transmission) still provide the infrastructure for the competitive segments and represent a significant share of the total price paid by final customers. However there is a lack of empirical studies that analyse firms' performance in the electricity transmission sector. In this paper an empirical analysis of US electricity transmission companies is conducted for the period 2001–2009. We use alternative stochastic frontier models that allow us to identify the determinants of firms' inefficiency. These models also permit us to control for weather conditions, potentially one of the most decisive uncontrollable factors in electricity transmission. Our results suggest that weather conditions clearly have an influence on transmission costs and that there is room for improvement in the management of US electricity transmission systems. Regulators should also be aware that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency, and that achieving long-term efficiency improvements tends to worsen firms' short-term relative performance. - Highlights: • We analyse firms' performance in the US electricity transmission industry. • Alternative SFA models are estimated to identify determinants of firms' efficiency. • Our results indicate that firms' efficiency has declined and diverged over time. • We find that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency.

  3. Industrial development in Indonesia - key data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the case of Indonesia 3 goals in particular were linked to the industrial process: to improve the balance of payments, to reduce unemployment and to develop remote regions. Thus, development plans and official development policy have not adopted merely one strategic approach to industrialization, but have combined several: export diversification, promition of labour-intensive, small-scale and large-scale enterprises, and industrial production linked to basic needs. In 1991 the KfW gave financial support to the following projects: transformer plant and Suralaya, railway investment programme, electricity transmission system Krian-Paiton, supply of 3 ferries, staff development fund III. (BWI) [de

  4. Development of curricula for the deregulated energy industry, as illustrated by the example of electric power supply in Germany; Curriculumentwicklung fuer die liberalisierte Energiewirtschaft - dargestellt am Beispiel der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krah, Nils

    2011-07-01

    This monography provides an expert and also didactic analysis of the electric power industry and presents a model for constructing practice-oriented curricula for the grid-bound power industry, both for different target groups and for different educational levels (occupational and academic). The book also demonstrates how the method can be applied for concrete definition of goals, contents and schedules for vocational training and for the development of an effective teaching methodology by the teacher. The analyses that are presented also provide a basis for discussions among experts of the energy industry and its further development. (orig./RHM)

  5. NEDO report (April, 1995). Restructuring California's electric services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Recognizing nationwide changes in the electric utilities industry, Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The purpose is to foster competition and a basis on market mechanisms as the preferred means to develop and deliver energy services. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) hoped to better understand this change while emphasizing efforts to maintain safe, reliable, and reasonably priced electric service. According to the report in February, 1993, CPUC was considering reform of its regulatory program in view of technological change, competitive pressures and emerging market forces. Further, new electric service providers have entered the industry, intensifying competition and producing the opportunity and pressure for consumer choice. Consequently, CPUC are asking the industry to adopt strategic measures to deal with the regulation such as reduced costs and development of efficient innovative services. Hearings have been repeated for the revision of the law; however, the confusion will continue for the time being. Some kind of revision will be concluded within 1995; however, no deregulation will be implemented for the power industry probably until 1996. (NEDO)

  6. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs

  7. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Games for electricity traders: Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyner, Isaac [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: idyner@unalmed.edu.co; Larsen, Erik [Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13 CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)], E-mail: erik.larsen@lu.unisi.ch; Franco, Carlos Jaime [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: cjfranco@unalmed.edu.co

    2009-02-15

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming.

  9. Games for electricity traders. Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyner, Isaac; Franco, Carlos Jaime [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia); Larsen, Erik [Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13 CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming. (author)

  10. Games for electricity traders. Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyner, Isaac; Franco, Carlos Jaime; Larsen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming. (author)

  11. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  12. Geothermal energy and the bulk electric power and petroleum industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.

    1977-01-01

    The roles of competition and power pooling in the utility industry are assessed and explained, and the structure of the Western Electric Utility industry is evaluated. It is argued that a hostile environment for small utilities, maintained by larger investor-owned utilities and by the Bureau of Reclamation, leads to a combination of motives for rapid development of geothermal resources and impedes their success. It is suggested that the impediment feature of the hostile environment for small utilities could be alleviated by granting small utilities access to pooling and, relatedly, by improving the power marketing performance of the Bureau of Reclamation. (MHR)

  13. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  14. The future of the electric utility industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlkeld, R.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of future changes in the electric power utility industry in Canada was presented. The impacts of deregulation were considered, including increased competition, and reduced profits resulting from it. Restructuring measures taken by BC Hydro to prepare for industry changes were described. Competition was not only expected to result from new electric utilities, but also gas utilities that are establishing themselves in the home heating business. Emphasis was placed on making the utilities' priorities, the same as their customers'. Flexibility of rate scheduling and increased dependence on customer-owned generation were needed to remain competitive. Exportation of surplus electricity and development of power utilities in developing nations was considered as a potentially lucrative development strategy. It was suggested that making use of strategic alliances within Canada and worldwide, will help to keep utilities ahead of the competition. A warning was issued to the effect that environmental concerns must always be considered well in advance of regulations since they are continually becoming more stringent. Making common cause with customers, and continuous improvement were considered to be the most important keys to future success for the industry

  15. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-01-01

    The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. ...

  16. European industrial policy with regard to photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrine, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The production of photovoltaic electricity has increased considerably over the last decade, especially in Europe and particularly in Germany and Italy, owing to the stimulus imparted by the advantageous rates for purchasing this electricity and by the steadily decreasing price of photovoltaic modules. This growth will continue in countries with intense sunshine and in areas that lack interconnected grids or where production is maximal during demand peaks caused by air-conditioning. Growth will also continue in the industrialized countries that want to re-balance their energy mix and break out of their heavy dependence on fossil fuels and nuclear power. In 2011, installations for generating nearly 30 GWc of solar photovoltaic power were set up around the world; and total power from this source at the end of 2011 was nearly 70 GWc, and could reach 300 GWc in 2020. This raises questions about how to develop industries for satisfying this demand

  17. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  18. Sustained orderly development of the solar electric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the need of electric utilities to support the commercialization of solar electric technologies now in order to have the technology available for future energy resources. The topics of the article include deteriorating opportunities, sustained orderly development of solar electric technologies, historical aspects, and market forces in the solar electric industry

  19. Decomposing the variation of aggregate electricity intensity in Spanish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.F.; Suarez, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Several papers have dealt with methodological and application issues related to techniques for decomposing changes in environmental indicators. This paper aims to decompose changes in electricity intensity in Spanish industry and to explain the factors that contribute to these changes. Focusing on an energy intensity approach based on Divisia indices, we began by reviewing the two general parametric Divisia methods and six specific cases. In order to avoid obtaining significantly different results by using differing methods, all of them have been applied to Spanish data. Also two different disaggregation levels have been taken into consideration. Combined with electricity price analysis, the results of this paper indicate the poor contribution of structural change to substantial reductions in aggregate electricity intensity, and underline the role of innovation, development, diffusion and access to more efficient technologies as main contributors to the reduction of the energy/production ratio. (author)

  20. Reforming European electricity industries: to each, his own ''single market''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    National transpositions of the European directive on domestic electricity markets have maintained a degree of diversity; and this also characterizes the other conditions for accessing national electricity markets (physical, commercial, industrial and capital access). As a look at the prices of electricity shows, these national markets do not operate in a single way Europe-wide. Furthermore, electricity companies - key actors in this competition - differ widely from each other in size, electrical potential, investment portfolios and strategies for growth. (authors)

  1. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  2. NUMERICAL COMPUTATION AND PREDICTION OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN TOBACCO INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Laković

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a key energy source in each country and an important condition for economic development. It is necessary to use modern methods and tools to predict energy consumption for different types of systems and weather conditions. In every industrial plant, electricity consumption presents one of the greatest operating costs. Monitoring and forecasting of this parameter provide the opportunity to rationalize the use of electricity and thus significantly reduce the costs. The paper proposes the prediction of energy consumption by a new time-series model. This involves time series models using a set of previously collected data to predict the future load. The most commonly used linear time series models are the AR (Autoregressive Model, MA (Moving Average and ARMA (Autoregressive Moving Average Model. The AR model is used in this paper. Using the AR (Autoregressive Model model, the Monte Carlo simulation method is utilized for predicting and analyzing the energy consumption change in the considered tobacco industrial plant. One of the main parts of the AR model is a seasonal pattern that takes into account the climatic conditions for a given geographical area. This part of the model was delineated by the Fourier transform and was used with the aim of avoiding the model complexity. As an example, the numerical results were performed for tobacco production in one industrial plant. A probabilistic range of input values is used to determine the future probabilistic level of energy consumption.

  3. The greening of European electricity industry: A battle of modernities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle

    2012-01-01

    Europe has played the role of a green hegemon on the global arena for several decades. By exploring its green transition in the electricity industry, the article discusses whether Europe is on track with regard to delivering sustainable development in a core sector at home. The article finds that the greening of European electricity industry has been highly dynamic and can best be represented in terms of competing modernities; where carbon, nuclear, renewables and demand side management challenge each other in the race for sustainable energy solutions. The article describes Greening European electricity industry as a complex institutional game which resembles a relay race where various factors have driven innovation at different stages. Change may be initially have been politically driven, while the baton is later taken by markets, technology or civic mobilization. The article shows how strong greening policies may lead to blockage, whereas softer and less confrontational policies with triggering effects may have a better chance of success. The article also argues that a central factor in the apparent European success in greening electricity has been an advantageous blend of technology push and market pull approaches, which has merged out of national rivalry rather than coordinated planning. - Highlights: ► European el-industry has met the climate challenge with four rivaling modernities. ► They are carbon modernity, nuclear modernity, supply and demand side ecomodernity. ► Europe has successfully facilitated green transition through three channels. ► They are green radicalism, institutional pluralism and multiple policy instruments. ► Europe has been a front-runner, but faces challenges mainstreaming sustainability.

  4. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.

  5. Decomposition of electricity demand in China's industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past five years, China's demand for electricity has accelerated far beyond what central planners had forecasted, leading to supply constraints and costly brownouts throughout the country. This paper presents analysis of the effect of changes in the industrial sector on electricity demand, an important economic sector contributing to these above patterns as it consumes nearly 70% of the electricity generated in China. Using decomposition analysis, it is found that both increased industrial activity and fuel shifts helped increase industrial sector electricity demand between 1998 and 2002, the period of focus in this study, but significant increases in energy efficiency countered this

  6. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  7. TRAC development at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Shaug, J.C.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    TRAC is a computer code for transient analysis of light water reactors. The BWR version of TRAC has been developed as a result of a close cooperation between General Electric Company and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Up through 1985 the development work at General Electric was jointly funded by General Electric, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Electric Power Research Institute under the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. At INEL (which has the main responsibility for the NRC version of TRAC-BWR) this work has led to the development of TRACBD1 and TRACBF1, while at GE, TRACB04 was the final product of the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. TRAC development has continued at General Electric after the completion of these programs with the evolution of the TRACG code. The purpose of the paper is to describe this work. The TRAC development at General Electric can be divided into two main categories: extended benchmark capability and improved user convenience

  8. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  9. Generating and distributing electricity economically and in large amounts for generations. Siemens - a synonym of electrical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldenkirchen, W.

    1997-01-01

    The development of electrical engineering and the history of the Siemens company have been closely interrelated since their beginnings. Since the late 19th century, the electrical industry, by constantly extending its range of products, has turned into a sector of economy with an international reputation. Under the paradigm of assuming technological leadership, or co-leadership, in the development of electrical engineering world-wide, Siemens has had its share in this process. (orig.) [de

  10. The impact of electricity restructuring on the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, G.

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of the study is to quantify the impact of electrical restructuring on the natural gas industry, in particular the expected rise in natural gas consumption for electricity generation in Canada from 2000 to 2020. To this end, the study estimates how large the demand potential is and where it is likely to materialize, with the timing of these events also considered. Chapter two discusses the study methodology, which is that of a quantitative forecast. Before an analytical model was chosen, a careful review of potential candidates, a literature review, and an analysis of important issues were undertaken. Chapter three provides requisite background information of electricity restructuring issues. U.K. experiences are highlighted, and common issues and differences among states and provinces are discussed also. Chapter four provides some necessary historical background and puts into perspective the importance of gas consumption for electric generation. Also treated are relevant Canadian and U.S. generation and capacity, and forecasts of restructuring impacts from other organizations. Whether a consensus forecast for gas demand exists is examined, as well as a number of critical factors examined in various studies. Chapter five describes the development of individual study scenarios and key assumptions contained in each scenario. Also described are some of the selected model's capabilities. Retail and generation company strategy parameters are highlighted to provide a better understanding of those capabilities. The competition parameters chosen for generators and retail companies in the model are described. Chapter six reports all key forecast variables in a discussion which compares relevant scenario and sensitivity forecast results. Detailed forecast results for two scenarios are provided in appendices. Chapter seven discusses new investment and business opportunities and challenges in light of the forecast results. These are reviewed for a number of

  11. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  12. Development of electric machines with superconducting windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Novitskij, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    Some studies are discussed performed in the USSR with the aim to develop the most promising electrical machines with superconducting windings, i.e. powerful (more than 1 MW) cryoturbogenerators for power heat and nuclear plants, electric motors of more than 10,000 kW, reverse systems of an electric driver and unipolar generators for electrolysis industry. The design and performances of the simulator of a 1500 kW cryoturbogenerator are given. Problems of coooling and oscillations of the simulator rotor are considered

  13. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh, E-mail: reza_f_a@yahoo.com [Department of Finance and Economics, College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 257, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: > Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. > Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. > Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. > Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. > At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  14. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  15. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country's new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties

  16. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: Swiss voters reject phaseout; EdF confirms order for Civaux 1; NDP surprise victor in Ontario; Czechoslovakia joins Foratom; Poland abandons Zarnowiec; Cogema's UP3 facility operationa; Wismut to clsoe mining operations; court rules in favor of US government in Yucca Mountain waste site; Italian government ratifies ENEL reactor shutdowns; and Seabrook enters commercial operation

  17. Electrical industry and the eighties - triumph or disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-16

    A brief review of progress made in the electrical industry during the 1880s is presented. Then the trials and tribulations which are in store for the industry in 1980 are reviewed. How these problems should be tackled by a strong and unified industry is suggested. Areas covered include the anti-nuclear movement, the energy supply problems, rampant consumerism, and the consumer lobby.

  18. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  19. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  20. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The January 1992 Industry Briefs includes brief articles on: (1) the startup of Chinese and Indian nuclear units, (2) agreements between China and Pakistan for the construction of a nuclear unit, (3) international safeguards agreements, (4) restart of a nuclear unit in Armenia, (5) closure of a German nuclear waste site, (6) restructuring of the Hungarian state-owned utility MVMT, (7) requests for bids for Wolsong Units 3 and 4, (8) signing of the European Energy charter, (9) continued operation of the MAGNOX reactors, and (10) changing Canadian requirements on uranium

  1. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  2. Industrial companies' demand for electricity. Evidence from a micropanel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerner, T.B.; Togeby, M.; Jensen, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a micro-econometric analysis of industrial companies' demand for electricity. Previous studies on electricity consumption in the industrial sector have relied on aggregate data or cross-section observations. Here we present an econometric study on electricity demand based on a panel of 2949 Danish companies followed from 1983 to 1996. It is found that estimators of electricity demand that take account of the panel structure (fixed effect models) yield considerably lower price and production elasticities compared to estimators that do not (like cross-section models). It is also investigated how various company characteristics like size, type of industrial sub-sector and electricity intensity in production influence price and production elasticities. It appears that companies with a high electricity intensity also have a high own-price elasticity

  3. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  4. Construction industry in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  5. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Md Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electrical and Electronic (EE Industry. These manufacturers have to keep improving in key activities and processes to cope the challenges. Therefore, EE industry realize the importance of continuous improvement in helping the industries by setting clear goals and priorities for the area of improvement. The aims of this study are to determine the main factor in implementing continuous improvement practices, identify tools of continuous improvement that have been used and their obstacle in implementing continuous improvement practices. 200 questionnaires had been distributed to the employees in Electrical and Electronic Industry located at Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 41 questionnaires were answered which represented about 20.5% response rates. Survey result shows that teamwork and training and learning are respectively the importance factor and the most practices factor in Electrical and Electronic Industry. Most of the Electrical and Electronic Industry emphasis is on using Lean Manufacturing as the tool of continuous improvement practices. Besides that, Electrical and Electronic Industry faced the problems of lack of budget and lack of worker commitment.

  6. Powering the future: Blueprint for a sustainable electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1997-01-01

    Long known for its vast scale and fierce resistance to change, the US power industry is poised for a sweeping transformation. Although driven by many of the same forces propelling the telecommunications revolution, the electricity industry has received only a fraction as much attention. Yet the electric industry is far larger, with a current investment per customer of $6,000--double that of the phone and cable industries combined. Moreover, unlike telecommunications, the future of the power industry will have an enormous impact on the global environment. The glimmerings of a more efficient, decentralized, and less-polluting power system are beginning to capture the interest--and even the investment dollars--of some. In this paper, the authors describe the route to a more environmentally sustainable electric industry to power the twenty-first century

  7. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of allowances

  8. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  9. Electricity generation using chocolate industry wastewater and its treatment in activated sludge based microbial fuel cell and analysis of developed microbial community in the anode chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil A; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Koul, Sandeep; Ijmulwar, Shrikant; Vivek, Amar; Shouche, Y S; Kapadnis, B P

    2009-11-01

    Feasibility of using chocolate industry wastewater as a substrate for electricity generation using activated sludge as a source of microorganisms was investigated in two-chambered microbial fuel cell. The maximum current generated with membrane and salt bridge MFCs was 3.02 and 2.3 A/m(2), respectively, at 100 ohms external resistance, whereas the maximum current generated in glucose powered MFC was 3.1 A/m(2). The use of chocolate industry wastewater in cathode chamber was promising with 4.1 mA current output. Significant reduction in COD, BOD, total solids and total dissolved solids of wastewater by 75%, 65%, 68%, 50%, respectively, indicated effective wastewater treatment in batch experiments. The 16S rDNA analysis of anode biofilm and suspended cells revealed predominance of beta-Proteobacteria clones with 50.6% followed by unclassified bacteria (9.9%), alpha-Proteobacteria (9.1%), other Proteobacteria (9%), Planctomycetes (5.8%), Firmicutes (4.9%), Nitrospora (3.3%), Spirochaetes (3.3%), Bacteroides (2.4%) and gamma-Proteobacteria (0.8%). Diverse bacterial groups represented as members of the anode chamber community.

  10. Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.

  11. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  12. Planning games for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author shows the main differences between the electricity supply planning game for the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (PEW-1) and that for the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (PEW-2). (orig.) [de

  13. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  15. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  16. Review: 1991 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO's annual summary of the previous year's (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay

  17. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  18. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  19. Situational analysis for the current status of the electric vehicle industry : a report for presentation to the Electric Vehicle Industry Steering Committee of Natural Resources Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleet, B.; Li, J.K.; Gilbert, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlined the status of the electric vehicle industry in Canada. While the low energy density of electric batteries has prevented the widespread adoption of electric-powered vehicles, new developments in nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have provided a 3- to 4-fold increase in energy density than lead-acid batteries. The Ni-MH batteries have enabled the emergence of hybrid automobiles that use electric motors to supplement or provide traction with internal combustion engine (ICE) generators that power the motors or charge batteries. Plug-in hybrids use batteries that can be charged from the electricity grid or by on-board generators. Lithium-based batteries contain twice the amount of energy density as Ni-MH batteries, and are now being upscaled for use in plug-in hybrids. Canada has many assets that favour the development of electric vehicle technology as it has a high degree of urbanization, and a widely diversified electric supply. Canada is also a major player in EV technology, and a world leader in renewable electricity generation. However, considerable investment and leadership is needed in order to foster EV technology in Canada. It was concluded that an EV industry can be developed by facilitating collaboration among organizations currently promoting sustainable transportation, identifying potential centres of engineering and technological excellence, and defining markets relevant to a Canadian EV industry. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  20. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  1. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, M.; Lobban, S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the fist edition of OXERA's Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry in the UK. It is primarily intended as a work of reference, summarising the key statutory controls of the industry and the most important features of the companies' licences. The main features of the guide are as follows. It provides comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the industry. The roles of the key players are explained and a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents is given. It aims to bring the reader up to date with current regulatory issues and possible developments in the industry. It presents the information in a clear and concise form. The emphasis is on identifying and highlighting the key points in each area so that readers can rapidly familiarise themselves with the subject matter. It does not examine the process by which businesses are valued and the various price caps are set. These are issues which are best approached within the context of utility regulation in general. (author)

  2. Industrial Electricity. In-Plant Distribution. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of industrial electricity curriculum guides, consists of materials for use in teaching a course on the in-plant distribution of electricity. Discussed in the introductory lessons are the National Electrical Code, power equipment, and blueprint reading. The next section, a series of units on branch-circuit…

  3. The effect of electricity prices on industry in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepenack, A. von

    1992-01-01

    The contribution gives a survey of the general consumption of electricity in the (former) Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 until 1990 and illustrates the effect of electricity prices on industry - safety of the site, competition, influences on prices for electricity, intensity of electricity, comparison to gross increase in value. In addition, the influence of politics on electricity prices is examined. Among other things, we owe the success of our industry on the international market to the increase in our use of electric power. This is the basis of our success in rationalization and our status on the world market. The dependency of industry and industrial products on this form of energy has increased and will continue to do so. Thus the politicians have little room to act if they do not want to influence industry in a negative way. On the basis of the situation described here, electricity prices which are competitive internationally are an essential prerequisite for the future of our economy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Economic development, energy demand and electricity necessities in some emergent and industrialized countries; Desarrollo economico, demanda de energia y necesidades de electricidad en algunos paises emergentes e industrializados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The electricity has become a strategic support for the operation of the societies in its group, because it is being used intensively in the production, transport, communication, administration, science, education and the daily life through the personal computer, for what we can affirm that the electricity is in full expansion. Nevertheless, at the present time more of half of petroleum consumed in the world it is used for the terrestrial, air and marine transport. Many texts have been published in energy that they remind that the success of an industrial society, the growth of their economy, the quality of their inhabitants life and their impact in other societies and in the environment they are largely determined by the quantity and class of energy sources that it exploits and for the effectiveness of their systems to transform the potential energy into work and heat. In this work we observe tendencies in the energy consumption of 21 countries with complete conscience that the energy situation of each one of them depends, in first place, of the availability of its energy resources and its costs, besides its energy politicians, its laws and its maneuver margins. This way, the effect of the interrelations that here are analyzed for the period 1980-2004, is illustrated by means of a comparison of the energy consumption per capita in each one of those 21 countries. The work is very illustrative not alone regarding the inequality in the energy consumption in the world, moreover it mentions that countries are those that have the control of the world energy resources and it detects others that are participating actively in that battle by means of the use of new technologies and equipment s that seek to look for a bigger energy efficiency and to impel low economies in carbon and not based on fossil fuels. (Author)

  5. Data on the development of the West German power electric industry in 1984. Daten zur Entwicklung der Energiewirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    An introductory survey of international and national energy policies in 1984 as well as of the energy supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany is followed by statistics, tables and diagrams containing significant data of energy economics. In particular, they refer to the primary energy balance, structure of energy consumption, import and export of energy supplies and the development on the hard coal, brown coal, mineral oil, electricity and gas market (reserves, application, prices). The year under review, 1984, is related to and compared with previous years reaching back as far as 1970.

