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Sample records for electrical switchgear final

  1. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  2. Shock Performance of a Shipboard Electrical Switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-15

    the center of percussion . It was expected that there would be problems with the switchgear due to poor construction in addition to those due... centre of the mounting-plate; three accelerometers on the front vertical frame members at about mid-height, one each at the outboard end of the AQB...in order to align the center-of-gravity of the switchgear plus anvil table, etc., on the axis of percussion . 61 Fig. 24 - Sketch showing locations

  3. Distribution switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.

  4. Flexible electrical conductors for high-temperature switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutnik, E. A.; Mueller, L. A.; Snider, W. E.

    1970-01-01

    Arch-shaped conductors fabricated from flat strips of beryllium oxide dispersion-strengthened copper alloy serve as flexible electrical connectors capable of operating in 1000 deg F temperature range, under vacuum conditions for periods of 10,000 hours or more without failure.

  5. A cost effective battery bank for I(sup 2)T testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, W. A.

    The electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA step switched battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel trombone resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I(sup 2)t capability of better than 5 x 10(exp 9). The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I(sup 2)t limit will be provided.

  6. Cleaning of Livefront Electrical Switchgear Using Carbon Dioxide Pellets at Navy Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    surface is coated with a thin film mixture of LiBr and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol). The sensor varies its electrical resistance inversely proportional to...4 tiempos - Inyecciön directa - Enfriamiento por aire forzado - Lubricaciön forzada con bomba de engranajes - Arranque eletrico - Regulador de

  7. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. 56.12026 Section 56.12026 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. 57.12026 Section 57.12026 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear...

  9. The research of high voltage switchgear detecting unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tong; Xie, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinbo

    2017-07-01

    In order to understand the status of the high voltage switch in the whole life circle, you must monitor the mechanical and electrical parameters that affect device health. So this paper gives a new high voltage switchgear detecting unit based on ARM technology. It can measure closing-opening mechanical wave, storage motor current wave and contactor temperature to judge the device’s health status. When something goes wrong, it can be on alert and give some advice. The practice showed that it can meet the requirements of circuit breaker mechanical properties temperature online detection.

  10. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  11. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Huang, Wenguang; Zhou, Jierui; Gao, Xuze; Albarracín, Ricardo

    2018-02-11

    Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  12. Study on the Application of an Ultra-High-Frequency Fractal Antenna to Partial Discharge Detection in Switchgears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-high-frequency (UHF method is used to analyze the insulation condition of electric equipment by detecting the UHF electromagnetic (EM waves excited by partial discharge (PD. As part of the UHF detection system, the UHF sensor determines the detection system performance in signal extraction and recognition. In this paper, a UHF antenna sensor with the fractal structure for PD detection in switchgears was designed by means of modeling, simulation and optimization. This sensor, with a flat-plate structure, had two resonance frequencies of 583 MHz and 732 MHz. In the laboratory, four kinds of insulation defect models were positioned in the testing switchgear for typical PD tests. The results show that the sensor could reproduce the electromagnetic waves well. Furthermore, to optimize the installation position of the inner sensor for achieving best detection performance, the precise simulation model of switchgear was developed to study the propagation characteristics of UHF signals in switchgear by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. According to the results of simulation and verification test, the sensor should be positioned at the right side of bottom plate in the front cabinet. This research established the foundation for the further study on the application of UHF technique in switchgear PD online detection.

  13. Demonstrations of electric heating systems. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.; Laitila, R.; Ruska, T.

    1998-07-01

    In 1991, Imatran Voima launched the Demonstration Project of Electric Heating Systems. The project investigated in detail the energy consumption, housing comfort and electric power output rates of approximately one hundred electrically heated single-family houses and updated the investment cost information of heating systems. The project implemented and monitored quality electric heating concepts that guarantee a high standard of housing comfort. The targets in the project provided with combinations of floor, ceiling and window heating systems totalled 33. Furthermore, the project included 42 targets provided with water-circulated floor or radiator heating systems and 22 houses that had moved from oil or district heating systems into electric heating. The number of metering years received in the energy consumption measurements totalled 339. During the course of the project, six partial reports, one master's thesis and three summary reports were published. This is the final report of the project. It deals in brief with the major results. The best electric heating concept, in terms of housing comfort, is a floor heating system using cables supplemented by ceiling and window heating. Thanks to the heating units installed in the structures, the operative temperature grows by about one degree in comparison with a corresponding target heated with radiators. A typical, room-specifically-heated 140 m{sup 2} house consumes a total of 24,000 kWh of energy per year. Of this amount, electric space heating accounts for 11,500 kWh, heating with wood for 1,500 kWh, heating of tap water for 4,000 kWh and household electricity for 7,000 kWh. In a house provided with a water-circulated electric heating system the total energy consumption is, owing to the adjustment and storage losses, about 10 % higher. Of the energy consumption in the house, most part takes place during the period of nighttime electricity. The nighttime load in a 24-hour period with very low temperatures

