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Sample records for electrically poled polymeric

  1. Effect of Dangling Bonds on De-Poling Time for Polymeric Electric Field Optical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible chemical changes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS caused by two different techniques of fabrication for ultra-sensitive electric field optical sensors. The sensing element is a micro-sphere made from 60:1 PDMS (60 parts base silicon elastomer to one part polymer curing agent by volume. The measurement principle is based on the morphology dependent resonances (MDR shifts of the micro-sphere. We present the effects of curing and poling of polymer micro-spheres used as optical sensors. The degree of curing leads to changes in the de-poling time which results from dangling bonds in the polymeric chains. Consequently, the longevity of the sensitivity of the sensor can extended by two orders of magnitude. An analysis is carried out along with preliminary experiments to investigate that behavior.

  2. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step. (paper)

  3. Structural behaviour of concrete poles used in electric's power distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Zeynalian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a preliminary study on regional electric companies, it is shown that there is no precise structural design on the concrete poles. This leads to uneconomical and overestimated networks’ components. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the lateral performance of the concrete poles which are employed in electric’s power distribution network. This paper presents a numerical study on structural performance of 12 m concrete poles used in electric’s power distribution network using Abaqus software. A sensitivity study for mesh size is carried out and concrete damaged plasticity has been employed. The results show that relatively coarse mesh (average in damaged concrete method gives more reliable result. Some experimental tests based on the Iranian standards were performed in order to make a bench mark for numerical output. Comparison between numerical and experimental results indicates a good agreement between the results. The outcomes also suggest that while the applied lateral load is less than around 400 kg which is assumed as the nominal resistance of the pole, no transverse crack occurs. Based on both experimental and numerical results, one or two transverse cracks are reported when the applied force reaches up to 600 kg. The rate of cracks is amplified by increasing the applied force; and finally, the pole would lose its capacity when the load rises much more than 1200 kg. The study also shows that the poles are very weak when the load direction changes. Also, it can be concluded that the final strength of the pole is higher than what the standards recommend. Finally, seismic behavior factor of the poles around both main axes are evaluated. The estimated seismic resistance factor for the concrete poles indicates that the prescribed R factor for such structure is relatively low; and can be improved at least 20%.

  4. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  5. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with ...

  6. Evaluation of electrical and thermal conductivity of polymeric wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with varying ...

  7. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  8. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  9. Electrical power line and pole removal radiological survey completion report: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Each electric power pole and all wire, cross members, and attached hardware were radiologically surveyed and removed. The survey procedures did not conform in every respect with the planned procedures because the actual work differed from the removal plan. The survey showed that all contamination was fixed. Certain poles that were suspected of being contaminated with Th-230 were cut off one foot above ground level and left on site. Each truck load of materials was checked at the access point to ensure it met release criteria. Wood samples were taken from all the poles at Building 403 and 5% of all the rest and analyzed for U-238 and Th-232. Only U-238 was detected. 1903 bundles of wire (95,150 lin ft) were released, and 76 bundles (1520 lin ft) were found to be contaminated. 7163 lin ft of power pole material were released, and 1484 lin ft were contaminated. A comprehensive quality measure assurance/quality control program was applied to this work

  10. Influence of PZT Coating Thickness and Electrical Pole Alignment on Microresonator Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2016-11-10

    With increasing technical requirements in the design of microresonators, the development of new techniques for lightweight, simple, and inexpensive components becomes relevant. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a powerful tool in the formation of these components, allowing a self-actuation or self-sensing capability. Different fabrication methods lead to the variation of the properties of the device itself. This research paper covers the fabrication of a novel PZT film and the investigations of its chemical, surface, and dynamic properties when film thickness is varied. A screen-printing technique was used for the formation of smooth films of 60 µm, 68 µm, and 25 µm thickness. A custom-made poling technique was applied to enhance the piezoelectric properties of the designed films. However, poling did not change any compositional or surface characteristics of the films; changes were only seen in the electrical ones. The results showed that a thinner poled PZT film having a chemical composition with the highest amount of copper and zirconium led to better electrical characteristics (generated voltage of 3.5 mV).

  11. Twice electric field poling for engineering multiperiodic Hex-PPLN microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Vito; Gennari, Oriella; Rega, Romina; Mecozzi, Laura; Grilli, Simonetta; Ferraro, Pietro

    2018-05-01

    Satellite bulk ferroelectric domains were observed everywhere around the larger main inverted ferroelectric domains when a Twice Electric Field Poling (TEFP) process is applied on a z-cut lithium niobate substrate. TEFP approach can be very advantageous for engineering multiperiodic poled microstructures in ferroelectrics. In fact, it is very difficult in the experimental practice to avoid underpoling and/or overpoling when structures with different sizes are requested in the same crystal. TEFP was applied to photoresist patterned crystal with 100 μm period and then a second EP step, with a ten-times smaller periodicity of 10 μm, was accomplished on the same sample. The intriguing fact is that the shorter 10 μm pattern disappeared everywhere except that around the larger satellite ferroelectric domains. The formation of this double-periodicity in the reversed ferroelectric domains occurs very easily and in repeatedly way. We have experimentally investigated the formation of such HePPLN structures by an interference microscopy in digital holography (DH) modality. The reported results demonstrate the possibility of fabricating multi-periodic structures and open the way to investigate the possibility to achieve hierarchical PPLN structures by multiple subsequent electric poling processes.

  12. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  13. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  14. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M.

    2012-02-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 108 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed.

  15. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 10 8 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed. (paper)

  16. Synthetic focused array of electrical prospecting using pole-pole array potential data; Sanjigen denki tansaho ni okeru nikyokuho den`i data wo mochiita denryu shusoku haichi no goseiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Various methods have been put into practice for the conventional two-dimensional pole configuration using a single line in three-dimensional electrical prospecting. Pole configuration effective for the three-dimensional exploration has not been investigated. This paper describes synthetic focused array using four pairs of guarded poles based on pole-pole array potential data in the case of arrangement of measuring points on a grid. Results of the numerical simulation are also described. For the focused array, laterolog of electrical logging is applied to the surface prospecting. Directivity can be given to the current from the main pole by controlling the current from guarded pole. It was found from the simulation that the resistivity anomaly is concentrated directly on the embedded ball for the focused array rather than for the pole-pole array. It was also found that two conductive balls can be clearly separated for the focused array rather than for the dipole-dipole array. Accordingly, it was considered that results approximating the original structures can be obtained by analyzing using the both arrays. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Transient optical and electrical effects in polymeric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bange, Sebastian

    2009-05-28

    Classical semiconductor physics has been continuously improving electronic components such as diodes, light-emitting diodes, solar cells and transistors based on highly purified inorganic crystals over the past decades. Organic semiconductors, notably polymeric, are a comparatively young field of research, the first light-emitting diode based on conjugated polymers having been demonstrated in 1990. Polymeric semiconductors are of tremendous interest for high-volume, low-cost manufacturing (''printed electronics''). Due to their rather simple device structure mostly comprising only one or two functional layers, polymeric diodes are much more difficult to optimize compared to small-molecular organic devices. Usually, functions such as charge injection and transport are handled by the same material which thus needs to be highly optimized. The present work contributes to expanding the knowledge on the physical mechanisms determining device performance by analyzing the role of charge injection and transport on device efficiency for blue and white-emitting devices, based on commercially relevant spiro-linked polyfluorene derivatives. It is shown that such polymers can act as very efficient electron conductors and that interface effects such as charge trapping play the key role in determining the overall device efficiency. This work contributes to the knowledge of how charges drift through the polymer layer to finally find neutral emissive trap states and thus allows a quantitative prediction of the emission color of multichromophoric systems, compatible with the observed color shifts upon driving voltage and temperature variation as well as with electrical conditioning effects. In a more methodically oriented part, it is demonstrated that the transient device emission observed upon terminating the driving voltage can be used to monitor the decay of geminately-bound species as well as to determine trapped charge densities. This enables direct comparisons with numerical

  18. Transient optical and electrical effects in polymeric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bange, Sebastian

    2009-05-28

    Classical semiconductor physics has been continuously improving electronic components such as diodes, light-emitting diodes, solar cells and transistors based on highly purified inorganic crystals over the past decades. Organic semiconductors, notably polymeric, are a comparatively young field of research, the first light-emitting diode based on conjugated polymers having been demonstrated in 1990. Polymeric semiconductors are of tremendous interest for high-volume, low-cost manufacturing (''printed electronics''). Due to their rather simple device structure mostly comprising only one or two functional layers, polymeric diodes are much more difficult to optimize compared to small-molecular organic devices. Usually, functions such as charge injection and transport are handled by the same material which thus needs to be highly optimized. The present work contributes to expanding the knowledge on the physical mechanisms determining device performance by analyzing the role of charge injection and transport on device efficiency for blue and white-emitting devices, based on commercially relevant spiro-linked polyfluorene derivatives. It is shown that such polymers can act as very efficient electron conductors and that interface effects such as charge trapping play the key role in determining the overall device efficiency. This work contributes to the knowledge of how charges drift through the polymer layer to finally find neutral emissive trap states and thus allows a quantitative prediction of the emission color of multichromophoric systems, compatible with the observed color shifts upon driving voltage and temperature variation as well as with electrical conditioning effects. In a more methodically oriented part, it is demonstrated that the transient device emission observed upon terminating the driving voltage can be used to monitor the decay of geminately-bound species as well as to determine trapped charge densities. This enables direct

  19. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, MDTA High Mast lighting, High Mast Lighting along I 95, Maryland Transportation Authority High Mast Lighting poles, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset current as of 2011. MDTA High Mast lighting, High Mast Lighting along I 95, Maryland Transportation Authority High Mast...

  20. Modelling the Load Torques of Electric Drive for Polymerization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Popenda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of mathematical modelling the load torques on shaft of driving motor designed for applications in polymerization reactors are presented in the paper. The real load of polymerization drive is determined as a function of angular velocity. Mentioned function results from friction in roll-formed slide bearing as well as from friction of ethylene molecules with mixer arms in polymerization reactor chamber. Application of mathematical formulas concerning the centrifugal ventilator is proposed to describe the mixer in reactor chamber. The analytical formulas describing the real loads of polymerization drive are applied in mathematical modelling the power unit of polymerization reactor with specially designed induction motor. The numerical analysis of transient states was made on the basis of formulated mathematical model. Examples of transient responses and trajectories resulting from analysis are presented in the paper.

  1. Dissolving polymeric microneedle arrays for electrically assisted transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Martin J; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Migalska, Katarzyna; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2012-04-10

    It has recently been proposed that the combination of skin barrier impairment using microneedles (MNs) coupled with iontophoresis (ITP) may broaden the range of drugs suitable for transdermal delivery, as well as enabling the rate of delivery to be achieved with precise electronic control. However, no reports exist on the combination of ITP with in situ drug loaded polymeric MN delivery systems. Furthermore, although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of MN design for transdermal drug delivery enhancement, to date, there has been no systematic investigation of the influence of MN geometry on the performance of polymeric MN arrays which are designed to remain in contact with the skin during the period of drug delivery. As such, for the first time, this study reports on the effect of MN heigth and MN density upon the transdermal delivery of small hydrophilic compounds (theophylline, methylene blue, and fluorescein sodium) across neonatal porcine skin in vitro, with the optimised MN array design evaluated for its potential in the electrically faciliatated delivery of peptide (bovine insulin) and protein (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled bovine serum albumin (FTIC-BSA)) macromolecules. The results of the in vitro drug release investigations revealed that the extent of transdermal delivery was dependent upon the design of the MN array employed, whereby an increase in MN height and an increase in MN density led to an increase in the extent of transdermal drug delivery achieved 6h after MN application. Overall, the in vitro permeation studies revealed that the MN design containing 361 MNs/cm(2) of 600 μm height resulted in the greatest extent of transdermal drug delivery. As such, this design was evaluated for its potential in the MN mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery. Whilst the combination of MN and ITP did not further enhance the extent of small molecular weight solute delivery, the extent of peptide/protein release was significantly

  2. Effects of electric fields in polymerization on enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhenqi; Liu Gang; Zhang Zhicheng

    2004-02-19

    PMAA (polymethacrylic acid) polymerized by {gamma}-irradiation in electric field forms six-membered cyclic anhydride during heating process and the enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization was determined by DSC. Why the endothermic peak of PMAA anhydridization in DSC curve between 200 and 300 deg. C appears is particularly explained by calculation. The relations between applied electric field and the enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization are studied. The results show that, with the increases of the intensity of electric field in polymerization, the enthalpy of PMAA forming anhydrides nonlinearly increase, which might be related to orientation of carboxylic acid groups of the PMAA in an electric field.

  3. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180 0 domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180 0 and non-180 0 domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180 0 domains.

  4. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L.

    2011-02-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180° domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180° and non-180° domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180° domains.

  5. Purification of inkjet ink from water using liquid phase, electric discharge polymerization and cellulosic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander T; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Lee, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    A method to separate inkjet ink from water was developed using a liquid phase, electric discharge process. The liquid phase, electric discharge process with filtration or sedimentation was shown to remove 97% of inkjet ink from solutions containing between 0.1-0.8 g/L and was consistent over a range of treatment conditions. Additionally, particle size analysis of treated allyl alcohol and treated propanol confirmed the electric discharge treatment has a polymerization mechanism, and small molecule analysis of treated methanol using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the mechanism was free radical initiated polymerization.

  6. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  7. X-ray analysis of phase coexistence and electric poling processing in alkaline niobate-based compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jian; Zuo Ruzhong; Liu Yi

    2010-01-01

    The characteristic and origin of two-phase coexistence and the content of each phase in typical alkaline niobate-based lead-free compositions were investigated through the refinement of X-ray diffraction peaks and the measurement of dielectric constant versus temperature curves. The diffuse nature of polymorphic phase transition has resulted in the coexistence of two ferroelectric phases within a wide composition and temperature range. As a result, the optimum piezoelectric properties appear in the composition rich in tetragonal phases and there is a remarkable poling temperature effect. Discussions on the difference between morphotropic phase boundary and polymorphic phase boundary were made in combination with the variation of electrical properties.

  8. An electrical gearbox by means of pole variation for induction and superconducting disc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inacio, S; Inacio, D; Pina, J M; Valtchev, S; Neves, M V; Rodrigues, A L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a poly-phase disc motor innovative feeding and control strategy, based on a variable poles approach, and its application to a HTS disc motor, are presented. The stator windings may be electronically commutated to implement a 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles winding, thus changing the motor's torque/speed characteristics. The motor may be a conventional induction motor with a conductive disc rotor, or a new HTS disc motor, with conventional copper windings at its two iron semi-stators, and a HTS disc as a rotor. The conventional induction motor's operation principle is related with the induced electromotive forces in the conductive rotor. Its behaviour, characteristics (namely their torque/speed characteristics for different number of pole pairs) and modelling through Steinmetz and others theories are well known. The operation principle of the motor with HTS rotor, however, is rather different and is related with vortices' dynamics and pinning characteristics; this is a much more complex process than induction, and its modelling is quite complicated. In this paper, the operation was simulated through finite-elements commercial software, whereas superconductivity was simulated by the E-J power law. The Electromechanical performances of both motors where computed and are presented and compared. Considerations about the systems overall efficiency, including cryogenics, are also discussed

  9. Electric properties of polymeric nanocomposites filler with copper particles polymerized in situ by means of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.H; Alvarez, M; Pilleux, M.E

    2002-01-01

    Different concentrations of copper metallic nanoparticles (80-120 diameter nm) were distributed in a methyl metacrilate (MMA) matrix. The polymerization of the mixture was carried out by means of gamma radiation using 16 kGy (2 kGy/hour) dose, applied in situ, obtaining an homogeneous and resistant mechanically samples. For comparison the same experience was carried out using 3,25-4,5 um of copper particles diameter. The morphology and the composite formation was studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy for the different concentrations of the conductive metal into the polymeric matrix (5-30 vol. copper%). The electric resistance observed was analyzed in function of the distance between electric contacts. The strong lineal dependence show a homogeneous distribution of the metal in the composite. The specific resistivities obtained in function of the concentration of the conductive metal is in the range from the 12 to 42 Ωm for 10 vol.% concentrations. This results is in agreement with the threshold limit of the system. Also, the dependence of the resistivity with the particle size is showed (author)

  10. Temperature-Dependent Electric Field Poling Effects in CH3NH3PbI3 Optoelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Liu, Xiaojie; Sheng, Chuan-Xiang; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2017-04-06

    Organo-lead halide perovskites show excellent optoelectronic properties; however, the unexpected inconsistency in forward-backward I-V characteristics remains a problem for fabricating solar panels. Here we have investigated the reasons behind this "hysteresis" by following the changes in photocurrent and photoluminescence under electric field poling in transverse CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 -based devices from 300 to 10 K. We found that the hysteresis disappears at cryogenic temperatures, indicating the "freeze-out" of the ionic diffusion contribution. When the same device is cooled under continuous poling, the built-in electric field from ion accumulation brings significant photovoltaic effect even at 10 K. From the change of photoluminescence upon polling, we found a second dipole-related mechanism which enhances radiative recombination upon the alignment of the organic cations. The ionic origin of hysteresis was also verified by applying a magnetic field to affect the ion diffusion. These findings reveal the coexistence of ionic and dipole-related mechanisms for the hysteresis in hybrid perovskites.

  11. Heterogeneous in situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers on cotton textiles: Improved electrical conductivity, electrical switching, and tuning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; Rathnayake, Samantha; de Silva, Rohini M; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2018-04-15

    Electrically conductive cotton fabric was fabricated by in situ one pot oxidative polymerization of aniline. Using a simple heterogeneous polymerization method, polyaniline (PANI) nano fibers with an average fiber diameter of 40-75 nm were grafted in situ onto cotton fabric. The electrical conductivity of the PANI nanofiber grafted fabric was improved 10 fold compared to fabric grafted with PANI nanoclusters having an average cluster size of 145-315 nm. The surface morphology of the cotton fibers was characterized using SEM and AFM. Electrical conductivity of PANI nanofibers on the cotton textile was further improved from 76 kΏ/cm to 1 kΏ/cm by increasing the HCl concentration from 1 M to 3 M in the polymerization medium. PANI grafted cotton fabrics were analyzed using FTIR, and the data showed the presence of polyaniline functional groups on the treated fabric. Further evidence was present for the chemical interaction of PANI with cellulose. Dopant level and morphology dependent electron transition behavior of PANI nanostructures grafted on cotton fabric was further characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of the PANI nano fiber grafted cotton fabric can be tuned by immersing the fabric in pH 2 and pH 6 solutions for multiple cycles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, K.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Bhowmik, K. L.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  13. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, K.; Bera, A.; Saha, B., E-mail: biswajit.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Bhowmik, K. L. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Department of Chemistry, Bir Bikram Memorial College, Agartala, West Tripura 799004 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  14. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, K.; Bhowmik, K. L.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  15. Electric field driven fractal growth dynamics in polymeric medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita, E-mail: achandra@physics.du.ac.in

    2014-08-14

    This paper reports the extension of earlier work (Dawar and Chandra, 2012) [27] by including the influence of low values of electric field on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) patterns in polymer electrolyte composites. Subsequently, specified cut-off value of voltage has been determined. Below the cut-off voltage, the growth becomes direction independent (i.e., random) and gives rise to ramified DLA patterns while above the cut-off, growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration. These three terms (i.e., diffusion, convection and migration) lead to structural transition that varies from dense branched morphology (DBM) to chain-like growth to dendritic growth, i.e., from high field region (A) to constant field region (B) to low field region (C), respectively. The paper further explores the growth under different kinds of electrode geometries (circular and square electrode geometry). A qualitative explanation for fractal growth phenomena at applied voltage based on Nernst–Planck equation has been proposed. - Highlights: • The paper is an extension of earlier work [Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 3604] on effect of electric field on DLA. • Threshold value of electric field has been determined. • Below the threshold, growth is random. • Above the threshold, the growth is governed by diffusion, migration and convection. • Different kinds of electrode geometries have been used to simulate the growth.

  16. Electric field driven fractal growth dynamics in polymeric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the extension of earlier work (Dawar and Chandra, 2012) [27] by including the influence of low values of electric field on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) patterns in polymer electrolyte composites. Subsequently, specified cut-off value of voltage has been determined. Below the cut-off voltage, the growth becomes direction independent (i.e., random) and gives rise to ramified DLA patterns while above the cut-off, growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration. These three terms (i.e., diffusion, convection and migration) lead to structural transition that varies from dense branched morphology (DBM) to chain-like growth to dendritic growth, i.e., from high field region (A) to constant field region (B) to low field region (C), respectively. The paper further explores the growth under different kinds of electrode geometries (circular and square electrode geometry). A qualitative explanation for fractal growth phenomena at applied voltage based on Nernst–Planck equation has been proposed. - Highlights: • The paper is an extension of earlier work [Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 3604] on effect of electric field on DLA. • Threshold value of electric field has been determined. • Below the threshold, growth is random. • Above the threshold, the growth is governed by diffusion, migration and convection. • Different kinds of electrode geometries have been used to simulate the growth

  17. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Sulfur-Containing Polymeric Materials Prepared via Inverse Vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Diez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new methods have been developed for the utilization of elemental sulfur as a feedstock for novel polymeric materials. One promising method is the inverse vulcanization, which is used to prepare polymeric structures derived from sulfur and divinyl comonomers. However, the mechanical and electrical properties of the products are virtually unexplored. Hence, in the present study, we synthesized a 200 g scale of amorphous, hydrophobic as well as translucent, hyperbranched polymeric sulfur networks that provide a high thermal resistance (>220 °C. The polymeric material properties of these sulfur copolymers can be controlled significantly by varying the monomers as well as the feed content. The investigated comonomers are divinylbenzene (DVB and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB. Plastomers with low elastic content and high shape retention containing 12.5%–30% DVB as well as low viscose waxy plastomers with a high flow behavior containing a high DVB content of 30%–35% were obtained. Copolymers with 15%–30% DIB act, on the one hand, as thermoplastics and, on the other hand, as vitreous thermosets with a DIB of 30%–35%. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, the dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC and mechanical characterization, such as stress–strain experiments and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, are discussed with the outcome that they support the assumption of a polymeric cross-linked network structure in the form of hyper-branched polymers.