  6. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  7. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: Status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, Alda

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry

  8. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry. (author)

  9. Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    A conference on Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry was held in Boston on September 8--11, 1991 to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The conference was attended by more than 150 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering consulting organizations, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. The meeting included a keynote address, 70 papers, and 18 expert system demonstrations. Sessions covered expert systems in power system planning operations, fossil power plant applications, nuclear power plant applications, and intelligent user interfaces. The presentations showed how expert systems can provide immediate benefits to the electric power industry in many applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  10. The electricity industry and 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The action programme 'Energy 2000', presented by Federal Councillor Ogi as a result of the agreements of last September, aims, on the one hand, for a stabilization of power consumption until the turn of the century, and, on the other hand, for an extension of domestic production, to which a contribution should also be made by renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic power. The Swiss electricity producers are prepared to make their contribution to the realization of these ambitious objectives. (orig.) [de

  11. US Energy Industry Financial Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    In the second quarter of 1992, the financial performance of the US petroleum industry continued to deteriorate, as weakening domestic economic growth slowed the demand for refined petroleum products. Net income for 119 petroleum companies--including 19 major oil and gas producers--declined 2 percent between the second quarter of 1991 and the second quarter of 1992, and was down 35 percent for the first 6 months of 1992. Unless otherwise stated, all quarterly comparisons relate to the second quarter of 1992 versus the second quarter of 1991. Weak margins reduce downstream earnings; higher prices increase oil and gas production earnings; industry downsizing improves financial results; oil and gas drilling remains depressed; cool spring helps gas companies but disappoints electric utilities

  12. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  13. The complexity of electricity markets: the limits of the liberalisation of electric industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    As electric industries have been liberalised or privatised later than other public utilities, notably in developed countries, this article first recalls that this activity has been during a long time a monopoly hold by a public service, and precisely planned with tariffs regulated by public authorities. Then, the author explains how deregulation is performed for such an industry to allow competition to be introduced at all levels of the electric sector. He describes the operation mode of the wholesale market which is structured in an hourly market due to the non-storable characteristic of electricity, describes retail price formation by pilling up the wholesale price, regulated tariffs of transport and distribution, and a tax aimed at paying the cost of public policies. This price can be compared with the regulated tariff which previously encompassed everything without any dissociation. Finally, he highlights the main defects and drawbacks of this market which do not allow long term investments in base equipment, back up equipment and on low carbon equipment (renewable, nuclear, and others)

  14. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  15. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  16. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  17. Electricity use and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.; Wilkinson, W.; Hill, R.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

  18. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Mainframe Client-server & PCs Web 1.0 ecommerce Web 2.0, cloud, mobile Big data, analytics, visualization IoT & smart machines Artificial intelligence Quantum computing 6 T o d a y 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020... NEW SET OF CORE CAPABILITIES TO SUCCEED INDUSTRY X.0 INDUSTRY 4.0 EFFICIENCIES HYPER-PERSONALIZED EXPERIENCES & NEW SOURCES OF GROWTH SOCIAL MEDIA CLOUD ANALYTICS MOBILITY WEB 1.0/E-COMMERCE PCS, SERVERS AND DEDICATED HARDWARE PCS...

  19. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Mainframe Client-server & PCs Web 1.0 ecommerce Web 2.0, cloud, mobile Big data, analytics, visualization IoT & smart machines Artificial intelligence Quantum computing 6 T o d a y 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020... NEW SET OF CORE CAPABILITIES TO SUCCEED INDUSTRY X.0 INDUSTRY 4.0 EFFICIENCIES HYPER-PERSONALIZED EXPERIENCES & NEW SOURCES OF GROWTH SOCIAL MEDIA CLOUD ANALYTICS MOBILITY WEB 1.0/E-COMMERCE PCS, SERVERS AND DEDICATED HARDWARE PCS...

  20. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  1. Financing future exports of Canada's electrical power equipment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, K.A.J.; Saravanamuttoo, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic impact on the Canadian power sector of continued constraints on the availability of concessionary export financing is examined. An overview of the structure of the Canadian electrical power equipment industry is provided, followed by a discussion of its competitiveness and performance. Export prospects are outlined and separate reviews are presented of hydroelectric and thermal expansion. A global market of US $17 billion for hydroelectric power in the 1990s is forecast, and a market of US $300 billion for all forms of power generation in developing Asia. The export strategies of international competitive bidding, forming a consortium within an international multinational enterprise, co-financing with Japanese aid agencies, and direct negotiation are discussed. The costs and benefits of concessional financing are assessed and shown to bring net fiscal benefits. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Transmission pricing and stranded costs in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumol, W.J.; Sidak, J.G.

    1995-09-01

    Stranded costs are those costs that electric utilities are currently permitted to recover through their rates but whose recovery may be impeded or prevented by the advent of competition in the industry. Estimates of these costs run from the tens to the hundreds of billions of dollars. Should regulators permit utilities to recover stranded costs while they take steps to promote competition in the electric power industry. William Baumol and J. Gregory Sidak argue that answer to that question should be yes.The authors show that a transmission price, the price for sending electricity over the transmission grid, can be determined in a manner that is compatible with economic efficiency and clearly neutral in its effects upon all competitors in electricity generation. A correctly constructed regime of transmission pricing may in fact achieve the efficiency and equity goals that justify the recovery of stranded costs

  3. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Md Fauzi; Yan Toh Li; Wei Chan Shiau; Aizat Ahmad Ahmad Nur; Raja Mohd Rasi Raja Zuraidah; Abdul Rahman Nor Aida; Muhd Nor Nik Hisyamudin; Hassan Mohd Fahrul; Hashim Fatan Adibah

    2017-01-01

    Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electric...

  4. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  5. Shadows and lights of the italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Salvatore; Silva, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The passage of the electricity industry from a public monopoly vertically integrated to a decentralized and competitive system poses organizational, institutional, economic and technical problems whose complexity must be taken in due account. The recent electricity reform in Italy is a good test to verity the capabilities of the policy maker to design and implement such a difficult process. Inadequate competencies, doubts, conflicts and institutional rigidities produced a sub-optimal result [it

  6. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  7. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, Paul S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  8. Institutional contexts of market power in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foer, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Market power is widely recognized as one of the principal issues that must be dealt with if the electricity industry is to make the transition from regulation to competition. In this article, the author provides a legal and economic introduction to what the antitrust community means by market power and offers a primer on why market power is so central an issue in the electricity industry. Finally and most importantly, he offers comments on the institutional contexts of market power, exploring a process which he calls Shermanization that helps explain the institutional aspect of moving from regulation to competition and holds implications for where oversight should reside during this complex transition

  9. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Electric power, emissions and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Energy use in the developing world has been growing rapidly over recent decades, both absolutely and relative to the growth in industrialized countries albeit from a very low base. In the next century, developing country commercial energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular, is expected to continue to rise with striking rapidity because of population growth, income growth and substitution of modern commercial fuels for traditional biomass fuels. Because the power sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors, it raises significant domestic environmental issues, while the sector's role in global warming scenarios has made it a key feature of international environmental policy. This paper focuses on the relationships between economic development, electric power and polluting emissions. 10 refs

  11. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  12. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  13. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  14. Electrical energy industry regulation: trend in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the electric power industry is presently experiencing significative changes world-wide at an unprecedented pace. In these circumstances it is useless to attempt the preparation of a static snapshot of the current situation, because of the difficulties in capturing the exact position of each player and also because the picture would become obsolete in a very short time. This paper presents the specific features characterising power organisation, the regulatory approaches to the several services involved in supplying electricity, and alternative schemes for introduction of different levels of competition in traditionally regulated electric systems. (Author) 24 refs

  15. Electricity supply enterprises: Profits in comparison between industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnl, U.

    1995-01-01

    The acquisition of participations by major electricity supply enterprises during the last years met with strong criticism from the general public and revived the controversial discussion about electricity prices and profits. Yet the electricity industry is subject to specific legal price controls guaranteeing a price formation that is cost-economical, just and fair under the causation principle and does not permit excessive profits. Under this aspect and against the background of discussing this issue on an economic basis the author presents an empirical survey. (orig.)

  16. Analysing Changes in Electricity Industries Against Actors and Technologies: Utility to Business Transformations in Denmark, Germany, Finland and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ratinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Liberalization of electricity markets, governmental policies for renewable electricity and technology development are transforming national electricity industries. However, there are considerable national differences in how these industries have changed and which businesses have been developed. We propose a typology for comparing changes in electricity industry based on the changes in the actors and technologies. Wind power and solar photovoltaic are used here as technology examples. A qualitative analysis of the changes in electricity industries in four EU member states is presented. Based on the preliminary findings, we conclude that if the industry consists of many, small firms with relatively loose ties with the government the industry is more likely to change than if it consists of few large firms with strong relations with the government.

  17. The first step in restructuring the US electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, A.H. [American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Reutter, K.A. [Nathan Associates, Auburn (United States); Thompson, H. [Auburn University (United States). Comer Hall

    2005-03-01

    The electric industry lobbied for its first step in restructuring, from local franchises to regulated state monopolies during the early 1900s. The present paper examines this restructuring with an empirical model that includes the introduction of natural gas and steam turbine generators. The restructuring resulted in fewer firms, higher costs, and higher prices, consistent with increased monopoly power and captured regulators. (author)

  18. The first step in restructuring the US electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.H.; Reutter, K.A.; Thompson, H.

    2005-01-01

    The electric industry lobbied for its first step in restructuring, from local franchises to regulated state monopolies during the early 1900s. The present paper examines this restructuring with an empirical model that includes the introduction of natural gas and steam turbine generators. The restructuring resulted in fewer firms, higher costs, and higher prices, consistent with increased monopoly power and captured regulators. (author)

  19. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  20. The impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Electricity has played an important role in the economic development of Korea and, thus, has become a critical factor in sustaining the well-being of the Korean people. This study attempts to investigate the impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level using input–output (I–O) analysis. To this end, we apply the I–O price model to the 2011 I–O table recently produced by the Bank of Korea, paying particular attention to the electricity sector by considering it as exogenous and then investigating its impacts. The impacts of the electricity price changes on each industrial sector's prices and the general price level are quantitatively derived. For example, the overall impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean national economy is estimated to be 0.4367%. We also report the results from the model with the electricity sector endogenous and the model with endogenous electricity and labor sectors. This information can be usefully utilized in decision-making regarding price management for electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of electricity price changes on the Korean economy. • We use the input–output (I–O) analysis specifying the electricity sector as exogenous. • We apply the I–O price model to 2010 I–O table produced by the Bank of Korea. • The impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean economy is 0.2176%

  1. Some thoughts on the Turkish electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, the electricity industry of the Republic of Turkey (and indeed the world) has undergone profound reform in its structure, ownership and mindset. Increasing public concern about efficiency in the sector has led Turkey to discard the traditional model of a vertically integrated industry subject to cost-based regulation in favor of the unbundling of activities and the introduction of competition where it is possible. The industry has been structurally separated into generation, transmission, distribution and retail segments. The competitive segments of the industry (generation and retail) are planed to progressively expose to competition; the monopoly segments (especially, distribution) are to be reoriented to foster competition. Further, the ownership of the industry is under increasing pressure to move away from the public domain into the private one. The present article not only presents an analysis of the Turkish distribution sector and proposed privatization process but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  2. Monopoly and competition in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugeniu, P.; Rucareanu, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The authors show how some of the electric energy characteristics can lead to monopoly and state control and how this trend acts in the totalitarian regimes and in the market economy countries. For exemplification, the organization of the electricity industry in several countries, its evolution and its trends for the near future, are shown. Taking into consideration the Romanian present situation, there are underlined the factors able to ensure the transition to a regime based on private property and competition. Finally it is shown that the Romanian electricity industry requires a two stage implementation of the privatization process: first a non-cession form implying management contracts, loaning contracts, concessions in exploitation and public and private enterprises associations, followed by a cession form when the capital is privatized by direct selling. (author)

  3. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    perspectives on the state and the economy (Chapter 5), from the perspective of policy networks and collaborative advantages between the private and public sectors, and from a politico-institutional and politics perspective (Chapter 8). Chapter 6 develops the notion of strategic industrial policy, while Chapter......      What happens when developing countries can no longer grow by simply exploiting their existing comparative advantages in natural resources or cheap labour? Many middle income countries are situated in a sandwiched position between on the one hand competitive pressure from lower-wage countries...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically...

  4. Research on industrialization of electric vehicles with its demand forecast using exponential smoothing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanglin Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electric vehicles industry has gotten a rapid development in the world, especially in the developed countries, but still has a gap among different countries or regions. The advanced industrialization experiences of the EVs in the developed countries will have a great helpful for the development of EVs industrialization in the developing countries. This paper seeks to research the industrialization path & prospect of American EVs by forecasting electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole car sales based on the historical 37 EVs monthly sales and Cars monthly sales spanning from Dec. 2010 to Dec. 2013, and find out the key measurements to help Chinese government and automobile enterprises to promote Chinese EVs industrialization. Design/methodology: Compared with Single Exponential Smoothing method and Double Exponential Smoothing method, Triple exponential smoothing method is improved and applied in this study. Findings: The research results show that:  American EVs industry will keep a sustained growth in the next 3 months.  Price of the EVs, price of fossil oil, number of charging station, EVs technology and the government market & taxation polices have a different influence to EVs sales. So EVs manufacturers and policy-makers can adjust or reformulate some technology tactics and market measurements according to the forecast results. China can learn from American EVs polices and measurements to develop Chinese EVs industry. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to use the triple exponential smoothing method to forecast the electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole automobile sales, and analyze the industrial development of Chinese electric vehicles by American EVs industry.

  5. Eco-friendly Development Of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Gi Cheol; Park, Hun; Lee, Dong Jin; Ryu, Sang Hui

    1998-02-01

    This book reports eco-friendly development of industry, which has summary on bring up the issue and research way and system of research. It deals with current state of affairs on eco-friendly development of industry and the case of developed countries such as necessity and meaning of eco-friendly development industry, prospect and change of the tendency, environmental issue by field in Korea like the steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, auto industry, and cement industry and general policy for eco-friendly development of industry.

  6. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  7. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa P. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  8. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, and VOC, of which CO 2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO 2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO 2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program

  9. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  10. Review of 1992 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The year 1992 was remarkable for a number of major events that affected the market. The key developments can be categorized in areas such as supply restrictions, legislative and political events, industry consolidations, reactor and mine closures as well as start-ups, and achievements at assorted fuel cycle operations. Clearly, the most influential event was the US uranium anti-dumping investigation, but other significant developments included Euratom's actions restricting imports of CIS-origin uranium into the European Community, continuing upheaval and evolution of the market-based economies of the CIS and central Europe, the second-most active year ever in the uranium spot market, the formation of ConverDyn and the indefinite shutdown of Sequoyah Fuels, Cogema's purchase of Urangesellschaft, passage of a US Energy Bill, China's signing of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, renewed progress on Taiwan's fourth nuclear station, formation of the Japanese fuel cycle corporation JNFL, premature closure of three US reactors for economic reasons, and several mergers and acquisitions that further consolidated the uranium and nuclear industries. As a whole, the past year will be looked back on by market participants as a year of turning point, both good and bad, in the evolution of the industry

  11. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    ' as a result of the working of market forces or of the choices and activities of transnational companies. Hence it examines the role of the state in such late-industrial transformation processes in Taiwan and Thailand. Most scholars have dealt with this issue from the perspective of trade and have studied......What happens when developing countries can no longer grow by simply exploiting their existing comparative advantages in natural resources or cheap labour? Many middle income countries are situated in a sandwiched position between on the one hand competitive pressure from lower-wage countries...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically...

  13. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    ’ as a result of the working of market forces or of the choices and activities of transnational companies. Hence it examines the role of the state in such late-industrial transformation processes in Taiwan and Thailand. Most scholars have dealt with this issue from the perspective of trade and have studied......      What happens when developing countries can no longer grow by simply exploiting their existing comparative advantages in natural resources or cheap labour? Many middle income countries are situated in a sandwiched position between on the one hand competitive pressure from lower-wage countries...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically...

  14. What goes down must come up? Trends of industrial electricity use in the North-West of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna; Luukkanen, Jyrki; Vehmas, Jarmo; Kinnunen, Miia

    2008-01-01

    This article uses decomposition method to analyse industrial electricity consumption in North-Western Russia, namely in Archangelsk oblast, the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast. The case sectors, forestry and electricity, have in most cases developed similarly in the chosen regions during 1990-2001. The decomposition analysis shows that the reduction of economic activity has reduced electricity consumption in all three regions but that it is not always the main factor reducing consumption. The changes in energy efficiency increased consumption in the forestry sector in all regions while in the electricity sector it led to a reduction. The changes in the structures of the regional economies increased electricity consumption in electricity industry which gained importance due to developments in the manufacturing industry. In Murmansk, forestry sector has almost disappeared during the observation period. This was the main observed electricity consumption reduction caused by structural changes. Many of the developments can be better understood against the general knowledge of transition factors

  15. Electricity industry restructuring revisited: the case of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Ahn, Hyeon-Hyo

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Korean Government suspended its electricity market reform based on the two-thirds majority recommendation of a six-member joint study team. This suspension effectively interrupts the basic plan adopted in 1998 by the previous administration to divest and privatize Korea Electric Power Corporation's (KEPCO's) generation segment in 2000-2002, implement transmission open access and wholesale competition by 2008, and introduce retail competition thereafter. This policy-decision followed the controversial debate on electricity market reform in Korea. Reform proponents claim that electricity can be treated as ordinary goods exchangeable in the competitive market, and any problems caused by the transition to the market system are manageable. By contrast, reform opponents argue that effective competition of the power industry is not yet feasible due to the idiosyncratic nature of electricity (e.g., low-price elasticity of demand and not being storable at low cost) as well as the country's isolated electricity network. In suspending the electricity reform, the current administration accepted the final conclusion of the joint study team in the Tripartite Commission on the ground that the alleged benefits of reform are theoretical and uncertain, while the real costs and risks are substantial. (author)

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of reforming Israel's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow

  17. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  18. Development of industrial utilization of metallic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1995-01-01

    Sodium exists in large quantity, being ranked to 6th in the existence proportion of elements, and takes 2.83% of the matters composing earth crust. Sodium is an alkali metal which is light weight, chemically very active and a strong reducing substance. It is excellent in the compatibility with iron and steel materials, and it possesses good heat conduction and flow characteristics and stable nuclear characteristics. Since the industrial production of sodium became practical, its utilization was developed as the reducing agent and catalyst in chemical industry, the core coolant and heat transport medium for nuclear reactors, the material composing the secondary batteries for storing electric power, and the auxiliaries for metal refining and so on. The industrial production of metallic sodium is carried out by the electrolysis of melted salt, namely Downs process. The production of metallic sodium in Japan is 3000-6000 t yearly, and its import is 300-350 t. Its main use is for organic chemical industry including dye production. The grades of metallic sodium products and their uses are shown. The utilization of sodium for large fast reactors, the utilization of NaK as the heat transport and cooling medium for space use nuclear reactors and deep sea fast reactor system, and the utilization of sodium as the catalyst in dye production, for silicon carbide fiber production and for agricultural and medical chemical production are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Using the Financial Instruments for Electric Energy Industry Modernization: the Experience of European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the financial instruments used in the European countries to modernize the electric energy industry has been undertaken. A review of the European practices indicates that financial support for the electric energy industry modernization projects is financed by such instruments, mechanisms and incentives as «green» tariff, «green» certificates and «quota obligations», «green» bonds, auctions, concessional lending, grants, investment subsidies. Venture capital investment is a common form of financing for electric energy industry modernization in the European countries. It has been determined that «green» bonds are an effective instrument that allows to accumulate significant amounts of funds and direct them to the renewable energy industry. Nowadays a significant number of renewable energy industry projects in the EU countries have already been implemented at the expense of the funds obtained from the «green» bonds issue. «Green» bonds are a pivotal promising financial instrument for the modernization of electric energy industry in the European countries. Formation of the mechanism for their issue in Ukraine, taking account of the foreign practice of creating a market of «green bonds», will allow to accumulate the financial resources that are necessary for development of the renewable energy industry.

  20. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  1. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  2. Irradiation Crosslinking of Polyamides for the Electrical and Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of electrical cables and heat shrinkable tubes have been widely accepted in the automotive and electrical industry for a long time. Due higher demands regarding temperature resistance, arc resistance and good chemical resistance against oil and greases crosslinked injection moulded parts made out of polyamid and polybutylentherephtalate become also more and more interesting. Crosslinked polyamide can also replace thermosets for switches and offers therefore additional financial benefits. It will be shown on the basis of already realized projects, which basic requirements exist and how irradiation crosslinking can fulfil these demands

  3. Transition costs in the electricity industry: A summary of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is evident as the restructuring debate in the U.S. electricity industry completes its third year. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission released a final rule on transmission open access-a key element to facilitate more efficient wholesale markets. The majority of states have initiated investigations or discussions on restructuring retail markets. Yet hurdles remain in formulating and implementing state-level restructuring proposals. Perhaps foremost among these hurdles is the issue of transition costs (the potential monetary losses experienced by utilities, consumers, and other economic actors as a result of government initiatives to transform electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market). Transition costs are approximately equal to the difference between the embedded cost for generation services under traditional cost-of-service regulation and the competitive-market price for power. When government takes action to open current monopoly franchises to multiple generation providers and the competitive-market price falls below embedded generation costs, then transition costs will arise. Transition costs will include one or more of the following four classes of costs: (1) assets, primarily utility-owned power plants; (2) liabilities, primarily long-term power-purchase and fuel-supply contracts; (3) regulatory assets, including deferred expenses and costs that regulators allow utilities to place on their balance sheets; and (4) public-policy programs, such as energy efficiency, low-income programs, and research and development. What is at issue in the transition-cost debate? The debate turns on four questions: (1) How large are the potential transition costs from restructuring? (2) How are these costs estimated? (3) What, if anything, might be done to address these costs? (4) Who will ultimately pay for any remaining costs and how? This paper summarizes some of the key results from a project at ORNL that addresses these four questions.