  18. Polymeric Materials for Conversion of Electromagnetic Waves from the Sun to Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Manirul Haque

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar photoelectric energy converted into electricity requires large surface areas with incident light and flexible materials to capture these light emissions. Currently, sunlight rays are converted to electrical energy using silicon polymeric material with efficiency up to 22%. The majority of the energy is lost during conversion due to an energy gap between sunlight photons and polymer energy transformation. This energy conversion also depends on the morphology of present polymeric materials. Therefore, it is very important to construct mechanisms of highest energy occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and the lowest energy unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs to increase the efficiency of conversion. The organic and inorganic solar cells used as dyes can absorb more photons from sunlight and the energy gap will be less for better conversion of energy to electricity than the conventional solar cells. This paper provides an up-to-date review on the performance, characterization, and reliability of different composite polymeric materials for energy conversion. Specific attention has been given to organic solar cells because of their several advantages over others, such as their low-energy payback time, conversion efficiency and greenhouse emissions. Finally, this paper provides the recent progress on the application of both organic and inorganic solar cells for electric power generations together with several challenges that are currently faced.

  19. The Polymerization of MMA and ST to Prepare Material with Gradient Refractive Index in Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering material with gradient refractive index was prepared under the electrical field by taking methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer as the matrix with the addition of a little preheated styrene (ST and peroxidation benzoin formyl (BPO. The material obtained under electrical field presented different transmittance and molecular weight at different parts of the cylindrical sample along the axis of the direction of electric field which led to the layering phenomenon and gradient refractive index. The disparity of molecular weight between different layers can be as much as 230 thousand. There were several peaks in the figure of GPC test of the sample under electric field. This proved that there were polymers with different molecular weights in the sample. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrical field has a significant effect on polymerization.

  20. Electrical description of a magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasma source: Refinement of the transformer model by reverse electromagnetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziani, T.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled source (MaPE-ICP) is an innovative low-pressure plasma source that allows for high plasma density and high plasma uniformity, as well as large-area plasma generation. This article presents an electrical characterization of this source, and the experimental measurements are compared to the results obtained after modeling the source by the equivalent circuit of the transformer. In particular, the method applied consists in performing a reverse electromagnetic modeling of the source by providing the measured plasma parameters such as plasma density and electron temperature as an input, and computing the total impedance seen at the primary of the transformer. The impedance results given by the model are compared to the experimental results. This approach allows for a more comprehensive refinement of the electrical model in order to obtain a better fitting of the results. The electrical characteristics of the system, and in particular the total impedance, were measured at the inductive coil antenna (primary of the transformer). The source was modeled electrically by a finite element method, treating the plasma as a conductive load and taking into account the complex plasma conductivity, the value of which was calculated from the electron density and electron temperature measurements carried out previously. The electrical characterization of the inductive excitation source itself versus frequency showed that the source cannot be treated as purely inductive and that the effect of parasitic capacitances must be taken into account in the model. Finally, considerations on the effect of the magnetic core addition on the capacitive component of the coupling are made

  1. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE. Power Utility Polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG, Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weatherometer, 120 °C, salt spray, immersion in water. After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 kA, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrestor are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks.

  2. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Carlos A.; Coser, E. [Laboratorio de Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], e-mail: ferreira.carlos@ufrgs.br; Angelini, Joceli M.G. [Departamento de Materiais Eletricos, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rossi, Jose A.D. [Materiais Alta Tensao, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE). Power utility polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weather meter, 120 deg C, salt spray, immersion in water). After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 k A, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrester are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks. (author)

  3. The change of electric field and of some other insulating properties during isochronal annealing in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Q.M.; Poumellec, B.; Braga, D.

    2005-01-01

    induced electric field and other insulating properties like electron traps population and conductivity in high field. Concerning the change of the contrast at low dose arising from the poling electric field, we show that this field begins to disappear at around 450 degrees C and is erased completely...... at 650 degrees C. Using a larger dose allows measuring the change in conductivity contrast. We find a stability similar to the electric field with a disappearance around 450 similar to 650 degrees C. On the contrary, for intermediate dose, the contrast remains for larger annealing temperature. It allows...

  4. Modeling and simulating the adaptive electrical properties of stochastic polymeric 3D networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigala, R; Smerieri, A; Camorani, P; Schüz, A; Erokhin, V

    2013-01-01

    Memristors are passive two-terminal circuit elements that combine resistance and memory. Although in theory memristors are a very promising approach to fabricate hardware with adaptive properties, there are only very few implementations able to show their basic properties. We recently developed stochastic polymeric matrices with a functionality that evidences the formation of self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) networks of memristors. We demonstrated that those networks show the typical hysteretic behavior observed in the ‘one input-one output’ memristive configuration. Interestingly, using different protocols to electrically stimulate the networks, we also observed that their adaptive properties are similar to those present in the nervous system. Here, we model and simulate the electrical properties of these self-assembled polymeric networks of memristors, the topology of which is defined stochastically. First, we show that the model recreates the hysteretic behavior observed in the real experiments. Second, we demonstrate that the networks modeled indeed have a 3D instead of a planar functionality. Finally, we show that the adaptive properties of the networks depend on their connectivity pattern. Our model was able to replicate fundamental qualitative behavior of the real organic 3D memristor networks; yet, through the simulations, we also explored other interesting properties, such as the relation between connectivity patterns and adaptive properties. Our model and simulations represent an interesting tool to understand the very complex behavior of self-assembled memristor networks, which can finally help to predict and formulate hypotheses for future experiments. (paper)

  5. Dependence of radiation electric conductivity on intensity of external electric field in polymeric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichkar, V P; Tyutnev, A P; Vaisberg, S E [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1975-10-01

    The radiational conductivity (Gsub(p)) at different electric field potentials (E) for a number of low- and high-density polymers was investigated. In a number of cases temperature variations were introduced. Measurements were carried out also under conditions of a single impulse of high-power radiation dose. A relationship was obtained between Gsub(p) and E.

  6. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Electric transmission lines locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time. AIMS is working on getting other providers in area. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subc, Published in 2004, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset current as of 2004. Electric transmission lines locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of...

  7. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  8. Performance of a fractional dc electric motor equipped with plastic bonded Nd2Fe14B stator poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaides, G.K.; Atanassova, Y.K.; Ioannides, M.G.; Tsamakis, D.M.; Gamari-Seale, H.

    1997-01-01

    Injection molding Nd 2 Fe 14 B plastic bonded magnetic material is pressed into the form of cylindrical ring segments in order to investigate its performance when used in the manufacturing of stator poles of fractional power dc motors. Measurements of speed and armature current versus different load torques were performed. The experimental results obtained for stator poles made by three plastic bonded Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnetic materials of different densities, are compared to those results obtained by using a pair of typical barium ferrite stator poles. The torque versus speed curves, the obtained mechanical power versus speed and the efficiency of the motor as a function of the speed are presented. The torque speed data in high speeds follow a linear law, as is expected by theory, while at low speeds, below a crossover point, a deviation from this linearity appears. This is attributed to temperature effects. In this work it is shown that in the region of light loads and high speeds, at a certain speed, the injection molded Nd 2 Fe 14 B permanent magnet stators produce a higher electromagnetic torque, higher mechanical power, and higher efficiency than the barium ferrite ones. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Comparison between different methods for inspection of wooden poles in service in electricity distribution networks; Comparacao entre diferentes metodos de inspecao de postes de madeira em servico em redes de distribuicao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, M.A.O.; Pires, M.; Dedavid, B.A.; Vidor, F.L.R.; Oliveira, W.S.; Abruzzi, R.C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)], Email: mpires@pucrs.br

    2010-07-01

    The pole is the main support structure of the electric network and should be inspected regularly to ensure system security. The aim of this study is to compare traditional and instrumental inspection methods of the wooden poles in service in AES Sul power distribution network (Montenegro, RS). The inspections were conducted in about 180 poles in two measurement campaigns (2001 and 2010). The procedure was based on the traditional inspection (visual inspection, percussion and effort lateral) and instrumental method based on Polux equipment that measures the penetration resistance and moisture content of wood. The results were compared in search of assertiveness of the methods used to subsidize the standardization of inspection procedures. (author)

  10. Non-conventional rule of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power alternating current electrical machines with using ring coils in multiphase armature winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, A. T.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Malygin, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents methods of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power electrical machines. Authors consider classical designs of electrical machines and machines with ring windings in armature, structural features and calculated parameters of magnetic circuit for these machines.

  11. A note on linking electrical current, magnetic fields, charges and the pole in a barn paradox in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, Enda; Van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We point out the connection between the 'pole in a barn paradox' and the phenomenon of alterations in charge in a segment of a current-carrying conductor as perceived by observers in different inertial reference frames. This connection appears to offer a useful pedagogical strategy helping students to appreciate that the issues which underlie the explanation of the paradox can be important and significant in everyday phenomena such as magnetic forces on moving charges and at the very modest speeds associated with electron drift in conductors. (note)

  12. A note on linking electrical current, magnetic fields, charges and the pole in a barn paradox in special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, Enda [School of Physical Sciences/National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Van Kampen, Paul [Physics Education Research Group, Centre for the Advancement of Science Teaching and Learning (CASTeL), School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)], E-mail: enda.mcglynn@dcu.ie

    2008-11-12

    We point out the connection between the 'pole in a barn paradox' and the phenomenon of alterations in charge in a segment of a current-carrying conductor as perceived by observers in different inertial reference frames. This connection appears to offer a useful pedagogical strategy helping students to appreciate that the issues which underlie the explanation of the paradox can be important and significant in everyday phenomena such as magnetic forces on moving charges and at the very modest speeds associated with electron drift in conductors. (note)

  13. Core-Shell-Structured Copolyaniline-Coated Polymeric Nanoparticle Suspension and Its Viscoelastic Response under Various Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Jae Moon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semi-conducting poly(n-methylaniline (PNMA-coated poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA composite nanoparticles were synthesized using cross-linked and grafted PMMA particles as a core, and then, the PNMA shell was coated via chemical oxidative polymerization on the surface of modified PMMA nanoparticles. Their electroresponsive electrorheological characteristics when dispersed in silicone were confirmed under applied electric fields using a rotational rheometer, focusing on their viscoelastic response. Using a frequency sweep test, the frequency dependence of both the storage and loss moduli was confirmed to increase upon increasing the electric field, with a stable plateau regime over the entire angular frequency range.

  14. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  15. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  16. Effects of Interfacial Charge Depletion in Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Polymeric Dielectrics on Electrical Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Park

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the electrical stabilities of two types of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs with two different polymeric dielectrics: polystyrene (PS and poly(4-vinyl phenol (PVP, in terms of the interfacial charge depletion. Under a short-term bias stress condition, the OTFT with the PVP layer showed a substantial increase in the drain current and a positive shift of the threshold voltage, while the PS layer case exhibited no change. Furthermore, a significant increase in the off-state current was observed in the OTFT with the PVP layer which has a hydroxyl group. In the presence of the interfacial hydroxyl group in PVP, the holes are not fully depleted during repetitive operation of the OTFT with the PVP layer and a large positive gate voltage in the off-state regime is needed to effectively refresh the electrical characteristics. It is suggested that the depletion-limited holes at the interface, i.e., interfacial charge depletion, between the PVP layer and the pentacene layer play a critical role on the electrical stability during operation of the OTFT.

  17. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  18. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  19. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Kazuaki; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Kohara, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  20. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahara Kazuaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  1. The role of the salt electrolyt on the electrical conductive properties of a polymeric bipolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcaraz, Antonio; Wilhelm, F.G.; Wessling, Matthias; Ramirez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the contribution of the salt electrolyte to the electrical conductive characteristics of a bipolar membrane. We present first a critical analysis of previous theoretical approaches, and discuss the limits of validity. Experimental current-voltage curves of several commercial bipolar

  2. Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Koseva, N.; Kowalczyk, A.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 35190 ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanoparticles and RBC suspensions * poly(acrylic acid) * rheology * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/24308140293.696/ApplRheol_24_35190.pdf

  3. Electrical conductivity in thin films fabricated from nanoparticles of a polymeric composite based on PEDOT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rais, David; Hain, J.; Pich, A.; Pochekaylov, Sergey; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Adler, H. J.; Hamáček, A.; Řeboun, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2009), s. 769-780 ISSN 0137-1339. [International Conference on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids /11./. Piechowice, 13.07.2008-17.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : core-shell particles * microgel * polystyrene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  4. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  5. Electrical and dielectric investigation of intercalated polypyrrole montmorillonite nanocomposite prepared by spontaneous polymerization of pyrrole into Fe(III)-montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidi, Rabii, E-mail: rabiizidi@gmail.com [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Bekri-Abbes, Imene; Sdiri, Nasr [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Vimalanandan, Ashokanand; Rohwerder, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Srasra, Ezzeddine [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We have prepared and characterized a Fe-MMT/PPy nanocomposites. • Investigate electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of the nanocomposite. • Investigate the temperature and frequency dependencies of alternating current conductivity of nanocomposites. - Abstract: Pyrrole was introduced into Fe(III)-exchanged montmorillonite to spontaneously polymerize within the interlayer resulting in the formation of intercalated polypyrrole-montmorillonite nanocomposite. The molar proportion of pyrrole to interlayer Fe{sup 3+} (R) has been varied from 0.5 to 5. The nanocomposite has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope, FTIR spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. It has been shown that intercalated polypyrrole montmorillonite nanocomposite was obtained. The results showed that the dc conductivity and dielectric properties of polypyrrole depend on R. The alternating current (ac) conductivity of the polymer obeys the power law, i.e., σ{sub ac}(ω) = Aω{sup s}. The alternating conductivity of nanocomposite was controlled by the correlated barrier hopping model. The activation energy for alternating current mechanism decreases with increasing frequency which confirms the hopping conduction to the dominant mechanism as compared with the dc activation energy. The dielectric relaxation mechanism was explained on the basis of complex dielectric modulus.

  6. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  7. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  8. Recycling and reuse of waste from electricity distribution networks as reinforcement agents in polymeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matheus V G; Zattera, Ademir J

    2013-07-01

    Of the waste generated from electricity distribution networks, wooden posts treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and ceramic insulators make up the majority of the materials for which no effective recycling scheme has been developed. This study aims to recycle and reuse this waste as reinforcement elements in polymer composites and hybrid composites, promoting an ecologically and economically viable alternative for the disposal of this waste. The CCA wooden posts were cut, crushed and recycled via acid leaching using 0.2 and 0.4N H2SO4 in triplicate at 70°C and then washed and dried. The ceramic insulators were fragmented in a hydraulic press and separated by particle size using a vibrating sieve. The composites were mixed in a twin-screw extruder and injected into the test specimens, which were subjected to physical, mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization. The results indicate that the acid treatment most effective for removing heavy metals in the wood utilizes 0.4NH2SO4. However, the composites made from wood treated with 0.2NH2SO4 exhibited the highest mechanical properties of the composites, whereas the use of a ceramic insulator produces composites with better thermal stability and impact strength. This study is part of the research and development project of ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica) and funded by CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure induced polymerization of acetylide anions in CaC 2 and 10 7 fold enhancement of electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Kuo; Yang, Youyou; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Jiajia; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Chun-Hai; Tulk, Christopher A.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Feygenson, Mikhail; Yang, Wenge; Guthrie, Malcolm; Zhao, Yusheng; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Jin, Changqing (ORNL); (CIW); (CHPSTAR- China); (Agilent); (SUSTC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (COFCO); (Durham)

    2016-08-17

    Transformation between different types of carbon–carbon bonding in carbides often results in a dramatic change of physical and chemical properties. Under external pressure, unsaturated carbon atoms form new covalent bonds regardless of the electrostatic repulsion. It was predicted that calcium acetylide (also known as calcium carbide, CaC2) polymerizes to form calcium polyacetylide, calcium polyacenide and calcium graphenide under high pressure. In this work, the phase transitions of CaC2 under external pressure were systematically investigated, and the amorphous phase was studied in detail for the first time. Polycarbide anions like C66- are identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and several other techniques, which evidences the pressure induced polymerization of the acetylide anions and suggests the existence of the polyacenide fragment. Additionally, the process of polymerization is accompanied with a 107 fold enhancement of the electrical conductivity. The polymerization of acetylide anions demonstrates that high pressure compression is a viable route to synthesize novel metal polycarbides and materials with extended carbon networks, while shedding light on the synthesis of more complicated metal organics.

  10. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Electric-field-induced strain contributions in morphotropic phase boundary composition of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} during poling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Hinterstein, Manuel [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, Zhiyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); The Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Groh, Claudia [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Jo, Wook [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-14

    The microscopic contributions to the electric-field-induced macroscopic strain in a morphotropic 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})−0.07(BaTiO{sub 3}) with a mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal structure have been quantified using full pattern Rietveld refinement of in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction data. The analysis methodology allows a quantification of all strain mechanisms for each phase in a morphotropic composition and is applicable to use in a wide variety of piezoelectric compositions. It is shown that during the poling of this material 24%, 44%, and 32% of the total macroscopic strain is generated from lattice strain, domain switching, and phase transformation strains, respectively. The results also suggest that the tetragonal phase contributes the most to extrinsic domain switching strain, whereas the lattice strain primarily stems from the rhombohedral phase. The analysis also suggests that almost 32% of the total strain is lost or is a one-time effect due to the irreversible nature of the electric-field-induced phase transformation in the current composition. This information is relevant to on-going compositional development strategies to harness the electric-field-induced phase transformation strain of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric materials for actuator applications.

  12. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  13. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers. (paper)

  14. Synergistic effect of Ag nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide and carbon fiber on electrical actuation of polymeric shape memory nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong; Du, Shanyi; Liang, Fei; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an effective approach of significantly improving electrical properties and recovery performance of shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite, of which its shape recovery was triggered by electrically resistive Joule heating. Reduced graphene oxide (GOs) self-assembled and grafted onto carbon fiber, were used to enhance the interfacial bonding with the SMP matrix via van der Waals force and covalent bond, respectively. A layer of Ag nanoparticles was synthesized from Ag + solution and chemically deposited onto GO assemblies. These Ag nanoparticles were expected to bridge the gap between GO and improve the electrical conductivity. The experimental results reveal that the electrical conductivity of the SMP nanocomposite was significantly improved via the synergistic effect between Ag nanoparticle-decorated GO and carbon fiber. Finally, the electrically induced shape memory effect of the SMP nanocomposite was achieved, and the temperature distribution in the SMP nanocomposites was recorded and monitored. An effective approach was demonstrated to produce the electro-activated SMP nanocomposites and the resistive Joule heating was viable at a low electrical voltage below 10 V. (paper)

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1990 on research and development of electrically conductive polymeric materials; 1990 nendo dodensei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    It is intended to realize new electrically conductive materials characterized by light weight, corrosion resistance and easy-to-process performance, and electrical and electronic materials having functions different from those of metallic conduction mechanism. Therefore, activities were performed to seek technologies for polymeric materials having conductivity greater than 10{sup 5} S/cm and being stable and easy to process. Activities were taken in the following six fields: (1) new hydrocarbon conjugate polymers, (2) excipient conjugate conductive materials, (3) technologies to form thin films of graphite synthesized at low temperatures, (4) conductive polymers of hetero aromatic system, (5) research and development of conductive materials of the hetero containing system and the {pi} conjugate system, and (6) comprehensive investigative research. In (1), thin films of polyacetylene and polyacene systems were formed, in (2), excipient hydrocarbon conjugate polymers and excipient graphite materials were developed, in (3), a high-accuracy process controlled graphite thin film forming technology was developed, in (4), the conductivity was enhanced by using high-order structural control and molecular design, and stability of the conductive polymers of complex annular conjugate system was enhanced, and in (5), conductive polymers of the hetero containing system and the {pi} conjugate system, and flexible graphite fibers were developed. (NEDO)

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  19. Electrical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) films stabilized with ter polymeric photo stabilizers containing UV-absorbing groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.A.M.; Rabie, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Some ter polymeric stabilizers based on polymerizable derivatives of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and phenylsalicylate have been prepared and evaluated as photo stabilizers for rigid PVC. The prepared terpolymers which are namely, methylmethacrylate/2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/4-methacryloxy- 2-hydroxybenzophenone (MMA/HEMA/HBMA), methylmethacrylate/ 2- Hydroxyethylmethacrylate/ 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacrylo-xy-2- hydroxypropoxy) benzophenone (MMA/HEMA/PBMA) and methylmethacrylate / 2-Hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate / phenyl-5- methacryloxy methyl salicylate (MMA / HEMA / PMMS) were characterized and their structure were confirmed by GPC, FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The dielectric study was carried out over a frequency range from 100 Hz to 100 khz at room temperature(22 degree C). The results revealed that the stabilizing effect of these terpolymers depend on the type of stabilizer (terpolymer) and the content of UV absorber units in the terpolymer. The dielectric data for the investigated systems were found to be fitted by two absorption regions using Frohlich function. These regions ascribe the Maxwell.Wagner effect and the intramolecular motion involves the rotation of various segments of the side group as the main chain motion is restricted. The study led to a conclusion that MMA/HEMA/PBMA has the greatest stabilizing efficiency may be due to the relatively longer acrylic side chain in PBMA which makes the molecule more mobile and more flexible

  20. Comparative Investigation on the Performance of Modified System Poles and Traditional System Poles Obtained from PDC Data for Diagnosing the Ageing Condition of Transformer Polymer Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of a transformer is largely depended on the service life of transformer polymer insulation materials. Nowadays, several papers have reported that the traditional system poles obtained from polarization and depolarization current (PDC data can be used to assess the condition of transformer insulation systems. However, the traditional system poles technique only provides limited ageing information for transformer polymer insulation. In this paper, the modified system poles obtained from PDC data are proposed to assess the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation. The aim of the work is to focus on reporting a comparative investigation on the performance of modified system poles and traditional system poles for assessing the ageing condition of a transformer polymer insulation system. In the present work, a series of experiments have been performed under controlled laboratory conditions. The PDC measurement data, degree of polymerization (DP and moisture content of the oil-immersed polymer pressboard specimens were carefully monitored. It is observed that, compared to the relationships between traditional system poles and DP values, there are better correlations between the modified system poles and DP values, because the modified system poles can obtain much more ageing information on transformer polymer insulation. Therefore, the modified system poles proposed in the paper are more suitable for the diagnosis of the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation.

  1. Characterization and Electrical Response to Humidity of Sintered Polymeric Electrospun Fibers of Vanadium Oxide-({TiO}_{{2}} /{WO}_{{3}} )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E. S.; Libardi, J.; Faia, P. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.

    2018-02-01

    Metal oxide composites have attracted much consideration due to their promising applications in humidity sensors in response to the physical and chemical property modifications of the resulting materials. This work focused on the preparation, microstructural characterization and analysis of humidity-dependent electrical properties of undoped and vanadium oxide (V2O5)-doped titanium oxide/tungsten oxide (TiO2/WO3) sintered ceramic films obtained by electrospinning. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance spectroscopy (400 Hz-40 MHz) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The results revealed a typical transition in the transport mechanisms controlled by the appropriated doping level of V2O5, which introduces important advantages to RH detection due to the atomic substitution of titanium by vanadium atoms in highly doped structures. These aspects are directly related to the microstructure modification and structure fabrication procedure.

  2. Inactivation of bacteria by electric current in the presence of carbon nanotubes embedded within a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anna; Liu, Harris K; Long, Feng; Su, Erzheng; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Uniform conductive composite membranes were prepared using a phase inversion method by blending carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polysulfone polymer. At 6 % of the embedded CNTs, the membrane pore size measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was approximately 50 nm. Electric current in the presence of the composite membranes markedly inactivated the model pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with the extent of bacterial inactivation rising when the current was increased. Over 99.999 % inactivation of both bacteria was observed in deionized water after 40 min at 5 mA direct current (DC); importantly, no appreciable inactivation occurred in the absence of either the electric field or the CNTs within the membranes under otherwise the same conditions. A much lower, although still pronounced, inactivation was seen with alternating current (AC) in a 25 mM NaCl aqueous solution.

  3. Development and characterisation of electrically conductive polymeric-based blends for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouatia, S.; Mighri, F. [Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Quebec (Canada); Bousmina, M. [Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Quebec (Canada); Canada Research Chair on Polymer Physics and Nanomaterials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Quebec (Canada); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    The main objective of this work was to develop films with controlled dimensions for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates (BPPs) using the twin-screw extrusion process. These films consisted of a low-viscosity polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in which a mixture of high specific surface area carbon black (CB) and synthetic flake graphite (GR) were dispersed. A third conductive additive, consisting of silver-coated glass particles (SCG) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), was also added at a low concentration (5 wt.-%) in order to study its synergistic effect on the PET-based blend electrical conductivity. As the developed blends had to meet properties suitable for PEMFC bipolar plate applications, they were characterised for their electrical through-plane resistivity, mechanical properties and oxygen permeability. Through-plane electrical resistivity of about 0.3 {omega}.cm and oxygen permeation rate of 3.5 x 10{sup -8} cc cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} were obtained for only 30 wt.-% of a 60:40 mixture of CB/GR conductive additives. Although the substitution of 5 wt.-% of CB/GR by the same amount of MWCNT had no significant effect on BPPs' electrical resistivity, it helped to improve their mechanical properties and especially their oxygen permeation, which was decreased from 3.5 x 10{sup -8} cc cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} to around 0.6 x 10{sup -8} cc cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Elektroaktive polymerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.

    Traditionelt tænker vi på polymerer (plastik) som elektrisk isolerende materialer - det som er udenpå ledningerne. I dag kender vi imidlertid også polymerer med intrinsisk elektrisk ledningsevne, og plast er på vej ind i anvendelser, der tidligereudelukkende var baseret på metaller og uorganiske...... halvledere. Hertil kommer, at en del af de ledende polymerer kan stimuleres til at skifte mellem en ledende og en halvledende tilstand, hvorved de ændret både form og farve. I foredraget gives der enrække eksempler på anvendelse af polymerer som elektriske komponenter - rækkende fra polymer elektronik over...

  6. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  7. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  8. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  10. Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes; Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Alessandrini, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia Divisione Tecnologie Energetiche Avanzate

    1997-06-01

    In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performances and battery life.

  11. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  12. Using in-situ polymerization of conductive polymers to enhance the electrical properties of solution-processed carbon nanotube films and fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers.

  13. Polymer poling characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Gildas; Averty, Dominique; Blart, Errol; Boisrobert, Christian; Gundel, Hartmut; Le Tacon, Sylvain; Monnereau, Cyrille; Odobel, Fabrice; Seveno, Raynald

    2006-04-01

    Several polymer molecules have structures which are suitable for the non-linear optic applications. We report on the design and fabrication of a high performance electro-optic modulator made of polymer thin films. The polymer we study contains a chromophore based on Disperse Red One covalently grafted to a host-matrix. The polymer materials are deposited in thin layers on a glass substrate by chemical solution deposition, either by spin-coating or by dip-coating. The thickness of the films is ranging from a hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Initially, the polymer molecules are randomly oriented and the films are isotropic, hence no electro-optic effect can be observed. In order to break the symmetry and align the chromophores, the films are submitted to the so-called corona poling process. As a result, their structure become non-centrosymmetric and the second-order susceptibility is no longer zero. The corona poling method consists of applying a high electric field to the polymer by means of a needle electrode, placed above the polymer film which is posed on a grounded sample support electrode. Thermal regulation of the support electrode allows to control the temperature during the poling of the films. Once the poling process has been established, a chemical cross-linking function is thermally activated in order to fix the orientation of the chromophores in the polymer matrix. The orientation and its stability in time is evaluated with a Second Harmonic Generation measurement set-up using the Makers Fringes configuration. We studied the influence of the poling temperature, the distance between the corona needle electrode and the sample, the high voltage applied, and the duration of the poling process on the efficiency of chromophore orientation in order to optimize the poling procedure. Finally, aging of poled polymer samples has been investigated at elevated temperatures, confirming the stability of the cross-linking process.

  14. Research and development project in fiscal 1989 for fundamental technologies for next generation industries. Achievement report on research and development on electrically conductive polymeric materials; 1989 nendo dodensei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    With an objective to develop electric and electronic materials characterized by light weight, high corrosion resistance, and easy-to-process performance, and by having functions different from electricity conduction mechanism of metals, researches have been performed on fundamental technologies for electrically conductive polymeric materials. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1989. In new hydrocarbon conjugate polymers, researches were performed for the purpose of fabricating the conjugate system polymer and dopant complex system conductive thin films, and polyacene system polymer thin films. In developing the vehicular conjugate conductive materials, discussions were given on enhancing the molecular weight dependence and the conductivity by cross-linking the conjugate system, with regard to hydrocarbon system polymers that go through vehicular polymeric intermediates. In the research of vehicular graphite materials, it was discovered that mono-axial mono-plane PPV films and PTV films are graphitized. In developing the hetero aromatic system polymers, researches were advanced on the correlation among the gegen ions, high-order structures, and electric conductivity, mainly on polypyrrole. (NEDO)

  15. Research and development project in fiscal 1988 for fundamental technologies for next generation industries. Achievement report on research and development on electrically conductive polymeric materials; 1988 nendo dodensei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    With an objective to develop electric and electronic materials characterized by light weight, high corrosion resistance and easy-to-process performance, and having functions different from those of electricity conduction mechanism of metals, research and development has been performed on fundamental technologies related to electrically conductive polymeric materials. This paper summarizes the achievement in fiscal 1988. In the research of the new hydrocarbon conjugate system polymers, fabrication was performed on the LB film mixed with different dopant molecules and photo-polymerized LB molecules. Discussions were given on their effects on the order and electric conductivity of the film cumulative structure. In the research on the vehicular conjugate system conductive materials, conduction improvement was advanced on PPV and PTV by purification of the primary structure and by identification of the effects of the higher-order structure. Basic knowledge was obtained on continuous manufacture of the graphite film. In the research on thin graphite film synthesized at low temperatures, entire design was made on the thin graphite film low-temperature synthesizing device, whereas the synthesized sections were completed excepting the laser assisted section. In the research of hetero aromatic system polymers, investigation was executed on polypyrrole as to its correlation with gegen ions, higher-order structure, and conductivity. (NEDO)

  16. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Faraday of England and Joseph Henry of the United. States are the .... frequency to be generated is f Hz, the number of poles required .... it would seem there is a very good reason to choose high frequency power generation. (In fact.

  17. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  18. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  19. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on second term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The research and development in the second term included development of raw materials, elucidation of electricity conduction mechanism, and development of methods to improve stability and a new processing method. Crystals of a large number of charge migrating complexes were grown to elucidate their electron properties and structures. A theoretical model was structured for the superconduction mechanism in the charge migrating complexes. Poly-p-phenylene vinylene-based polymers achieved {sigma}=1.1 times 10{sup 4}s/cm as a result of extension of soluble reaction intermediates. Poly-2, 5-phenylene vinylene doped with FeCl{sub 3} retained 10{sup 3}s/m for 165 days in nitrogen. Polypyrrole achieved 3.0 times 10{sup 3}s/cm in constant potential electrolytically oxidizing polymerization and extension at low temperatures. Polypyrrole doped with ClO{sub 4}{sup -} retained electric conductivity of 85% for 400 days in nitrogen. Electric conductivity of higher than 10{sup 5}s/cm was obtained by applying different kinds of doping into thin film and fiber formed graphite. The world's highest conductivity of 9 times 10{sup 5}s/cm was achieved particularly with discharge laminated and polymerized graphite doped with AsF{sub 5}. (NEDO)

  20. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on first term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-30

    The research and development in the first term has searched widely different kinds of raw materials, elucidated electricity conduction mechanism, discussed processing technologies and evaluation methods. It also included molecule designing to develop new raw materials. A method for growing good single crystals of charge migrating complexes was developed, and (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} crystals were found to manifest superconductivity at 8K under pressure of 1.3 kbar. In addition, elucidation was made on conduction characteristics of (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} being an induction superconductor, and on its superconduction mechanism. Polyacetylene films oriented at a high level by epitaxial polymerization were synthesized, the carrier hopping mechanism of polyacetylene was proposed, and the direction of increasing the conductivity was shown. It was discovered that cyanoacetylene is thermally polymerized at a relatively low temperature, turning into polymer with good orientation and easily into graphite. Polymeric intermediates soluble to polyparaphenylene vinylene (PPV) were synthesized, whereas these intermediates were found to have shaping and stretching properties, and conductivity of 2.8 times 10{sup 3}s/cm was obtained in PPV doped after the stretching. (NEDO)

  1. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'electrically conductive polymeric material'. Evaluation on first term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Dodensei kobunshi zairyo (daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-30

    The research and development in the first term has searched widely different kinds of raw materials, elucidated electricity conduction mechanism, discussed processing technologies and evaluation methods. It also included molecule designing to develop new raw materials. A method for growing good single crystals of charge migrating complexes was developed, and (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} crystals were found to manifest superconductivity at 8K under pressure of 1.3 kbar. In addition, elucidation was made on conduction characteristics of (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} being an induction superconductor, and on its superconduction mechanism. Polyacetylene films oriented at a high level by epitaxial polymerization were synthesized, the carrier hopping mechanism of polyacetylene was proposed, and the direction of increasing the conductivity was shown. It was discovered that cyanoacetylene is thermally polymerized at a relatively low temperature, turning into polymer with good orientation and easily into graphite. Polymeric intermediates soluble to polyparaphenylene vinylene (PPV) were synthesized, whereas these intermediates were found to have shaping and stretching properties, and conductivity of 2.8 times 10{sup 3}s/cm was obtained in PPV doped after the stretching. (NEDO)

  2. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  3. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  4. Don't trust equivalency presumptions when choosing distribution poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, M.

    2003-08-01

    The variety of electric power distribution poles are described (wood, steel, prestressed concrete) in an effort to alert utilities that simple substitution of one type of pole for another based on presumed equivalency entails the risk that the replacement poles are unfit for the load conditions and do not comply with National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) requirements. A thorough evaluation of all design loads and the proper application of the appropriate overload and strength factors must take place prior to selecting the type of replacement to avoid misapplication of a product in situations for which it was not designed. Relevant provisions of NESC are described.

  5. Integrated 3D printing and corona poling process of PVDF piezoelectric films for pressure sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoejin; Torres, Fernando; Wu, Yanyu; Villagran, Dino; Lin, Yirong; Tseng, Tzu-Liang(Bill

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel process to fabricate piezoelectric films from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer using integrated fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing and corona poling technique. Corona poling is one of many effective poling processes that has received attention to activate PVDF as a piezoelectric responsive material. The corona poling process occurs when a PVDF polymer is exposed to a high electric field created and controlled through an electrically charged needle and a grid electrode under heating environment. FDM 3D printing has seen extensive progress in fabricating thermoplastic materials and structures, including PVDF. However, post processing techniques such as poling is needed to align the dipoles in order to gain piezoelectric properties. To further simplify the piezoelectric sensors and structures fabrication process, this paper proposes an integrated 3D printing process with corona poling to fabricate piezoelectric PVDF sensors without post poling process. This proposed process, named ‘Integrated 3D Printing and Corona poling process’ (IPC), uses the 3D printer’s nozzle and heating bed as anode and cathode, respectively, to create poling electric fields in a controlled heating environment. The nozzle travels along the programmed path with fixed distance between nozzle tip and sample’s top surface. Simultaneously, the electric field between the nozzle and bottom heating pad promotes the alignment of dipole moment of PVDF molecular chains. The crystalline phase transformation and output current generated by printed samples under different electric fields in this process were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and through fatigue load frame. It is demonstrated that piezoelectric PVDF films with enhanced β-phase percentage can be fabricated using the IPC process. In addition, mechanical properties of printed PVDF was investigated by tensile testing. It is expected to expand the use of additive

  6. In-situ poling and structurization of piezoelectric particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbareh, H; van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2017-11-01

    Composites of lead zirconate titanate particles in an epoxy matrix are prepared in the form of 0-3 and quasi 1-3 with different ceramic volume contents from 10% to 50%. Two different processing routes are tested. Firstly a conventional dielectrophoretic structuring is used to induce a chain-like particle configuration, followed by curing the matrix and poling at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Secondly a simultaneous combination of dielectrophoresis and poling is applied at room temperature while the polymer is in the liquid state followed by subsequent curing. This new processing route is practiced in an uncured thermoset system while the polymer matrix still possess a relatively high electrical conductivity. Composites with different degrees of alignment are produced by altering the magnitude of the applied electric field. A significant improvement in piezoelectric properties of quasi 1-3 composites can be achieved by a combination of dielectrophoretic alignment of the ceramic particles and poling process. It has been observed that the degree of structuring as well as the functional properties of the in-situ structured and poled composites enhance significantly compared to those of the conventionally manufactured structured composites. Improving the alignment quality enhances the piezoelectric properties of the particulate composites.

  7. A variable-mode stator consequent pole memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a variable-mode concept is proposed for the speed range extension of a stator-consequent-pole memory machine (SCPMM). An integrated permanent magnet (PM) and electrically excited control scheme is utilized to simplify the flux-weakening control instead of relatively complicated continuous PM magnetization control. Due to the nature of memory machine, the magnetization state of low coercive force (LCF) magnets can be easily changed by applying either a positive or negative current pulse. Therefore, the number of PM poles may be changed to satisfy the specific performance requirement under different speed ranges, i.e. the machine with all PM poles can offer high torque output while that with half PM poles provides wide constant power range. In addition, the SCPMM with non-magnetized PMs can be considered as a dual-three phase electrically excited reluctance machine, which can be fed by an open-winding based dual inverters that provide direct current (DC) bias excitation to further extend the speed range. The effectiveness of the proposed variable-mode operation for extending its operating region and improving the system reliability is verified by both finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments.

  8. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  9. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  10. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  11. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have...... the device, one can reveal the existence of imperfect interfaces by use of electric field induced second-harmonic generation....

  12. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  13. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  14. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  15. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Burgio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles.

  16. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  17. Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    circumvention of classic property-processing trade -offs. The laboratory task focuses on two primary objectives: (1) Creating the fundamental...processing trade -offs. To establish feasibility for military needs, current opportunities being examined include: 1. Electrically conductive...CINT Center for Intergrated Technologies NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology RF MEM Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems SOA State of the Art TPA Two-photon Resonant

  18. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  19. Collaborative Research: Polymeric Multiferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shenqiang [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). College of Engineering

    2017-04-20

    The goal of this project is to investigate room temperature magnetism and magnetoelectric coupling of polymeric multiferroics. A new family of molecular charge-transfer crystals has been emerged as a fascinating opportunity for the development of all-organic electrics and spintronics due to its weak hyperfine interaction and low spin-orbit coupling; nevertheless, direct observations of room temperature magnetic spin ordering have yet to be accomplished in organic charge-transfer solids. Furthermore, room temperature magnetoelectric coupling effect hitherto known multiferroics, is anticipated in organic donor-acceptor complexes because of magnetic field effects on charge-transfer dipoles, yet this is also unexplored. The PI seeks to fundamental understanding of the control of organic crystals to demonstrate and explore room temperature multiferroicity. The experimental results have been verified through the theoretical modeling.

  20. Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroenisch, Volker Ewald

    Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.

  1. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data. 1. Introduction. Analytical signal .... The meaning of the rest of the parameters is self- evident. The three ..... interpretation using 3-D analytic signal; Geophysics 57. 116–125. Starostenko ...

  2. Effect of anionic dopants on thickness, morphology and electrical properties of polypyrrole ultra-thin films prepared by in situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodian, Mehrnoosh [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourabbas, Behzad, E-mail: pourabas@sut.ac.ir [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, Shams [Nano-Electronics and Thin Film Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    The effect of different dopant anions on deposition and characteristics of polypyrrole (PPy) thin film has been studied in this work. Ultra-thin films of conducting PPy were deposited on insulating surfaces of glass and oxidized silicon wafer by in situ chemical polymerization in the presence of different anionic dopants including sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, α-naphthalene sulfonic acid, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate/5-sulfosalicylic acid dehydrate, and camphor sulfonic acid. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and morphology of the self-assembled monolayer of N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)pyrrole, the surface modifying agent in this work, and PPy thin films were characterized before and after deposition by contact angle measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chemical structure, thickness, and conductivity of the thin films were also studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ellipsometry, and four-point probe measurements. The results showed deposition of thin films of conducting PPy with comparable thickness in the range of 6-31 nm and different morphologies, uniformity, and smoothness with average roughness in the range of 0.3-6 nm and relatively high range of conductivity on the modified surfaces. - Highlights: • Conducting thin films of polypyrrole were deposited on glass and SiO{sub 2} substrates. • Surface modification using pyrrole-silane was employed prior to polymerization. • Films as thin as ≈ 7 nm were deposited using different surfactant/counter ions. • Chemistry of the counter ion affects thickness, conductivity and morphology. • Lower thickness/higher conductivity were obtained by structurally flexible dopants.

  3. Separate Poles Mode for Large-Capacity HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel connection mode, separate poles mode (SPM), for large-capacity HVDC systems. The proposed mode focuses on the core issues of HVDC connection in interconnected power grids and principally aims at increasing effective electric distance between poles, which helps to mitigate the interaction problems between AC system and DC system. Receiving end of bipolar HVDC has been divided into different inverter stations under the mode, and thus significantly alleviates difficulties in power transmission and consumption of receiving-end AC grids. By investigating the changes of multi-feed short-circuit ratio (MISCR), finding that HVDC with SPM shows critical impacts upon itself and other HVDC systems with conventional connection mode, which demonstrates that SPM can make balance between MISCR increase and short-circuit current limit.

  4. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  5. "Click" i polymerer 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    "Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer......"Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer...

  6. 3D electrical image in area contaminated by hydrocarbons at the Cubatao, Brazil, industrial pole; Imageamento eletrico 3D em area contaminada por hidrocarbonetono no polo industrial de Cubatao - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessa, Marcus Paulus Martins [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello, CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcus.baessa@petrobras.br; Oliva, Andresa; Kiang, Chang Hung [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: aoliva@rc.unesp.br, chang@rc.unesp.br

    2010-12-15

    This work presents the results of geophysical surveys performed over an oil contaminated site in the Polo Industrial de Cubatao - Sao Paulo. The aim is to characterize geoelectrical signatures associated to hydrocarbon presence in order to delimit and calculate the volume of the contaminated area. For this study were used Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 3D Electrical Imaging for characterization of geology and geoelectrical response of the contaminant. The results showed that the hydrocarbon presence is associated to conductive anomalies due to products from biodegradation. The conductive anomalies are disseminated over the area, totalizing 1365.3 m3 volume. This volume, however, corresponds only to the residual phase contaminants, since it was not possible to map free-phase hydrocarbons. (author)

  7. Functional exploration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the bioleaching of obsolete electric vehicle LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Tian, Bingyang; Bao, Yihui; Qian, Can; Yang, Yiran; Niu, Tianqi; Xin, Baoping

    2018-05-05

    As a fairly new concept, the recovery of valuable metals from urban mining by using bioleaching has become a hotspot. However, the function of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the bioleaching of urban mining gains little attention. The current study used spent EV LIBs to represent urban mining products and systematically explored the function and role of EPS in the attachment of cells to the cathodes, formation of aggregates (cell-EPS-cathode), variation in the electrical and surface properties of the aggregates, concentration of both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ surrounding the aggregates, electron transfer inside the aggregates and metals released from the aggregates. The results indicated that a strong adhesion of cells to the cathodes occurs mediated by EPS via both hydrophobic force as a main role and electrostatic force as a minor role. Second, the EPS not only adsorb Fe 3+ but also more strongly adsorb Fe 2+ to concentrate the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ cycle inside the aggregates, witnessing stronger reductive attack on the high valence state of metals as a contact reductive mechanism. Third, the retention or addition of EPS elevated the electronic potential and reduced the electronic resistance to lift the corrosion electric current, thereby boosting the electron transfer and metal dissolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  9. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  10. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  11. Performance analysis of variable speed multiphase induction motor with pole phase modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pole phase modulation (PPM technique is an effective method to extend speed range and torque capabilities for an integrated starter and hybrid electric vehicles applications. In this paper, the five pole-phase combination types of a multiphase induction motor (IM with 36 stator slots and 36 stator conductors are presented and compared quantitatively by using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM. The 36 stator conductors of the proposed multiphase IM are fed by a 36 leg inverter and the current phase angle and amplitude of each stator conductor can be controlled independently. This paper focuses on the winding connection, the PPM technique and the performance comparative analysis of each pole-phase combination types of the proposed multiphase IM. The flux distribution, air-gap flux density, output torque, core losses and efficiency of five pole-phase combination types have been investigated.

  12. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  13. Holography with a Landau pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ LP . The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ LP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ LP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ LP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  14. One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, E.

    1990-11-01

    In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  15. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  16. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  17. Variables and advantages of the polymerization process in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Ortiz, Jairo A; Restrepo, Elizabeth; Devia Alfonso

    1998-01-01

    They are given to know the parameters that affect the polymerization process in plasma like they are: the kinetics, the electric joining, the variables related to the substrata and the interaction plasma/surface. Some advantages of the polymerization process are also presented with regard to the conventional processes

  18. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  19. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German [Valencia Univ. Paterna (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2012-11-15

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  20. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  1. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  2. Comparison of single and mixed ion implantation effects on the changes of the surface hardness, light transmittance, and electrical conductivity of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kil, J. G.; Choi, B. H.; Han, Z. H.