  4. New competition hits the U.S. electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, M.

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies of competition in the United States electric industry are described which illustrate some of the most striking characteristics of the new competitive situation: utilities foraging in other service areas for long-term customers, customers playing one service-area's pricing against another to obtain better terms, and new generating entities being created with the option of seeking mandated transmission access. The trends illustrated by these studies indicate a move away from a regulated monopoly setting toward a market in which the price of bulk electricity is driven down toward the long-run marginal cost of the service. In New England, non-utility generation in 1992 accounted for 17% of electricity sales, up from essentially zero in 1980. Although increasing competition among electric utilities could lower electric power prices and improve industrial competitiveness, there are several concerns which may signify unpleasant outcomes for electric utilities. These concerns include inefficient investment, in which local utility grids are bypassed in favor of other generating units whose competitive advantage may be the result of arbitrary cost-shifting; the exit of large power users placing more of a fixed-cost burden on the remaining customers of a utility, resulting in a vicious spiral of more defections; and insecurities in purchasing power from a new supplier who may not be subject to the same legal obligations as a local utility. Recommendations are made for accommodating more competition without causing adverse effects, including proper pricing of transmission, helping utilities compete on generation, and avoiding non-electric mandates for utilities. 9 refs

  5. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, P [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    The author deals with the especially important points that have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing the supply industry. The following are discussed: the energy program; meeting the power demand; nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising; and power/heat coupling.

  6. Electric restructuring and consumer choice: lessons from other network industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of the U.S. model of private markets with limited regulation as the best alternative for delivering goods and services to consumers are discussed by citing examples from deregulated industries such as transportation, primary energy and financial markets. In all these cases deregulation has been extraordinarily successful. Experiences from these industries are examined in an effort to extract lessons that might be useful in predicting the likely evolution of competition in the electricity and telecommunications industries. A warning is sounded that deregulating these industries without opening access to the infrastructure (which is owned by carriers) could create major problems of natural-monopoly exploitation by the incumbents that would negate any productive and allocative efficiency gains conferred by deregulation. One obvious choice for liberalizing a network industry with natural-monopoly infrastructure is simply to separate the infrastructure from the delivery of the service as was done with railroads in the United Kingdom. A similar, but less far-reaching example might be the solution devised for natural gas pipelines in the U.S. where pipeline owners opened their infrastructure to competitors, albeit at regulated rates. In the electricity industry, separating power generation from transmission and distribution appears to be fairly simple, provided access to transmission and distribution network is granted. In the telecommunication industry where there is no generation, the natural monopoly may be in the local distribution of traffic to subscribers, hence separation of local distribution from national or regional distribution is the normal way to open up the market to new service providers. Experiences in the U. S., the U. K., Canada and New Zealand in electricity and telecommunications industry deregulation are examined and various pitfalls in current approaches are pointed out. It is the author's contention that announcing a date for the end

  7. THE COSTS OF THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN THE ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilianu Marian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has become actual. In the aluminium industry the cost of electrical energy is critical not only for competitive reasons but for the mere existence and performance of numerous production facilities . Several ways of resisting the pressure of high energy costs have been experimented the most promising being those based on different forms of public-private partnership/co-operation. In many countries the big industrial producers benefit from a special treatment concerning the energy acquisition and are supported by the government in order to remain competitive.

  8. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.

    1977-01-01

    In his exposition the author deals with the especially important points which have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing this branch of industry. As key-words we would mention: the energy programme; meeting the power demand; and nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; the use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising and power/heat coupling. (orig.) [de

  9. Results of the electricity power industry reform in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de Hasson, G.

    1995-01-01

    After a brief description of the speedy transformation carried out in the organization and regulation of the electricity sector, based on the segmentation of the industry and on the promotion of competition, an analysis is made of the implications and results of the new rules of the game over the system's future. This analysis reflects, apart from the author's opinion, the visions and expectations of the actors over the difficulties in setting up competitive markets and their influence over decision making criteria, in an industry characterized by a long term perspective. (author). 5 refs

  10. Development of the Mexican electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 Mexico had a population of 68 million, mostly concentrated in a few cities with many other areas being practically unpopulated. The country is semi-industrialized, and in order to achieve better standards of living, economic growth will have to continue at about 7.5 percent or more, particularly if the population continues to increase at 2.9 percent per year. The total installed electrical capacity at the end of 1980 was 14 600 MW; the per capita consumption of electricity was 910 KWh. The present government has as a goal an 8 percent annual growth rate in gross domestic product until 1995, resulting in forecast of a 12.5 percent growth rate in the electric sector to about 410 TWh per year. Hydroelectric power could be used to produce 80 TWh a year by 2000 if capacity were quadrupled. The use of coal for the production of electricity is beginning, and it is planned to generate 40 TWh a year from this source by 2000. Geothermal power should yield 20 TWh by then. A goal has been set of 20 000 MW of installed nuclear capacity by the end of the century; this would produce about 130 TWh, leaving some 280 TWh to be generated by oil or gas. The planned nuclear program must include the development of a strong Mexican nuclear industry, so that in 20 years 80 percent of the nuclear plant components could be locally produced. Ultimately it is hoped that Mexico will have the capability of installing, with its own resources, five or six large nuclear plants per year

  11. Optimal Remanufacturing Certification Contracts in the Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While remanufacturing is highly encouraged worldwide, some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs in the electrical and electronics industry are still not willing to embrace remanufacturing, for fear of expensive investment or the cannibalization of existing products. Meanwhile, third-party remanufacturers’ (TPRs remanufactured products are developing quickly. Due to quality reasons, consumers usually have a higher preference for OEM-certified remanufactured products than uncertified ones. As such, remanufacturing certification has become a strategy that OEMs can use to benefit from product remanufacturing. Our paper focuses on the remanufacturing certification contract between an OEM and a TPR. Once certified, the TPR makes payments to the OEM. These payment terms will affect their enthusiasm for participating in remanufacturing certification. By establishing game models among an OEM, a certified TPR, and an uncertified TPR, our paper explores three certification contracts, namely, the lump-sum payment, profit-sharing payment, and piece-rate payment. We identify the conditions for the OEM and certified TPR to reach a win-win outcome. Our results show that when TPRs have a high profit margin and there is no significant difference in consumers’ preferences between certified and non-certified remanufacturing channels, the profit-sharing payment contract yields the highest profit; otherwise, the piece-rate payment contract is best for the OEM.

  12. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  13. Transmission and wind investment in a deregulated electricity industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Lajos; Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of dispersed renewable energy technologies requires transmission network expansion. Besides the transmission system operator (TSO), restructuring of electricity industries has introduced a merchant investor (MI), who earns congestion rents from constructing new lines. We compare these tw...... proportion of energy is produced by wind. In effect, withholding of generation capacity by producers prompts more transmission investment since the TSO aims to increase welfare by subsidizing wind and the MI creates more flow to maximize profit....

  14. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  15. The electricity supply industry as a subject for public criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    The German electricity supply industry is becoming the subject for more public criticism although it has supplied the whole population and industry in recent years with electricity without limitations and at a favourable price. In spite of the satisfactory and exemplary achievements of this branch of the economy a wave of criticism has built up, caused by the increase in nuclear power station construction, and this is assuming greater proportions and includes wider fields. This situation requires a matching publicity campaign in a number of directions which must be preceded by comprehensive research into causes. It is urgently necessary to achieve a realisation of the basic questions in this branch of the economy in all those, engaged in electricity supply. Full information on the special physical characteristics of the electricity produced, with all the consequences which follow from these, must be supplied to the relevant groups in society both within and outside the economy and also to the mass media, together with continuous efforts to gain the trust of the public. (orig.) [de

  16. Investment and deregulation in the electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluchon, B.

    2007-12-01

    This work addresses the issue of investment in the electricity generation industry. As the analysis of many crisis which have affected electricity markets shows, there is a systematic under-investment in peak capacity. Electricity prices are not high enough to cover fixed costs of such generators, a phenomenon that has been dubbed 'missing money' in some recent papers (Stoft). The investment decisions of a duo-poly facing random demand are then compared to those of a public monopoly. The results are that no prices may be high enough to solve the 'missing money' problem, since the duo-poly is able to exercise market power in order to maximize his profit. This results systematically in fewer peak capacity in the duo-poly case than in the public monopoly case. This remains true in the case of a n-oligopoly. The necessity of designing a mechanism remunerating capacity is thus demonstrated. Capacity markets are then analysed in the light of those results. What appears is that operating reserves are a public good and, as such, prevents capacity markets to solve the 'missing money' problem. This casts a shadow on the pursuit of deregulation in the electricity industry. (author)

  17. Research and development project in fiscal 1989 for fundamental technologies for next generation industries. Achievement report on research and development on electrically conductive polymeric materials; 1989 nendo dodensei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    With an objective to develop electric and electronic materials characterized by light weight, high corrosion resistance, and easy-to-process performance, and by having functions different from electricity conduction mechanism of metals, researches have been performed on fundamental technologies for electrically conductive polymeric materials. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1989. In new hydrocarbon conjugate polymers, researches were performed for the purpose of fabricating the conjugate system polymer and dopant complex system conductive thin films, and polyacene system polymer thin films. In developing the vehicular conjugate conductive materials, discussions were given on enhancing the molecular weight dependence and the conductivity by cross-linking the conjugate system, with regard to hydrocarbon system polymers that go through vehicular polymeric intermediates. In the research of vehicular graphite materials, it was discovered that mono-axial mono-plane PPV films and PTV films are graphitized. In developing the hetero aromatic system polymers, researches were advanced on the correlation among the gegen ions, high-order structures, and electric conductivity, mainly on polypyrrole. (NEDO)

  18. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.; Madlener, R.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  19. Profitability primer: a guide to profitability analysis in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd-Zannetti, D.; Martin, J.; Price, S.

    1996-06-01

    As the electric power industry is opened to forces of competition, increased attention must be focused to develop products and services that deliver good value to customers and to identify customer segments that are profitable to serve. This primer introduces the concept of profitability analysis and its application to the electric power industry. The primer recognizes that some segments of the business will remain monopolistic and subject to regulations, while other segments will become competitive. The primer also recognizes that customer profitability is critically dependent on a host of related issues such as how internal costs are allocated to various functions and how revenues are collected and allocated

  20. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  1. Research and development project in fiscal 1988 for fundamental technologies for next generation industries. Achievement report on research and development on electrically conductive polymeric materials; 1988 nendo dodensei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    With an objective to develop electric and electronic materials characterized by light weight, high corrosion resistance and easy-to-process performance, and having functions different from those of electricity conduction mechanism of metals, research and development has been performed on fundamental technologies related to electrically conductive polymeric materials. This paper summarizes the achievement in fiscal 1988. In the research of the new hydrocarbon conjugate system polymers, fabrication was performed on the LB film mixed with different dopant molecules and photo-polymerized LB molecules. Discussions were given on their effects on the order and electric conductivity of the film cumulative structure. In the research on the vehicular conjugate system conductive materials, conduction improvement was advanced on PPV and PTV by purification of the primary structure and by identification of the effects of the higher-order structure. Basic knowledge was obtained on continuous manufacture of the graphite film. In the research on thin graphite film synthesized at low temperatures, entire design was made on the thin graphite film low-temperature synthesizing device, whereas the synthesized sections were completed excepting the laser assisted section. In the research of hetero aromatic system polymers, investigation was executed on polypyrrole as to its correlation with gegen ions, higher-order structure, and conductivity. (NEDO)

  2. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  3. An Industrial Control System for the Supervision of the CERN Electrical Distribution Network

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    1999-01-01

    CERN operates a large distribution network for the supply of electricity to the particle accelerators, experiments and the associated infrastructure. The distribution network operates on voltage levels from 400 V to 400 kV with a total yearly consumption of near to 1000 GWh. In the past, the laboratory has developed an in-house control system for this network, using the technologies applied to the accelerator control system. However, CERN is now working on a project to purchase, configure and install an industrial Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS). This is a state-of-the-art industrial control system completely developed and supported by an external contractor. The system - based on a scalable and distributed architecture - will allow the installation to be performed gradually, and will be tested while the existing system is fully operational. Ultimately, the complete electrical distribution network will be supervised with this new system, the maintenance and further development of which will be the complet...

  4. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  5. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  6. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  7. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on second term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The research and development in the second term included development of raw materials, elucidation of electricity conduction mechanism, and development of methods to improve stability and a new processing method. Crystals of a large number of charge migrating complexes were grown to elucidate their electron properties and structures. A theoretical model was structured for the superconduction mechanism in the charge migrating complexes. Poly-p-phenylene vinylene-based polymers achieved {sigma}=1.1 times 10{sup 4}s/cm as a result of extension of soluble reaction intermediates. Poly-2, 5-phenylene vinylene doped with FeCl{sub 3} retained 10{sup 3}s/m for 165 days in nitrogen. Polypyrrole achieved 3.0 times 10{sup 3}s/cm in constant potential electrolytically oxidizing polymerization and extension at low temperatures. Polypyrrole doped with ClO{sub 4}{sup -} retained electric conductivity of 85% for 400 days in nitrogen. Electric conductivity of higher than 10{sup 5}s/cm was obtained by applying different kinds of doping into thin film and fiber formed graphite. The world's highest conductivity of 9 times 10{sup 5}s/cm was achieved particularly with discharge laminated and polymerized graphite doped with AsF{sub 5}. (NEDO)

  8. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  9. Specification of merger gains in the Norwegian electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Electricity distribution often exhibits economies of scale. In Norway, a number of smaller distribution system operators exist and thus there is potential to restructure the industry, possibly through mergers. However, the revenue cap regulatory model in Norway does not incentivize firms to merge as merging leads to a stricter revenue cap for the merged company. Thus the regulator compensates the firms in order to create such incentives. The amount of compensation is based on the potential gains of the merger estimated using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) based frontier approach introduced by Bogetoft and Wang (2005). DEA is however only one of many possible frontier estimators that can be used in estimation. Furthermore, the returns to scale assumption, the operating environment of firms and the presence of stochastic noise and outlier observations are all known to affect to the estimation of production technology. In this paper we explore how varying assumptions under two alternative frontier estimators shape the distribution of merger gains within the Norwegian distribution industry. Our results reveal that the restructuring policies of the industry may be significantly altered depending how potential gains from the mergers are estimated. - Highlights: • The merger gains of Norwegian electricity distribution firm are investigated. • Different estimators and model specifications are applied. • Results show that the gains are significantly affected by the model choice. • Incentives to merge may be shaped through the estimation of gains.

  10. Research and development and industrial informatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This book deals with research and development and industrial informatization with development of technology international trend, the present conditions of scientific technology in the major nations, politics of technical development and trend, process of national research and development, research for industrial research and development, strengthen cooperation for scientific technology among nations, current situation and development of technology by field such as energy, software and system, and technology for industrial informatization.

  11. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    The first chapter considers improvements in productive efficiency that can result from a movement from a regulated framework to one that allows for market-based incentives for industry participants. Specifically, I look at the case of restructuring in the electricity generation industry. Using data from the electricity industry, this analysis considers the total effect of restructuring on one input to the production process, labor, as reflected in employment levels, payroll per employee and aggregate establishment payroll. Using concurrent payroll and employment data from non-utility ("merchant") and utility generators in both restructured and nonrestructured states, I estimate the effect of market liberalization, comprising both new entry and state-level legislation, on employment and payroll in this industry. I find that merchant owners of divested generation assets employ significantly fewer people, but that the payroll per employee is not significantly different from what workers at utility-owned plants are paid. As a result, the new merchant owners of these plants have significantly lower aggregate payroll expenses. Decomposing the effect into a merchant effect and a divestiture effect, I find that merchant ownership is the primary driver of these results. As documented in Chapter 1, merchant power plants have lower overall payroll costs than plants owned by utilities. Employment at merchant power plants is characterized by reduced staffing levels but higher average payroll per employee. A hypothesis set forth in that paper is that merchant generators employ fewer workers at the lower end of the wage distribution, resulting in a higher average payroll per employee. The second chapter of this paper examines whether employment at nonutility power plants, that is, those that are either divested or native merchant power plants, is skewed towards more skilled labor. This chapter also considers the extent to which the difference in employment levels is the result of

  12. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  13. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  14. Transmission and wind investment in a deregulated electricity industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Lajos; Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    carrying out investment in wind farms. In this paper, we analyse the interaction between the two conflicting objectives under various assumptions about the electricity market structure and the degree of producers' market power. Via a three-node illustrative example, we show that a merchant investor...... the auspices of a regulated welfare-maximising planner, recent restructuring of electricity industries has introduced a merchant model for transmission investment, which provides congestion rents from construction of a new line. Thus, the merchant investor's incentives are different from those of producers...... typically builds less transmission capacity than a welfare-maximising transmission system operator or central planner. Although social welfare is lower and nodal prices are generally higher with a merchant investor and when producers are assumed to behave à la Cournot, the effect of lower price response...

  15. Industrial plant electrical systems: Simplicity, reliability, cost savings, redundancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, A.; Tommazzolli, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1992-01-01

    This article represents a compact but complete design and construction manual for industrial plant electrical systems. It is to be used by design engineers having prior knowledge of local power supply routes and voltages and regards principally the optimum choice of internal distribution systems which can be radial or single, double ringed or with various network configurations, and with single or multiple supplies, and many or few redundancies. After giving guidelines on the choosing of these options, the manual deals with problematics relevant to suitable cable sizing. A cost benefit benefit analysis method is suggested for the choice of the number of redundancies. Recommendations are given for the choice of transformers, motorized equipment, switch boards and circuit breakers. Reference is made to Italian electrical safety and building codes

  16. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  17. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  18. Electric power industry deregulation in the United States: impacts on U.S. and Canadian markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G.R. [Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    An overview of the restructuring and deregulation of the United States electric power industry and the implications for the North American natural gas industry was presented. Electric power restructuring and its effect on wholesale and retail competition was discussed. It was suggested that although in the short term electric power deregulation impacts negatively on the natural gas industry, the long term impacts are favourable. The short term impact on the natural gas industry will mean increased competition and downward pressure on gas prices. In contrast, the long term impact could mean increased reliance on gas for electric power generation and convergence of the electric power and natural gas industries.

  19. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different...

  20. 507 Developing Industrial and Technological Manpower via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable industrial and technological advancement and security for national development. ... industrial/technological manpower for Nigeria is the technical vocational education and ..... Business and Social Sciences, 2 (2), 71-77. Retrieved ...

  1. R and D strategy of the Korean electric industry using a Technology Roadmap(Trm) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    The proper allocation of the limited R and D resources under the restructuring of the electric industry is a primary motivator for this electricity technology roadmap (eTRM) initiative. Because the major interests of CEOs could be the short term profit of their company under the competitive electric industry, it would wrong of them to cut back on the long term R and D budgets which make it impossible to develop all the technologies. Therefore, we should select and support only the favorable and competitive technologies to meet the future market needs using the TRM approach with the concept of ''selection and concentration.'' This study aims at defining the key technologies basis from the forecasts of what is possible or likely to happen in the future and planning the course of action for the technology development in the electricity field in Korea. The selected technologies could be the candidates for the mid and long term R and D program supported concentrically by the Electricity Industry Infrastructure Fund. (orig.)

  2. Outsourcing services in electricity distribution network industry; Ostopalveluiden kaeyttoe verkkoliiketoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminoff, A.; Lappetelaeinen, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Jaerventausta, P.; Trygg, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    This report examines purchased services in the electricity distribution industry. The report is specially directed to readers working in the industry or otherwise interested in it. This report is a result of a research study that was done in 2008 by VTT, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Tampere University of Technology. The authors are thankful for funders and companies that made this research possible and provided lot of information and knowledge. We appreciate the participants in the steering group as well as the companies and people who answered to questionnaires, gave interviews and took part in GDSSinnovation session. In the business of electricity distribution the usage of purchased services has been increasing during the past years and network companies have focused more on their core business processes. There are a couple of peaks in the number of new purchasing decisions in the middle of the 90s and in the beginning of 2000. The most popular purchased services are network construction and maintenance services. On the other hand, many network planning related activities are still done in-house by the network companies, and are considered their core business. There are some industry specific factors that affect to the decision on whether or not to buy the service outside the company and how to cooperate with the suppliers. For instance, many network companies are owned by municipalities and many service providers are owned by the network companies. The former issue may sometimes bring local politics into the decision-making of the network companies. The latter issue, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the customer and the supplier, and the infra-organizational issues may sometimes complicate the service purchasing process. Electricity network companies also have natural monopoly positions in their operating areas. To prevent the abuse of monopoly positions, the network companies are subjected to economic regulation. This affects

  3. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  4. Electric power industry restructuring and ROE: The case of Korea Electric Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Gu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Korea's electric power industry was previously run by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in a natural monopoly-type structure. As economy of scale was waning in influence and management effectiveness began to increase in importance, KEPCO was divided into six subsidiaries and faced competition beginning in April 2001. This study evaluates the restructuring process for Korea's power industry and analyzes the financial outcomes based on return on equity (ROE). The results show that the ROE ratio increased. In the analysis period (1993-2004), the financial ratio showed a better performance than that before restructuring. However, productivity ratios such as productivity of capital (or gross value added to total assets) and gross value added to property, plant, and equipment decreased compared to the situation before restructuring. It is believed that the results were due to the increased financial leverage of KEPCO. For this reason, KEPCO should make further efforts to manage its debt in a systematic way

  5. Physics and Industrial Development - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Physics and Industrial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, R.; Moreira, R. L.; Rodrigues, W. N.