    2001-01-01

    Single or mixed ions of N, He, C were implanted onto the transparent PET(Polyethylen Terephtalate) with the ion energies of less than 100 keV and the surface hardness, light transmittance and electrical conductivity were examined. As measured with nanoindentation, mixed ion implantations such as N + +He + or N + + C + exhibited more increase in the surface hardness than the single ion implantation. Especially, implantation of C+N ions increased the surface hardness by about three times as compared to the implantation of N ion alone, which means more than 10 times increase than the untreated PET. Surface electrical conductivity was increased along with the hardness increase. The conductivity increase was more proportional to the hardness when used the higher ion energy and ion dose, while it did not show any relationship at as low as 50 keV of ion energy. The light at the 550 nm wavelength (visual range) transmitted more than 85%, which is close to that of as-received PET, and at the wavelength below 300 nm(UV range) the rays were absorbed more than 95% as traveling through the sheet, implying that there are processing parameters which the ion implanted PET maintains the transparency and absorbs the UV rays

  3. Synthesis of chiral polyaniline films via chemical vapor phase polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, J.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Pornputtkul, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1)-(-)-10- camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline/ R- camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical...

  4. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  5. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  6. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  7. Synthesis and electrical characterization of Li0.30Ca0.35TaO3 perovskite synthesized via a polymerized complex route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoc Nghi Pham; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bohnke, Claude; Bohnke, Odile

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of Li 0.30 Ca 0.35 TaO 3 perovskite by a Pechini-type polymerizable precursor method is carefully described. The thermal decomposition of the precursor and the formation of a pure perovskite phase were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) and XRD techniques. A pure and well-crystallized phase has been obtained at a lower temperature and with a much shorter synthesis time than the phase obtained by conventional solid-state reaction method. The morphology of the powder after heating at 1300 deg. C was observed by laser granulometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impedance spectroscopy data allowed us to determine the electrical properties, i.e., permittivity and dc-conductivity, of the bulk and grain boundaries. The results are discussed on the assumption of the brick layer model

  8. Polymerization Using Phosphazene Bases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2015-09-01

    In the recent rise of metal-free polymerization techniques, organic phosphazene superbases have shown their remarkable strength as promoter/catalyst for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. Generally, the complexation of phosphazene base with the counterion (proton or lithium cation) significantly improves the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain end resulting in highly enhanced polymerization rates, as compared with conventional metalbased initiating systems. In this chapter, the general features of phosphazenepromoted/catalyzed polymerizations and the applications in macromolecular engineering (synthesis of functionalized polymers, block copolymers, and macromolecular architectures) are discussed with challenges and perspectives being pointed out.

  9. 3-D finite element analysis of claw-poled stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Mizuno; Koike, Yoshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments. It is necessary for the optimum design to analyze the magnetic field accurately. The 3-D finite element method with edge elements taking into account the rotation of the rotor has been applied to analyze the magnetic field of a claw-poled stepping motor. (Author)

  10. The relationship between the electric field induced dissociation of charge transfer (CT) excitons and the photocurrent in novel hybrid small molecular/polymeric solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inal, Sahika; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie; Sellinger, Alan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore (China)

    2010-07-01

    Complete dissociation of coulombically bound interfacial states is an ultimate step accounting for photovoltaic performance. Recent work has proposed that the emission of CT-exciton, i.e. an exciplex, is a competing process to the generation of free charges. Here, we investigated the photophysical processes in a bulk heterojunction system using a soluble poly(p-phenylenevinylene) donor and a novel small molecular electron acceptor based on Vinazene (2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole). Recent work has shown that this blend exhibits a featureless emission, prominent at long wavelengths of the spectrum, which was attributed to a CT-exciton. We monitored the field induced dissociation of these CT-excitons by means of steady state and time resolved PL spectroscopy. Shortened decay times and reduced PL emission in blend film evidence the dissociation of the emissive intermolecular pair by the external electric field. Analyzing the dependence of the photocurrent and external quantum efficiency on the external field, the fate of the separated exciplex pairs is tackled. It is suggested that the formation of free carriers involves channels other than CT-excitons in such blends.

  11. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  12. Fabrication of miniature magnetic magnet pole for validate simulation of magnetic cyclotron proton 13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subroto; Sukiya; Tony R

    2013-01-01

    A fabrication of miniature magnetic pole field has been made to validate the simulation system 13 MeV magnet of proton cyclotron using mild steel material. This electromagnet of magnetic pole at the end of the magnetic pole is divided into 8 parts of the valley and the hill interval to produce different magnetic field. Pole magnetic field fabrication is meet to match the design of the system simulation results 13 MeV cyclotron magnet. This requires strong cyclotron magnetic field average at 1.275 T magnetic field strength of each piece was different. So that the ion beam passing through a magnetic field. Will be focused before mashing target. The surface of magnetic pole is circular with a diameter of 100 mm and 32 mm pole spacing. Miniature of electrical pole diameter is only one-tenth the diameter of 960 mm designed this requires current 10 A with voltage 30 V to produce field strength of 0.3 T. To measure the magnetic field strength tesla meter is used and to measure the relationship curve in pole position with a magnetic field strength magnets cylinder directions X and Y the used mini lathe. Field strength measurement results with a straight, oblique and circular position show nearly equal to curve simulation results using a 3D module TOSCA opera program. (author)

  13. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  14. Characterisation of Q and T steel pole shoes manufactured by sand casting; Charakterisierung mit Sandguss hergestellter Polschuhe aus verguetetem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio-Lozano, J.; Alvarez-Antolin, J.F. [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering; Panta-Mesones, J.T. [National Univ. of Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Faculty of Mines, Metallurgy and Materials; Vander-Voort, G.F. [Buehler Ltd., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a study of the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the GS 35 CrMoV 10 4 alloy employed in the manufacture of sand-cast pole shoes for 4-pole synchronous electric power generators working at a frequency of 60 Hz. In addition, the most appropriate treatment for ensuring compliance with the technical specifications defined in DIN Standard No. 1.7755 has been designed. (orig.)

  15. Pole shifting with constrained output feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Mensah, S.; Boisvert, J.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of pole placement plays an important role in linear, multi-variable, control theory. It has received much attention since its introduction, and several pole shifting algorithms are now available. This work presents a new method which allows practical and engineering constraints such as gain limitation and controller structure to be introduced right into the pole shifting design strategy. This is achieved by formulating the pole placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Explicit constraints (controller structure and gain limits) are defined to identify an admissible region for the feedback gain matrix. The desired pole configuration is translated into an appropriate cost function which must be closed-loop minimized. The resulting constrained optimization problem can thus be solved with optimization algorithms. The method has been implemented as an algorithmic interactive module in a computer-aided control system design package, MVPACK. The application of the method is illustrated to design controllers for an aircraft and an evaporator. The results illustrate the importance of controller structure on overall performance of a control system

  16. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interim report on the fate of wood preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is studying the environmental impact of preservatives associated with in-service utility poles. As part of this endeavor, two EPRI contractors, META Environmental, Inc. (META) and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. (Atlantic), have collected soil samples from around wood utility poles nationwide, for various chemical and physical analyses. This report covers the results for 107 pole sites in the US. These pole sites included a range of preservative types, soil types, wood types, pole sizes, and in-service ages. The poles in this study were preserved with one of two types of preservative: pentachlorophenol (PCP) or creosote. Approximately 40 to 50 soil samples were collected from each wood pole site in this study. The soil samples collected from the pole sites were analyzed for chlorinated phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) if the pole was preserved with PCP, or for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) if the pole was preserved with creosote. The soil samples were also analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and cationic exchange capacity (CEC). Additional samples were used in studies to determine biological degradation rates, and soil-water distribution and retardation coefficients of PCP in site soils. Methods of analysis followed standard EPA and ASTM methods, with some modifications in the chemical analyses to enable the efficient processing of many samples with sufficiently low detection limits for this study. All chemical, physical, and site-specific data were stored in a relational computer database

  18. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  19. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  20. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  1. PNRA. South-pole directory listing

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Carpen?, Andrea; Ramorino, Chiara; Rossi, Lucio

    1992-01-01

    In the following all DATA-SET descriptors (DSD) contained in the "South-Pole Directory" (vers. 1992) are listed. The "South-Pole Directory" was a joint project between ENEA and CNR. The IEI/CNR took care of the data digitalization and check and of the english translation (where necessary). The ARF/CNR and the Progetto Antartide/ENEA joined the IEI/CNR in defining the acronyms of the Sensor_Names and of the Source_Names, together with the short and long names for the Data_Centers. Finally, the...

  2. A large electrically excited synchronous generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This invention relates to a large electrically excited synchronous generator (100), comprising a stator (101), and a rotor or rotor coreback (102) comprising an excitation coil (103) generating a magnetic field during use, wherein the rotor or rotor coreback (102) further comprises a plurality...... adjacent neighbouring poles. In this way, a large electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) is provided that readily enables a relatively large number of poles, compared to a traditional EESG, since the excitation coil in this design provides MMF for all the poles, whereas in a traditional EESG...... each pole needs its own excitation coil, which limits the number of poles as each coil will take up too much space between the poles....

  3. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For these reasons, I could not buy many of the essential things .... Geomagnetic South Pole at 78° 27' S, 106° 48' E at an altitude of 3,488 metres on approximately .... Smokers at the station were often found searching for used cigarette butts.

  4. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  5. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  6. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  7. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  8. Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, F.S.; Maurer, W.W.; Lipic, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    High molecular weight block copolymers can be viewed as macromolecular surfactants when blended with thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers. This Letter describes the formation of polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions in nurtures containing a model diblock copolymer and two homopolymers. Alt...

  9. Polymerization Using Phosphazene Bases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Schlaad, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    . In this chapter, the general features of phosphazenepromoted/catalyzed polymerizations and the applications in macromolecular engineering (synthesis of functionalized polymers, block copolymers, and macromolecular architectures) are discussed with challenges

  10. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  11. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  12. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  13. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  14. Investigation of a less rare-earth permanent-magnet machine with the consequent pole rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Mingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong; Gao, Haibo; Xiao, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the rising price of rare-earth materials, permanent-magnet (PM) machines in different applications have a trend of reducing the use of rare-earth materials. Since iron-core poles replace half of PM poles in the consequent pole (CP) rotor, the PM machine with CP rotor can be a promising candidate for less rare-earth PM machine. Additionally, the investigation of CP rotor in special electrical machines, like hybrid excitation permanent-magnet PM machine, bearingless motor, etc., has verified the application feasibility of CP rotor. Therefore, this paper focuses on design and performance of PM machines when traditional PM machine uses the CP rotor. In the CP rotor, all the PMs are of the same polarity and they are inserted into the rotor core. Since the fundamental PM flux density depends on the ratio of PM pole to iron-core pole, the combination rule between them is investigated by analytical and finite-element methods. On this basis, to comprehensively analyze and evaluate PM machine with CP rotor, four typical schemes, i.e., integer-slot machines with CP rotor and surface-mounted PM (SPM) rotor, fractional-slot machines with CP rotor and SPM rotor, are designed to investigate the performance of PM machine with CP rotor, including electromagnetic performance, anti-demagnetization capacity and cost.

  15. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  16. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  17. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  18. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  19. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

  20. Physics on the Z-pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Keisuke

    1994-01-01

    JLC will provide a high luminosity of 2.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 on the Z-pole. To realize the Z-pole running we need to add a transport line to bypass unnecessary part of the main linac. With this high luminosity, the third angle of the unitality triangle (sin 2φ 3 ) can be measured in B s (B s ) → pK s channel with 3σ sensitivity in 1 year when sin 2φ 3 = -0.5, Xs = 10, and the branching ratio of the channel is 2 x 10 -5 . Also sin 2 θw can be measured with accuracy of Δsin 2 θw/sin 2 θw = 0.1%. (J.P.N.)

  1. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  2. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  4. Various aspects of ultrasound assisted emulsion polymerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Ibrahim; Bayramoglu, Mahmut

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic (US) power, pulse ratio, probe area and recipe composition were investigated on two process responses namely, monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA) conversion and electrical energy consumption per mass of product polymer (PMMA). Pulsed mode US is more suitable than continuous mode US for emulsion polymerization. The probe (tip) area has little effect on the yield of polymerization when comparing 19 and 13 mm probes, 13 mm probe performing slightly better for high conversion levels. Meanwhile, large probe area is beneficial for high conversion efficiency of electric energy to US energy as well as for high radical generation yield per energy consumed. The conversion increased slightly and electrical energy consumption decreased substantially by using a recipe with high SDS and monomer concentrations. Conclusions presented in this paper may be useful for scale-up of US assisted emulsion polymerization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflation of a Polymeric Menbrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne B.; Larsen, Johannes R.; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane.......We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane....

  6. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC. In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  7. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhou, T. C.; Wang, J. X.; Yang, X. F.; Zhu, F.; Tian, L. M.; Liu, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC). In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  8. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  9. Polymerization by radiation. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Fernandez Miranda, J.

    1997-01-01

    Achieved results of the research work done in the field of radiation polymerization are summarized. Developing new chromatographic matrices, the radiation grafting of Glycidyl methacrylate on the surface of Low Density Polyethylene beads was studied. The dependence of both, the grafted degree and width of the grafted layer, with the radiation dose applied, is presented

  10. RAFT polymerization mediated bioconjugation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmuş, Volga

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the use of RAFT polymerization in the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. It covers two main bioconjugation strategies using the RAFT process: (i) post-polymerization bioconjugations using pre-synthesized reactive polymers, and (ii) bioconjugations via in situ polymerization using biomolecule-modified monomers or chain transfer agents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...... of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content....

  12. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  13. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  14. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  15. Infrared solar physics from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of the sun could greatly benefit from the quality of the South Pole as an IR site, and the potential for multi-day sequences of uninterrupted observations. A nearly continuous picture of the evolution of the magnetic field in solar active regions could be obtained using vector magnetographs, especially vector magnetographs which incorporate IR array detectors. Observations of the sun over a range of wavelengths in the IR continuum could also be used to study the vertical propagation characteristics of the solar p-mode oscillations.

  16. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  17. Direct localization of poles of a meromorphic function from measurements on an incomplete boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Takaaki; Ando, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an algebraic method to reconstruct the positions of multiple poles in a meromorphic function field from measurements on an arbitrary simple arc in it. A novel issue is the exactness of the algorithm depending on whether the arc is open or closed, and whether it encloses or does not enclose the poles. We first obtain a differential equation that can equivalently determine the meromorphic function field. From it, we derive linear equations that relate the elementary symmetric polynomials of the pole positions to weighted integrals of the field along the simple arc and end-point terms of the arc when it is an open one. Eliminating the end-point terms based on an appropriate choice of weighting functions and a combination of the linear equations, we obtain a simple system of linear equations for solving the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also show that our algorithm can be applied to a 2D electric impedance tomography problem. The effects of the proximity of the poles, the number of measurements and noise on the localization accuracy are numerically examined.

  18. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Coto, Borja; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  19. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana, E-mail: a.zuzuarregui@nanogune.eu; Gregorczyk, Keith E. [CIC Nanogune Consolider, de Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier [IK4-Tekniker, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600 Eibar (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge [Torresol Energy (SENER Group), Avda. de Zugazarte 61, 48930 Las Arenas (Spain); Knez, Mato [CIC Nanogune Consolider, de Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-08-10

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  20. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Rodríguez, Jorge; Knez, Mato

    2015-01-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur

  1. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  2. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  3. Radiation polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoi, H.; Lugao, A.B.; Oikawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) monomer was obtained by means of the pyrolysis of chlorodifluoromethane (R-22). The experiments were carried out in quartz tube with temperature between 700 0 and 800 0 C. The principal reaction of the pyrolysis is considered to be: 2CHClF2 ----> C 2 F 4 +2HCl. However, by-products such as HF, C 3 F 6 , C 2 HClF 4 , C 4 F 8 etc are also produced in the pyrolysis process. The conversions of R-22 varied from 30 to 50%, depending upon the temperature, pressure and flow rate of R-22 in the furnace. Finally the TFE monomer of purity higher than 99.98% was obtained by fractional distillation in low temperatures ranging from -10 0 to -30 0 C. The bulk polymerization of this monomer induced by γ-rays from 3000Ci cobalt-60 source was studied at various temperatures (room temperature, 0 0 , -23 0 and -78 0 C). The monomers were introduced into stainless steel vessels of 15 and 60 ml volume under vacuum. The control of polymerization reaction was rather hard at temperatures higher than -23 0 C due to the difficulty of removing the heat of reaction. However, the polymerization at -78 0 C was very easy to control. The white polymer particles were obtained in agglomerated state. The IR spectra of the polymers were consistent with those of commercial products. The melting points of samples were between 326 0 and 331 0 C. (Author) [pt

  4. Strategi Pengembangan Daerah Growth Pole melalui Pemanfaatan Potensi Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the leading sectors that could be developed in each district in Cilacap Regency as a growth pole area. We use location quotient, shift share, and klassen typology as analysis methods. The research results show that not all of the district at Cilacap regency have a leading sector. Further, districts that have leading sectors are as follows. Wanareja only has a leading sector, i.e. agriculture. Secondly, Kawunganten has two leading sectors, agriculture and finance, rent, and company services. Thirdly, Agriculture becomes the only leading sector of Kampung Laut District. Fourthly, Mining and extraction are the leading sectors of Kesugihan District. Fifthly, Sampang District has buildings and finance sectors as the leading sectors. Sixthly, Kroya District leads in trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors. Seventhly, South Cilacap District leads in mining and extraction sectors. Eighthly, Central Cilacap District has manufacturing, electricity, gas and clean water, building and services as leading sectors. Lastly, North Cilacap District has electricity, gas and clean water, manufacturing, building and services as leading sectors. Abstrak   Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan sektor unggulan yang dapat dikembangkan di tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Cilacap sebagai salah satu daerah growth pole. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu location quotient, shift share dan klassen typologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua kecamatan di kabupaten Cilacap memiliki sektor unggulan. Beberapa daerah yang memiliki sektor unggulan diantaranya adalah  Kecamatan Wanareja hanya memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu pertanian. Kedua adalah Kecamatan Kawunganten memiliki dua sektor unggulan yaitu sektor pertanian dan sektor keuangan, persewaan dan jasa perusahaan. Kecamatan Kampung Laut, dimana sektor pertanian pada kecamatan ini sangatlah unggul. Kecamatan kesugihan juga memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu

  5. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  6. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  7. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  8. Generalized pole inflation: Hilltop, natural, and chaotic inflationary attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.terada@apctp.org [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    A reformulation of inflationary model analyses appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, power-law inflation, or monomial/polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behaviors of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  9. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  10. Radiation chemistry of polymeric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Ishigaki, Isao

    1978-01-01

    Among wide application of radiation in the field of polymer chemistry, practices of polymerization, graft polymerization, bridging, etc. are introduced hereinafter. As for the radiation sources of radiation polymerization, in addition to the 60 Co-γ ray with long permeation distance which has been usually applied, electron beam accelerators with high energy, large current and high reliability have come to be produced, and the liquid phase polymerization by electron beam has attracted attention industrially. Concerning polymerizing reactions, explanations were given to electron beam polymerization under high dose rate, the polymerization in supercooling state or under high pressure, and emulsifying polymerization. As for radiation bridging, radiation is applied for the bridging of hydrogel, acceleration of bridging and improvement of radiation resistance. It is also utilized for reforming membranes by graft polymerization, and synthesis of polymers for medical use. Application of fixed enzymes in the medical field has been investigated by fixing various enzymes by low temperature γ-ray polymerization with glassy monomers such as HEMA. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Device for connecting pole bridges and poles to the terminals of a set of plates for a battery cell. Vorrichtung zum Verbinden von Polbruecken und Polen mit den Fahnenableitern eines Plattensatzes fuer eine Akkumulatorenzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallup, B.; Glittenberg, W.; Kubis, C.; Richter, G.; Ressel, C.

    1987-12-23

    The purpose of the invention is a device for attaching pole bridges and poles by casting them on to terminals of a completely mounted set of plates of electric batteries, in the form of a casting which is made to take the negative and the positive lug of the set of plates separately as a double tool. Each casting and its wall thickness are dimensioned so that the heat exchange between the bridge lead and the immersed volume of each negative or positive lug is equal. With this casting, it is also possible, using lugs made of lead or lead alloy, to cause the pole sections to solidify first and then to cause the bridge sections to solidify at the same time in a subsequent two-stage cooling process.

  12. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  13. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  14. Two-pole microring weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; Wu, Allie X; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2018-05-15

    Weighted addition is an elemental multi-input to single-output operation that can be implemented with high-performance photonic devices. Microring (MRR) weight banks bring programmable weighted addition to silicon photonics. Prior work showed that their channel limits are affected by coherent inter-channel effects that occur uniquely in weight banks. We fabricate two-pole designs that exploit this inter-channel interference in a way that is robust to dynamic tuning and fabrication variation. Scaling analysis predicts a channel count improvement of 3.4-fold, which is substantially greater than predicted by incoherent analysis used in conventional MRR devices. Advances in weight bank design expand the potential of reconfigurable analog photonic networks and multivariate microwave photonics.

  15. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  16. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  17. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  18. Performance of PV panels for solar energy conversion at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed M.

    Expanding research facilities at the Amundson-Scott South pole station require increased electric power generation. Presently, electric power generation is by diesel generators using the JP8 fuel. As the station is accessible only for a short supply period during the austral summer, there are limitations upon the supply of fuel for power generation. This makes it necessary to seriously consider the use of the renewable energy sources. Although there is no sunlight for six months in the year, abundant solar energy is available during the remaining 6 months because of the clear skies, the clarity of air and the low humidity at the south pole. As the buildings at the south pole are built either without windows or with only porthole type windows, large areas on the walls and the roof are available for mounting the photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition there is unlimited space around the station for constructing a PV panel 'farm'. In this paper four types of PV panels are evaluated; the 2-axis tracking panels, vertical 1-axis tracking panels, fixed vertical panels on the walls of buildings and mounted outdoors, and fixed horizontal panels on the roofs of the buildings. Equations are developed for the power output in KW/sq. ft and annual energy in kWh/sq. ft for each type of panel. The equations include the effects of the inclination of the sun above the horizon, the movement of the sun around the horizon, the direct, reflected and diffused components of the solar radiation, the characteristics of the solar cells and the types of dc/ac inverters used to interface the output of the cells with the existing ac power. A conceptual design of a 150-kW PV generation system suitable for the south pole is also discussed in this paper.