    1997-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Sponsors * Committees * Opening Lecture * Relations between Science and Industry in Brazil * Technological Change and Economic Development * Science and Economic Development * Recent Technological Change and Industrial Dynamics * Technology and Economic Development: Suitability of the Institutional System of Minais Gerais * Bridging the Gap * Transfer of Scientific Results into Industry: A Controversial Problem in Central and Eastern Europe * Bridging the Gap Between Basic Research and Industrial Development at the J. STEFAN Institute * Liquid Crystals: A Case Study of the Interaction Between Science and Application * Role of Physics in the Modern Industrialization Process of Korea * Research in Industry * A Theoretical Physicist's 21-Year Experience in the Argentine Industry * Four Characters in Search of a Profession * Status and Prospects for the Use of Renewable Sources of Energy in Minas Gerais State-Brazil * University-Industry Cooperation I * Development and Industrialization of Fiber Optics Metrology Equipment * Finnish Experiences on University-Industry Collaboration in Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy * A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Interaction between Academic Research and Industry * Technological Modernization of the Alkaline Cooking Process for the Production of Masa and Tortilla * The Fapergs Program on University Versus Private Enterprise * Integral Development Centers: Tying Mexican Industry With the National Polytechnic Institute * Materials Characterization and Applied Physics * Imaging Manganese Sulfide Inclusions in Grain Oriented Silicon Steels * Electrical Resistivity Changes Associated to Static Strain Aging in High Carbon Steel * PVD Hard Coatings for Wear Applications * Scanning Acoustic Microscopy: Application to Porous Materials * Indentation Testing of Thennal Sprayed WC-Co * Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis with Laserinduced

  6. New Technologies and Sustainable Development of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, Christoph; Baumgartner, Walter; Werner, Frank

    1996-08-01

    The present technology assessment study examines the effects of three technology scenarios on future energy consumption and the energy-related emissions by industrial manufacturing in Switzerland. The three paths of development (Trend, High-Tech, Alternative) can be represented as follows: After a reduction until 2015, the Trend development entails a slight increase in consumption of energy. Until then consumption is some 10 percent lower in both the High-Tech and the Alternative Scenarios. Consumption of electricity increases in all scenarios, the proportion is highest in 20 year's time under the High-Tech scenario. SO 2 and CO 2 emissions decrease in all scenarios until 2000 and then level out at a low level. The emissions are lowest in the High-Tech scenario. In contrast the NO x and the VOC emissions diminish until 2000 and then rise again continuously. At this juncture important bases are still not yet available for a definitive evaluation with respect to the sustainable development. Sustainability objectives are currently being compiled for Switzerland in the wake of the Berlin Climate Conference and the Rio Conference. In the political lobbies the Green factions are making demands, such as those currently under discussion internationally (e.g. CO 2 reductions on a scale of some 80 percent by 2050), whereas conservative and industrial circle representatives support the objective of sustainable development but reject a quantification of objectives. The official objectives of the Swiss Energy 2000 programme can be achieved with all scenarios. With the High-Tech and Alternative scenarios, concepts of a reduction in CO 2 by 20 percent by 2015 (as currently under discussion in Switzerland), are realistic. However, further energy-relevant efficiency potentials in industrial production can be activated by energy-policy motivated measures. More extensive objectives, such as e.g. a CO 2 reduction of 50 percent, are hardly attainable, even in the long-term, without

  7. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzynska, Karolina, E-mail: ksafarzy@wu.ac.at [Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Nordbergstrasse 15 (UZA4, 4B), A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den, E-mail: jeroen.bergh@uab.es [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn-Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fellow of Tinbergen Institute and NAKE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: > We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. > Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. > We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. > We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. > We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  8. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: → We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. → Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. → We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. → We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. → We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  9. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  10. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  11. Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F.

    1964-01-01

    The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [fr

  12. Electric Aircraft Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project looks at multiple manned/unmanned full-scale/sub-scale flying research prototypes that will lead to the integration of electric propulsion technology on...

  13. Overview of the Development of the Fluoropolymer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Teng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review briefly describes the development of the fluoropolymer industry in the past 70 years. Discussed are industrial fluoropolymers including polytetrafluoroethylene, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, polyvinylidenefluoride, polyvinylfluoride, ETFE, ECTFE, FEP, PFA, THV, Teflon AF and Cytop. Nafion is included as a special functional fluoropolymer material. These industrial fluoropolymers are introduced in the order of their discovery or time of first production, included are their chemical structures, thermal properties, mechanical properties, electrical and electronic properties, optical properties, chemical resistance, oxidative stabilities, weather stabilities, processabilities and their general applications. The main manufacturing companies for the different types of fluoropolymer products are also mentioned.

  14. Chaos theory perspective for industry clusters development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang

    2016-03-01

    Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.

  15. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  16. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  17. The electricity supply industry in Queensland, financial report 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This fourth financial report deals with the finances of the electricity supply industry and includes three sections. Section 1: letter to the minister; scope of the report; the Commission; the electricity authorities; forecasts; tariff policy; and the Queensland Electricity Supply Industry Superannuation Board. Section 2: consolidated schedules; and audited financial statements. Section 3: statistics; including production, distribution, consumption, financial, accidents, towns and locations.

  18. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  19. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  20. Sustainable Industrial Development Programmes of International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more insightful corporate entrepreneurship programmes with improved infrastructural and electric power facilities should be encouraged. Increasing support to firms through diverse channels would boost rapid economic development of the sub region. Key words: Sustainable programmes, economic development, ...

  1. NEDO report (April, 1995). Restructuring California's electric services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Recognizing nationwide changes in the electric utilities industry, Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The purpose is to foster competition and a basis on market mechanisms as the preferred means to develop and deliver energy services. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) hoped to better understand this change while emphasizing efforts to maintain safe, reliable, and reasonably priced electric service. According to the report in February, 1993, CPUC was considering reform of its regulatory program in view of technological change, competitive pressures and emerging market forces. Further, new electric service providers have entered the industry, intensifying competition and producing the opportunity and pressure for consumer choice. Consequently, CPUC are asking the industry to adopt strategic measures to deal with the regulation such as reduced costs and development of efficient innovative services. Hearings have been repeated for the revision of the law; however, the confusion will continue for the time being. Some kind of revision will be concluded within 1995; however, no deregulation will be implemented for the power industry probably until 1996. (NEDO)

  2. Electric power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, Y.N.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of electric power in the USSR is based on the Unified Electric Power System (UEPS) whose network cover most of the habitable territory of the country. Therefore, the development of the UEPS governs the overall evolution of the electric power generation in the country. At present, eleven out of thirteen joint electric power systems, which supply electricity to most of the USSR, are operating within the UEPS. The total electric power generation in the country reached 1728 billion kWh in 1990, of which the UEPS supplied approximately 90%. About 70% of installed capacity of the UEPS is fossil-fuelled power plants, about 12 % is nuclear power plants, and about 18% is hydroelectric power plants. The system-forming grid of the UEPS is made up of transmission lines of 220, 330, 500 and 750 kV. The on-line supervisory control of the UEPS is achieved by four-level automated system of dispatch control (UEPS, joint electric power systems, regional electric power systems, electric power plants, substations,electric grid regions). The development and extension of the UEPS in the USSR ensure higher reliability and quality of electric power supply to end-users, combined with higher efficiency. The principal problem facing the UEPS are as follows: the need to ensure environmental protection and efficiency of the steam power plants; to improve the safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants. The solution to these problems will define the conditions of the UEPS development, as well as electric power systems of other countries, at least for the coming two decades. This paper characterizes the peculiarities of the UEPS development over the last 20 years, including the installed capacity structure and the system-forming electric power grid. Special attention is paid to the environmental problems related to functioning and development of the UEPS and to the means of their solution. (author)

  3. Structural changes in industrial electricity use. The case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, E.; Lundmark, R. [Economics Unit, Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected.

  4. Strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Lester; Hirst, Eric; Hadley, Stanton

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential financial consequences, or transition costs, of transforming electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market in the US. Industry-wide estimates suggest potential monetary losses could exceed $100 billion as a result of the move to competition. The paper discusses the most prominent strategies suggested to address these potential losses. For each strategy, the paper identifies the parties most likely to bear the financial consequences. Most strategies do nothing to reduce the total costs to society, but instead shift costs from one set of economic actors to another. The exceptions are those strategies that result in economic-efficiency gains, which can then be used to offset the transition costs. Most of the strategies examined require the cooperation of several parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully. (author)

  5. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  6. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  7. Tomorrow's car: fuels and electricity - Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, Jean; Auverlot, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne; Buba, Johanne; Le Moign, Caroline; Hossie, Gaelle; Chriqui, Vincent; Mourier, Pierre-Francois; Broca, Olivier de; Hirtzman, Philippe; Bryden, Alan; Von Pechmann, Felix

    2011-06-01

    In its synthetic introduction, this report comments the evolution of the international, political and sociological environment for the automotive industry, discusses the motivations of the consumer to buy an electric vehicle, discusses the governing influence of financial constraints with respect to financial incentives, notices that public authorities consider that the never-ending improvement of thermal vehicles will first help to reach objectives of reduction of emissions. Then, some recommendations are made regarding vehicle characteristics, information on vehicle consumption and emissions, vehicle purchase and possession, vehicle use, safety, public research, standardisation, urban transport and other mobilities. Then, the chapters of the report body addresses the historical evolution of battery technology, the issue of raw materials used for batteries, and battery recycling, discusses the present performance of electric vehicles, compares electric vehicles and thermal vehicles in terms of costs, addresses the issues of regulation and standards for the development of electric vehicles, discusses the different features of the potential market of electric vehicles

  8. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  9. Ice storm '98: The electricity industry's great challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The biggest and most costly natural disaster to hit Canada in over a century, the ice storms of 1998, that transformed Eastern Canada into a virtual glacier, was discussed. Trees, wires, poles, transmission towers, transformers succumbed to the immense weight of the ice, countless transmission and distribution lines were destroyed, leaving millions in the dark and cold, many for several weeks. The unprecedented show of solidarity within the electricity industry, as hundreds of crews from utilities across Canada and the U.S., the many thousands of private individuals and some 16,000 members of the Canadian Forces that came to the assistance of those in the affected areas, working 16-hour days, braving falling trees and sub-zero temperatures, was truly astonishing, and clearly the stuff of which legends are made. The storm has humbled Canadian public authorities and especially the Canadian electricity industry. Besides honoring those that weathered the storm, and paying tribute to the utilities and private companies that reached out to assist in the relief efforts, this review also discusses the need for government agencies and utility companies to review their emergency preparedness plans. The objective is to improve them by incorporating the most important lessons learned from this experience, in an effort to forestall their future recurrence. It is generally accepted that the Ice Storm of '98 was a unique natural disaster that no amount of planning could have foreseen, much less prevented. Nevertheless, by examining the lessons learned, it might be possible to reduce the severity should a similar disaster occur again

  10. Expert system reasoning techniques applicable to the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of three problem solving paradigms adopted from the artificial intelligence discipline of computer sciences, which have been used in developing nuclear plant expert systems. Each technique is briefly defined and an example is presented that shows how that technique was used in developing an expert system application prototype. The three paradigms and their associated example systems are: (1) rule-based reasoning: reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) for the Electric Power Research Institute, (2) object-oriented programming: accident diagnosis and prognosis aid for the US Department of Energy, and (3) model-based reasoning: knowledge-based monitoring and control system for the Electric Power Research Institute

  11. Safety culture development in nuclear electric plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G.P.; Low, M.B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Electric plc (NE) has always given the highest priority to safety. However, past emphasis has been directed towards ensuring safety thorough engineering design and hazard control procedures. Whilst the company did achieve high safety standards, particularly with respect to accidents, it was recognized that further improvements could be obtained. Analysis of the safety performance across a wide range of industries showed that the key to improving safety performance lay in developing a strong safety culture within the company. Over the last five years, NE has made great strides to improve its safety culture. This has resulted in a considerable improvement in its measured safety performance indicators, such as the number of incidents at international nuclear event scale (INES) rating 1, the number of lost time accidents and the collective radiation dose. However, despite this success, the company is committed to further improvement and a means by which this process becomes self-sustaining. In this way the company will achieve its prime goal, to ''ensure the safety of people, plant and the environment''. The paper provides an overview of the development of safety culture in NE since its formation in November 1989. It describes the research and international developments that have influenced the company's understanding of safety culture, the key initiatives that the company has undertaken to enhance its safety culture and the future initiatives being considered to ensure continual improvement. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Competition and power pooling in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, P.; Yarrow, G.; Fusaro, P.

    1995-01-01

    Two contributions to the debate on power pooling and competition in the electricity supply industry are presented. In the first, the situation in England and Wales where power pooling was introduced shortly before privatization is analysed. Pooling has existed for many years in the USA but as an inter-generator arrangement designed to optimize production and costs. The British system sought in addition to establish a spot market in which bulk buyers as well as bulk suppliers could participate. There are however obvious weaknesses in the pool as a competitive market and it is argued that a combination of pooling arrangements and longer-term bilateral supply contracts are more likely to offer the prospect of workably competitive and efficient outcomes. The second contribution discusses how competitive markets will evolve in the USA under the new regime of less onerous regulation heralded by the Energy Policy Act if 1992 and the emergence of electricity trading markets which followed. In particular, the proposal by the California Public Utility commission favouring a mandatory Poolco is examined. Poolco would operate the transmission grid and dispatch generating plants while the utilities would retain ownership of transmission facilities and be required to supply the pool. This is seen as representing only partial deregulation and not to be consistent with moves to further competition and encourage free markets. (U.K.)

  13. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  14. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  15. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on first term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-30

    The research and development in the first term has searched widely different kinds of raw materials, elucidated electricity conduction mechanism, discussed processing technologies and evaluation methods. It also included molecule designing to develop new raw materials. A method for growing good single crystals of charge migrating complexes was developed, and (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} crystals were found to manifest superconductivity at 8K under pressure of 1.3 kbar. In addition, elucidation was made on conduction characteristics of (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} being an induction superconductor, and on its superconduction mechanism. Polyacetylene films oriented at a high level by epitaxial polymerization were synthesized, the carrier hopping mechanism of polyacetylene was proposed, and the direction of increasing the conductivity was shown. It was discovered that cyanoacetylene is thermally polymerized at a relatively low temperature, turning into polymer with good orientation and easily into graphite. Polymeric intermediates soluble to polyparaphenylene vinylene (PPV) were synthesized, whereas these intermediates were found to have shaping and stretching properties, and conductivity of 2.8 times 10{sup 3}s/cm was obtained in PPV doped after the stretching. (NEDO)

  16. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on first term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-30

    The research and development in the first term has searched widely different kinds of raw materials, elucidated electricity conduction mechanism, discussed processing technologies and evaluation methods. It also included molecule designing to develop new raw materials. A method for growing good single crystals of charge migrating complexes was developed, and (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} crystals were found to manifest superconductivity at 8K under pressure of 1.3 kbar. In addition, elucidation was made on conduction characteristics of (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} being an induction superconductor, and on its superconduction mechanism. Polyacetylene films oriented at a high level by epitaxial polymerization were synthesized, the carrier hopping mechanism of polyacetylene was proposed, and the direction of increasing the conductivity was shown. It was discovered that cyanoacetylene is thermally polymerized at a relatively low temperature, turning into polymer with good orientation and easily into graphite. Polymeric intermediates soluble to polyparaphenylene vinylene (PPV) were synthesized, whereas these intermediates were found to have shaping and stretching properties, and conductivity of 2.8 times 10{sup 3}s/cm was obtained in PPV doped after the stretching. (NEDO)

  17. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhaes, Elbia; Santana, Edvaldo de

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  18. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  19. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  20. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Greening of Nordic electricity industry: policy convergence and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gundersen, Mari Hegg; Koefoed, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    With a comparative focus on policy similarity and diversity, this article gives an overview of the main elements of electricity-related environmental policy in the Nordic countries, following the launching of a common electricity market in the 1990s. The article points out that the electricity related environmental policy positions of the Nordic countries showed a noticeable lack of coordination in the 1990s. Nordic divergence is observed both in terms of general policy orientations and at the instrument and incentive levels, in spite of the pioneering development of a common integrated electricity market and ambitious environmental policy goals. The article then highlights how the recent Swedish 'green' certificate market model has created a new momentum for market-based 'greening' with a potential for stronger convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. In spite of signs of convergence, the article shows how the development of Nordic electricity-related environmental policy still contains considerable ambiguity: Unequal resource endowments, subject to simple resource-based interest formation, should indicate that there is little room for convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. Shifting the environmental policy focus from existing technologies and resources to potential innovations, however provides a more open arena where the Nordic countries may see themselves served by the dynamic scope of a broader Nordic market based on a common policy approach, such as a green certificate market. In explaining why the Nordic arena may be an interesting locus for common renewable energy policy, the article points out that small countries may need an 'intermediary' arena to aggregate size and scope in order to generate a European momentum in regulatory competition with larger European states. Similarly, Nordic companies may consider the opportunity to gain first mover advantages by partnering with government as local experimentation may be seen as useful pilot

  2. The development of the UK landfill gas industry: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, H.

    1996-01-01

    The UK's landfill gas research started in 1978 and led to the first commercial scheme in 1981 where the gas was used to fire a brick kiln. Electricity generation followed in 1984. Although by 1990 there were nearly two dozen operational schemes, the real impetus to usage was given by the NFFO. Here all electricity generated could be sold irrespective of the demand. Although the Department of Energy - and latterly the Department of Trade and Industry - invested substantial monies in the early research and development, the greatest factor in the success of the industry has been willingness to take its own risks. The industry must now learn to live with lower revenues and heightened environmental requirements. (Author)

  3. The condition and prospects of nuclear industry development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricenko, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation author analyses perspectives of nuclear industry development in Russian Federation. State of NPPs in Russia on 2005 year is presented. NPP output, NPP capacity factor as well as NPP operation events in Russia in the period of 1992-2010 are analysed. The energy strategy of Russia and scenario for electricity production development as well as main challenges of 'Rosenergoatom' including life extension of NPP power units in Russian Federation are discussed

  4. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government's relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China's predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems

  5. Impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets: a power marketer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahns, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets was examined. The presentation included industry comparisons of 1994 gas total revenues versus electricity total revenues for residential, commercial, and industrial use. A chart forecasting the outlook for gas-fired generation of electric power indicated that the use of natural gas as feedstock for power generation will increase from 12% to 37% during the period 1994 to 2003. 16 figs

  6. ASEAN coal development and its impact on electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, H.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Association of southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) comprising the States of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand is presently experiencing rapid growth in electricity demand attributed mainly to the continued high growth in the economy. This rapid pace of industrialization is exerting pressure on resources available to meet electricity demand. Over the last few years coal has emerged as a significant energy resource in the region and is poised to play an even bigger role in the electricity sector. The paper outlines the electricity supply and coal development in each of the ASEAN countries. The impact of coal in the future generation mix is analyzed. The major issues relating to these developments are also discussed

  7. Human networks in the European electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjot, Dominique; Kurgan-van Hentenryk, Ginette

    2004-01-01

    Behind electrical systems, we should not forget the human networks. The European case is interesting for that matter. There were major players involved, from the pioneers up to the conceivers of national and international systems. More particularly, the engineers should be considered for their technical as well as organizational performance. Attitudes must also be stressed: in Europe, electricity has constantly been developed with both nationalist and internationalist considerations, as shown by the passage from Unternehmergeschaeft to Bankgeschaeft after 1918. Neither should we forget the role played by institutions in the formation of networks: schools, holdings, cartels, and also those frontier zones formed by small countries like Belgium and Switzerland. The human networks, finally, left long term results such as: interconnection, inter-firm cooperation, technocracy, and the growing intervention of the State

  8. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cateura, O.

    2007-11-01

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  9. Electric industry Latin American: Achievements and perspectives - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1999-01-01

    It includes a historical review; what is the general management of electricity, actors that intervene in the electric market, goals, alternative sources, investment opportunities and foreign investment

  10. Trends in innovation activities in manufacturing industries across development echelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper explores trends in innovation activities measured by a countries’ total patent application submission intensity relative to its population, and by analyzing U.S. granted patents data for cohorts of developed countries and developing countries. In addition to tabular and graphical analyses, I use a baseline regression model and a variant model thereof to assess the relative influence of a set of aggregate variables on innovation activities in eight manufacturing industries across two cohorts of countries (developed and developing where each cohort contains eight individual countries. Eight industries included in this study are: Chemical, Petroleum, electrical and electronics equipment, machinery, pharmaceutical, plastic, computer, and textile. The cohort of developed countries includes Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States. The cohort of developing countries includes Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey. Per regression results, ethnic diversity is a statistically significant positive determinant of innovation for all industry aggregate patent count for both high income and developing countries. Also, per capita electricity usage, R&D expenditure as percent of GDP, and percent of population with internet access are three positive factors of innovation irrespective of industrial subsectors and position of a country in the development echelon. Interestingly, impact of ICT-services export is statistically significant and innovation boosting in developing countries in the cohort relative to countries in the cohort of developed countries. It also appears that trade openness served as a stronger stimulant of innovation activities for developing countries’ but not as much for the cohort of developed or high-income countries. This paper attempts to extend the literature on cross-country comparison of innovation activities by using two

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Outsourcing on the Performance of Lithuanian Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Gasparėnienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at evaluation of the impact of outsourcing on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry. Research methods include systematic analysis of the scientific literature and expert evaluation. Theoretical analysis of the literature has enabled to identify the most significant outsourcing determinants, which have the impact on the performance of electricity industry, and the main outsourcing-related risks for the companies operating in this industry. The results of the empirical research have revealed the effects of various outsourcing determinants on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry as well as negative outcomes of outsourcing application in the researched industry.

  12. Energized CO{sub 2} dry ice blast cleaning firmly grounded in the Canadian electrical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, K.

    1999-02-01

    Development and use of energized carbon dioxide dry ice blast technology for cleaning electrical distribution system components by Oakville Hydro and Milton Hydro (both in Ontario) is discussed. The technology was developed by Alpheus Cleaning Technologies of California and Puget Sound Power and Light Company after a two-year study that commenced in 1991, and has been supplied in Canada by Wickens Industrial Ltd., since 1993 for cleaning various industrial and non-energized electrical applications in the automotive, printing , food processing and other manufacturing industries and hydro generating facilities. The unique cleaning dynamics of this technology allow for the removal of contaminants that are much more stubborn than those encountered in pad-mounted switchgear and other electrical apparatus. Dry ice pellets, by expanding to 400 times their solid state on impact, create a flushing action that helps to remove contaminants. No grit or solvents are required and the process is non-toxic. In using the process workers wear fire retardant clothing, 40 kV-Class 4 rubber gloves and full face shields. Dielectric tests are performed routinely to confirm the dielectric integrity of the spray wand components. A two stage inspection/trouble report is completed on every job. Use of this technology eliminates power interruptions to customers, improves system reliability and safety, reduces cleaning time to a minimum, and eliminated the need for reclamation of grit or solvent containment.