  19. Measurement and calculation of cosmic radiation exposure during a pole-to-pole flight sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Graeme C.; Ojjeh, Captain Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray dosimetry measurements were carried out on board a Global Express business jet operated by TAG Aviation (UK) during a pole-to-pole flight sequence that took place in November 2008. One Hawk TEPC and two EPDN2s were flown, and the TEPC measurements compared to calculated values from the route dose codes AVIDOS, CARI 6M, EPCARD versions 3.2 and 3.34, QARM and SIEVERT (online version). The largest difference between measured and calculated doses for the total flight sequence was found to be 13%. Agreement between the readings of the TEPC and the EPDN2s (once a calibration factor from the CERN High Energy Reference Field had been applied) was reasonably good given the relatively large uncertainties associated with the EPDN2 measurements.

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  2. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  3. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-13

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  4. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I

    2010-01-01

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  5. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  6. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  7. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  9. Mechanocatalytic polymerization and cross-linking in a polymeric matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, R.T.M.; Ma, Shuang; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    A latent olefin metathesis catalyst, bearing two polymeric NHC ligands, was embedded in a semicrystalline polymer matrix containing cyclic olefins. The catalyst was activated by straining the solid material under compression, resulting in polymerization and cross-linking reactions of the monomers in

  10. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  11. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  12. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  13. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  14. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  15. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+33.1.42.73.76.90) - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  16. Production of radiation crosslinked polymeric compositions using diacetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Crosslinked polymeric compositions, useful as electrical insulators, heat shrinkable packaging, and lightweight foam plastics, are described. The crosslinked polymeric compositions are produced by admixing a diacetylene monomer, oligomer, polymer or mixture thereof, wherein the monomer has the formula, RNHCO-O-CH 2 -C==C-C==C-CH- 2 -O-OCNHR' in which R and R' are the same or different and are alkyl containing 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with a thermoplastic crosslinkable polymer and then subjecting the resulting mixture to actinic radiation

  17. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  18. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  19. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  20. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  1. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  2. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  3. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  4. Polymerization with freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, F k ∼k -γ , when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, γ = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced

  5. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  6. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  7. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  8. State-PID Feedback for Pole Placement of LTI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Sujitjorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pole placement problems are especially important for disturbance rejection and stabilization of dynamical systems and regarded as algebraic inverse eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we propose gain formulae of state feedback through PID-elements to achieve desired pole placement for a delay-free LTI system with single input. Real and complex stable poles can be assigned with the proposed compact gain formulae. Numerical examples show that our proposed gain formulae can be used effectively resulting in very satisfactory responses.

  9. Technological and economical analysis of salient pole and permanent magnet synchronous machines designed for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendogdu, Tayfun, E-mail: tgundogdu@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ayazaga Campus, 34469 Maslak/Istanbul (Turkey); Koemuergoez, Gueven, E-mail: komurgoz@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ayazaga Campus, 34469 Maslak/Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Chinese export restrictions already reduced the planning reliability for investments in permanent magnet wind turbines. Today the production of permanent magnets consumes the largest proportion of rare earth elements, with 40% of the rare earth-based magnets used for generators and other electrical machines. The cost and availability of NdFeB magnets will likely determine the production rate of permanent magnet generators. The high volatility of rare earth metals makes it very difficult to quote a price. Prices may also vary from supplier to supplier to an extent of up to 50% for the same size, shape and quantity with a minor difference in quality. The paper presents the analysis and the comparison of salient pole with field winding and of peripheral winding synchronous electrical machines, presenting important advantages. A neodymium alloy magnet rotor structure has been considered and compared to the salient rotor case. The Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine were designed so that the plate values remain constant. The Eddy current effect on the windings is taken into account during the design, and the efficiency, output power and the air-gap flux density obtained after the simulation were compared. The analysis results clearly indicate that Salient Pole Synchronous Machine designs would be attractive to wind power companies. Furthermore, the importance of the design of electrical machines and the determination of criteria are emphasized. This paper will be a helpful resource in terms of examination and comparison of the basic structure and magnetic features of the Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. Furthermore, an economic analysis of the designed machines was conducted. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of the design of electrical machines and the determination of criteria are emphasized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machines were investigated in terms of

  10. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  11. Technological and economical analysis of salient pole and permanent magnet synchronous machines designed for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gündoğdu, Tayfun; Kömürgöz, Güven

    2012-01-01

    Chinese export restrictions already reduced the planning reliability for investments in permanent magnet wind turbines. Today the production of permanent magnets consumes the largest proportion of rare earth elements, with 40% of the rare earth-based magnets used for generators and other electrical machines. The cost and availability of NdFeB magnets will likely determine the production rate of permanent magnet generators. The high volatility of rare earth metals makes it very difficult to quote a price. Prices may also vary from supplier to supplier to an extent of up to 50% for the same size, shape and quantity with a minor difference in quality. The paper presents the analysis and the comparison of salient pole with field winding and of peripheral winding synchronous electrical machines, presenting important advantages. A neodymium alloy magnet rotor structure has been considered and compared to the salient rotor case. The Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine were designed so that the plate values remain constant. The Eddy current effect on the windings is taken into account during the design, and the efficiency, output power and the air-gap flux density obtained after the simulation were compared. The analysis results clearly indicate that Salient Pole Synchronous Machine designs would be attractive to wind power companies. Furthermore, the importance of the design of electrical machines and the determination of criteria are emphasized. This paper will be a helpful resource in terms of examination and comparison of the basic structure and magnetic features of the Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. Furthermore, an economic analysis of the designed machines was conducted. - Highlights: ► Importance of the design of electrical machines and the determination of criteria are emphasized. ► Machines were investigated in terms of efficiency, weight and maintenance requirements. ► An

  12. Self Assembly and Pyroelectric Poling for Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    These “static” charges are the origin of electric field ( Edi ) creation inside the dielectric medium. If the loss of pyroelectric charges is...negligibly small, it would yield Edi = γΔT/[ε0(εdi + εcrLdi/Lcr)] (1) where ε0, εcr, and εdi are the dielectric permittivities of free space, the pyroelectric...field ( Edi ) in the dielectric thin film, and the small open arrows at the thin layer of dielectrics represent the direction of electric fields. The

  13. Multi-winding homopolar electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W

    2012-10-16

    A multi-winding homopolar electric machine and method for converting between mechanical energy and electrical energy. The electric machine includes a shaft defining an axis of rotation, first and second magnets, a shielding portion, and a conductor. First and second magnets are coaxial with the shaft and include a charged pole surface and an oppositely charged pole surface, the charged pole surfaces facing one another to form a repulsive field therebetween. The shield portion extends between the magnets to confine at least a portion of the repulsive field to between the first and second magnets. The conductor extends between first and second end contacts and is toroidally coiled about the first and second magnets and the shield portion to develop a voltage across the first and second end contacts in response to rotation of the electric machine about the axis of rotation.

  14. Thickness dependence of the poling and current-voltage characteristics of paint films made up of lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1995-11-01

    A specially prepared paint made up of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder and epoxy resin was coated on an aluminum plate and was cured at room temperature, thus forming the paint film of 25-300 μm thickness with a PZT volume fraction of 53%. The paint film was then poled at room temperature, and the poling behavior was determined by measuring the piezoelectric activity as a function of poling field. The poling behavior shows that the piezoelectric activity obtained at a given poling field increases with an increase in the film thickness from 25 to 300 μm. The current-voltage characteristic of the paint film, on the other hand, shows that the increase in the film thickness leads not only to an increase in the magnitude of the current density at a given electric field but also to an increase in the critical electric field at which the transition from the ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction takes place. This fact indicates that the amount of the space charge of electrons injected into the paint film decreases as the film thickness increases. Furthermore, comparison of the current-voltage characteristic of the paint film with that of a pure epoxy film reveals that the space charge is accumulated largely at the interface between the PZT and epoxy phases in the paint film. On the basis of this finding, a model is developed for the poling behavior of the paint film by taking into account a possible effect of the space-charge accumulation and a broad distribution of the electric field in the PZT phase. This model is shown to give an excellent fit to the experimental data of the piezoelectric activity obtained here as a function of poling field and film thickness.

  15. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  16. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  17. Pole-zero adjustment of spectroscopy amplifiers using multichannel analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, T [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The technique to eliminate the undesirable undershoot in the output signal of a spectroscopy amplifier is considered. The functional scheme of the pole-zero monitoring circuit is presented as well as its operation principles are considered. 3 refs.

  18. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  19. Effects of electric discharges on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagirov, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One of the reasons for the worsening of electrical properties of polymeric isolation in use in the effect of the electric discharges which developing in the gas inclusions and in the interlayer inside the isolation itself. The electrical discharges in the gas gap lead to the electrical growing old and the worsening of its electro physical qualities. We have learned the changes of electrical properties (dielectrical permeability and dielectrical loss, and electrical conductivity, electrical strength) of polymer films under the influence of electrical discharges. This paper shows the ways of increase of stability of polymers to the electrical discharges

  20. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described.......The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  1. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  2. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  3. A poling study on lead zirconate titanate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics produced by the conventional mixed oxide route are dual phased. Because the titania and zirconia are not perfectly homogenized, some parts of the ceramic are more tetragonal (titanium rich) and other parts more rhombohedral (zirconium rich). This inhomogeneity means that some domains can be more easily poled than others. Lastly, the density and porosity can affect the poling process if the flaw density becomes such that the breakdown voltage is exceeded by the required poling voltage. The phase boundary determined by most dielectric and piezoelectric measurements is significantly removed from the 44% titanium content determined by neutron diffraction. The indicators that are most consistent with this value are the minimum in the poling efficiency curve and the shape of the dissipative factor curve. The reason for the discrepancy appears to be related to the broad coexistence region of the two phases and the differing poling efficiencies of each phase. It has been established that different poling temperature profiles can substantially modify the observed properties. Such behaviour is again related to the inhomogeneity of the ceramic and the presence of the two phases. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. De fysica van polymere materialen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, L.C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Rede, uitgesproken ter gelegenheid van de aanvaarding van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleraar in de fysica van polymere materialen aan de Universitelt Twente op donderdag 22 januarì 1987 door Dr.lr. L.C.E. Struik.

  5. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Gnanou, Yves

    2014-01-01

    .e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  6. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands

  7. Pulsed-laser polymerization in compartmentalized liquids. 1. Polymerization in vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.; Casteren, van I.A.; Monteiro, M.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Polymerization in vesicles is a novel type of polymerization in heterogeneous media, leading to parachute-like vesicle-polymer hybrid morphologies. To explore the kinetics of vesicle polymerizations and to learn more about the actual locus of polymerization we applied the pulsed-laser polymerization

  8. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  9. Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials provides an in-depth view of the theory of electroactivity and explores exactly how and why various electroactive phenomena occur. The book explains the theory behind electroactive bending (including ion-polymer-metal-composites –IPMCs), dielectric elastomers, electroactive contraction, and electroactive contraction-expansion cycles.  The book also balances theory with applications – how electroactivity can be used – drawing inspiration from the manmade mechanical world and the natural world around us.  This book captures: A complete introduction to electroactive materials including examples and recent developments The theory and applications of numerous topics like electroactive bending of dielectric elastomers and electroactive contraction and expansion New topics, such as biomimetic applications and energy harvesting This is a must-read within the electroactive community, particularly for professionals and graduate students who are interested in the ...

  10. The Effect of Poling on the Properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Hana; Tellier, Jenny; Hrovat, Marko; Holc, Janez; Drnovšek, Silvo; Bobnar, Vid; Alguero, Miguel; Kosec, Marija

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the poling field on the structural and electrical properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (0.65PMN-0.35PT) ceramics were investigated. The highest piezoelectric coefficient d33, coupling coefficients kp, kt, and mechanical quality factor Qm were achieved for ceramics poled at electric fields between 2 and 3.5 kV/mm, whereas the d33, kp, kt, and Qm of ceramics poled at higher electric fields, i.e., 4 and 4.5 kV/mm, were lower. The non-poled ceramics contained 86% of the monoclinic phase with the space group Pm and 14% of the tetragonal phase with the space group P4mm. However, the ceramics poled at 2.5 kV/mm contained 99% of the monoclinic phase and the rest is the tetragonal phase. The results show that the ratio of the monoclinic to the tetragonal phases can be changed by the application of a poling electric field and that the extent of this change is dependent on the field strength.

  11. Fluorescent polymeric nanocomposite films generated by surface-mediated photoinitiation of polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, Heather J.; Chang, Erin L.; May, Allison M.; Berron, Brad J.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into polymer films represents a valuable strategy for achieving a variety of desirable physical, optical, mechanical, and electrical attributes. Here, we describe and characterize the creation of highly fluorescent polymer films by entrapment of fluorescent NPs into polymer matrices through surface-mediated eosin photoinitiation reactions. Performing surface-mediated polymerizations with NPs combines the benefits of a covalently anchored film with the unique material properties afforded by NPs. The effects of monomer type, crosslinker content, NP size, and NP surface chemistry were investigated to determine their impact on the relative amount of NPs entrapped in the surface-bound films. The density of entrapped NPs was increased up to 6-fold by decreasing the NP diameter. Increasing the crosslinking agent concentration enabled a greater than 2-fold increase in the amount of NPs entrapped. Additionally, the monomer chemistry played a significant role as poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based monomer formulations entrapped a 10-fold higher density of carboxy-functionalized NPs than did acrylamide/bisacrylamide formulations, though the latter formulations ultimately immobilized more fluorophores by generating thicker films. In the context of a polymerization-based microarray biodetection platform, these findings enabled tailoring of the monomer and NP selection to yield a 200-fold improvement in sensitivity from 31 (±1) to 0.16 (±0.01) biotinylated target molecules per square micron. Similarly, in polymerization-based cell staining applications, appropriate monomer and NP selection enabled facile visualization of microscale, sub-cellular features. Careful consideration of monomer and NP selection is critical to achieve the desired properties in applications that employ surface-mediated polymerization to entrap NPs.

  12. Single pole rapid reclosing: effective damping of ehv switching surges through discharge resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, T

    1965-04-30

    The stability of interconnecting circuits is very important and loss of synchronism of a complete network due to a temporary single-phase fault is operationally and economically undesirable. The use of grounding resistors together with load-break isolators which can be electrically or mechanically coupled to the circuit-breakers yield interesting possibilities in extra-high-voltage networks. The three problems, i.e., discharging of charged lines, damping of switching surges, and single-pole rapid-reclosing, can be solved through the use of a number of similar resistors and load-break isolators connected in series according to the voltage. The thermal and electrical stresses of the resistors can be kept within permissible limits. The time required for arc extinction and the limits in respect of length of lines will have to be determined by actual tests. For single-pole rapid-reclosing during a single-phase earth fault the switching operations on both sides of the line must be simultaneous. Because of the very small divergence of the opening and making times of modern circuit-breakers it will be sufficient only to synchronise the operating impulse.

  13. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  14. Electrical condition monitoring method for polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jr. Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J.; Masakowski, Daniel D.; Wong, Ching Ping; Luo, Shijian

    2010-02-16

    An electrical condition monitoring method utilizes measurement of electrical resistivity of a conductive composite degradation sensor to monitor environmentally induced degradation of a polymeric product such as insulated wire and cable. The degradation sensor comprises a polymeric matrix and conductive filler. The polymeric matrix may be a polymer used in the product, or it may be a polymer with degradation properties similar to that of a polymer used in the product. The method comprises a means for communicating the resistivity to a measuring instrument and a means to correlate resistivity of the degradation sensor with environmentally induced degradation of the product.

  15. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  16. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  17. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  18. Novel distributed strain sensing in polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abot, Jandro L; Song, Yi; Medikonda, Sandeep; Rooy, Nathan; Schulz, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the state of strain throughout an entire structure is essential to determine its state of stress, detect potential residual stresses after fabrication, and also to help to establish its integrity. Several sensing technologies are presently available to determine the strain in the surface or inside a structure. Large sensor dimensions, complex signal conditioning equipment, and difficulty in achieving a widely distributed system have however hindered their development into robust structural health monitoring techniques. Recently, carbon nanotube forests were spun into a microscale thread that is electrically conductive, tough, and easily tailorable. The thread was integrated into polymeric materials and used for the first time as a piezoresistive sensor to monitor strain and also to detect damage in the material. It is revealed that the created self-sensing polymeric materials are sensitive to normal strains above 0.07% and that the sensor thread exhibits a perfectly linear delta resistance–strain response above 0.3%. The longitudinal gauge factors were determined to be in the 2–5 range. This low cost and simple built-in sensor thread may provide a new integrated and distributed sensor technology that enables robust real-time health monitoring of structures

  19. Polymeric conductors and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The production of electrically conductive polymers which are flexible ans capable of being shaped by normal processes, is discussed. The relation between the structure of the polymer and its ability to transport electric charge is considered. The main problem is to combine high conductivity with good processability and it is shown that stacked-planar systems are superior to conjugated polymers. Good mechanical properties have yet to be achieved. In some way the rigid pi-bonded systems must be combined with a conventional sigma-bonded polymer without destroying its flexibility and tensile properties. The structure will contain a radical ion system to provide charge carriers but it is not yet known how to design the polymer structure to give high carrier mobility. Further work is required on organic superconductors in unravelling the relationship between charge carrier mobility and the supermolecular structure of polymers. (UK)

  20. Final Technical Report: Collaborative Research. Polymeric Muliferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shenqiang [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2015-06-05

    The goal of this project is to investigate room temperature magnetism and magnetoelectric coupling of polymeric multiferroics. A new family of organic charge-transfer complexes has been emerged as a fascinating opportunity for the development of all-organic electrics and spintronics due to its weak hyperfine interaction and low spin-orbit coupling; nevertheless, direct observations of room temperature magnetic spin ordering have yet to be accomplished in organic charge-transfer complexes. Furthermore, room temperature magnetoelectric coupling effect hitherto known multiferroics, is anticipated in organic donor-acceptor complexes because of magnetic field effects on charge-transfer dipoles, yet this is also unexplored. The PIs seek to fundamental understanding of the synthetic control of organic complexes to demonstrate and explore room temperature multiferroicity.

  1. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  2. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  3. Choice of wood poles can reduce greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedjo, R. A.

    2002-07-01

    The first, second and third assessment reports on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are reviewed in an effort to highlight results of past studies on the total life cycle energy utilization of wood products compared with the use of substitute materials such as steel, concrete, bricks and aluminum. Without exception, all studies found that the total energy requirements associated with wood materials are substantially lower than those of other commonly substituted materials. For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that wooden poles are more environmentally benign than concrete or steel poles with regard to their energy utilization and their potential to contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. An estimate to convert wood poles to steel poles showed that while the greenhouse gas emissions associated with pole conversion were modest compared to the national total, they were nevertheless a significant percentage of US annual emission (approximately 2.8 per cent of annual US total of 5.28 billion tons of carbon dioxide). These studies provide empirical confirmation of the concept that substitution of high energy-intensive materials for low-energy-using wood materials contributes substantially to the overall increase of carbon dioxide emissions through their overall higher energy requirements.

  4. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  5. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  6. Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor R. Weeks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier

  7. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  8. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  9. Olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization

    CERN Document Server

    Ivin, K J

    1997-01-01

    This book is a follow-up to Ivins Olefin Metathesis, (Academic Press, 1983). Bringing the standard text in the field up to date, this Second Edition is a result of rapid growth in the field, sparked by the discovery of numerous well-defined metal carbene complexes that can act as very efficient initiators of all types of olefin metathesis reaction, including ring-closing metathesis of acyclic dienes, enynes, and dienynes; ring-opening metathesis polymerizationof cycloalkenes, acyclic diene metathesis polymerization; and polymerization of alkynes, as well as simple olefin metathesis. Olefin Metathesis and Metathesis Polymerization provides a broad, up-to-date account of the subject from its beginnings in 1957 to the latest applications in organic synthesis. The book follows the same format as the original, making it useful toteachers and to researchers, and will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, organometallic chemistry, catalysis, materials scien...

  10. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  11. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  12. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  13. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  14. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  15. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  16. Pentafluorosulfanyl Substituents in Polymerization Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Philip; Mecking, Stefan

    2017-10-04

    Highly electron-withdrawing pentafluorosulfanyl groups were probed as substituents in an organometallic catalyst. In Ni(II) salicylaldiminato complexes as an example case, these highly electron-withdrawing substituents allow for polymerization of ethylene to higher molecular weights with reduced branching due to significant reductions in β-hydrogen elimination. Combined with the excellent functional group tolerance of neutral Ni(II) complexes, this suppression of β-hydrogen elimination allows for the direct polymerization of ethylene in water to nanocrystal dispersions of disentangled, ultrahigh-molecular-weight linear polyethylene.

  17. Radiation Induced Polymerization of Pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Ratnam, C.T.; Ahmad Ashrif Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the polymerization of pyrrole by gamma irradiation. The pyrrole films were exposed to gamma ray from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 150 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using FTIR, SEM and AFM techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which serve as control. Results revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation induced reactions. The SEM images depicted the formation of cauliflower shape upon gamma irradiation. The structural changes of pyrrole also evidenced by FTIR spectra. Surface topography and roughness of pyrrole before and after gamma irradiation found to show significant differences. (author)

  18. Functionalization and Polymerization on the CNT Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Albuerne, Julio

    2013-07-01

    In this review we focus on the current status of using carbon nanotube (CNT) as a filler for polymer nanocomposites. Starting with the historical background of CNT, its distinct properties and the surface functionalization of the nanotube, the three different surface polymerization techniques, namely grafting "from", "to" and "through/in between" were discussed. Wider focus has been given on "grafting from" surface initiated polymerizations, including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) Polymerization, nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), ring opening polymerization (ROP) and other miscellaneous polymerization methods. The grafting "to" and "through / in between" also discussed and compared with grafting from polymerization. The merits and shortcomings of all three grafting methods were discussed and the bottleneck issue in grafting from method has been highlighted. Furthermore the current and potential future industrial applications were deliberated. Finally the toxicity issue of CNTs in the final product has been reviewed with the limited available literature knowledge. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

  19. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  20. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  1. Novel solid state polymeric batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, A.; Glasse, M.; Latham, R.; Linford, R.

    1986-01-01

    AC conductivity measurements have been performed on a number of polymeric electrolytes containing Mg, Ca, Sr and Zn perchlorates and Mg and Ca thiocyanates. The electrolytes were characterized using DSC. Results are reported of preliminary tests of cells incorporating anodes of the above metals. 11 refs.

  2. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  3. Biodegradable polymeric prodrugs of naltrexone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennet, D.B.; Li, X.; Adams, N.W.; Kim, S.W.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The development of a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the narcotic antagonist naltrexone may improve patient compliance in the treatment of opiate addiction. Random copolymers consisting of the ¿-amino acids N5-(3-hydroxypropyl--glutamine and -leucine were synthesized with equimolar

  4. Preparations of spherical polymeric particles from Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spherical Polymeric Particles (SPP) have been prepared from Tanzanian Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) by suspension polymerization technique involving either step-growth or chain- growth polymerization mechanisms. The sizes of the SPP, which ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm were strongly influenced by the amounts of ...