  13. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  14. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1998-01-01

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries [it

  15. Development of tungsten collimators for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkey, P.A.; Verma, P.B.; Jayakumar, T.K.; Mammachan, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Collimators are essential components of industrial radiography set up as it provides radiation safety to persons involved in the radiography work. A collimator with optimum design features also helps in reducing the scattered radiation which in turn results in radiographs having better sensitivity. This papers describes the salient design features of the tungsten collimators developed by the BRIT, for industrial radiography. (author)

  16. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  17. Forecast electricity demand in Quebec: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Demographic, economic, and energy prospects are the determining factors in estimating demand for electricity in Quebec. In average scenarios developed for 1992-2010, the Quebec population will grow 0.5%/y and the gross domestic product will increase 2.6%/y. Firm electricity sales by Hydro-Quebec will grow to 197.9 TWh by 2010, or 2.2%/y. Sales in the residential and farm sectors should grow 1.3%/y and sales in the general and institutional sectors should rise by 2.2%/y. Electricity demand in the industrial sector, rising at an estimated 2.9%/y in 1992-2010, is chiefly responsible for the anticipated growth in Hydro-Quebec's overall sales. The nonferrous smelting, refining, chemicals, and paper industries will account for ca 60% of this growth. In the municipal services and public transportation sectors, demand should grow 3.3%/y, and over half the growth forecast in this sector can be attributed to the impact that new uses of electricity are expected to have after 2005. High- and low-growth scenarios offer alternative visions of demand growth based on different but equally valid assumptions about demographic and economic growth. In terms of firm electricity sales, the high- and low-growth scenarios differ by 50 TWh in 2010. Hydro-Quebec has retained two strategic orientations that will influence growth in electricity sales: the development of industrial markets and extension of the energy-savings objective of 9.3 TWh forecast to the year 2000. Taking these two orientations into account, the growth rate for electricity sales in the average scenario would be 1.8%/y rather than 2.2%/y. 25 figs., 81 tabs

  18. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  19. Applications of Expert Systems within the Scottish Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the areas of application of Expert Systems within the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB). The SSEB interest in Expert Systems was initiated by a fault in a conventional power station however the paper describes how the development associated with that work, has resulted in applications for the Nuclear Power Stations. The paper contrasts the cost benefits and project risks associated with the uses of probabilistic systems and concludes that the cost benefits of these are at present too low to justify their use in on-line applications

  20. Green pricing: Customer-oriented marketing of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1998-01-01

    There are at present about 15 established projects launched by energy suppliers in Germany which deserve to be called ''green pricing'' marketing strategies, and about an equal number of further projects at various stages of development which also offer as a ''green'' incentive for customers electricity from renewable energy sources. Worldwide, there are about 50 established green pricing projects, offered primarily in the USA, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and in Germany. The targeted customers of these projects for the time being are exclusively households that cannot easily switch over to other than their local suppliers. It can be expected that with progressive market liberalisation in Great Britain, the USA and, finally, in Germany, competition for this customer group will rapidly increase the number of green pricing marketing projects in these countries. This is why the article here presents a thorough analysis of the specific features of green pricing contracts, their impact on enhanced development and application of the technology for electricity generation from renewables, and a forecast on future developments. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Privatization of British electricity supply industry: Critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigni, G.

    1993-01-01

    Until 1989, despite the partially disintegrated organization of the British electricity supply industry (ESI) and the attempt of the Energy Act of 1983 to pull down entrance barriers to the power generation business, ESI operated like an integrated monopoly. Between 1989 and 1990, ESI has been subjected to a reorganization process and transfer to the private sector with the declared aim of improving short and long run micro-economic efficiency. For this purpose, the attempt of introducing competition in the phases of the production process where possible and of regulating those which are structurally non competitive, has been made. The new configuration of ESI in terms of organizational structure, property regime and regulatory system is analyzed. Areas of improvement of the regulatory system and delayed key decisions of the public operator, are identified. However, any evaluation of the process as a whole can only relate to a minor part of the present situation; thus it subtends a scenary for the future, where the role of the regulatory authority is crucial

  2. Development of electrical capacitance sensor for tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Jaafar Abdullah; Ismail Mustapha; Sazrol Azizee Ariff; Susan Maria Sipaun; Lojius Lombigit

    2004-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is one of the successful methods for imaging 2-phase liquid/gas mixture in oil pipelines and solids/gas mixture in fluidized bed and pneumatic conveying system for improvement of process plants. This paper presents the design development of an electrical capacitance sensor for use with an ECT system. This project is aimed at developing a demonstration ECT unit to be used in the oil pipe line. (Author)

  3. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  4. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  5. The Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity In ICT for Sustainability In Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivor, Kenneth; Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi

    2013-01-01

    Poor basic infrastructure and reliable electricity supply play a significant role in development of Information, Communication Technologies (ICT) industry and could eventually lead to attaining sustainable development. From research studies, quality electricity supply has been an integral part....... Unfortunately, electricity delivery in the third countries is so much appalling due to limited electricity generating capacity, poor distribution networks, etc. which is hindering effective development including the ICT industry in these countries. To address some of these challenges locally without recourse...... to importation of fossil fuel energy resources that will compromise sustainable development goals, it is important to that locally, abundantly and freely available energy source such as solar electricity are given priority by policy makers, researcher and industries in third world countries. Solar electricity...

  6. The Methodical Aspects of Material Stimulation in the Motivation System at Enterprises of Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostіn Dmytro Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article improves the methodical aspects of estimating material stimulation at enterprises of electricity industry. It has been determined that the provided taxonomy coefficients synthetically characterize changes in the values of attributes of the groups studied. Their most important advantage is that, in the course of analysis, we can now use only one indicator, which characterizes the direction and scope of changes in the processes described by the set of arbitrary numbers of incoming attributes. The level of material stimulation in the motivation system of enterprises of electricity in 2012–2015 was researched. It has been noted that during the outlined period there has been a general trend towards an increase in the integral indicator. This results from the economic crisis occurrences and the lack of a well-functioning organizational and economic mechanism for managing the motivation system at enterprises of this industry branch. The integrated assessment of enterprises extends the economic essence of the concept of material stimulation in the motivation system at enterprises of electricity industry, allowing it to be used to characterize the enterprise’s ability to return to its equilibrium status, preserve the parameters and move to a new stage of development in the conditions of accidental changes in the external and internal environment.

  7. Developing finance to meet energy industry challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphett, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of commercial financial institutions in the development of the world's oil and gas industry are charted in this article. Banks and other institutions have been lending money to the oil industry since the late 1920s. In the early days loans were short-term, but as the oil and gas industries have developed, using deeper wells and more complex technology, financial needs too have expanded. Better forecasting of future recovery levels, and a better understanding of reservoir characteristics has meant that lending institutions have advanced funds against projected oil revenues, with repayments due only as oil production comes on-line. (UK)

  8. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, R.D. [Fisher, Sheehan and Colton (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  9. Proceedings of Wireless Technology in the Electric Power Industry Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A one-day workshop was conducted at EPRI Charlotte to identify technology issues related to wireless technology in nuclear power plants. The meeting concluded with a roundtable discussion to determine what projects could be conducted to address opportunities and gaps in this technology; the three projects recommended for further investigation were a risk analysis, development of a technology strategy, and development of guidelines for reliable implementation of wireless technologies. The Proceedings CD includes workshop presentations in PowerPoint format. The presentations cover the following topics: (1) Wireless Project at TXU: Integration of Voice, Data, and Video; (2) Radio Upgrade Project at Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE and G) of New Jersey; and (3) Operational Experience with Wireless Communication at Nuclear Plants

  10. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  11. Electric technology in the food service industry; Les technologies electriques dans les services alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonte, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Many innovative technologies in the food service industry have been made through the use of electricity as a source of energy. Electricity made it possible to improve the productivity and profitability of the food industry. Some of these technologies include: (1) cooking by induction, which is based on the principle of magnetic fields, (2) combined convection ovens which accelerate thermal exchange, and (3) electric fryers. The advantages of each technology were described. The environmental advantage of using electricity as an energy source in the food service industry was also discussed.

  12. Sustainable development and the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is a perception in some quarters that the continued development of the coal and minerals industries is incompatible with sustainability. Yet a future without mining is clearly a very long way off. This article outlines some of the initiatives being taken by the coal industry to overcome the adverse perceptions and demonstrate that coal has an important future to play. Industries in the future will be assessed not only on their economic performance, as in the past, but also on their environmental and social performance - that is, their contribution to sustainable development. In this context, sustainable development is now part of mainstream business thinking in many major corporations. Apart from identifying improvement opportunities, the process should also result in a better understanding of mining industry role by non-mining stake holders. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  13. Research and development project in fiscal 1990 for large industrial technologies. Achievement report on research and development of ultra-advanced processing systems (Development of high-level processing devices for electric power generation facility members); 1990 nendo chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden shisetsuyo buzai kodo kako sochi kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with an objective to establish the processing technology using excitation beam required for the advanced technology industries, and the ultra-precision machining technology to realize the nano-technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1990. In the research on the large output and long life technology for excimer laser, an average output of 500 W or more was demonstrated achieving the intermediate target by developing and improving the technologies for low electric power gas circulation, high efficiency discharge and excitation, and large output oscillation control. In the research on intensity resistant optical element technology, a prototype device was fabricated to create and process axially symmetrical aspherical shapes, whereas SiC aspherical shape creation and processing were demonstrated at the shape accuracy of three microns or better, and surface roughness of 20 nanometers or less, having achieved the intermediate target. Regarding the large current ion beam, a demonstration device was completed based on improvements and test results on the sheet plasma generator. In the research and development of the high-level processing technology, low-temperature forming technology was developed for oxide ceramic thin films by using the excimer laser abrasion method. (NEDO)

  14. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  15. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  16. Development of services on the electricity market in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustsson, Kamilla

    1997-10-01

    American electric utilities are developing new services and creating strategic alliances in order to be competitive on a de-regulated market. Separate energy-service companies are created, which offer many services: energy brokers, energy auditing, out-sourcing of energy supply, control of energy bills and information- and communication-services. The report describes how the utilities prepare for the deregulation and what type of services are offered to commercial and industry customers 21 refs, 10 figs

  17. The US Electricity Industry and the Low-Carbon Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2016-04-01

    While the wave of liberalisation produced a fragmented, but now stabilised, industrial landscape, the US power sector is about to undergo another major transformation with the low-carbon transition. Against a background of combined weak demand for electricity, a boom in distributed solar PV power and a decline in the profitability of merchant assets, incumbent stakeholders are currently dealing with further questions about the future of their business models. Driven as much by market forces as by government support mechanisms, these destabilising factors have an impact, which is still difficult to assess, but the need to control future transformation is already at the heart of debate. In areas where output is priced on the wholesale markets, new tools are being studied to secure compensation for some power stations, with the issue of possible excessive dependency on natural gas in the background. At the same time, an increasing number of states are questioning the design of their support mechanisms for distributed energy. If net metering, the main support mechanism for distributed solar PV power, has been a resounding success because of its simplicity, it is now criticised because of the problems of covering grid costs and the cross-subsidies it leads to. Although reforms are always difficult to implement, since they involve a conflict of increasingly organised interests, consensus is beginning to emerge regarding the structure of retail sales tariffs. Nevertheless, calls for an assessment of distributed generation according to its actual value for the system are increasing, without any real convergence of views on the methodology to be adopted to date. Conventional stakeholders are also looking to adapt in order to find growth opportunities where primarily only challenges appear. The diversification of activities is an important lever for transformation, even if the case of NRG Energy illustrates the difficulty in making strategic shifts while maintaining

  18. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  19. 76 FR 70166 - Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...] Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget... contained in the Electrical Standards for Construction (29 CFR part 1926, Subpart K) and for General... maintenance of electric utilization equipment that prevent death and serious injuries among construction and...

  20. Industry will meet productivity goals, but can it hold the line on prices: electrical Canada, 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    The Canadian electrical industry can expect to grow more muscle in 1967. Demand for electricity increases across the country and the big power projects will be the Nelson Columbia, Peace, Manicouagan, Outardes and Churchill Falls. With more promotion by utilities scheduled better electrical living will get a record shot in the arm.

  1. The Effects of Competition Policy on TFP Growth: Some Evidence from the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kok Fong See; Tim Coelli

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the electricity supply industry in Peninsular Malaysia from 1975 to 2005 and to assess the impact of private entry reforms upon TFP in this industry. Prior to 1995, a government-linked, vertically-integrated electricity utility, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), was essentially the sole operator. However, since 1995 privately-owned Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have also begun generating electricity, a...

  2. Strategies for Developing China's Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhi Li; Ming Gao

    2003-01-01

    The software industry is deemed an ideal target for a developing country to integrate into the world information and communications technology (ICT) market. On the one hand the industry is labor intensive, and the developing countries have a large labor surplus; on the other hand, it is a worldwide trend for developed countries to outsource a vast amount of low-end, software-related tasks to the low-cost countries and regions, which fits into some developing countries’ caliber nicely. India h...

  3. Innovation, Procurement and Construction Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geard de Valence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The implications for analysis of innovation in construction of theoretical developments in industrial organisation are considered in this research, as an attempt to outline a new approach to construction innovation incorporating the ideas found in knowledge based, technology centred models. The paper firstly summarises characteristics of the construction industry, focusing on their effects on innovation, before surveying some of the ideas about the sources of innovation and the expansion and application of knowledge. Construction can be seen as an industry with limited scope for knowledge externalities, where the procurement methods used by the industry’s clients do not pay for innovation. The following discussion uses recent developments in the research on the economics of innovation and industrial organization theory, such as research intensity and the endogenous sunk costs in competitive, fragmented, low research intensity industries. The effects on R&D of procurement methods and on industry structure are discussed, with a focus on the appropriability of innovations and the role of the client on the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. The paper concludes that the procurement methods used for building and construction projects appears to be a determining factor in the level of innovation in the construction industry

  4. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  5. R and D investment of electricity-generating firms following industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihwan; Kim, Yeonbae; Flacher, David

    2012-01-01

    Since electricity market restructuring, questions over adequate levels of R and D investments persisted. Using an unbalanced panel data of 70 electricity-generating firms across 15 Organisations of Economic Co-operation and Development countries from 1990 to 2008, this paper empirically examines the impacts of entry liberalization (allowing third party access, establishing a wholesale market, and deregulating a retail market), vertical unbundling, privatization, and firm size on R and D investments. Entry liberalization is associated with a decline in R and D investment. Establishing a wholesale market exhibits the greatest negative effects on R and D investment. Regulated TPA and retail market deregulation also decrease R and D. The effect of privatization is not independently salient but interacts with a wholesale pool to lower R and D investments. Large firms spend more on R and D investment than small firms. Results indicate that the restructuring of the electricity industry reduces R and D investment, which may be detrimental to the reliability and the efficiency of the electricity system as well as to the creation and maintenance of the innovation capabilities necessary to address demand and environmental concerns. - Highlights: ► Entry liberalization decreases R and D outlays of electricity generating utilities. ► Establishment of a wholesale market leads to a substantial decline in R and D spending. ► Private ownership interacts with entry liberalization to lower R and D investment.

  6. Development of Eco-Industry Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ioviţu

    2012-01-01

    Measures to encourage development of Eco-industries represent an important part of the programs of many countries; analyses of different international organisms reveal a series of advantages of this sector for economy. According to OCDE “The environmental goods and services industry consists of activities which produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit, minimize or correct environmental damage to water, air and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise and Eco-systems”. Th...

  7. Industry Participation in Defence Research and Development,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Research and Development: Proposals for Additional Incentives. ASTEC , 1990. K . Interaction between Industry, Higher Education and Government Laboratories...Incentives for Innovation in Australian Industry. ASTEC , 1983. P. Bibliography. Distribution Document Control Data Sheet AWA I A& I 14l2 p/O)OIP (02... ASTEC and the Senate Committee on Science and the Environment. My Department is already preparing advice for me in this regard and I shall ask them to

  8. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current metabolic engineering projects are carried out using laboratory strains as the starting host. Although such strains are easily manipulated genetically, their robustness does not always meet the requirements set by industrial fermentation conditions. In such conditions, the cells...... screening of the 36 industrial and laboratory yeast strains. In addition, progress in the development of molecular biology methods for generating the new strains will be presented....

  9. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Petrusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  10. Analyzing the development of Indonesia shrimp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to analyze the development of shrimp industry in Indonesia. Porter’s Diamond Theory was used for analysis. The Porter’s Diamond theory is one of framework for industry analysis and business strategy development. The Porter’s Diamond theory has five forces that determine the competitive intensity in an industry, namely (1) the threat of substitute products, (2) the threat of competition, (3) the threat of new entrants, (4) bargaining power of suppliers, and (5) bargaining power of consumers. The development of Indonesian shrimp industry pretty good, explained by Porter Diamond Theory analysis. Analysis of Porter Diamond Theory through four main components namely factor conditions; demand condition; related and supporting industries; and firm strategy, structure and rivalry coupled with a two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance). Based on the result of this research show that two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance) have positive. Related and supporting industries have negative, firm and structure strategy have negative, rivalry has positive, factor condition have positive (except science and technology resources).

  11. Economic corridor of industrial development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, M. A.; Miraj, P.; Sidqi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia as an archipelago country categorize its regional development into six corridors from Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali-Nusa Tenggara and Papua-Maluku. Currently, industrial development becomes one of the highest contributing factors to the national economic growth. However, each region in the nation experience inequality of development mainly related to the infrastructure sector. Thus, the research aims to develop a sustainable economic corridor by considering the characteristics and its potential. The research uses a qualitative approach through a desk study, benchmarking and in-depth interview. Location Quotient is used for the method of the analysis tool. The results show each characteristic of every corridor in the country. Sumatera as national plantation and processing industry corridor, Java as cyber technology innovation and services center, Kalimantan as national energy reserves and processing, Sulawesi as national aquaculture and processing industry, Bali - Nusa Tenggara as national eco-tourism center, and Papua - Maluku as national ore mining and processing.

  12. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Developments in fossil fuel electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Argiri, M.

    1993-01-01

    A major part of the world's electricity is generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, and there is a significant environmental impact due to the production of fossil fuels and their combustion. Coal is responsible for 63% of the electricity generated from fossil fuels; natural gas accounts for about 20% and fuel oils for 17%. Because of developments in supply and improvements in generating efficiencies there is apparently a considerable shift towards a greater use of natural gas, and by the year 2000 it could provide 25% of the world electricity output. At the same time the amount of fuel oil burned will have decreased. The means to minimize the environmental impact of the use of fossil fuels, particularly coal, in electricity production are considered, together with the methods of emission control. Cleaner coal technologies, which include fluidized bed combustion and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), can reduce the emissions of NO x , SO 2 and CO 2 . (author)

  15. SPECIFICITY IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Golubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity in development of construction industry of the Republic of Belarus determines  character of competition on the construction market, forms a pricing, marketing and product policy of building companies. Construction represents itself as a highly developed complex where interaction of business entities is of rather complicated multilateral character.

  16. Electricity market deregulation and its impact on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.E.; Alfors, G.

    2000-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied in OECD countries by state-owned facilities, or state-protected monopolies with regulated pricing. More recently, however, several countries have deregulated their electricity markets, thus opening the door to competitive supply and pricing. Deregulation of electricity markets is a trend that is expected to be followed by many countries, and can have a significant impact on the future of nuclear power programmes. (authors)

  17. Active solar heating industry development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that solar water heating systems are technologically viable and commercially available, this Energy Technology Support Unit report shows that there is no established market in the United Kingdom. The Solar Trade Association (STA) has undertaken an Active Solar Heating Industry Development Study which is reported here. The data is derived from a questionnaire survey completed by companies, organizations and individuals operating within the industry. Information was also gathered from utility companies, and STAs elsewhere in Europe. Barriers which need to be overcome include lack of public awareness, especially in the construction industry, lack of capital investment and other financial disincentives, little or no government support, and lack of organization and quality monitoring and assurance within the industry itself. (UK)

  18. The relationship between the industry of natural gas and the sector of electric power: perspectives for the united development of such segments in Bahia; Estudo da industria do gas natural e sua relacao com o setor eletrico na Bahia: perspectivas para uma integracao sinergica entre tais segmentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Daniel O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Georges S. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural

    2005-07-01

    The industry of natural gas is finding great inter-relationship with the electric power section due to aspects technical, economical and institutional. In Brazil, this world tendency is increasing quickly, above all, starting from the crisis of energy lived by the Country in 2001. In spite of, in spite of being the third producing largest and consume-pain in Brazil, Bahia now is deficient in natural gas, committing the thermal-electricity generation due to lack of this energy one as well as, of the deficiency in the transport and distribution infrastructure. Besides, Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest population without access the electric power. This motivates reflections concerning the potentialities of the natural gas to lessen this situation. Therefore, this work has an objective to evaluate the structures of the industry of the natural gas and the electric section in Bahia and the relationship among these segments. Initially, it tries to present the reasons that it is taking the development of the electric power generation in consonance with the industry of the gas. Soon afterwards, it comes a retrospective abbreviation of the electric power generation in Brazil and in Bahia, emphasizing the recent tendency of use of the natural gas for the thermal-electricity generation. In the following point, it talks about the reservations and production of natural gas and he/she comes the structure of commercialization of gas from the production/importation to the distribution in Brazil and in Bahia. To proceed, the investment plans are evaluated for the enlargement of the production, transport and distribution of natural gas and electricity in Bahia. Finally, the article is concluded being discussed the difficulties and perspectives of increase and integration of the segments of natural gas and electric power in Bahia, tends in view the institutional aspects, technique and economical of a model that influences the use of the natural gas and contribute to the

  19. New Zealand’s Drug Development Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carswell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry’s profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ’s clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ’s clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  20. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  1. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  2. A feasible reform for the electricity supply industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.; Wang, J.H.; Engriwan, W.; Lo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    With the current scheme of control regulation for the Hong Kong electricity supply industry expiring in 2008, the Government has sent out a consultation paper seeking views from the general public on its reform and possible future development. This paper investigates the characteristics of the current agreement and the rationale for feasible reform of the Hong Kong ESI. It leads to a discussion on a proposed feasible reform using performance-based regulation approach modeling and the associated implementation issues related to price capping, risk analysis, performance indices, quality monitoring and governance

  3. Comparison the programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors; Comparacao de programas de eficiencia energetica para motores eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues dos; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert@fec.unicamp.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a comparison among the existing programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors in Brazil, in the United States of America and in the European Community. The analysis is restricted to the action of each program, considering that the mentioned countries present distinct economical, political and social characteristics. Therefore, it is intended to discuss the main barriers existing in the Brazilian industrial context which cause difficulties to develop a program of electric motors efficiency and to indicate some ways to overcome those barriers. (author)

  4. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number o...... of platforms and product brands serve as the key dimensions when distinguishing the different strategies. Each strategy has its own challenges and raises various issues to deal with.......The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  5. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  6. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  7. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  8. Organizational culture and knowledge management in the electric power generation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Robert D.

    Scarcity of knowledge and expertise is a challenge in the electric power generation industry. Today's most pervasive knowledge issues result from employee turnover and the constant movement of employees from project to project inside organizations. To address scarcity of knowledge and expertise, organizations must enable employees to capture, transfer, and use mission-critical explicit and tacit knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to examine the relationship between and among organizations within the electric power generation industry developing knowledge management processes designed to retain, share, and use the industry, institutional, and technical knowledge upon which the organizations depend. The research findings show that knowledge management is a business problem within the domain of information systems and management. The risks associated with losing mission critical-knowledge can be measured using metrics on employee retention, recruitment, productivity, training and benchmarking. Certain enablers must be in place in order to engage people, encourage cooperation, create a knowledge-sharing culture, and, ultimately change behavior. The research revealed the following change enablers that support knowledge management strategies: (a) training - blended learning, (b) communities of practice, (c) cross-functional teams, (d) rewards and recognition programs, (e) active senior management support, (f) communication and awareness, (g) succession planning, and (h) team organizational culture.

  9. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi Tak

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future

  10. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future. (author)

  11. Resbuffling of the electric power industries: internationalization new players, diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.; Salaun, D.

    1995-01-01

    The changes that are being brought in the forms of organization of the power industry lead to a global restructuring of the industry. Traditional players are forced to redefine their strategies concerning vertical and horizontal integration and also diversification. They tend to internationalize their business but they are facing aggressive new-comers. The future structure of the industry is not yet determined but there will be a great number of very different corporate players. (authors). 1 fig

  12. Wright tariffs in the Spanish electricity industry: the case of residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger

  13. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gorham, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  14. Regulatory reform in the Spanish electricity industry: a missed opportunity for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Regibeau, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the reform of the Spanish electricity industry, and argues that the reform is a lost opportunity for the rapid introduction of competition. The evolution of the Spanish electrical power industry is traced, and the basic characteristics of the Spanish electricity market, the regulatory regime before liberalisation, and the liberalisation process and its shortcomings are discussed. Some policy suggestions are raised including the facilitating of competitive entry in generation, the liberalisation of supply activities, the regulation of distribution, and increasing the power, independence and transparency of the regulator. The capacity, generation, and distribution shares of Spanish electric companies as of 1996 are tabulated. (UK)

  15. Incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry. An Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outhred, H.; Kaye, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of an electricity network in a competitive electricity industry is reviewed, the nation's experience with transmission pricing is discussed, and a 'Nodal Auction Model' for incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry is proposed. The model uses a computer-based auction procedure to address both the spatial issues associated with an electricity network and the temporal issues associated with operation scheduling. The objective is to provide a market framework that addresses both network effects and operation scheduling in a coordinated implementation of spot pricing theory. 12 refs

  16. Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Knorringa (Peter); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe present report on Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept is part of the broader Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development (COMPID), research programme of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),

  17. CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UROŠEVIĆ Snežana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is a very important industrial branch because it produces clothes for nearly seven billion people and textile materials for technical usage. It employs a huge number of competitive and qualified, mostly female work force. It is also technologically and technically challenging. Thus, it is vital to employ qualified and well trained employees with certain competences, knowledge and skills in order to respond to rapid technological and market changes. Here, we will consider the influence of the career development on doing business in the textile industry while acquiring the competitive advantage. Career development is a lifelong process and it is includes knowledge management. The term career has several meanings while nowadays it can mean advancement. The career usually reflects the professional development path of an individual during his or her working career. The career is that concept which connects and unifies most strongly and explicitly individual and organizational interests and needs. The theoretical part explains terms such as career development, importance and improvement of employees for an organization, the possibility for career development within the textile industry. The second part of the paper deals with research conducted among the employees of the textile sector in Leskovac, the town in Serbia with a long-lasting textile tradition.

  18. Environmentally sound development in the energy and mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The paper contains the proceedings of a seminar on Strategies for Environmentally Sound Development in the Energy and Mining Industries, Crete, 1984. The seminar was structured around the following themes: 1) oil and gas exploration and production, 2) water power generation and storage projects, 3) electricity generating facilities, 4) restoration and after-use of disturbed land, 5) mineral development, 6) mineral and energy resources in fragile and remote ecosystems, and 7) general environmental issues. Two papers from the seminar were chosen and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  19. The impact of ICT investment and energy price on industrial electricity demand: Dynamic growth model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsang; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Tai-Yoo [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong San56-1, Gwanak-Ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2007-09-15

    The authors investigate the effects of information and communications technology (ICT) investment, electricity price, and oil price on the consumption of electricity in South Korea's industries using a logistic growth model. The concept electricity intensity is used to explain electricity consumption patterns. An empirical analysis implies that ICT investment in manufacturing industries that normally consume relatively large amounts of electricity promotes input factor substitution away from the labor intensive to the electricity intensive. Moreover, results also suggest that ICT investment in some specific manufacturing sectors is conducive to the reduction of electricity consumption, whereas ICT investment in the service sector and most manufacturing sectors increases electricity consumption. It is concluded that electricity prices critically affect electricity consumption in half of South Korea's industrial sectors, but not in the other half, a finding that differs somewhat from previous research results. Reasons are suggested to explain why the South Korean case is so different. Policymakers may find this study useful, as it answers the question of whether ICT investment can ultimately reduce energy consumption and may aid in planning the capacity of South Korea's national electric power. (author)

  20. The impact of ICT investment and energy price on industrial electricity demand: Dynamic growth model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngsang; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Tai-Yoo

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the effects of information and communications technology (ICT) investment, electricity price, and oil price on the consumption of electricity in South Korea's industries using a logistic growth model. The concept electricity intensity is used to explain electricity consumption patterns. An empirical analysis implies that ICT investment in manufacturing industries that normally consume relatively large amounts of electricity promotes input factor substitution away from the labor intensive to the electricity intensive. Moreover, results also suggest that ICT investment in some specific manufacturing sectors is conducive to the reduction of electricity consumption, whereas ICT investment in the service sector and most manufacturing sectors increases electricity consumption. It is concluded that electricity prices critically affect electricity consumption in half of South Korea's industrial sectors, but not in the other half, a finding that differs somewhat from previous research results. Reasons are suggested to explain why the South Korean case is so different. Policymakers may find this study useful, as it answers the question of whether ICT investment can ultimately reduce energy consumption and may aid in planning the capacity of South Korea's national electric power. (author)

  1. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This analysis examined the current situation of wind power development in the province of Quebec and presented a qualitative assessment of the economic repercussions in terms of employment, investments and environmental and social impacts. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec gained momentum in 2003 when the provincial government expressed support for fast growth of wind power. In response, Hydro-Quebec launched an invitation to interested stakeholders to tender for 1000 MW of wind power projects to be installed between 2006 and 2012. The invitation was a great success, with more than 4000 MW of projects filed. The average price of the selected offers was 6.5 cents per kWh for 990 MW in 8 projects. The economic repercussions related to construction of wind farms in the Gaspe was discussed along with indirect and induced economic repercussions for suppliers and subcontractors in the entire province. It was noted that Quebec is already a leader in the field of electricity and wind energy consultation. Stimulated by these successes, the government of Quebec recently raised its target for wind power development to 2,500 MW. Therefore, taking into account the wind developments already supported by Hydro-Quebec, the installed wind capacity in Quebec is expected to reach more than 4000 MW by 2015, with an investment by the wind power industry of more than 5.8 billion dollars. The wind power industry is expected to generate 45,000 direct or indirect jobs for more than a 20 year period. Presently, the government of Quebec supports the establishment of a local wind market to promote free competition, energy diversity, and coexistence of key players. As its international support mechanism, Quebec chose to integrate regional economic development criteria with the price of electricity. In the long term, the wind industry could constitute a key element in Quebec's sustainable energy development plan. 9 refs., 1 tab

  2. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  3. Biomass electric technologies: Status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time, there axe approximately 6 gigawatts (GWe) of biomass-based, grid-connected electrical generation capacity in the United States. This capacity is primarily combustion-driven, steam-turbine technology, with the great majority of the plants of a 5-50 megawatt (MW) size and characterized by heat rates of 14,770-17,935 gigajoules per kilowatt-hour (GJ/kWh) (14,000-17,000 Btu/kWh or 18%-24% efficiency), and with installed capital costs of $1,300-$1,500/kW. Cost of electricity for existing plants is in the $0.065-$O.08/kWh range. Feedstocks are mainly waste materials; wood-fired systems account for 88% of the total biomass capacity, followed by agricultural waste (3%), landfill gas (8%), and anaerobic digesters (1%). A significant amount of remote, non-grid-connected, wood-fired capacity also exists in the paper and wood products industry. This chapter discusses biomass power technology status and presents the strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Power Program for advancing biomass electric technologies to 18 GWe by the year 2010, and to greater than 100 GWe by the year 2030. Future generation systems will be characterized by process efficiencies in the 35%-40% range, by installed capital costs of $770-$900/kW, by a cost of electricity in the $0.04-$O.05/kWh range, and by the use of dedicated fuel-supply systems. Technology options such as integrated gasification/gas-turbine systems, integrated pyrolysis/gas-turbine systems, and innovative direct-combustion systems are discussed, including present status and potential growth. This chapter also presents discussions of the U.S. utility sector and the role of biomass-based systems within the industry, the potential advantages of biomass in comparison to coal, and the potential environmental impact of biomass-based electricity generation

  4. Electricity, growth and development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeir, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In India, the revenue generated by rapid economic growth have been used neither to relieve the enormous social injustices affecting the oppressed, nor to develop the physical-and especially electric power-infrastructure in a determined and planned way. This growth has not reduced poverty, and it has caused huge ecological degradations

  5. Improved Industrial Development In Nigeria Through Proper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper noted that most industrial development strategies in Nigeria did not give attention to technology education. And that technology education as recognized by few of the strategies were not only properly articulated for the tertiary institutions, but also poorly implemented. Therefore, to put technology and thus ...

  6. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...

  7. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2017-01-01

    - and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  8. Development of Radiotracer Techniques in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardono

    2000-01-01

    Contribution of radiotracer techniques to solve problems in industrial process plants have been recognized since a long time. Radiotracer application was governed by three main components, namely radioisotopes, radiation detection and data interpretation of an experiment. The three main components mentioned above have been continually developed to overcome problems relating to the operation of industrial process plants. The availability of isotope generator is one of the development aspect in radiotracer technique. Radiation hazard in radiotracer experiment may be reduced by applying isotope generator and on the other hand the delivery of radiotracer to the plant site from the radioisotopes producer was made easier. The development of microprocessor in computer system has facilitated data recording, storing and retrieving. Development in mathematical model supported by radiotracer experiment enhance data interpretation and shed light on various phenomena of flow process. Generally a flow dynamic in a process plant in all kind of industries can be studied using radiotracer technique. However the main challenge coming from petroleum, petrochemical and mineral processing industries

  9. Low Impact Development for Industrial Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    copper gutters can also be significant sources of metal pollutants. Other studies indicate that vehicle disc brake pads and car tires can be a...industrial areas to develop the performance criteria for LID systems that specifically targeted these areas. Areas targeted include scrap metal recycling

  10. Power for all? Electricity and uneven development in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Conor M.

    Many towns in eastern North Carolina face a number of challenges common to the rural South, including high rates of poverty and diminishing employment opportunities. However, some residents of this region also confront a unique hardship---electricity prices that are vastly higher than those of surrounding areas. This dissertation examines the origins of pricing inequalities in the electricity market of eastern North Carolina---namely how such inequalities developed and their role in the production of racial and economic disparities in the South. This dissertation examines the evolving relations between federal and state agencies, corporations, and electric utilities, and asks why these interactions produced varying social outcomes across different places and spatial settings. The research focuses on the origins and subsequent development of electric utilities in eastern North Carolina, and examines how electricity as a material technology interacted with geographies of race and class, as well as the dictates of capital accumulation. This approach enables a rethinking of several concepts that are rarely examined by scholars of electric utilities, most notably the monopoly service territory, which I argue served as a spatial fix to accumulation problems in the industry. Further, examining the way that electric utilities developed in North Carolina during the 20th century brings to the forefront the at times contradictory relationships among systems of electricity provision, Jim Crow segregation, the Progressive Era, and the New Deal. Such a focus highlights the important role that the control of electricity provision played in shaping racial inequalities that continue to persist in the region. With most urban areas were electrified in the 1930s, the research also traces the electricity distribution lines as they moved out of cities through rural electrification programs, a shift that highlights the state as a multi-scalar and variegated actor that both aided and

  11. Electric power economy in industry and commerce II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamede Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    The acts of electric power economy in Brazil are studied, including the improvement of load factor, maintain a high power-factor and use of monthly consumption method and medium powers method. (author)

  12. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  15. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  16. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Australian Industry Development Corporation annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    AIDC is a statutory corporation wholly owned and guaranteed by the Commonwealth of Australia. Its objects are to promote Australian industry and Australian ownership in industry. The corporation is a financial enterprise operating on commercial principles. It is engaged in the business of borrowing money, making loans and making equity investments. It also provides related financial advisory and other services, including lead management of syndicated project financings. This annual report looks at the highlights of 1983/84; a five year summary of operations; lists the Board of Directors; some executives; includes a Directors report on development finance, industry and funds management; a management structure; statistical tables; executives and a 22 page financial statement.

  18. The nuclear electricity generating industry in England and Wales post-privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the new legal framework within which the nuclear generating industry has operated in England and Wales since 31 March 1990. It describes the formation of Nuclear Electric plc and the licensing arrangements, including the various obligations which have been placed upon Nuclear Electric by virtue of its Generation Licence. The impact of competition law is outlined, together with the commercial arrangements including electricity pooling and some of the other more important agreements which Nuclear Electric has entered into. Finally, the Paper discusses some of the constraints under which Nuclear Electric operates, and summarises Government policy towards nuclear power and its future prospects in the United Kingdom. (author)

  19. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  20. Fiberoptic Applications in Sensors and Telemetry for the Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, M. M.; Silva, A. V.; Souza, N. C. C.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Beres, C.; Yugue, E. S.; Carvalho, C. C.; Maciel, F. L.; Silva-Neto, J.; Guimarães, C. R. F.; Allil, R. C. S. B.; Baliosian, J. A. G.

    2008-10-01

    This presentation features the origin and the work of the Photonics and Instrumentation Laboratory (LIF) in instrumentation, fiberoptic sensors and POF technology. LIF started its work in 1986, twenty and two years ago, with only one lecturer and a few students. The first project was the development of the first Brazilian plotter with the purpose, at the time, to substitute expensive imported technology. LIF has today 25 people between students, technicians, scientists, engineers and teachers. We present here several successful projects of fiberoptic sensors using both silica and POF fibers, most of them applied on the field mainly for the electric power industry. Described are: a oil leakage sensor in petroleum hoses, PMMA evanescent sensors, temperature by the ruby fluorescence phenomenon, a current sensor calibrator for 500 kV current transformers, a leakage sensor to measure 500 kV insulators in extra-high voltage transmission line, etc. Many of the sensors presented here have been tested in the field, patented and transferred to the industry. We have also technical collaboration with several industries in Brazil, one of them a spin-off from LIF. Our objective is to become a reference centre in POF technology in Latin America and for this we are intended to keep producing "out of the shelves" POF technology and innovative industry solutions for many areas.

  1. Market structure in the US electricity industry: a long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerschen, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate changes in market structure in the US electric power industry during the last three decades using two independent approaches. First, we estimate an industry-wide conjectural-variations parameter. We find that industry concentration was generally rising during the 1970s but has been gradually and consistently falling since the early 1980s. To check the robustness of these results, we then use a translog production function to estimate the Lerner Index. The results confirm that the industry was becoming less concentrated during the 1980s, though the Lerner Index tended to fluctuate during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Our results suggest that the current state of the electricity industry may have more to do with long-term changes in market structure than recent attempts to establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  2. Severity of electrical accidents in the construction industry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cebador, Manuel; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyzes the severity of workplace accidents involving electricity in the Spanish construction sector comprising 2,776 accidents from 2003 to 2008. The investigation considered the impact of 13 variables, classified into 5 categories: Personal, Business, Temporal, Material, and Spatial. The findings showed that electrical accidents are almost five times more likely to have serious consequences than the average accident in the sector and it also showed how the variables of age, occupation, company size, length of service, preventive measures, time of day, days of absence, physical activity, material agent, type of injury, body part injured, accident location, and type of location are related to the severity of the electrical accidents under consideration. The present situation makes it clear that greater effort needs to be made in training, monitoring, and signage to guarantee a safe working environment in relation to electrical hazards. This research enables safety technicians, companies, and government officials to identify priorities and to design training strategies to minimize the serious consequences of electrical accidents for construction workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  3. The development of sports industry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev A.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors believe that Russia today loses the strategic directions of sports development: effective interaction between the state and business, management of sports industry, sport propaganda, attraction of investments and innovative technologies, at the same time, the state is realistic about the sport today and is moving in the direction of changes for the better. According to the authors, an example of this can be the implementation of the strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the period up to 2020. The article notes that the state should increasingly focus on creating favorable conditions in the direction of decentralization of management activities, preferential tax treatment, to give place to business in the sports industry, promote healthy lifestyles and to strengthen control over the fulfillment of social functions of sport development.

  4. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  5. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  6. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  7. BUSINESS MODEL IN ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY USING BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS APPROACH; THE CASE OF PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arief Wicaksono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of opportunities and project values of electricity system in Indonesia encourages PT. XYZ to develop its business in electrical sector which requires business development strategies. This study aims to identify company's business model using Business Model Canvas approach, formulate business development strategy alternatives, and determine the prioritized business development strategy which is appropriate to the manufacturing business model for PT. XYZ. This study utilized a descriptive approach and the nine elements of the Business Model Canvas. Alternative formulation and priority determination of the strategies were obtained by using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT analysis and pairwise comparison. The results of this study are the improvement of Business Model Canvas on the elements of key resources, key activities, key partners and customer segment. In terms of SWOT analysis on the nine elements of the Business Model Canvas for the first business development, the results show an expansion on the power plant construction project as the main contractor, an increase in sales in its core business in supporting equipment industry of oil and gas,  a development in the second business i.e. an investment in the electricity sector as an independent renewable emery-based power producer. On its first business development, PT. XYZ selected three Business Model Canvas elements which become the priorities of the company i.e. key resources weighing 0.252, key activities weighing 0.240, and key partners weighing 0.231. On its second business development, the company selected three elements to become their the priorities i.e. key partners weighing 0.225, customer segments weighing 0.217, and key resources weighing 0.215.Keywords: business model canvas, SWOT, pairwise comparison, business model

  8. Industrial Ecology and Regional Development: Eco-Industrial Development as Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Deutz, Pauline; Gibbs, David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Aspects of industrial ecology fit closely with work in regional development investigating clustering, networking, and local economic development. However, there has been limited cross fertilisation between these bodies of literature. This paper uses an empirical focus on eco-industrial developments in the USA to postulate that IS can be viewed as a distinct cluster concept and to consider the implications of this for both IE and RD policies. (Deutz,...

  9. Service to the Electric Utility Industry by the Ford Nuclear Reactor, University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, R.R.; Simpson, P.A.; Cook, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1977, the staff of the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear Reactor has been providing irradiation, testing, analytical, and training services to electric utilities and to suppliers of the nuclear electric utility industry. This paper discusses the reactor's irradiation facilities; reactor programs and utilization; materials testing programs; neutron activation analysis activities; and training programs conducted

  10. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  11. Effects of regulation and economic environment on the electricity industry's competitiveness: A study based on OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chulwoo; Jung, Euy-Young; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a competitiveness index for the electricity industry based on efficiency, stability, and growth factors identified from previous studies subject to data accessibility. These are then weighted appropriately through the application of the analytical hierarchy process. This index is an alternative tool to capture the diverse characteristics of the electricity industry in order to analyze performance after deregulation. Using the competitiveness index, we analyze the effect of regulation change in specific economic environments represented by the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share, for example. According to the results, deregulation generally increases competitiveness, but the effect depends on the economic environment and the type of regulation. Deregulating entry and vertical integration to increase competitiveness is more effective in countries where the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share are low. The manner in which the privatization effect is related to the economic environment is, however, unclear. - Highlights: • This study proposes a competitiveness index for the electricity industry. • It examines the effects of electricity industry deregulation in OECD countries. • It suggests an economic environment in which deregulation can contribute to competitiveness

  12. Contemporary trends in the hotel industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has a leading position in the world's economy at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. The number of participants in international tourism is near one billion tourists. Tourism FX income is above USD 1.260 billion, globally. More than 2/3 of total tourism turn over is provided by hospitality and restaurants business, which is the best indicator of relevance of those industries, for further development of total economic development and the tourism. Projections of different relevant world's institutions go in direction that tourism will have dynamic developing trend which will provide its' stronger position in the world's industry development. In accordance with UNWTO's estimations, number of foreign tourists will increase up to 1.8 million and FX tourist income is expected to reach USD 2.000 billion at the end of 2030. In order to meet the sophisticated requests of the modern tourists and provide an answer to contemporary market trends, hotel industry, as the base part of tourism, will respond with the new qualitative, technology based facilities and services.

  13. Photonics education development for electrical engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Luo, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, ZhangFang; Cai, Xuemei

    2017-08-01

    We describe the contents of an advanced undergraduate course on photonics at School of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The main goal of the course is to equip the student with the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge to participate in photonics-related industry and further graduate level study and research if they choose. The prerequisites include college-level physics and higher mathematics which a general engineering student has already had in his/her first and second year college study. Although applications of photonics are ubiquitous such as telecommunications, photonic computing, spectroscopy, military technology, and biophotonics etc. Telecommunication information system application is more emphasized in our course considering about the potential job chances for our students.

  14. Strategies for Developing China's Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The software industry is deemed an ideal target for a developing country to integrate into the world information and communications technology (ICT market. On the one hand the industry is labor intensive, and the developing countries have a large labor surplus; on the other hand, it is a worldwide trend for developed countries to outsource a vast amount of low-end, software-related tasks to the low-cost countries and regions, which fits into some developing countries’ caliber nicely. India has often been cited as the role model for a developing country to tap into the world software market for its continuous success in the software export sector. In comparison, China’s software industry is still negligible in the world despite its sustained high economic growth rate since the economic reform took off in the late 1970s.This paper aims at examining strategies for developing China’s software industry. We use India as a reference because of the similarities of the two countries’ stages of economic development and the clear divergence in their ICT structures and development paths. Although the language barrier has often been singled out as the major obstacle for China’s software exports, we believe the major reasons for its underdevelopment can be ascribed to the following factors. On the national level, the government attention has been skewed toward the hardware sector in the ICT industry, and there is no clear national vision for the strategic direction for the software industry.On the industry and ªrm level, software development has been regarded as the art of individual creativity rather than an engineering process. As a result, the importance of quality and standards, the two important critical factors in software development, have been largely neglected. Perhaps an even more fundamental factor lies in the deeply rooted notion that software is an attachment to the hardware and should be a free product. The lack of intellectual

  15. Long-term water demand for electricity, industry and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; de Vries, Bert J M; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    Better water demand projections are needed in order to better assess water scarcity. The focus in this paper is on non-agricultural water demand, as this is the fastest-growing and least well-modelled demand component. We describe an end use-oriented model for future water demand in the electricity,

  16. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse. The sugar industry has the potential to generate about 960 MW per year from bagasse based on the average of 20 million tons of sugar cane...