  5. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The connection between two theoretical ideas of the 1950s is traced in this article, namely that hadrons are nonfundamental, ''composite'' particles and that all physically observable particles correspond to singularities of an analytic scattering matrix. The S matrix theory developed by Werner Heisenberg in the early forties now incorporated the concepts of unitarity, invariance, analyticity and causality. The meson-exchange force meant that poles must be present in nucleon-nuclear and pion-nucleon scattering as predicted by dispersion relations. Experimental work in accessible regions determined pole residues. Pole residue became associated with force strength and pole position with particle mass. In 1959, the author discovered the so-called ''bootstrap'' theory the rho meson as a force generates a rho particle. By the end of the 1950s it was clear that all hadrons had equal status, each being bound states of other hadrons, sustained by hadron exchange forces and that hadrons are self-generated by an S-matrix bootstrap mechanism that determines all their properties. (UK)

  6. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  7. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  8. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  9. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 15: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Galactic Pole field he treated HD 106947 as if nothing were already known ... By good fortune a Palomar radial-velocity observing run in late 1986 fell near to a .... obvious to the naked eye as a grouping of fifth- and sixth-magnitude stars in an.

  10. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved...

  11. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ν p → ν p, including the very recent measurements up to - t=4.3 (GeV/c) 2 , can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model

  12. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  13. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  14. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  15. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  16. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  17. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  18. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  19. Design of salient pole PM synchronous machines for a vehicle traction application. Analysis and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilla, M.

    2012-07-01

    This doctoral thesis presents a study on the development of a liquid-cooled frame salient pole permanent-magnet-exited traction machine for a four-wheel-driven electric car. The emphasis of the thesis is put on a radial flux machine design in order to achieve a light-weight machine structure for traction applications. The design features combine electromagnetic and thermal design methods, because traction machine operation does not have a strict operating point. Arbitrary load cycles and the flexible supply require special attention in the design process. It is shown that accurate modelling of the machine magnetic state is essential for high-performance operation. The saturation effect related to the cross-saturation has to be taken carefully into account in order to achieve the desired operation. Two prototype machines have been designed and built for testing: one totally enclosed machine with a special magnet module pole arrangement and another through-ventilated machine with a more traditional embedded magnet structure. Both structures are built with magnetically salient structures in order to increase the torque production capability with the reluctance torque component. Both machine structures show potential for traction usage. However, the traditional embedded magnet design turns out to be mechanically the more secure one of these two machine options. (orig.)

  20. Cross-poling textures in a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Shan; Bowman, Keith J.

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal ferroelectric materials are polarized to induce the anisotropy necessary for the piezoelectric effect. This poling of the material is inherently an orientation process. Pole figure texture measurements of poling and cross-poling in a lead zirconate titanate Navy VI material show domain motion. The resulting axisymmetric and three-dimensional textures demonstrate the contribution of 90 degree sign domain motion to piezoelectricity. Cross-poling results in strong orientations with lower applied fields than in the initial poling steps. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  1. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  2. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May ...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  3. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  4. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  5. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  6. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  7. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON POLYAMIDE 12 MODIFIED BY Cr2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shapoval

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ polymerization method is used for obtaining polymeric composites based on polyamide12 matrix (PA 12, filled with Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The carried out researches result in synthesis method development for polymeric nanocomposites based on PA 12 matrix filled with nano-sized Cr2O3magnetic particles providing uniform embedding of the filler into polymeric matrix without formation of nanoparticles agglomerates. Mechanical tests on samples compression are carried out. It is shown that mechanical properties of polymeric composites (Young’s modulus, durability limit are decreased for 20-30 % as compared with not modified PA 12 synthesized by means of the chosen method. The influence of the filler on crystallization morphology and kinetics of polymeric nanocomposites is determined by electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of crystallization degree, crystallization rate constant for different supercooling intervals and parameters of Avrami equation are obtained. The initial nucleation is shown to be going on according to non-thermal mechanism, and nanoparticles are not the germs of crystallization. It is stated that nanoparticles are embedded into polymeric matrix and uniformly allocated in crystallites. Research results can find their application at creation of electric and magnetic fields, micro-sized mechanical devices, and at development of new materials for 3D printers.

  8. Tunable ultraviolet radiation by second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, J P; Fejer, M M

    1997-08-15

    We describe electric-field poling of fine-pitch ferroelectric domain gratings in lithium tantalate and characterization of nonlinear-optical properties by single-pass quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation (QPM SHG). With a 7.5-microm-period grating, the observed effective nonlinear coefficient for first-order QPM SHG of 532-nm radiation is 9 pm/V, whereas for a grating with a 2.625-microm period, 2.6 pm/V was observed for second-order QPM SHG of 325-nm radiation. These values are 100% and 55% of the theoretically expected values, respectively. We derive a temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for lithium tantalate that is valid deeper into the UV than currently available results, based on temperature-tuning experiments at different QPM grating periods combined with refractive-index data in the literature.

  9. Personaliotsinguteenust tasub kasutada siis, kui rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmane / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. veebr. lk. 13. Personaliotsinguteenuse kasutamine on õigustatud siis, kui ettevõttes pole personalispetsialisti ning rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmatähtis. Kommenteerivad: Eero Erastus, Madis Sander ja Marti Rehemaa

  10. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: → Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. → Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. → A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  11. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  12. Click polymerization for the synthesis of reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Wang, Hongquan; Dai, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Click polymerization is a powerful polymerization technique for the construction of new macromolecules with well-defined structures and multifaceted functionalities. Here, we synthesize reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG containing disulfide bonds and pendant methotrexate (MTX) via two-step click polymerization followed by conjugating MTX to pendant hydroxyl. MTX content in polymeric prodrug is 13.5%. Polymeric prodrug is able to form polymeric micelles by self-assembly in aqueous solution. Polymeric micelles are spherical nanoparticles with tens of nanometers in size. Of note, polymeric micelles are reduction-responsive due to disulfide bonds in the backbone of PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG and could release pendant drugs in the presence of the reducing agents such as dl-dithiothreitol (DTT).

  13. SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Benhamou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.

  14. Polymerization in situ by means of radiation gamma for the production of conducting polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Pulgar, Victor; Pilleux Cepeda, Mauricio; Fuenzalida Escobar, Victor; Alvarez Vargas, Mariela

    2002-01-01

    The nanocomposites synthesis of copper-methyl metacritate is made using copper spheres from 80 to 120 diameter nm, suspended in a methyl metacrilato (MMA) matrix, for different concentrations (5% to 30% of copper-v/v). The polymerization is carried out by means of gamma radiation, with 16 kGy dose applied 'in situ'. A high homogenous samples were obtained. The morphology and formation of the composite was studied by means of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The observed electric resistance is analyzed in function of the distance among electric contacts, meeting a strong dependence of the resistance with the homogeneous distribution of the metal in the composite. The obtained specific resistivities, in function of the concentration of the conductive metal, they are in the order of 42 Ωm for 10% v/v, being this critical concentration, the percolation threshold of the system. The obtained results show a material that is able to conserve principally the mechanical properties of the polymer and the electric properties of the conductive metal (author)

  15. Polymeric nanoparticles for optical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for use in diagnostic applications. For these purposes a variety of functional nanoparticles containing fluorescent labels, gold and quantum dots at their cores have been produced, with the aim of enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. This work will review progress in the application of polymeric nanoparticles in optical diagnostics, both for in vitro and in vivo detection, together with a discussion of their biodistribution and biocompatibility. © 2013.

  16. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  17. Low cost UV-Ozone reactor mounted for treatment of electrode anodes used in P-OLEDs devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Low cost UV-Ozone reactor using a high pressure mercury vapor lamp of 80 watts without outer bulb showed good results for treatment of ITO films used as anode electrode in the assembly of P-OLED (polymer-organic light emitting diode devices. This study revealed 20 minutes as effective treatment time and it was verified also that the effect of UV-Ozone treatment loses its efficiency as the elapsed time increases. It was analyzed with measurements of contact angle using a droplet of PEDOT:PSS polymer. P-OLEDs devices were mounted with architecture: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The PVK polymer was diluted in organic solvent of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene with concentrations of: 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. Results revealed better performance of P-OLED devices for concentration of 5 mg/mL resulting in lower threshold voltage, elevation of electrical current and similar diode curve.

  18. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  19. Least 1-Norm Pole-Zero Modeling with Sparse Deconvolution for Speech Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a speech analysis method based on sparse pole-zero modeling of speech. Instead of using the all-pole model to approximate the speech production filter, a pole-zero model is used for the combined effect of the vocal tract; radiation at the lips and the glottal pulse shape...

  20. effect of number of rotor poles on ac losses of permanent magnet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A study on permanent magnet (PM) eddy current and core losses of dual-stator PM machines is investigated in this paper. ... material in the retaining sleeves of surface-mounted ... rotor-pole numbers (13-poleand 14-pole in particular) ... Table 2: Optimized Machine Parameters. Number of rotor poles. 4. 5. 7. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14.

  1. The Written-Pole{sup TM} motor: high efficiency - low start current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B. [C.Eng. Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States); Friesen, D. [P.E. Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Written-Pole{sup TM} technology is a patented machine technology, which changes the magnetic polarity of the rotor field in a rotating machine, while the machine is operating. The number of poles is thereby changed, resulting in a constant frequency - variable speed machine. When operating as a motor, a Written-Pole machine has inherently low starting current and high operating efficiency. (orig.)

  2. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  3. Poles near the thresholds in the coupled ΛN - ΣN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    We find t-matrix poles near the ΣN threshold for the meson theoretical Nijmegen YN interactions including hard-core models. These poles are connected with the strength of the ΛN - ΣN coupling. We also observe antibound-state poles below the ΛN threshold which correlate with scattering lengths. Refs. 4, tabs. 2 (author)

  4. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  5. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  6. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  7. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  8. Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.

    2010-09-01

    The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).

  9. Study of recursive model for pole-zero cancellation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Zhou Wei; Hong Xu; Hu Yunchuan; Wan Xinfeng; Du Xin; Wang Renbo

    2014-01-01

    The output of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a negative exponential signal with long decay time which will result in undershoot after C-R differentiator. Pole-zero cancellation (PZC) circuit is often applied to eliminate undershoot in many radiation detectors. However, it is difficult to use a zero created by PZC circuit to cancel a pole in CSA output signal accurately because of the influences of electronic components inherent error and environmental factors. A novel recursive model for PZC circuit is presented based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) in this paper. The model is established by numerical differentiation algorithm between the input and the output signal. Some simulation experiments for a negative exponential signal are carried out using Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program and a real x-ray signal is also tested. Simulated results show that the recursive model can reduce the time constant of input signal and eliminate undershoot. (authors)

  10. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  11. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  12. Shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole and non-lower pole stones from a university teaching hospital: Parallel group comparison during the same time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Robert; Burr, Jacob; Simmonds, Nick; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a treatment option for all locations of renal and ureteric stones. We compared the results of SWL for lower pole renal stones with all other non-lower pole renal and ureteric stones during the same time period. Material and Methods: All SWL procedures were carried out as day case procedures by a mobile lithotripter from January 2012 to August 2013. The follow-up imaging was a combination of KUB X-ray or USS. Following SWL treatment, the stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments. Results: A total of 148 patients with a mean age of 62 years underwent 201 procedures. Of the 201 procedures, 93 (46%) were for lower pole stones. The non-lower pole stones included upper pole (n = 36), mid pole (n = 40), renal pelvis (n = 10), PUJ (n = 8), mid ureter (n = 3), upper ureter (n = 5) and a combination of upper, middle and/or lower pole (n = 6). The mean stone size for lower pole stones (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was slightly smaller than non-lower pole stones (8 mm; range: 4-17 mm). The stone fragmentation was successful in 124 (62%) of patients. However, the SFR was statistically significantly better (P = 0.023) for non-lower pole stones 43 (40%) compared to lower pole stones 23 (25%). There were 9 (4%) minor complications and this was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions: Although SWL achieves a moderately high stone fragmentation rate with a low complication rate, the SFR is variable depending on the location of stone and the definition of SFR, with lower pole stones fairing significantly worse than stones in all other locations. PMID:25657543

  13. Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.

    1976-05-15

    A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.

  14. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  15. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bampasidis, G.; Nixon, C. A.; Lavvas, P.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter, we report the monitoring of seasonal evolution near Titan’s poles. We find Titan’s south pole to exhibit since 2010 a strong temperature decrease and a dramatic enhancement of several trace species such as complex hydrocarbons and nitriles (HC3N and C6H6 in particular) previously only observed at high northern latitudes. This results from the seasonal change on Titan going from winter (2002) to summer (2017) in the north and, at the same time, the onset of winter in the south pole. During this transition period atmospheric components with longer chemical lifetimes linger in the north, undergoing slow photochemical destruction, while those with shorter lifetimes decrease and reappear in the south. An opposite effect was expected in the north, but not observed with certainty until now. We present here an analysis of high-resolution nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer in the past years and describe the temperature and composition variations near Titan’s poles. From 2013 until 2016, the northern polar region has shown a temperature increase of 10 K, while the south has shown a more significant decrease (up to 25 K) in a similar period of time. While the south polar region has been continuously enhanced since about 2012, the chemical content in the north is finally showing a clear depletion for most molecules only since 2015. This is indicative of a non-symmetrical response to the seasons in Titan’s stratosphere that can set constraints on photochemical and GCM models.

  16. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  17. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  18. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  19. Tööpuudus 29%, palavikku pole / Rachel Donadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donadio, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Lõuna-Hispaanias asuvas Cádizis on töötus 29%, ometi pole eurotsooni kõrgeim tööpuuduse määr tekitanud linnas sügavat sotsiaalset rahutust ega massilisi proteste, sest üsna kõrge elukvaliteedi tagavad töötutele kompleksne turvavõrk, mis koosneb varimajandusest, perekonna toetusest ja valitsuse toetusest

  20. Dipole Models for UXO Discrimination at Live Sites - Pole Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    48 ESTCP MR-201159 Pole Mountain Demonstration Report viii April 2012 Acronyms API Application Programming...working on transitioning our inversion algorithms to an API that will be generally accessible. 8 3. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES The performance...2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 6 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 4 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 3.5 MD PM-1354 8.5 0 0 Frag (medium) 5 MD PM- 1104 3 15

  1. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  2. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  3. Stationarity of resonant pole trajectories in complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, S.; Goscinski, O.

    1978-01-01

    A reciprocity theorem relating the real parameters eta and α that define the complex scaling transformation r → eta r e/sup iα/ in the theory of complex scaling for resonant states is demonstrated. The virial theorem is used in connection with the stationarity of the pole trajectory. The Stark broadening in the hydrogen atom using a basis set generated by Rayleigh--Schroedinger perturbation theory is treated as an example. 18 references

  4. Conductivity enhancement of surface-polymerized polyaniline films via control of processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hyoi; Jang, Sung Kyu; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate a fast and facile approach for the simultaneous synthesis and coating of conducting polyaniline (PANI) onto a substrate and the effects of processing conditions on the electrical properties of the fabricated films. Simultaneous polymerizing and depositing on the substrate forms a thin film with the average thickness of 300 nm and sheet resistance of 304 Ω/sq. Deposition conditions such as polymerization time (3-240 min), temperature (-10 to 40 °C), concentrations of monomer and oxidant (0.1-0.9 M), and type of washing solvents (acetone, water, and/or HCl solution) affect the film thickness, doping state, absorption characteristics, and solid-state nanoscale morphology, therefore affecting the electrical conductivity. Among the conditions, the surface-polymerized PANI film deposited at room temperature with acetone washing showed the highest conductivity of 22.2 S/cm.

  5. Improved technology for spun-cast concrete poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, W H; Ghali, A

    1984-07-01

    Different types of concrete were investigated with the goal of developing concrete suitable for the production of spun-cast concrete poles. A total of 65 different concrete mixes were investigated, with the suitability criteria defined as: compactability, no segregation of the mix components during the spinning operation, no shrinkage cracking, high strength, and durability. High strength normal weight concretes and semi-lightweight concretes, both with and without fly ash and/or silica fume and with different types of admixtures were used to produce spun-cast concrete pole segments. Of the 35 lightweight concretes only 3 were considered successful, as in all other specimens the inner layer of coarse aggregate was not well embedded in the mortar, and many mixes could not be compacted properly because they were too stiff, too wet, or started to set before spinning commenced. The three successful specimens contained fly ash and one contained silica fume, and had low water/cement ratios (0.26 to 0.29). Of the 23 normal weight concretes tested, only 5 were considered suitable, and all these had a sand/coarse aggregate ratio of 0.25 or smaller and a cement content between 350 and 400 kg/m{sup 3}. A theoretical study of the stresses in the end zones of pretensioned poles is presented. 10 refs., 53 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  7. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  8. Effect of different carbon fillers and dopant acids on electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were also conducted for different PANI composites. The results ... facile synthesis, electrical conductivity and environmental ... such as melt mixing, in situ polymerization, grafting macro-.

  9. Repair and rehabilitation of wood utility poles with fibre-reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D.; Kell, J.A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-01-15

    In order to ensure safe and reliable service, all wood utility poles need an effective maintenance program. The service life of a wood utility pole depends on several factors, such as decay, mechanical damage, weathering, and changing design requirements. An effective preservative treatment and maintenance program can effectively extend the service life of the wood pole. However, all poles will attain a point when they are no longer suitable for their intended use. New innovative methods are therefore required to restore and maintain the structural integrity of existing wood poles, especially in light of the increasing cost of quality wood for use in poles as well as a result of environmental concerns regarding pole disposal and chemical treatment of existing poles. This article presented results from a research program carried out at the University of Manitoba to develop a repair and rehabilitation technique for wood poles using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP). It also provided a brief overview of current standards for wood utility poles and reinforcing stubs and discussed the experimental program where long, air-dried jack pine poles were tested in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed rehabilitation system consisting of FRP splines and FRP jackets. The ultimate capacity of the poles was determined using the CSA standard for wood poles. The capacity of the rehabilitated poles was nearly 93 per cent of the average ultimate capacity of the average ultimate capacity of poles tested during the first phase of the study, and 23 per cent higher than the capacity required by CSA standards. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates and Method Relating Thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Production of an electric voltage in response to mechanical excitation (piezoelectricity) or thermal excitation (pyroelectricity) requires a material to have a preferred dipole orientation in its structure. This preferred orientation or polarization occurs naturally in some crystals such as quartz and can be induced into some ceramic and polymeric materials by application of strong electric or mechanical fields. For some materials, a combination of mechanical and electrical orientation is necessary to completely polarize the material. The only commercially available piezoelectric polymer is poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2). However, this polymer has material and process limitations which prohibit its use in numerous device applications where thermal stability is a requirement. By the present invention, thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrates were prepared from polymers having a softening temperature greater than 1000C. A metal electrode material is deposited onto the polymer substrate and several electrical leads are attached to it. The polymer substrate is heated in a low dielectric medium to enhance molecular mobility of the polymer chains. A voltage is then applied to the polymer substrate inducing polarization. The voltage is then maintained while the polymer substrate is cooled 'freezing in' the molecular orientation. The novelty of the invention resides in the process of preparing the piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate. The nonobviousness of the invention is found in heating the polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium while applying a voltage.

  11. Polymerization by plasma of trichloroethylene by means of resistive and inductive coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.; Cruz, G.; Olayo, M.G.; Timoshina, T.; Morales, J.; Olayo, R.

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the polymerization for plasma of the trichloroethylene by means of two types of coupling, resistive and inductive with the objective of studying the structure, morphology and the electric properties of the polymers obtained under these conditions. The structure and morphology of the polymers were studied by means of EDS and FT-IR spectroscopies. (Author)

  12. Plasma polymerization coating of D-T filled glass shells for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hendricks, C.D.; Letts, S.A.; Lorensen, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Three plasma sources are described which activate monomers of perfluoro-2-butene or tetrafluoroethylene to produce coatings 10 to 20 μm thick with surfaces finishes <0.1 μm. Electrical and chemical controls of the polymerization processes are shown to improve the surface finish

  13. Dynamic space charge behaviour in polymeric DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict...... the formation and transport of space charges in a polymeric dielectric. The model incorporates the processes of field assisted electron-hole pair generation from impurity atoms, trapping and charge injection at the electrodes. Its aim has been to study the field- and temperature dependent dynamic behaviour...

  14. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu

    2012-05-02

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  15. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu; Hsiao, Vincent; Zheng, Yue Bing; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  16. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  17. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaushi, Shinji; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC 50 concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells

  18. Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas de material polimérico utilizado na confecção de caixas de medição de energia elétrica Evaluation of mechanical properties of a polymeric material used in the construction of boxes for electrical energy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Ferracin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades mecânicas de materiais poliméricos apresentam forte correlação com o processamento do material. Neste trabalho foram estudadas blendas de poli(óxido de fenileno/poliestireno (PPO/PS e policarbonatos utilizados na confecção de caixas, comparando-se as propriedades mecânicas de amostras injetadas nos formatos de corpo de prova, segundo a norma ASTM D638, e de amostras retiradas diretamente das caixas. A partir dos resultados de ensaio de impacto Izod verificou-se uma grande variabilidade nos valores antes e após envelhecimento em água, de todas as caixas. Isto se deve, principalmente, às diferentes tensões internas em cada região da caixa provenientes do processamento. Também foi observada uma grande diferença entre os valores encontrados para resistência ao impacto Izod dos corpos de prova retirados da parte inferior das caixas comparados com os valores encontrados para os respectivos materiais injetados, indicando também uma significativa influência dos parâmetros de processamento de injeção, tanto nas caixas como nos corpos de prova injetados. De modo geral, os valores de resistência à tração no ponto de máxima deformação elástica não diferem significativamente entre os corpos de prova injetados e os corpos de prova retirados das caixas do mesmo material; contudo, observou-se que esta variação é significativa nos valores de alongamento à ruptura, demonstrando que esta propriedade deve ser considerada nas avaliações do comportamento mecânico dos materiais poliméricos.The mechanical properties of polymeric materials depend strongly on the processing. In this work, blends of Poly(phenylene oxide/polystyrene (PPO/PS and polycarbonates used in electrical cabinet boxes have been studied. A comparison was made of the mechanical properties of samples injected in the form of test specimens, according to the standard practice ASTM D638, with test specimens removed from the boxes. From the results of

  19. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  20. Polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Many polymeric materials have already been used in the field of artificial organs. However, the materials used in artificial organs are not necessarily created with the best material selectivity and materials design; therefore, the development of synthesized polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs based on well-defined designs is required. The approaches to the development of biocompatible polymeric materials fall into three categories: (1) control of physicochemical characteristics on material surfaces, (2) modification of material surfaces using biomolecules, and (3) construction of biomimetic membrane surfaces. This review will describe current issues regarding polymeric membrane materials for use in artificial organs.