  17. The new economics of the electric power industry and some implication for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The current restructuring of the natural gas industry and its regulation have important implications for the natural gas industry. Some of these implications are positive, some negative. As in all situations of change and uncertainty, look before you leap, is good advice to those in the natural gas industry seeking to take advantage of the opportunities created by the startling changes that are occurring

  18. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  19. US electric industry response to carbon constraint: a life-cycle assessment of supply side alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Denholm, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the boundaries of electric industry fuel switching in response to US carbon constraints. A ternary model quantifies how supply side compliance alternatives would change under increasingly stringent climate policies and continued growth in electricity use. Under the White House Climate Change Initiative, greenhouse gas emissions may increase and little or no change in fuel-mix is necessary. As expected, the more significant carbon reductions proposed under the Kyoto Protocol (1990--7% levels) and Climate Stewardship Act (CSA) (1990 levels) require an increase of some combination of renewable, nuclear, or natural gas generated electricity. The current trend of natural gas power plant construction warrants the investigation of this technology as a sustainable carbon-mitigating measure. A detailed life-cycle assessment shows that significant greenhouse gas emissions occur upstream of the natural gas power plant, primarily during fuel-cycle operations. Accounting for the entire life-cycle increases the base emission rate for combined-cycle natural gas power by 22%. Two carbon-mitigating strategies are tested using life-cycle emission rates developed for US electricity generation. Relying solely on new natural gas plants for CSA compliance would require a 600% increase in natural gas generated electricity and almost complete displacement of coal from the fuel mix. In contrast, a 240% increase in nuclear or renewable resources meets the same target with minimal coal displacement. This study further demonstrates how neglecting life-cycle emissions, in particular those occurring upstream of the natural gas power plant, may cause erroneous assessment of supply side compliance alternatives

  20. The deregulation of electric industry in Latin America: the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahorrano C, Miguel

    2004-02-01

    The development of the electric industry in Latin American countries start in the end of 19. century and it proceed according to three stages. During the first, the service was developed mainly by private sector. The second, started after the second world war and extended up till 1990's (apart from Chile), makes the State the most important agent. The third is in accordance with the present deregulation, which is looking for the return to private the responsibility of the sector. This one means a radical change of the role play by the State in the industry. Certainly, the Pool model has been talked by most of Latin American countries. However, in England, deregulation is looking to install competition over a mature industry in order to gain effectiveness, transparency and to produce a costs decrement. In Latin America, deregulation is looking for attract the foreign investments in order to face up an increasing demand. This doctoral thesis point out this subject. It gives a positive reading concerning the experiences which have been carrying out in Latin America, particularly as far as Chile, Argentina, Colombia and Brazil concern. (author)

  1. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  3. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  4. Deployment of business development activities of Tohoku electric power Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1988-11-01

    In order to cope with the transition period which accompanies big structural changes of society and economy of Japan in facing closely the forthcoming 21st century, Tohoku Electric Power Co. determined in June 1987 the basic concept for achieving operational prosperity towards the 21st century, and defined itself as a consolidated energy industry which contributes to the establishment of prosperous Tohoku Region. In order to realize the above, the company selected three strategic issues, namely business development, technology development and talent development. For the purpose of realization of the above, the Business Development Headquarters was created and under it, (1) Public Relation and Service Division, (2) Business Development Division and (3) Business Division were established. This article introduces an outline of business development activities of these three divisions. (1) above deals with illumination demands and household demands (hot water supply and utilization of 200V), (2) deals with particular demands for industry and business (air conditioning of buildings, kitchen for business use, area heat supply, and demands for industry, agriculture and fishery) and (3) deals with exact handling of such daily services as contracting, inspection and rate calculation, etc. as well as consulting. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Generating capital: improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a critical discussion on improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment. The reason that investor confidence is critical in the electric power industry is due to the fact that the industry is capital intensive, the asset life is long, it is impossible to model political/regulatory risk and political action is virtually inevitable. The paper concludes that ultimately private sector investors will bear little risk, the tax payer will be on the hook for almost all risk

  6. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  7. Development of Image Reconstruction Algorithms in electrical Capacitance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Barcala Riveira, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) has not obtained a good development in order to be used at industrial level. That is due first to difficulties in the measurement of very little capacitances (in the range of femto farads) and second to the problem of reconstruction on- line of the images. This problem is due also to the small numbers of electrodes (maximum 16), that made the usual algorithms of reconstruction has many errors. In this work it is described a new purely geometrical method that could be used for this purpose. (Author) 4 refs

  8. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  9. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  10. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  11. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  12. Projection of fossil fuels consumption in the Venezuelan electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidoza, Jorge A.; Gallo, Waldyr L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a prospective analysis on the impacts of recent efficient energy policies application in Venezuela, integrating both oil production and electricity supply to assess energy resources balance in a quantitative manner. A special focus is given to main fossil fuels used in the electric power industry; natural gas, diesel oil and fuel oil. Four scenarios were proposed, ranging from a low-economy-growth/low-efficiency scenario to an optimist high-economy-growth/high-efficiency scenario. Efficiency effects are more notorious for high-economy-growth case, fuel consumption for electricity generation reduces 38% for natural gas, 12% for diesel and 29% for fuel oil, in the established time period. Deficits in oil and gas Venezuelan production were also determined, deficits are highly affected by economical forecasting, and by fuel smuggling in Venezuelan borders. Results showed the high importance of energy efficiency policies development for Venezuela, in order to reduce fossil fuel domestic consumption to allocate them in a more profitable market. - Highlights: • We made a prospective analysis on efficient energy policies impacts in Venezuela. • Reduced fuel consumption was obtained for efficient scenarios. • Current energy regulations are not enough to encourage energy efficiency. • Hydroelectricity projects need more promotion to have deeper impacts.

  13. Local Design & Global Dreams - Emerging Business Models creating the Emergent Electric Vehicle Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Andersen, Poul Houman; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    Electric cars hold the potential to completely alter the interrelationship among actors in the automobile industry architecture. As such they may not only be able to alleviate environmental externalities but also revolutionise the automobile industry as such. This paper is concerned...... with the processes of industry creation for the electric car industry, which is a particular fascinating topic matter as it allows the analysis to provide an understanding of the processes of innovation and of some of its inventors in concert. In continuation of this, the aim of this paper is to describe and analyse...... which emergent business models and corresponding value capturing capabilities can be found in the emerging market for electric cars....

  14. Japan's electric power industry: responding to the challenges of the 3Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid push toward deregulation in the power markets of North America, the European Union, and emerging economies, the business environment of the global power market has been dramatically altered in recent years. Profit margins, strategic overseas investments, and shareholder equity have replaced stability and predictability as the new business paradigm in the international electric power industry. Although Japan's electric power industry has not undergone the same degree of market liberalization experienced by its counterparts in North America and the European Union, this does not mean that Japan has escaped the challenges of the 3Es (economic, energy, and environmental changes), which have transformed the international electric power industry in recent years. With companies and consumers in Japan paying the highest price for electricity in the industrialized world, the high price of electricity represents an important business competitiveness issue for firms in energy - and export-intensive industries. This is particularly true now that Japan is desperately trying to end the economic turmoil caused by over regulation and a weak banking system. What remains to be seen is if Japan will be able to deregulate its electric power industry and at the same time, comply with the Kyoto climate change pledge of reducing the country's greenhouse emissions by 6% (compared to 1990 levels) in the next 10 years and continue to meet its energy security objective of expanding the use of nuclear power in the national energy supply. The complex interplay of domestic and international pressures on the national power market need to be explored in order to fully understand the policy challenges facing Japan's electric power industry. (author)

  15. Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Badr, Karim; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion efficiencies for the conversion of oxygen and the energy conversion of electrical energy in the electric arcs, chemical energy from the oxidation reactions in the melt and energy from the combustion of burner gas. It turned out that close agreement with observed process parameters from 16 EAFs is obtained by slight variations of the efficiency values. Especially the sensitivity of the steel temperature from the energy conversion efficiency of the electric arc energy indicates the importance of efficient foaming slag operation in EAF steel making. Characteristics and process parameters of DRI charged EAFs are discussed. Model results for a series of case studies illustrate the correlations between DRI chemical composition, DRI portion, oxygen consumption, etc. with electrical energy demand in order to indentify cost-effective EAF process conditions. -- Highlights: → Energy demand and carbon dioxide emission figures of EAF steelmaking processes based on steel scrap and DRI. → Complete energy balance of the EAF process using various input materials. → Application of the model to industrial EAF in steel industry in 4 case studies and discussion of model results. → Comparison with other models, critical discussion.

  16. Network investments and the integration of distributed generation: Regulatory recommendations for the Dutch electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, Eva

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the distributed generation of electricity necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments, average benchmarking and a frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the system operators to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulations, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generation.

  17. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry: Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy.

  18. Optimal Control Development System for Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the optimal electrical drive development system is presented. It consists of both electrical drive types: DC and AC. In order to implement the optimal control for AC drive system an Altivar 71 inverter, a Frato magnetic particle brake (as load, three-phase induction machine, and dSpace 1104 controller have been used. The on-line solution of the matrix Riccati differential equation (MRDE is computed by dSpace 1104 controller, based on the corresponding feedback signals, generating the optimal speed reference for the AC drive system. The optimal speed reference is tracked by Altivar 71 inverter, conducting to energy reduction in AC drive. The classical control (consisting of rotor field oriented control with PI controllers and the optimal one have been implemented by designing an adequate ControlDesk interface. The three-phase induction machine (IM is controlled at constant flux. Therefore, the linear dynamic mathematical model of the IM has been obtained. The optimal control law provides transient regimes with minimal energy consumption. The obtained solution by integration of the MRDE is orientated towards the numerical implementation-by using a zero order hold. The development system is very useful for researchers, doctoral students or experts training in electrical drive. The experimental results are shown.

  19. Catalysts development for Venezuelan oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since the beginning of technical activities at PDVSA Intevep, Catalysis became a fact. As the technological affiliate of the Venezuelan Oil Industry, its rol in this area has been oriented towards the refining and petrochemical needs of that industry. In doing so, the whole set of activities dealing with basic research, development and consulting has lead to keep in force such a topic along our history. This work describes these activities, the infrastructure which supported it and the most relevant results, both those which have reached commercial level together with those holding that potential through a valid patent. As can be seen, this country relay on a corporation capable of generating catalytic technologies to satisfy its needs, within a wide range of applications. PDVSA Intevep has been exhaustively working with that orientation from the knowledge creation through the technology transfer of our products to the operational units

  20. Electricity conflicts. Self-conception and strategic action of the electricity industry between politics, industry, the environment and the public (1970-1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The energy industry has undergone a fundamental transformation process over the past 50 years. The author examines in this study the beginnings and challenges of this process since the 1970s on the basis of previously unevaluated corporate and association sources. For the areas of energy demand, industry and the environment and the public, the author analyzes the behavior of the electricity industry, which since the 1970s has been moving between persistence and change pressure. What leeway did the companies have in these three areas? How did the energy suppliers' actions shape the German energy system? And how did their actions change their image in public? These questions the changes in the energy industry have so far neither been scientifically adequately investigated nor adequately reflected by the actors themselves. The results of the work thus make an important contribution to the analysis of the beginnings the energy transition. [de

  1. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  2. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation's economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures

  3. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  4. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their emissions by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and emissions. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of emissions reduction burden under an international agreement such as the reduction effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their emissions to a specific reduction percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario

  5. Environmental exposures in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.; Henderson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of 47 US investor-owned electric utilities' environmental exposures to impending air quality and climate policies shows potentially material and highly differentiated financial impacts. For many companies the minimized compliance costs of a four-pollutant cap-and-trade regulatory regime would be less than those of a three-pollutant regime that omitted controls on carbon dioxide emissions. Fragmented regulatory requirements would have the highest compliance costs. The companies studied vary considerably in the adequacy of their financial reporting of these potential impacts. Greater transparency would benefit investors and the most favorably positioned companies. (author)

  6. Testing Header Component of Electricity Power Industry Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo, S.A; Andryansyah, B; Artahari, Dewi; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2000-01-01

    Testing of header component of Suralaya Unit II electricity power by replication method has been carried out. That header component is cross over pipe which interconnection between Primary and Superheater Outlet Header Secondary Superheater Outlet Header with the operation time over 14 years. The main composition of cross over pipe is 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo or frequently specified as ferritique steel. The replication testing shown that the damage classification on those cross over pipe in A class based on failure classification from Neubauer and Wedel. Simple calculation in favor of cross over pipe remaining lifetime is about 16.5 years moreover

  7. The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable Development in China's Electricity Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul A. Steenhof

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism,a flexibility mechanism contained in the Kyoto Protocol, offers China an important tool to attract investment in clean energy technology and processes into its electricity sector. The Chinese electricity sector places centrally in the country's economy and environment, being a significant contributor to the acid rain and air pollution problems that plague many of China's cities and regions, and therefore a focus of many related energy and environmental policies.China's electricity sector has also been the subject of a number of economic analyses that have showed that it contains the highest potential for clean energy investment through the Clean Development Mechanism of any economic sector in China. This mechanism, through the active participation from investors in more industrialized countries, can help alleviate the environmental problems attributable to electricity generation in China through advancing such technology as wind electricity generation, dean coal technology, high efficient natural gas electricity generation, or utilization of coal mine methane. In this context, the Clean Development Mechanism also compliments a range of environmental and energy policies which are strategizing to encourage the sustainable development of China's economy.

  8. Development of radiopharmaceuticals and industrial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The development process of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical does not really differ from the development of a classical drug. Some specific properties of these nuclear medicine tools mainly linked to the ease to follow their distribution in the human body allow to save a couple of years out of the dozen of years required to bring a drug on the market. Overall development costs can be significantly reduced for the same reason. An industrial who wants to invest in such a business bases its analysis on other criteria that need to evaluate the medical, safety and regulatory environment at the time of drug launching. Competition is obviously a major decision criteria, but in order to evaluate the market potential, other data must be available such as the analysis of the medical landscape, the reimbursement issues, the technology evolution, the investment needs or the development of other imaging modalities, among others. In fact all these parameters concentrate toward a common criteria, the profitability of the project. Nuclear medicine moved from an art and crafts era towards the industrial era and hence plunged from the twentieth to the twenty first century in the economic reality with all its constraints and consequences. (author)

  9. Atoms in Industry: Rays of hope for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    What are the uses of radiation technology, and what benefits does it bring to our lives? The public has little awareness of how widespread the use of nuclear techniques is beyond the generation of power and cancer therapy. This year’s Scientific Forum, to be held on 14 and 15 September 2015 on the margins of the 59th IAEA General Conference, will showcase how radiation technologies are used in a broad range of industries. Entitled ‘Atoms in Industry — Radiation Technology for Development’ and bringing together experts, industry leaders and researchers, the Forum will examine best industry practices from around the globe and serve as a platform to exchange ideas on how these technologies can be applied to propel development efforts. “Helping countries to benefit from the peaceful use of nuclear technology is a central area of the IAEA’s work. Our assistance covers areas including human and animal health, food security, water management, electricity generation, and environmental protection — to name just a few,” said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. In 2014, over 130 countries received support through the IAEA’s technical cooperation programme, and while nuclear technology is often equated with nuclear power in the eyes of the general public, 80% of IAEA Member States are in fact non-nuclear power countries.

  10. Barriers to the development of the biogas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, N.

    2009-01-01

    Barriers to the development of Canada's biogas industry were explored with the aim of resolving conflicting regulatory issues related to biogas. Four biogas farm systems are currently operating in Ontario, and funding for a further 20 systems is available. However, most projects have been blocked before construction, and other projects continue to be delayed by grid connection and power purchase issues. Planning permission, zoning, environmental regulations, and property taxation issues are also currently challenging the development of the industry. The use of off-farm waste for the plants has also caused planning problems and delays. Land used to transform or manufacture electricity will soon be included in the industrial tax class. The installation of generation capacity may also alter property values. The use of fats, oils, and greases also requires complicated monitoring and processing procedures. Obtaining certificates for waste handling is difficult and time-consuming. Biogas plants also face significant transmission constraints. Prospective generators are required to determine if their local sub-stations have spare capacity. Generators are also required to pay for all the costs associated with their connection to the grid. Connection to Hydro One is more expensive than connections to other distribution companies in Canada, and there are no existing connection standards. Biogas system operators also face difficulties with rural connections. The cost of anti-islanding protection is high. It was concluded that grid access is the key to renewable energy development in Ontario. tabs., figs

  11. Resources of Mongolian beef industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damdinsuren L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical aspect of grazing in Mongolia. The data on changes in the structure of animal species in the general population is presented. The level of main types of foods security of the population of Mongolia based on the findings of the actual meat and meat products consumption ratio to the recommended standard in accordance with national standards is analyzed. In absolute terms, the number of livestock is growing steadily, so by the conditions for ensuring full meat and meat products security for the population. Estimation of the technological level of the country's meat industry and export performance of meat products, including the Russian Federation, is given. A model of technological strategy of meat processing is suggested. It is noted that the main directions of development of meat industry in the country are increased production and safety of meat in agriculture and waste-free deep treatment of cattle in the meat industry, as well as improvement of the export potential of different kinds of meat.

  12. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcio, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  13. Critique of the electricity industry. Research report ERG 013. [In United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The studies described in this report were begun in October 1975 and had the aim of examining the future role of the electricity industry in the light of the changes in fuel prices and the government's ''Save It'' campaign. As the study proceeded, it became obvious that the electricity industry was facing a crisis which threatened a number of government policies. The essence of this crisis is a declining demand for electricity coupled with an installed capacity 55 percent greater than required to meet peak demand. The most obvious solution to the electricity industry's problems is to promote vigorously electricity sales so as to improve its revenue and maintain the growth in number of power stations. This is clearly in conflict with the ''Save It'' campaign and likely to increase the U.K.'s consumption of oil. The alternative solution, namely to raise the price of electricity and drastically reduce orders for new power stations, is in conflict with the government's policies aimed at curbing inflation and unemployment. Thus the study was enlarged to encompass not only the role of electricity in a national fuel policy but also to examine policies which would alleviate the worst effects of the immediate crisis without prejudicing either short-term economic objectives or longer-term fuel policies. Part 2, Technical Factors, explains technical issues involved in the discussions. Part 3, Industry Problems, sets out the problems as seen by the industry and the explanation of how the industry came to its present position. Part 4, Consumer Problems, explains the nature of customers problems and how government services and pricing policies could be used to alleviate these. Part 5, Government Policy, shows the need for an integrated fuel policy and the general direction that the studies suggest this policy should take. Conclusions are summarized in Part 6. (MCW)

  14. Organisation development possibilities of Croatian electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.

    1999-01-01

    Organisational development of the European Union members' power sector is defined by the obligatory legislative document D irectives 92/96 EC, 19.12.1996 . The development goal is a natural monopoly decrease and introduction of competition, having in mind environmental protection which will enable sustainable development of each member. This would provide the European economy to become globally more competitive and to protect macro economic stability more efficiently. The EU members are allowed to make their own decisions regarding the mode of implementation they will use to establish the organisation of electricity market. Non-members of EU are also involved in defining future changes. Developed non-members are more efficient in that process and promptly follow all changes. Transition countries, among them also Croatia, are trying to adjust to such demands, with different success. The aim of this paper is analyse the current Croatian power system and the possibilities if its modernisation. (author)

  15. The electricity industry in cross fire of public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    This is a study of the relations of the public in a modern high technology state to the advances in technology. On one hand the achievements of technology in making life easier and enabling larger numbers of people to benefit from those achievements are generally appreciated, on the other there is growing criticism arising from environmental considerations. As regards work in industry and commerce a way of measuring competence vs. trustworthiness is suggested by adopting a scale of five units for both these parameters. It appears that these two values are related by a straight line. This relationship is called 'The acceptence model'. 1 figure. (G.R.S.)

  16. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  17. Citizen Advisory Council use in the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElfresh, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Many electric utility companies have come to realize the Importance of seeking public input before launching corporate resources into major construction projects. One way to organize this input is to establish a Citizen Advisory Council (CAC). This paper describes the purpose of such a group, its advantages and limitations, and how it might be organized. This paper also describes the results of a survey of CAC use for facility siting purposes. Fifty large utility companies were contacted, eleven of which use CACs for siting purposes. Six of these were questioned in greater detail as to their success in using CACs on specific projects. All companies were positive about the use of CACs for public participation because the groups were able to bring valuable information to light and company credibility was enhanced. Most importantly, the responding companies believed they were able to save time in the siting and licensing process

  18. Flexible mechanisms in the corporate greenhouse: implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the globalization of the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreuder, Y.; Sherry, C. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy

    2001-07-01

    The contradictions and unresolved tensions between economic globalization and climate change negotiations have added urgency to the climate change debate. The paper argues that the declining role of the nation state in the global economy and the increasing reach of transnational corporations throughout the world present a serious challenge to the environmental integrity and success of international environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. In particular efficacy and equity of the flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol are questioned as illustrated by the patterns of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of the US electric power industry in the developing world. US FDI in the electric power sectors of developing countries supports continued carbon-intensive development patterns which will make the long-term goals of the Kyoto Protocol more difficult to achieve. Consequently, FDI raises questions about justifiability of giving credit to Annex I countries through CDM projects undertaken by transnational electric power corporations. 13 refs.

  19. Promoting electricity conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    Electricity conservation helps meet national goals and does not imply reducing economic growth or lowering standards of living. Improving efficiency raises economic productivity. Cutting back on the construction of costly new power plants reduces public debt and the need to increase tariffs. Also, more customers can be added to the power grid if there is a transition to more efficient equipment among all customers. And if developing countries do not produce and use energy-efficient equipment, they could be burdened with outdated products and factories. 35 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Development on power distribution technologies of four electric power companies in Japan. The Kansai Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Since dependency upon electric power has been rising yearly with the development of industry and the progress of information-oriented society, various kinds of technical development are needed to supply electricity. Furthermore, amenity of people's living has been highly intended, and life style has varied. Consequently, customers' needs for energy including related services have varied remarkably, and each customer has selected energy more subjectively from the wide range of viewpoint such as reliability, handiness, cleanliness, safety, and economic efficiency. In such situation, the power distribution section of Kansai Electric Power settled four themes for major technical development and has been promoting them. Four themes are as follows; to develop a total automation system for power distribution, to promote 20kV/400V-class power distribution, to develop techniques to form facilities harmonizing with local amenity, and to make business management efficient with the advanced NC system. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Investigation of Electrical Energy Efficiency Use in an Automobile Assembly Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob TSADO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the electrical energy efficiency improvement and cost saving potentials for automobile assembly plant; a case of Peugeot Automobile Nigeria Limited. The study identified lighting system as a major source through which energy is being wasted, hence efficient energy saving lighting systems are being proffered; also saving accrued were determined to justify their deployment. In the course of this work, an energy saving calculating tool was developed to calculate energy saving capabilities using energy efficient lamps. With ample devotion to the implementation of the recommendations made, the cost of energy per car will be drastically reduced while profits are also made simultaneously. In all, more cars will be produced thus translating to more employment opportunities in the industry.

  2. Economic evaluation of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM): an electricity transmission industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, D.J.; Primrose, P.L.; Leonard, R.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional approaches to appraising the introduction of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) are shown to exhibit severe limitations. In particular, the economic implications surrounding its adoption are repeatedly mis-stated, with the consequence that organisations may be investing in unprofitable RCM ventures. Previously quoted benefits are examined and, contrary to established opinion, it is shown that these 'generalised' statements, once redeemed, are able to be quantified. The paper then proceeds to describe a financial methodology, developed by NGC and UMIST, by which the introduction of RCM can be evaluated. Moreover, it shows that, by regarding RCM as an investment decision, rather than an 'act of faith', the economic viability of a potential application can be determined before vital resources are committed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when the methodology is applied within the context of the electricity transmission industry, the economic case underlying the adoption of RCM can be realistically appraised. (author)

  3. Application of polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Eisuke

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry as an example of dully developed utilization are reviewed. The report is divided into five parts, namely 1) radiation sources and irradiation processes, 2) development of crosslinking materials, 3) accumulation of electric charge and accumulation of heat, 4) examples of application, and 5) future prospect. Such a phenomenon as discharge destruction pattern (Lichtenberg figure) must be solved, when cable insulation materials are cross-linked by electron beam irradiation. The measures for preventing the discharge destruction are required, especially when the layers of polyethylene insulation for high voltage cables are irradiated. The accumulation of heat causes the troubles in foaming, degeneration and wire running of high potential cables, when the layers of insulation are thick. Effective promoters for cross-linking must be studied to reduce the radiation dose. The irradiators capable of irradiating wires uniformly are desirable. Electron beam accelerators will be used, as far as the radiation dose of 10 or more Mrad is required for cross-linking irradiation. If the dose of one tenth or less of the above value is required, gamma-ray sources (RI) are rather easily applicable than focused strong beam. The utilization of spent nuclear fuel is desirable. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  5. Trends and prospects for the energy industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Bupp notes that income redistribution is the major issue in the energy problem, with energy producers the current winners and consumers the big losers as money in the US flows from the northeast to the south and southwest. Also, the relative political success of allocating gas and oil income is offset by disappointment in the synthetic-fuels, nuclear, and fossil-fuels industries. He feels that some compromise is needed between the free-market advocates and the regulators so that cooperation between the private and public sectors can replace the current stalemate that is creating unacceptable financial burdens. Finally, he observes that serious thought and planning is particularly called for to overcome the inertia in nuclear power policy and to reorder energy budget priorities

  6. Forces that direct the competition in the electric power industry in the new institutional scenery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto; Moraes, Walter Fernando Araujo de

    1999-01-01

    This work identifies the probable strategic characteristics of the interconnected North-Northeast Brazilian electricity industry, after the current restructuring and privatization process has been implemented. It is a 15.0 thousand MW generation industry supplying more than 33.5 million consumers. The normative scenery for analysis of the electricity industry takes into consideration the premises that the government establishes the vertical separation of generation, transmission, distribution and retailing, and introduces the regulation to a competitive industrial structure in generation and retailing. It is assumed that free access to transmit and distribute electricity and broad choices for consumers are the main features for competition in both generation and retailing. The essence of formulating strategy is to relate a company with its environment, considering the industrial structure. Porter's five forces model for industry environment and competition, emphasizing the role of the government in such regulated industry, is the basic theoretical reference. The main strategic characteristics related to entry barriers, rivalry intensity, supplier power, customer power and substitute products are analyzed. (author)

  7. Basic strategies in the electric power industry in the new competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto; Moraes, Walter Fernando Araujo de

    1999-01-01

    This work identifies the probable strategic characteristics of the interconnected North-Northeast Brazilian electricity industry, after the current restructuring and privatization process has been implemented. It is a 15.0 thousand MW generation industry supplying more than 33.5 million consumers. The normative scenery for analysis of the electricity industry takes into consideration the premises that the government establishes the vertical separation of generation, transmission, distribution and retailing, and introduces the regulation to a competitive industrial structure in generation and retailing. It is assumed that free access to transmit and distribute electricity and broad choices for consumers are the main features for competition in both generation and retailing. The essence of formulating strategy is to relate a company with its environment, considering the industrial structure. The probable generic strategies and industrial trends are presented, and considerations are made concerned with the future expansion capacity. Finally, in the new industrial structure which will settle after the deregulation and privatization, the main strategic issues of the companies will likely focus on: profitability, cost control, managerial competence, consumer behavior, and new technologies, in special the ones related to modern thermal power plants. (author)

  8. Electrical power industry restructuring in Latin America: towards a new mode of organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, A.; Pinto, H.Q.

    1995-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s the restructuring of the industrial organization and the regulatory regimes are probably the most important economic and institutional phenomenon in electricity supply industries Latin America countries. This paper analyses the main characteristics of the restructuring in Chili and Brazil. Two major problems are driving this changes: the financial constraints and economic inefficiencies. Despite institutional barriers to privatization initiatives, the participation of new private companies in electricity supply industrial, specially in generation side, is becoming the common aspect of restructuring. This solution requires new regulatory options and new coordination mechanisms. In this context, the electricity companies may promote innovative strategies and adapt their long-term decisions. (authors). 2 tabs., 30 refs

  9. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  10. Optimal planning in a developing industrial microgrid with sensitive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naderi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerical control (CNC machines are known as sensitive loads in industrial estates. These machines require reliable and qualified electricity in their often long work periods. Supplying these loads with distributed energy resources (DERs in a microgrid (MG can be done as an appropriate solution. The aim of this paper is to analyze the implementation potential of a real and developing MG in Shad-Abad industrial estate, Tehran, Iran. Three MG planning objectives are considered including assurance of sustainable and secure operation of CNC machines as sensitive loads, minimizing the costs of MG construction and operation, and using available capacities to penetrate the highest possible renewable energy sources (RESs which subsequently results in decreasing the air pollutants specially carbon dioxide (CO2. The HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable software is used to specify the technical feasibility of MG planning and to select the best plan economically and environmentally. Different scenarios are considered in this regard to determine suitable capacity of production participants, and to assess the MG indices such as the reliability.

  11. Sustainable urban development and industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Julka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of cities is highly connected with the pollution generated from industrial facilities and power plants. Both affect quality of air, weather, health and quality of life. The main goal of this paper is to determine the impact of selected weather parameters on the pollution from mentioned plants. From the research results, it can be concluded that sustainable urban development and welfare of citizens are dependent on causal relationship between pollution and weather. The greatest level of impact was recorded for nitric dioxide. In the case of carbon monoxide, the level of impact is the middle. The lowest level was recorded for particulate matter. The biggest impact on the carbon monoxide emission and particulate matter is that of air pressure, whereas temperature has the biggest impact on nitrogen dioxide emission. The research shows that air humidity and wind speed do not have a significant impact on the emission of pollutants from the plants. Research shows need for further studies in the field of impact of pollution from industry on urban weather and human health.

  12. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization for securement of interconnection between intelligent home electric appliances; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Johokadenkiki kan no sogo setsuzokusei kakuho no tameno hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development had been under way since fiscal 1998 for working out propositions relating to the international standardization of connection interface systems for digital AV (audio-visual) equipment. This report outlines the result of the project in its fiscal last year. The link working group (WG) actually built a transceiver at 5 mm pitch in its second trial, measured and evaluated its behavior under high-temperature and high-humidity circumstances, and acquired numerical data for interface specifications. The connection interface WG in its second trial fabricated a tiny optical connector for POF (plastic optical fiber) and evaluated its resistance to environment. As the result, sufficient resistance to environment was detected in the connector, and then a proposition was presented to IEC/TC86 that the connector be standardized as an optical connector for intelligent home electric appliances. The POF optimization WG performed an environment resistant test for POF, similar to those for transceivers and connectors, and then recognized that POF of the GI type was low in transmission loss and that it stably retained its wide-band feature. (NEDO)

  13. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  14. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    be developed from a holistic and strategically anchored point of view. Another assumption is that this is a challenge for many industrial companies. Even though the literature presents many considerations on general issues covering new information technology, little work is found on the business perspectives...... are discussed. A list of structural variables and solution components has been created. These are related to four design aspects in the holistic system design covering the aspects of process design, selection of resources (such as hardware, software and humans), the design of information structures...... solution elements and structural variables to be used in the design of variant specification systems. The thesis presents a “top-down” procedure to be used to develop variant specification systems from a strategically anchored and holistic point of view. A methodology and related task variables...

  15. Quality Culture Development in the Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Baravska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the theoretical viewpoint of quality culture, its formation in industrial plants. Here is discussed cultural ap-proach to quality. It is determined that quality based on a cultural perspective is implemented not only by using tools and methods, but it is the result of cultural factors – exactly the company's values and practices. The values that affect a successful quality culture's integration into entire company's activity are overviewed. This article presents the study of key factors influencing the quality culture's development and it is proposed a conceptual model. The conclusions of performed empirical studies confirm that leadership and company's culture are of paramount im-portance and are the main success factors in developing of the quality culture in the company. The connection between leader-ship and empowerment certifies that each company itself is re-sponsible for the formation of the quality culture.

  16. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman L. Kh. M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.

  17. Dual education and industrial cooperation in electrical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dual education in higher education is a new system in Hungary introduced by Mercedes Benz with cooperation of Kecskemet College. In the new system companies support certain number of students and provide them strong practical education in their field. Students applying successfully for dual education study together with non-dual students at the university, so they go through the same university courses as their non-dual colleagues, but while non-dual students’ academic year includes 2×14 weeks active semester and 2×6 weeks exam session, all over 40 weeks, dual students have 48 working weeks including study at the university and practicing at the company. The main question of the success which one is the most effective model to be applied. This paper summarises 2 models of dual education with their advantages and disadvantages and also it presents practical realization at the University of Debrecen with special attention to measurement and instrumentation. Dual education in BSc level electrical engineering course cooperates with 6 multinational companies of the region in four specialization. Dual education also has great impact to the modernisation of engineering education. Detailed study of dual education in field of instrumentation and measurement is provided in the paper.

  18. Decarbonising the energy intensive basic materials industry through electrification – Implications for future EU electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Nilsson, Lars J.; Åhman, Max; Schneider, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The need for deep decarbonisation in the energy intensive basic materials industry is increasingly recognised. In light of the vast future potential for renewable electricity the implications of electrifying the production of basic materials in the European Union is explored in a what-if thought-experiment. Production of steel, cement, glass, lime, petrochemicals, chlorine and ammonia required 125 TW-hours of electricity and 851 TW-hours of fossil fuels for energetic purposes and 671 TW-hours of fossil fuels as feedstock in 2010. The resulting carbon dioxide emissions were equivalent to 9% of total greenhouse gas emissions in EU28. A complete shift of the energy demand as well as the resource base of feedstocks to electricity would result in an electricity demand of 1713 TW-hours about 1200 TW-hours of which would be for producing hydrogen and hydrocarbons for feedstock and energy purposes. With increased material efficiency and some share of bio-based materials and biofuels the electricity demand can be much lower. Our analysis suggest that electrification of basic materials production is technically possible but could have major implications on how the industry and the electric systems interact. It also entails substantial changes in relative prices for electricity and hydrocarbon fuels. - Highlights: • Energy intensive basic materials industry has a high share in EU greenhouse gas emissions. • Decarbonising these industries is very important, but still relatively unexplored. • Electrification is possible regarding renewable energy resources and technologies. • Combination with energy and materials efficiency, biofuels and CCS is crucial. • Electrification needs very high amounts of electricity and strong policies.

  19. Towards preventative eco-industrial development: an industrial and urban symbiosis case in one typical industrial city in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    situation. In order to investigate the eco-benefits of eco-industrial development in China, this study focused on an industrial and urban symbiosis case of Guiyang city in which process synergy, municipal solid wastes recycling and waste energy utilization were incorporated in this typical industrial city...... policy implications to address the barriers of promoting industrial and urban symbiosis were proposed. This study is critical for future industrial and urban planning policy making and shed a light on innovative eco-industrial development in China....

  20. Development of uranium industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberiu

    2000-01-01

    The management of the uranium resources is performed in Romania by the National Uranium Company. The tasks to be done are: 1. management and protection of rare and radioactive metal ores in the exploitation areas; 2. mining, preparation, refining and trading the radioactive ores, as well as reprocessing the uranium stock from the uranium concentrate in the national reserve; 3. performing geologic and technologic studies in the exploitation areas; 4. performing studies and projects concerning the maintenance of the present facilities and unearthing new ores; 5. building industrial facilities; 6. carrying out technological transport; 7. importation-exportation operations; 8. performing micro-production activity in experimental research units; 9. personnel training; 10. medical assistance for the personnel; 11. environment protection. The company is organized as follows: 1.three branches for uranium ore mining, located at Suceava, Bihor and Banat; 2. one branch for geologic survey, located at Magurele; 3. one branch for uranium ore preparation and concentration and for refining uranium concentrates, located at Feldioara; 4. One group for mine conservation, closure and ecology, located at Bucuresti. The final product, sintered powder of UO 2 produced at Feldioara plant, was tested in 1994 by the Canadian partner and met successfully the required standards. The Feldioara plant was certified as supplier of raw material for CANDU nuclear fuel production and as such, Romania is the only authorized producer of CANDU nuclear fuel in Europe and the second in the world, after Canada. Maintaining the uranium production in Romania is justified by the existence of uranium ore resources, the declining of natural gas resources, lower costs per kWh for electric nuclear power as compared to fossil-fuel power production, the possibility for Romania to become an important supplier of CANDU nuclear fuel, the low environmental impact and high costs for total shutdown of activity, high

  1. Estimating and decomposing productivity growth of the electricity generation industry in Malaysia: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over the 1998 to 2005 period. The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) approach is used to measure TFP change and decompose TFP growth into efficiency change and technical progress. We find that it achieved average annual TFP growth of 2.34%, with technical change contributing the most to the TFP growth over the eight year period. We hence hypothesise that the new power plants with their newer capital-embodied technologies commencing during the sample period are likely to be the main reason for this strong technical change. In addition, it is also noted that this estimate for the Malaysian electricity generation industry is larger than the estimate obtained for the electricity sector as a whole, where we obtain 1.34% per year for a comparable period. -- Highlights: •This is the first empirical study that examines the TFP growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry using the SFA method. •An average annual TFP change of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over eight years (1998-2005) has been achieved at 2.34% per year. •The technical progress contributing the most to the TFP growth and technical efficiency change and scale change making small contributions over the sample period

  2. Describing Long-Term Electricity Demand Scenarios in the Telecommunications Industry: A Case Study of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kishita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of information and communication technology (ICT usage, the telecommunications industry is faced with a challenge to promote green ICT toward achieving a low-carbon society. One critical obstacle in planning long-term strategies for green ICT is the uncertainty of various external factors, such as consumers’ lifestyle and technological advancement. To tackle this issue, this paper employs a scenario planning method to analyze electricity consumption in the telecommunications industry, where both changes in various external factors and energy-saving measures are assumed. We propose a model to estimate future electricity consumption of the telecommunications industry using a statistical approach. In a case study, we describe four scenarios that differ in the diffusion of ICT and the technological advancement of ICT equipment in order to analyze the electricity consumption in Japan’s telecommunications industry to 2030. The results reveal that the electricity consumption in 2030 becomes 0.7–1.6-times larger than the 2012 level (10.7 TWh/year. It is also shown that the most effective measures to reduce the electricity consumption include improving the energy efficiency of IP (Internet Protocol communication equipment and mobile communication equipment.

  3. The long-run price sensitivity dynamics of industrial and residential electricity demand: The impact of deregulating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the demand-side of Ghana's electricity sector. We test two important related hypotheses: (1) deregulation of electricity price does not promote energy conservation, and (2) demand-price relationship is not an inverted U-shaped. The Stock and Watson dynamic OLS is used to address the so-called second-order bias. The result showed that, deregulation of electricity price in Ghana has induced behaviours that are more consistent with energy conservation improvements. The demand-price relationship is an inverted U, which suggests that there is a price range that end-users can tolerate further price rise and still increase their consumption of electricity. However, the degree of price tolerability is higher for residential consumers than industrial consumers. The simulation results showed that, further economic growth is likely to compromise energy conservation but more in the industrial sector than the residential sector. On the other hand, future crude oil price is likely to deteriorate energy conservation in the initial years after 2016, but this trend is likely to reverse after the year 2020. Pricing mechanisms are potent to induce energy conservation but inadequate. The results suggest that they should be complemented with other stringent policies such as a mandatory energy reduction policy, investment in renewables, and personalization of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: • Studies the demand-side of the electricity sector • Deregulating electricity price promotes energy conservation • Demand-price relationship is an inverted U-shaped • Pricing policies should be combined with other energy mandatory reduction policies

  4. How to design electrical systems with central control capability for industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigolini, S.; Galati, G.; Lionetto, P.F.; Stiz, M. (Siemens, Milan (Italy) Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano, Milan (Italy))

    1991-12-01

    The modern centralized control system, incorporating microprocessors, constitutes an extremely efficacious instrument for the management of an industrial plant's electrical system and provides the performance, reliability, flexibility and safety features required by today's technologically advanced plant processes. The use of intelligent centralized control systems, capable of autonomous operation and dialoguing with industrial plant electrical systems, simplifies the design of the overall plant. This paper reviews the main design criteria for the automated systems and gives examples of some suitable commercially available intelligent systems.

  5. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  6. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  7. Policies and strategies for meeting emission abatement targets in the UK electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, W S [Powergen, Solihull (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    A new electricity industry structure was created in the UK on 31 March 1990 and this was launched into the private sector during 1990/91. This structure differs considerably from the public corporations that preceeded it. Public awareness of the environment has grown during this period and the newly privatised electricity supply industry is having to implement new pollution controls. Legislation increasingly comes from the European Commission and is interpreted by HM Inspectorate of Pollution having regard to Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC). Issues of particular importance include acid rain, and global warming - especially CO{sub 2} reduction. 3 figs.

  8. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneli, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  9. Industrial development in Indonesia - key data. Grundlagen der Industriellen Entwicklung Indonesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocht, W. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Internationale Technische und Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit, Aachen (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    In the case of Indonesia 3 goals in particular were linked to the industrial process: to improve the balance of payments, to reduce unemployment and to develop remote regions. Thus, development plans and official development policy have not adopted merely one strategic approach to industrialization, but have combined several: export diversification, promition of labour-intensive, small-scale and large-scale enterprises, and industrial production linked to basic needs. In 1991 the KfW gave financial support to the following projects: transformer plant and Suralaya, railway investment programme, electricity transmission system Krian-Paiton, supply of 3 ferries, staff development fund III. (BWI)

  10. The Early Diffusion of Smart Meters in the US Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Derek Ryan

    The impact of new technologies within and across industries is only felt through their widespread diffusion, yet studies of technology diffusion are scarce compared to other aspects of the innovation process. The electric power industry is one industry that is currently undergoing substantial change as a result of both technological and institutional innovations. In this dissertation I examine the economic rationale for the adoption of smart meters by electric power utilities and the relationship between smart meters and the evolving electric power industry. I contribute to empirical research on technology diffusion by studying the early diffusion of smart meters in the US electric power industry. Using a panel dataset and econometric models, I analyze the determinants of both the interfirm and intrafirm diffusion of smart meters in the United States. The empirical findings suggest multiple drivers of smart meter diffusion. Policy and regulatory support have had a significant, positive impact on adoption but have not been the only relevant determinants. The findings also suggest that utility characteristics and some combination of learning, cost reductions, and technology standards have been important determinants affecting smart meter diffusion. I also explore the policy implications resulting from this analysis for enhancing the diffusion of smart meters. The costs and benefits of adopting smart meters have been more uncertain than initially thought, suggesting that some policy support for adoption was premature. The coordination of policies is also necessary to achieve the full benefits of using smart meters.

  11. Competition in the electricity supply industry. Experiences from Europe and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Introducing competition in the electricity industry is a major social experiment. Historically, the industry has been heavily regulated, however, this is no longer the case. Production and sales are being opened for competition and separated from the network services, transmission and distribution. This book includes papers from a Nordic Conference held in September 1994 in Copenhagen. The conference was planned as a part of the Energy Research Programme under the Nordic Council of Ministers and the object was to discuss the Nordic experience of competition in the electricity industry in comparison with other Western countries. The U.K. was the first European country to introduce competition in its electricity industry. Norway came next and two other Nordic countries - Sweden and Finland - have decided to follow suit. The U.S. started earlier than the European countries opening for limited competition in power production. However, the background of the reforms and its approach in the U.S. is different from Europe and far less radical. The experience of two Central European countries - Germany and The Netherlands - is also included in this book. Both countries have many institutional similarities to the Nordic countries, but they are - together with Denmark - more hesitant about introducing competition in their electricity industries. (au)

  12. Electricity generation in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saradhi, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing impact of energy technologies on the environment and possible effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. This has resulted in an awareness regarding the need for viewing the role of electricity production by different methods, using different fuels/sources, in a sustainable development perspective, which calls for the needs of the present generation to be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This papers deals with some of the relevant issues in this regard. The world and the Indian energy scenarios are presented, followed by the data on the consequent carbon-dioxide emissions. The green house effect and the possible means of carbon sequestration are explained briefly. The important role nuclear energy can play in a sustainable development perspective is discussed, considering the various aspects such as resources, safety, radiological protection, cost externalities and environment impact. (author)

  13. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  14. Infrastructure development to support the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, T.

    1993-01-01

    Tengiz and Jubail represent areas in which the exploitation of oil and gas resources have, and are, providing enormous opportunities for regional development. Each has required a vision of the future and an understanding that infrastructure input is very broadly defined. Tengiz and Jubail are extreme examples. There are probably no cases in the Americas that will exactly mirror these. But opportunities for oil and gas development here may share some of these projects characteristics - extraction from remote areas, challenging transportatoin needs, and perhaps most importantly, opportunities for related industrial and economic development. Just as Jubail's master plan was part of a larger Saudi vision, oil and gas infrastructure planning can support Latin and North American countries individual visions of their nation's future. Where regional economic integration and interaction is increasing, there are even greater opportunities for good infrastructure planning. In some cases, such economic integration will provide the key which will unlock oil and gas development. Once these keys are provided - be it through the intangible innovations of creative project finance or tangible links through roadways, pipeline and rail - the opening will provide real chances to develop the infrastructure of the entire region

  15. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Book cover Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: ... in steering the behaviour of economic agents in industrial production. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  16. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong

    2001-01-01

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  17. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebastard, G.; Bairiot, H.

    1990-01-01

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  18. The industrial development of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure 235 U and 239 Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) or concentrated material ( 235 U mixed with small quantities of 238 U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with 238 U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate 238 U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in 239 Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and 238 U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England and Scotland. The third class of reactor using

  19. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...

  20. Sustainable Development as Concern for Industrial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Hans

    Today, the industrial company has responsibilities towards the environment, the society, and the owners. From a theoretical base of social theory and social science, this industry research has considered the preconditions for a more proactive industrial response towards sustainability. A new conc...