  1. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  2. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    especially in the industries for example producing capacitors other than being littered and .... establishing hydrogen bridges. ... provided by the graphite and direct transfer of energy .... electromagnetic components, solar batteries, non-.

  4. Electric conductance of films prepared from polymeric composite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hain, J.; Pich, A.; Adler, H. J.; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 61-65 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coatings * composites * conducting polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Polyindole/ carboxylated-multiwall carbon nanotube composites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Leela; Singh, Arun Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Composites of polyindole (PIn), a conducting polymer, with carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT/PIn) were synthesized; the synthesis was done using (i) two miscible solvents (in-situ method) and (ii) two immiscible solvents (interfacial method). A tubular composite, with a uniform coating of the polymer over c-MWCNTs, was observed in the case of interfacial synthesis. However, the in-situ synthesis of c-MWCNT/PIn composites exhibited a densely packed spherical morphology, with c-MWCNT incorporated within the polymer spheres. The spherical morphology was probably obtained due to fast polymerization kinetics and the formation of micelles in case of in-situ polymerization, whereas tubular morphology was obtained in case of interfacial polymerization due to the sufficient time provided for the growth of polymer chains over the c-MWCNT surfaces. Nanoscale electrical properties of composites, in a metal/(c-MWCNT/PIn) configuration, were studied using current sensing atomic force microscopy. Interfacial c-MWCNT/PIn composite, on Al metal substrate, exhibited a typical rectifying diode behavior. This composite had manifested enormous potential for electronic applications and fabrication of nanoscale organic devices. Highlights: ► Polyindole/c-MWNT nanocomposites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization. ► Densely packed spherical morphology was observed in in-situ polymerization route. ► Tubular core-shell morphology was observed in interfacial polymerization route. ► Interfacial nanocomposite manifested a nano-schottky junction with Al metal.

  6. Twin screw extruders as polymerization reactors for a free radical homo polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The bulk polymerization of n-butylmethacrylate was investigated in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. It appeared that the gel effect, occurring with bulk polymerizations, affected the polymerization progress very strongly. Due to this effect the conversion of the reaction is independent of the

  7. Effects of pole flux distribution in a homopolar linear synchronous machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, M. J.; Eastham, J. F.; Coles, P. C.

    1994-05-01

    Linear forms of synchronous electrical machine are at present being considered as the propulsion means in high-speed, magnetically levitated (Maglev) ground transportation systems. A homopolar form of machine is considered in which the primary member, which carries both ac and dc windings, is supported on the vehicle. Test results and theoretical predictions are presented for a design of machine intended for driving a 100 passenger vehicle at a top speed of 400 km/h. The layout of the dc magnetic circuit is examined to locate the best position for the dc winding from the point of view of minimum core weight. Measurements of flux build-up under the machine at different operating speeds are given for two types of secondary pole: solid and laminated. The solid pole results, which are confirmed theoretically, show that this form of construction is impractical for high-speed drives. Measured motoring characteristics are presented for a short length of machine which simulates conditions at the leading and trailing ends of the full-sized machine. Combination of the results with those from a cylindrical version of the machine make it possible to infer the performance of the full-sized traction machine. This gives 0.8 pf and 0.9 efficiency at 300 km/h, which is much better than the reported performance of a comparable linear induction motor (0.52 pf and 0.82 efficiency). It is therefore concluded that in any projected high-speed Maglev systems, a linear synchronous machine should be the first choice as the propulsion means.

  8. Pipe type poles in transmission power lines; Postes tipo tubo en lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes E, Mario; Becerril A, Armando [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first supports for transmission power lines were relatively small structures, of simple configuration, to save reduced clearances to resist load in accordance with its need; with the technical development, gradually appeared higher and higher electric tensions and greater obstacles to overcome, consequently the design of the supports had to be adapted to the new conditions. This gave rise to the development of a specific technique that would adequate and incorporate the continuous engineering advances. In this document the initial considerations on the design poles pipe type are examined; within these considerations mention is made of: the design, the manufacture, the prototype tests, installation, quality control and foundations. The type tube pole is portrayed, as well as the steel reinforcement, finally the types of precast foundations are shown [Espanol] Los primeros soportes para lineas de transmision fueron estructuras relativamente pequenas, de configuracion simple, para salvar claros reducidos y resistir cargas proporcionales a sus necesidades, con el desarrollo de la tecnica, fueron apareciendo tensiones electricas cada vez mas elevadas y obstaculos mayores que vencer, por lo que el diseno de los soportes tuvo que adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Esto dio origen al desenvolvimiento de una tecnica especifica que fuese adecuando e incorporando los continuos avances de la ingenieria. En este documento se tratan las consideraciones iniciales del diseno de los postes tipo tubo; dentro de estas consideraciones se citan: el diseno, la fabricacion, las pruebas de prototipo, montajes, control de calidad y cimentaciones. Se ilustra el poste tipo tubo, al igual que el armado del poste, por ultimo se muestra los tipos de cimentaciones precoladas

  9. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  10. High performance nature of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for oil-well drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Madkour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT and graphene nanoplatelet reinforced thermoplastic poly(lactic acid (PLA biodegradable nanocomposites were designed and prepared using solution casting techniques. The prepared biodegradable polymers are expected to provide an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Both nanocomposite systems exhibited better thermal stability and improved mechanical performance over the unreinforced polymer exhibiting excellent strength and degradability. The addition of graphene nanofiller in varied amounts was aimed to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites even further and incorporate the outstanding characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets into the nanocomposites. The polymeric nanocomposites showed also superior advantages for oil drilling relevances, automotive lubricating purposes, membrane technology and food packaging. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated a homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiller within the polymeric matrix at low filler loadings and a cluster formation at higher loadings that could be responsible for the polymeric matrix movement restrictions. The enthalpy of mixing (the polymer and the nanofiller measured could explain the cause of the repulsive interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymeric chains, which created an additional excluded volume that the polymeric segments were restricted to occupy, thus forcing the conformational characteristics of the polymeric chains to deviate away from those of the bulk chains. The prepared polymeric nano composites (poly lactic acid carbon nano tube and poly lactic acid graphene nanoplatelets were utilized in the formulation of oil-base mud as a viscosifier. The rheological, filtration properties and electrical stability of the oil based mud formulation with the new polymeric nanocomposite were studied and the result compared to the oil-based mud formulation with commercial viscosifier.

  11. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  12. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  13. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  14. Pole Soccer - Implementering af netværksmodul

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Frank B; Kierkegaard, Jakob R; Hirszhorn, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstrakt Målet med dette projekt er at designe og implementere et netværksmodul til spillet PoleSoccer, som er et spil udviklet i det foregående semester. Fokus i implementeringen er at opn°a bedst mulig synkronisering klienterne imellem. Programmet er udviklet i programmeringssproget Java. I rapporten diskuteres valg af netværksarkitektur, transportlagsprotokol samt hvilke metoder Java tilbyder til netværkskommunikation, med vægt på Sockets. Ydermere beskrives metoder vi har anvendt til at o...

  15. Superconducting 63-Pole 2 Tesla Wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, B.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 Tesla in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 liters per hour in operating mode has been reached. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are already underway. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  16. Superconducting 63-pole 2 T wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, V.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated in the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center Canadian Light Source (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 T in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 L h in operating mode has been reached. It allows refilling liquid helium once a year. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are carried out. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  17. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  18. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  19. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  20. DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLE-LIKE OBJECTS FROM MOBILE MAPPING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  1. Investigation Effects of Narrowing Rotor Pole Embrace to Efficiency and Cogging Torque at PM BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Ocak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.

  2. Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury: preparation and characterization. Bo Yin, Jian-Jun Ji, Ming Yang. Abstract. Purpose: To improve the effectiveness and reduce the systemic side effects of methylprednisolone in traumatic spinal injuries, its polymeric implants were prepared using chitosan and sodium ...

  3. Conducting Polymeric Hydrogel Electrolyte Based on Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyacrylamide/Polyaniline for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, N.; Jaisankar, V.; Sivakumar, E. K. T.

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that possess enormous application in flexible electronic devices. In the present work, conducting carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-co-polyacrylamide (PAAm)/polyaniline was synthesized by a two-step interpenetrating network solution polymerization technique. The synthesized CMC-co-PAAm/polyaniline with interpenetrating network structure was prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline to enhance conductivity. The molecular structure and morphology of the copolymer hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The novel conducting polymer hydrogels show good electrical and electrochemical behavior, which makes them potentially useful in electronic devices such as supercapacitors, biosensors, bioelectronics, solar cells and memory devices.

  4. Nanoparticles from a controlled polymerization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumala, V.R.; Caneba, G.T.; Dar, Y.; Wang, H.-H.; Mancini, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Free-radical retrograde precipitation polymerization process in the past has shown excellent control characteristics over reaction rate, molecular weight, and in the entrapment of live radicals for the generation of block copolymers. The same principle has now been extended to study the reaction confinement to a nanoscale region. Nanosized polymer particles have been reported to form from block copolymers, conventional precipitation polymerization methods, or through emulsion polymerization approaches. In this work, we present a new method of generating nanosized polymer particles by polymerizing the monomer in an environment that precipitates the polymer above the lower critical solution temperature. The nanoparticles have been characterized by both tapping-mode atomic force microscopy observations and in situ synchrotron time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The results from both the techniques showed the formation of nanoparticles in the size range of 15-30 nm, directly from the polymerization process.

  5. Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weitsman, Y Jack

    2012-01-01

    Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites, written by the late Dr. Y. Jack Weitsman, addresses the wide range of parameters that affect the interaction of fluids with polymers and polymeric composites. The book aims at broadening the scope of available data, mostly limited up to this time to weight-gain recordings of fluid ingress into polymers and composites, to the practical circumstances of fluctuating exposure. Various forms of experimental data are given, in conjunction with theoretical models derived from basic scientific principles, and correlated with severity of exposure conditions and interpreted by means of rationally based theoretical models. The practical implications of the effects of fluids are discussed. The issue of fluid effects on polymers and polymeric composites is of concern to engineers and scientists active in aerospace and naval structures, as an increasing portion of these structures are made of polymeric composites and employ polymeric adhesives as a joining device. While...

  6. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  7. Study of sodium clay modification through polyaniline polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saade, Wesley; Pinto, Camila P.; Becker, Daniela; Dalmolin, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrids nanocomposites, such as polyaniline/montmorillonite (Pani/MMT), combines the processability and electrical conductivity of this polymer with the mechanical properties of a ceramic material bringing a multitude of new possibilities for use in high-tech, consumer and industry. With this in mind, we sought to characterize and modify sodium clay through polymerization of polyaniline. The characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transformed (FTIR) and spectroscopy by impedance. Through the XRD analysis, it could be inferred that there was a interplanar displacement from 12,4Å (pure sodium montmorillonite) to 15,6Å due to the cation exchange of Na + ions by the anilinium ions, allowing the polymerization interspersed with Pani MMT platelets. By FTIR analysis, presences of the characteristic functional groups of both compounds are detected in the synthesized nanocomposite. Through conductivity and impedance tests it is concluded that the addition of polyaniline decreases the resistive behavior of clay and the electrical conduction becomes possible. (author)

  8. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  9. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  10. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  11. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-01-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m t = 174.6 +3.1 -3.2 GeV for the Tevatron with √(S) = 1.96 TeV, m t = 173.7 ± 1.5 and 174.2 ± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √(S) = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34 ± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD. (orig.)

  12. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-03-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m_t=174.6^{+3.1}_{-3.2} GeV for the Tevatron with √{S}=1.96 TeV, m_t=173.7± 1.5 and 174.2± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √{S} = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD.

  13. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  14. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  15. Particle acceleration at the magnetic poles of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic conversion of a photon in a neutron star magnetosphere near one of the magnetic poles is followed by acceleration of the electron and positron to ultra-relativistic energies. The positron moves along open magnetic flux lines to the light cylinder. The electron incident on the stellar surface produces an electromagnetic shower. Following a comment by Cheng and Ruderman (Astrophys.J.;214:598 (1977)), an order of magnitude estimate has been made of the spectrum of backward moving photons created in the electron shower. The most important source of photons is shown to be the formation of the giant dipole state in Fe 56 . Under the assumption that the surface magnetic flux density exceeds 10 12 G, the photons have, with high probability, mean free paths for magnetic conversion in the magnetosphere of 1 4 cm. An equation for the maximum acceleratin potential has been obtained in a one-dimensional model of pair creation and electron multiplication based on this photon source. The model has been applied to the phenomenon of subpulse drift in pulsars. The plasma accelerated at the magnetic pole has three components; positrons, protons and light nuclei (Z < approximately 6) formed by spallation, and iron group nuclei. Equations determining their relative fluxes have been found. The light nuclei include those with Z = 3 to 5, usually considered to be present in galactic cosmic rays only as a result of the interaction of heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium. (author)

  16. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  17. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  18. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  19. Design of an adaptive pole assignment controller for steam generators and its experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; No, Hee Cheon

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive observer is designed that both parameters and state variables of the steam generator are estimated simultaneously. A pole assignment controller is derived on the basis of the adaptive observer. The characteristics of the overall closed-loop control system can be expressed in terms of its poles, assigned poles. The troublesome tuning procedure of the P-I controller is reduced to the determination of the desired poles only. The proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional P-I controller through numerical simulation. Also, the adaptive pole assignment controller is studied experimentally by implementing it to the mock-up of the nuclear steam generator. The adaptive pole assignment controller shows better responses than the P-l controller does. (Author)

  20. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  1. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  2. Polymerization of lanthanide acrylonitrile complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mossalamy, El-Sayed H; Khalil, Ahmed A

    2002-01-01

    The molecular complexes of some lanthanides scandium (Sc3+), yttrium (Y3+), lanthanum (La3+), gadolinium (Gd3+), cerium (Ce3+) and ytterbium (Yb3) have been studies in dimethyl formamide (DMF) spectrophtometrically equilibrium constants (K), molar extintion coefficient (epsilon), energy of transition (E) and free energy (delta G*) were calculated. The polymerization of acrylonitrile has been studied and investigated in the presence of Sc3+, Y3+, La3+, Gd3+, Ce3+, and Yb3+ ions. The IR spectra of the formed AN-M (III) Br3 polymer complexes show the absence of the C identical to N band and the presence of two new bands corresponding to NH2 and OH groups. Magnetic moment values and the thermal stabilities of homopolymer and the polymer complexes were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis and the activation energies for degradation were calculated.

  3. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  4. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  5. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  6. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  7. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric - VOLUSIA COUNTY MAJOR POWER LINES (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Power Line data was aggregated by using parcel data and visual inspection of 2005 aerial photography to determine centerline of Power Lines Right of...

  8. State Route 58 Kramer Junction Expressway Replacement of Electrical Utility Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Administration (FHWA) in its implementation of NEPA (23 USC 109(h)) directs that final decisions on projects are to be made in the best overall public ...3-1 3.2 Open Forum Public Hearing...Environmental Document prepared for this Proposed Action was circulated for a 30- day public review and comment period starting January 10, 2017 and

  9. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  10. Reuse of poles treated with CCA; CCA-kyllaestettyjen puupylvaeiden uudelleenkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, E. [Vtt Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of re-using utility poles or parts of poles for structural use in construction. There are more than 10 million poles in Finland and about 200 000 poles will be removed from service yearly during the next few years. The directive 2003/2/EY will restrict the use of poles treated with CCA. This will change the practice that the energy and telecommunication companies have given the removed poles to the land owners. The present study launched by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was carried out to determine the technical condition of CCA impregnated poles removed from service and the concentration levels and leaching of remaining preservatives. To summarize the results of the tests, it is safe to say that re-use of recovered poles of 30 to 50 years of age is possible. Both the preservative concentrations and strength/load-bearing capacity are high enough to allow the use of the poles as load-bearing structures. (orig.)

  11. TRUSSPOLE - Trussed Metallic Pole. Results of its application in 69 kV TL - simple circuit; Trusspole: poste metalico trelicado. Resultados da aplicacao em LT 69kV - circuito simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Ricardo Ralo Liberato da; Mello, Reynaldo Castriota de; Ferreira, Sirio Jose; Cadete, Marcia Augusta de Moura [MJMS - Mendes Junior Montagens e Servicos Ltda., Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Souza, Mauro Dias de [EGEL - Engenharia e Construcoes Ltda. (Brazil); Dantas, Roberto Pires [PLT - Projetos de Linhas de Transmissao Ltda. (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the origin, the development and the results of the TRUSSPOLE(Trussed Metallic Post) application in electric power transmission systems. It concerns a spatial trussed structure with a single metallic basis, similar to the concrete or wood pole, able to associate the technical and economical advantages of the trussed structures and the tubular or solid thick poles. The results obtained in the project, in load experiments of a study initial prototype and in the construction of a 69 kV Cs transmission line, with a 53.2 Km extension, using this type of structural solution, are shown 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  13. AZIDE-ALKYNE CLICK POLYMERIZATION: AN UPDATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kun Li; Jing-zhi Sun; An-jun Qin; Ben Zhong Tang

    2012-01-01

    The great achievements of click chemistry have encouraged polymer scientists to use this reaction in their field.This review assembles an update of the advances of using azide-alkyne click polymerization to prepare functional polytriazoles (PTAs) with linear and hyperbranched structures.The Cu(Ⅰ)-mediated click polymerization furnishes 1,4-regioregular PTAs,whereas,the metal-free click polymerization of propiolates and azides produces PTAs with 1,4-regioisomer contents up to 90%.The PTAs display advanced functions,such as aggregation-induced emission,thermal stability,biocompatibility and optical nonlinearity.

  14. Pressure-sensing properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes covered with a corona-poled piezoelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikawa, Takeshi; Tabata, Hiroshi, E-mail: tabata@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Utaka, Ken; Kubo, Osamu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied extensively as sensing elements for chemical and biochemical sensors because of their excellent electrical properties, their ultrahigh ratio of surface area to volume, and the consequent extremely high sensitivity of their surface to the surrounding environment. The extremely high sensitivity indicates that SWNTs can operate as excellent transducers when combined with piezoelectric materials. In this paper, we present a touch sensor based on SWNT thin-film transistors (SWNT-TFTs) covered with a thin film of the piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). Devices were fabricated by spin-coating a P(VDF-TrFE) layer on an SWNT-TFT, which was followed by in situ corona poling to polarize the P(VDF-TrFE) layer. We studied the effect of the corona polarity on the device characteristics and revealed that poling with a negative corona discharge induced a large amount of hole doping in the SWNTs and improved the touch-sensing performance of the devices, while a positive discharge had a negligible effect. The poled devices exhibited regular, stable, and positive drain current modulation in response to intermittent pressing, and the response was proportional to the magnitude of the applied pressure, suggesting that it was caused by the piezoelectric effect of the polarized P(VDF-TrFE) layer. Furthermore, we also fabricated a device using horizontally aligned SWNTs with a lower SWNT density as an alternative transducer to an SWNT thin film, which demonstrated sensitivity as high as 70%/MPa.

  15. A 15-pole high temperature superconductor filter for radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xi, Weibin; Wu, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a compact and high first harmonic frequency resonator. The characteristics of this resonator are theoretically analyzed. A highly selective 15-pole Chebyshev high temperature superconducting ultra-high frequency narrowband filter for radar applications was fabricated by using this resonator. The filter has a center frequency of 495 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of 1%. The first harmonic frequency is more than 3.3 times the fundamental frequency. The measured filter shows excellent selectivity, better than 85 dB/1 MHz skirt slopes, and more than 85 dB of rejection at 497.5 MHz from the band edge. The filter was fabricated on a 2 inch YBCO thin film with a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. The experimental results are consistent with the simulations.

  16. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  17. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  18. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  19. Ruthenium therapy of choroidal melanomas of the posterior pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faschinger, C.; Langmann, A.; Poier, E.

    1992-01-01

    The indications for conservative treatment of intraocular melanomas of the posterior pole with radioactive plaques are controversial. Melanomas located at the macula or adjacent to the fovea are regarded as relative contraindications for conservative treatment. Three melanomas of the macula have been treated at our department meanwhile. The tumor elevation ranged between 3.5 and 6 mm, the distance to the fovea between 0.5 and 2 dd. An average radiation dosage between 130 and 160 Gy was delivered to the apex of the tumors. The duration of observation was between 12 months to 4 years. The tumor regression was satisfactory in all 3 cases, additional photocoagulation was necessary in one case of incomplete tumor regression. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged between 0.8 and 0.1, posttreatment visual acuity between 0.8 and 0.25. In one case we observed a local radiation vasculopathy. General examination did not reveal any signs of metastases. (authors)

  20. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  1. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  2. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  3. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  4. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  5. Synthesis and polymerization of vinyl triazolium ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Adzima, Brian

    2018-05-15

    Herein, we describe polymerized ionic liquids, demonstrate the synthesis of polymerized ionic liquids, and demonstrate the polymerization of triazolium monomers. One embodiment shows the polymeriazation of the triazolium monomers with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions. In another embodiment we show the feasibility of copolymerizing with commodity monomers such as styrene using free radical polymerization techniques.

  6. Better flocculants by radiation induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.

    1978-01-01

    The use of radiation induced polymerization should theoritically allow to prepare better flocculants. The testings of several products prepared by such a process shows that better properties are indeed obtained: better efficiencies, lower amounts needed, better overall properties [fr

  7. Compression Behavior of High Performance Polymeric Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding has proven to be effective in improving the compressive strength of rigid-rod polymeric fibers without resulting in a decrease in tensile strength while covalent crosslinking results in brittle fibers...

  8. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  9. Thermal polymerization of Moringa oleifera oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Tania M.S.; Novack, Katia M.; Leandro, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly clear both for society and the scientific community, that is necessary to find alternatives to reduce the use of polymeric materials because of their damage to the environment. One way to minimize the environmental problems related to the use of polymers is try to make them quickly degradable. In this study it was obtained a material with polymeric appearance derived from heating of the vegetable oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera. The resulting product is an interesting alternative to obtain polymeric materials that may have biodegradable characteristics, coming from a renewable source and low cost. Moringa oil can be used since it has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, and its main constituent oleic acid. All samples were characterized by FTIR, NMR and GPC. It was obtained a polymeric material, malleable, high viscosity, with some elasticity, low crystallinity and no unpleasant odor. (author)

  10. Deformation and flow of polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Münstedt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the properties of single polymer molecules and polymeric materials and the methods how to characterize them. Molar masses, molar mass distributions and branching structure are discussed in detail. These properties are decisive for a deeper understanding of structure/properties relationships of polymeric materials. This book therefore describes and discusses them in detail. The mechanical behavior as a function of time and temperature is a key subject of the book. The authors present it on the basis of many original results they have obtained in their long research careers. They present the temperature dependence of mechanical properties of various polymeric materials in a wide temperature range: from cryogenic temperatures to the melt. Besides an extensive data collection on the transitions of various different polymeric materials, they also carefully present the physical explanations of the observed phenomena. Glass transition and melting temperatures are discussed, particularly, with the...

  11. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  12. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  13. Bioadhesive polymeric platforms for transmucosal drug delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioadhesive polymeric platforms for transmucosal drug delivery systems – a review. ... administration of certain classes of drugs, especially peptides and proteins. ... characteristics of desired bioadhesive polymers, this article then proceeds to ...

  14. Transformation kinetics of mixed polymeric substrates under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bglucosidase and a-mannosidase were abundantly secreted in the growth medium. This research is the first report on mixed polymeric substrate biodegradation under sewer condition by A. niger, and could be considered as an open window on ...

  15. Constructing Functional Ionic Membrane Surface by Electrochemically Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium polyacrylate (PAANa contained polyethersulfone membrane that was fabricated by preparation of PES-NH2 via nonsolvent phase separation method, the introduction of bromine groups as active sites by grafting α-Bromoisobutyryl bromide, and surface-initiated electrochemically atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-eATRP of sodium acrylate (AANa on the surface of PES membrane. The polymerization could be controlled by reaction condition, such as monomer concentration, electric potential, polymerization time, and modifier concentration. The membrane surface was uniform when the monomer concentration was 0.9 mol/L, the electric potential was −0.12 V, the polymerization time was 8 h, and the modifier concentration was 2 wt.%. The membrane showed excellent hydrophilicity and blood compatibility. The water contact angle decreased from 84° to 68° and activated partial thromboplastin increased from 51 s to 84 s after modification of the membranes.

  16. Pole-strength of the earth from Magsat and magnetic determination of the core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, G. V.; Benton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A model based on two days of Magsat data is used to numerically evaluate the unsigned magnetic flux linking the earth's surface, and a comparison of the 16.054 GWb value calculated with values from earlier geomagnetic field models reveals a smooth, monotonic, and recently-accelerating decrease in the earth's pole strength at a 50-year average rate of 8.3 MWb, or 0.052%/year. Hide's (1978) magnetic technique for determining the radius of the earth's electrically-conducting core is tested by (1) extrapolating main field models for 1960 and 1965 downward through the nearly-insulating mantle, and then separately comparing them to equivalent, extrapolated models of Magsat data. The two unsigned fluxes are found to equal the Magsat values at a radius which is within 2% of the core radius; and (2) the 1960 main field and secular variation and acceleration coefficients are used to derive models of 1930, 1940 and 1950. The same core magnetic radius value, within 2% of the seismic value, is obtained. It is concluded that the mantle is a nearly-perfect insulator, while the core is a perfect conductor, on the decade time scale.

  17. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-01-10

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  18. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coari, Kristin M.; Martin, Rebecca C.; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B.

    2017-09-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  19. Polymeric Nanogels Obtained by Radiation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, A. K.; Olejnik,; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J. M. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Soft nanomaterials - polymeric nanogels and microgels - have made a fast and brilliant career, from an unwanted by-product of polymerization processes to an important and fashionable topic of interdisciplinary research in the fields of polymer chemistry and physics, materials science, pharmacy and medicine. Together with their larger analogues - macroscopic gels, most known in the form of water-swellable hydrogels - they have a broad field of actual and potential applications ranging from filler materials in coating industry to modern biomaterials.

  20. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coari, Kristin M; Martin, Rebecca C; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  1. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  2. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  3. Polymeric Nanogels Obtained by Radiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, A.K.; Olejnik; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Soft nanomaterials - polymeric nanogels and microgels - have made a fast and brilliant career, from an unwanted by-product of polymerization processes to an important and fashionable topic of interdisciplinary research in the fields of polymer chemistry and physics, materials science, pharmacy and medicine. Together with their larger analogues - macroscopic gels, most known in the form of water-swellable hydrogels - they have a broad field of actual and potential applications ranging from filler materials in coating industry to modern biomaterials

  4. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  5. Regge poles and Mandelstam representation in potential scattering; Poles de regge et representation de Mandelstam en theorie du potentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    We deal with the scattering of two spinless particles interacting by a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We first obtain an upper bound for the scattering amplitude for simultaneous complex values of energy and angular momentum. We then show that the Regge poles remain confined in small domains of the complex angular momentum plane, we study the variation of these domains when the energy (complex) varies. These first results allow us to deduce an upper bound for the double spectral function, this upper bound is used to rigorously show that the Schroedinger equation implies the Mandelstam representation for the type of potentials we deal with. Finally, the problem of subtractions is entirely solved, showing that the Mellin transform of the double spectral function can be analytically continued into the different simple spectral functions. (author) [French] On traite de la diffusion de deux particules sans spin interagissant par l'intermediaire d'une superposition de potentiels de Yukawa. Nous obtenons tout d'abord une majorante pour l'amplitude de diffusion pour des valeurs simultanement complexes de l'energie et du moment cinetique. On montre alors que les Poles de Regge restent confines dans des domaines restreints du plan complexe du moment cinetique, domaines dont nous etudions la variation pour des valeurs complexes de l'energie. Ces premiers resultats nous permettent alors de deduire une majorante pour la fonction spectrale double, majorante qui est utilisee pour demontrer rigoureusement que l'equation de Schroedinger implique la representation de Mandelstam pour la classe des potentiels envisages. Enfin le probleme des soustractions est entierement resolu, en montrant que la transformee de Mellin de la fonction spectrale double se prolonge analytiquement dans les diverses fonctions spectrales simples. (auteur)

  6. Experience on impregnation of wood.en poles with water borne salts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Leechability. Since the process depends on osmosis, the preservative must be highly soluble in water and rains may wash it away. 2. Diminished Mechanical Strength. Pricking of the pole at and around the ground line will diminish the mechanical strength of the pole. 3. Cost. Most important of all, the cost of the preserva-.

  7. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai; Gnade, Bruce E; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel; Shah, Pradeep; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling

  8. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Ida, T; Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M

    2010-01-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  9. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  10. Renormalization Group Invariance of the Pole Mass in the Multi-Higgs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungku

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the renormalization group running of the pole mass in the multi-Higgs theory in two different types of gauge fixing conditions. The pole mass, when expressed in terms of the Lagrangian parameters, turns out to be invariant under the renormalization group with the beta and gamma functions of the symmetric phase.

  11. Converting point-wise nuclear cross sections to pole representation using regularized vector fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingjie; Ducru, Pablo; Liu, Shichang; Forget, Benoit; Liang, Jingang; Smith, Kord

    2018-03-01

    Direct Doppler broadening of nuclear cross sections in Monte Carlo codes has been widely sought for coupled reactor simulations. One recent approach proposed analytical broadening using a pole representation of the commonly used resonance models and the introduction of a local windowing scheme to improve performance (Hwang, 1987; Forget et al., 2014; Josey et al., 2015, 2016). This pole representation has been achieved in the past by converting resonance parameters in the evaluation nuclear data library into poles and residues. However, cross sections of some isotopes are only provided as point-wise data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. To convert these isotopes to pole representation, a recent approach has been proposed using the relaxed vector fitting (RVF) algorithm (Gustavsen and Semlyen, 1999; Gustavsen, 2006; Liu et al., 2018). This approach however needs to specify ahead of time the number of poles. This article addresses this issue by adding a poles and residues filtering step to the RVF procedure. This regularized VF (ReV-Fit) algorithm is shown to efficiently converge the poles close to the physical ones, eliminating most of the superfluous poles, and thus enabling the conversion of point-wise nuclear cross sections.

  12. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  13. Threshold for strong thermal dephasing in periodically poled KTP in external cavity frequency doubling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...

  14. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  15. Nonperturbative Renormalization Group Approach to Polymerized Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essafi, Karim; Kownacki, Jean-Philippe; Mouhanna, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Membranes or membrane-like materials play an important role in many fields ranging from biology to physics. These systems form a very rich domain in statistical physics. The interplay between geometry and thermal fluctuations lead to exciting phases such flat, tubular and disordered flat phases. Roughly speaking, membranes can be divided into two group: fluid membranes in which the molecules are free to diffuse and thus no shear modulus. On the other hand, in polymerized membranes the connectivity is fixed which leads to elastic forces. This difference between fluid and polymerized membranes leads to a difference in their critical behaviour. For instance, fluid membranes are always crumpled, whereas polymerized membranes exhibit a phase transition between a crumpled phase and a flat phase. In this talk, I will focus only on polymerized phantom, i.e. non-self-avoiding, membranes. The critical behaviour of both isotropic and anisotropic polymerized membranes are studied using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach (NPRG). This allows for the investigation of the phase transitions and the low temperature flat phase in any internal dimension D and embedding d. Interestingly, graphene behaves just as a polymerized membrane in its flat phase.

  16. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  17. Characterization behavior of some polymeric composite ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A; Ahdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric composite resins were prepared by template polymerization process in aqueous solution. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were performed to evaluate the physico chemical properties of the different polymeric composite resins. The TGA and DTA clarify high thermal stability of prepared polymeric composite resins. XRD of prepared polymeric composite shows that there is crystalline structure of some resins while other are amorphous one

  18. Institutional Evaluation in Poles of the Open University System of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexciano de Sousa Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wanted to know the institutional evaluation in poles of distance education, of the Open University of Brazil (UAB system, analyzing the poles of the State of Ceará. The UAB system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education makes it possible to offer courses of higher level agreements with public universities. Ceará counts on UAB poles, since 2006, that form teachers and other professionals, even in regions lacking public higher education. The objective of this study was to discuss the importance of the institutional evaluation in the poles of the Open University of Brazil program through an exploratory and descriptive field research, showing that the institutional evaluation at the poles is minimal and out of line with the legislation in force. Suggestions on how to develop the evaluative practice.

  19. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Optimizing detection of road furniture (pole-like object in Mobile Laser Scanner data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the road safety problem is becoming more and more serious recent years, existing road safety assessment by using automatic method is necessary. Meanwhile, since the pole-like objects have large effect on road safety and are in high demand as facilities to be managed, the automatic pole-like objects extraction is becoming a hot issue. As a result, a robust, quick and automatic pole-like object detection algorithm in MLS data is proposed in this paper. Two datasets are tested to show performance of the proposed algorithm, it demonstrates that it is feasible to detect tree with an overall accuracy of over 92% and other pole-like object of 72% in dataset A and 82% of tree points and 75% of other pole points in dataset B.

  1. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  2. Effect of electrical conductivity on the polarization behaviour and pyroelectric, piezoelectric property prediction of 0-3 ferroelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Nian; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Han Xiangyun; Zhong Zhicheng; Zheng Keyu

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of electrical conductivity of the constituents on the poling behaviour of the ceramic inclusions in 0-3 ferroelectric composites which comprise a dilute suspension of spherical particles uniformly distributed in the matrix material. A new model for the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties in terms of the poling conditions (poling field and poling time) has been developed to include electrical conductivity. Simulated results show that conductivity plays an important role in the poling process. Properly increasing the conductivity of the matrix σ m can enhance the polarization in the ceramic inclusion of the composite P i , thereby making the poling of the composite more efficient. In contrast, higher conductivity of the ceramic inclusion σ i results in lower polarization P i , which is unfavourable to the poling of the composite. These results provide insights into the observed behaviour of 0-3 composites. The model predicts the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties under different poling conditions, which agree well with the corresponding experimental data

  3. Reliability assessment of power pole infrastructure incorporating deterioration and network maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Paraic C.; Stewart, Mark G.; Spencer, Nathan; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable investment in timber utility poles worldwide, and there is a need to examine the structural reliability and probability based management optimisation of these power distribution infrastructure elements. The work presented in this paper builds on the existing studies in this area through assessment of both treated and untreated timber power poles, with the effects of deterioration and network maintenance incorporated in the analysis. This more realistic assessment approach, with deterioration and maintenance considered, was achieved using event-based Monte Carlo simulation. The output from the probabilistic model is used to illustrate the importance of considering network maintenance in the time-dependent structural reliability assessment of timber power poles. Under wind load, treated and untreated poles designed and maintained in accordance with existing Australian standards were found to have similar failure rates. However, untreated pole networks required approximately twice as many maintenance based pole replacements to sustain the same level of reliability. The effect of four different network maintenance strategies on infrastructure performance was also investigated herein. This assessment highlighted the fact that slight alterations to network maintenance practices can lead to significant changes in performance of timber power pole networks. - Highlights: • A time-dependent structural reliability model was developed for timber power poles. • Deterioration and network maintenance were incorporated into this event based model. • Network maintenance had a significant impact on power pole wind vulnerability. • Treated and untreated poles designed to Australian standards had similar reliability. • Minor alterations to maintenance strategies had large effects on network performance

  4. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  5. Studies on selected polymeric materials using the photoacoustic spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Hukum

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate—graft—polybisphenol—A-carbonate (PMMA-G-PC) with 50% grafting is synthesized. The graft co-polymerization of methylmethacrylate (0.036 mol · lit −1 ) onto polybisphenol—A-carbonate (0.5 g) in the presence of a redox couple formed from potassium persulphate (40 mol · lit −1 ) and thio-urea (30 mmol · lit −1 ) in aqueous nitric acid (0.18 M, 100 ml) in air at (45±2) °C for 3.0 h. Condensation of (PMMA-G-PC) with N- [p-(carboxyl phenyl amino acetic acid)] hydrazide (PCPH) affords polybisphenol-A-carbonate-graft-polymethylmethacrylate hydrazide (PCGH). The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of (PCGH) are recorded in a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm at a modulation frequency of 22 Hz, and compared with those of pure polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PC), (PMMA-G-PC) and (PCPH). In the present work, a non-destructive and non-contact analytical method, namely the photoacoustic technique, is successfully implemented for optical and thermal characterization of selected polymeric materials. The indigenous PA spectrometer used in the present study consists of a 300-W xenon arc lamp, a lock-in amplifier, a chopper, a (1/8)-m monochromator controlled by computer and a home-made PA cell. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Application of Three Electrical Resistivity Arrays to Evaluate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    shallow depth while Dipole-dipole is more susceptible to edge effect at deeper depth followed by the Pole-dipole array. 2D electrical resistivity field .... Data Processing: Both the apparent resistivity measurements for the synthetic and field data ...

  7. Application of Three Electrical Resistivity Arrays to Evaluate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further revealed that the Wenner array is less susceptible to edge effect at shallow depth while Dipole-dipole is more susceptible to edge effect at deeper depth followed by the Pole-dipole array. 2D electrical resistivity field measurements were carried out to confirm the results of the numerical simulation in the ...

  8. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  9. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  10. Pole magnetyczne we wsadzie rurowym nagrzewanym indukcyjnie od wewnatrz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piatek, Z.; Doležel, Ivo; Baron, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2005), s. 48-51 ISSN 0033-2097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction heating * electromagnetic field * Bessel functions Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Genotoxic evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Iglesias Alonso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important strategy for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of many conventional drugs is the development of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs, as it may expand their activities, reduce their toxicity, increase their bioactivity and improve biodistribution. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of 8 different poly (anhydride NPs designed for the oral administration of therapeutic compounds by using the comet assay in combination with the enzyme formamidopypiridine DNA-glycosylase (FPG. Furthermore, the mitogen capacity of the NPs was evaluated by the proliferation assay. All NPs were tested at four concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL in Caco-2 cells after 3 hours of treatment while selected NPs were also tested after 24 h. The comet assay was performed immediately after the treatment and cell proliferation was assessed by counting the treated cells after their incubation at 37 °C for 48h. Cells treated with 1 µM of the photosensitizer Ro 19-8022 plus 5 min of light, as well as cells treated with 100 µM H2O2 were included as positive controls in all the experiments. All NPs studied did not result in any increase in the frequency of strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in Caco-2 cells but they induced a slight concentration-dependent increase in net FPG sensitive sites (oxidized and/or alkylated bases. Furthermore, treated cells did not show changes in levels of proliferation in comparison with the negative control.

  12. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  13. Survey and research on precision polymerization polymeric materials; Seimitsu jugo kobunshi zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey and research on the precision control of primary structure of polymeric materials and the precision evaluation technology have been conducted to develop advanced polymeric materials. It is proposed that the three basic processes of polymer synthesis, i.e., addition, condensation, and biomimesis, in forming the precision polymerization skeleton are to be covered through a centralized joint research effort with participation of industry, academia, and the government institute and under the leadership of researchers from academic institutions as the team leaders. For the study of technology trends, international conferences held in UK, Germany, and Hawaii are introduced, and domestic meetings, i.e., Annual Polymer Congress and Polymer Conference, are summarized. In addition, Precision Polymerization Forum and International Workshop on Precision Polymerization were held. The basic studies include a quantum-chemical elucidation of the elementary process in polymerization reaction, time-resolved analysis of polymerization process and polymer properties, synthesis of polymers with controlled microstructures by coordination polymerization using metal complexes, synthesis of polymer with controlled microstructures by precision polycondensation, molecular recognition in catalyst-reaction site, and synthesis of imprinting polymers. 246 refs., 117 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Potentiometric sensors using cotton yarns, carbon nanotubes and polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Parrilla, Marc; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J

    2013-09-21

    A simple and generalized approach to build electrochemical sensors for wearable devices is presented. Commercial cotton yarns are first turned into electrical conductors through a simple dyeing process using a carbon nanotube ink. These conductive yarns are then partially coated with a suitable polymeric membrane to build ion-selective electrodes. Potentiometric measurements using these yarn-potentiometric sensors are demonstrated. Examples of yarns that can sense pH, K(+) and NH4(+) are presented. In all cases, these sensing yarns show limits of detection and linear ranges that are similar to those obtained with lab-made solid-state ion-selective electrodes. Through the immobilization of these sensors in a band-aid, it is shown that this approach could be easily implemented in a wearable device. Factors affecting the performance of the sensors and future potential applications are discussed.

  15. Application of proton conducting polymeric electrolytes to electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masayuki; Qiao, Jin-Li; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Non-aqueous polymeric gel complexes composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymethacrylate (PEO-PMA) dissolving anhydrous H 3 PO 4 have been examined as solid electrolytes of electrochemical capacitors. High ionic conductivity of ∼10 -3 S cm -1 (at 70 deg. C) was obtained for non-aqueous gel systems based on PEO-PMA with proper amounts of organic plasticizers. The ionic conductivity depended on the composition of the gel, especially on the content of the dopant H 3 PO 4 . A test cell of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was assembled using the present gel electrolyte with activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth electrodes. It gave as high capacity as that obtained for the capacitor using an aqueous liquid electrolyte. High rate capability was obtained for the cell operating at 90 deg. C

  16. Graft polymerization of vynil monomers at carbon black surface (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryono Arumbinang.

    1976-01-01

    Effect of aromatic condensates containing functional group on carbon black surface, effect of pH condensates on carbon black chemisorption, analysis and configuration of functional group, the crystal structure, property measurement standard, particle diameter measurement, oil adsorption, colour capacity, volatile acid content, electric resistence and the volume of the granular or carbon black dust, are given. Electron paramagnetic resonance determination of the amount of free radicals on carbon black surface, its oxidation and effects on the surface and inner structure of carbon black, and graft polymerization by radiation copolymerization, are discussed. Experiments on radiation graft copolymerization by acrylic acid, methacrylate, and glycidol methacrylate, in a vacuum condition, have been carried out. It is concluded that further research on the modification and configuration of carbon black should be developed. (author)

  17. India plans to land near moon's south pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2018-02-01

    Sometime this summer, an Indian spacecraft orbiting over the moon's far side will release a lander. The craft will ease to a soft landing just after lunar sunrise on an ancient, table-flat plain about 600 kilometers from the south pole. There, it will unleash a rover into territory never before explored at the surface. That's the ambitious vision for India's second voyage to the moon in a decade, due to launch in the coming weeks. If Chandrayaan-2 is successful, it will pave the way for even more ambitious Indian missions, such as landings on Mars and an asteroid, as well as a Venus probe. Lunar scientists have much at stake, too. Chandrayaan-2 will collect data on the moon's thin envelope of plasma, as well as isotopes such as helium-3, a potential fuel for future fusion energy reactors. And it will follow up on a stunning discovery by India's first lunar foray, which found water molecules on the moon in 2009.

  18. Electrically polarized PLLA nanofibers as neural tissue engineering scaffolds with improved neuritogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroca, Nathalie; Marote, Ana; Vieira, Sandra I; Almeida, Abílio; Fernandes, Maria H V; Vilarinho, Paula M; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2018-07-01

    Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10 -10 C cm -2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months. Further in vitro studies using neuroblastoma cells reveals that platforms' polarization potentiates Retinoic Acid-induced neuronal differentiation. Additionally, in differentiating embryonic cortical neurons, poled aligned nanofibers further increased neurite outgrowth by 30% (+70 μm) over non-poled aligned nanofibers, and by 50% (+100 μm) over control conditions. Therefore, the synergy of topographical cues and electrical polarization of poled aligned nanofibers places them as promising biocompatible and bioactive platforms for neural tissue regeneration. Given their long lasting induced polarization, these PLLA poled nanofibrous scaffolds can be envisaged as therapeutic devices of long shelf life for neural repair applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotating magnetizations in electrical machines: Measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Thul

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the magnetization process in electrical steel sheets for rotational magnetizations as they occur in the magnetic circuit of electrical machines. A four-pole rotational single sheet tester is used to generate the rotating magnetic flux inside the sample. A field-oriented control scheme is implemented to improve the control performance. The magnetization process of different non-oriented materials is analyzed and compared.

  20. Rotating magnetizations in electrical machines: Measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Andreas; Steentjes, Simon; Schauerte, Benedikt; Klimczyk, Piotr; Denke, Patrick; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the magnetization process in electrical steel sheets for rotational magnetizations as they occur in the magnetic circuit of electrical machines. A four-pole rotational single sheet tester is used to generate the rotating magnetic flux inside the sample. A field-oriented control scheme is implemented to improve the control performance. The magnetization process of different non-oriented materials is analyzed and compared.