  14. Intelligent MV Switchgear as an Element of Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Ropa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the family of intelligent switchgears, developed by a consortium formed by Tele and Radio Research Institute, Transformex sp. o.o., Elektromontaż Lublin and Łódź University of Technology, has been presented as an element of a Smart Grid power network. The switchgear has been equipped with innovative, hybrid current-voltage transducers made using multilayer printed circuit board technology. In the paper the concept of the switchgear, the construction of the transducers and the electronic module integrating the transducer with protection relay input circuit have been described. The intelligent bay controller implemented in the switchgear contains several modules such as Smart Metering, Smart Control, Smart Communication (IEC 61850 and integrates easily with Smart Grid power networks. The bay controller is additionally equipped with a circuit breaker (CB diagnostics module (Smart Diagnostics, which analyses CB parameters during its operation. It generates early warning signals about imminent failure likely to happen between periodic inspections and in this way enhances the reliability and safety of network operation. The switchgear contains also the fault recorder and criterion recorder (Smart Recorder/Logger, that facilitates diagnosing the failure events.

  15. Towards future electricity networks - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaemmanouil, A.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done on the development of new power transmission planning tools for restructured power networks. These are needed in order to face the challenges that arise due to economic, environmental and social issues. The integration of transmission, generation and energy policy planning in order to support a common strategy with respect to sustainable electricity networks is discussed. In the first phase of the project the main focus was placed on the definition of criteria and inputs that are most likely to affect sustainable transmission expansion plans. Models, concepts, and methods developed in order to study the impact of the internalisation of external costs in power production are examined. To consider external costs in the planning process, a concurrent software tool has been implemented that is capable of studying possible development scenarios. The report examines a concept that has been developed to identify congested transmission lines or corridors and evaluates the dependencies between the various market participants. The paper includes a set of three appendices that include a paper on the 28{sup th} USAEE North American conference, an abstract from Powertech 2009 and an SFOE report from July 2008.

  16. The Research of Mathematical Method and Position Control of Actuator in Power Switchgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyuan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient effects such as overvoltage and inrush currents will be caused due to opening and closing the switchgear at random phase. Phase-controlled technology present in recent years, which is restricted by the operation dispersion of actuator, can limit the transient effects. And the dispersion of the switchgear with a permanent magnetic actuator (PMA is small. Therefore, the research of mathematical method and position control in this paper is based on the PMA. Firstly, the dynamic mathematical method and simulation system established in MATLAB are used to improve the design of the PMA owing same type. Secondly, simulation with the use of improved fuzzy algorithm is carried out. And an optimized self-adaptive fuzzy algorithm is obtained in the simulation process which can be used to trace the given displacement curve. Finally, a large number of tracing experiments have been done on the 35 kV breaker prototype to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. In the experiments, the closing time of breaker can be stabilized within ±0.5 ms when capacitor voltage and capacitance change. These results prove that the mathematical model and the fuzzy algorithm are effective and practical.

  17. Metal-enclosed, air-insulated traction switchgear - developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    TracFeed {sup registered} TA switchgear series has been extended and successfully type tested under exceptional conditions for the requirements of 15 kV 16,7 Hz traction power supply systems. Therefore, air-insulated, metal-enclosed prefabricated switchgear systems are available for AC power supply with 15 kV 16,7 Hz in one- and two-pole configurations. The new switchgears are now in use in several installations. (orig.)

  18. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  19. DC switchgear for the Beijing Metro line 15; Gleichstromschaltanlagen fuer die Metro Peking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge, Ralf [Tianjin BB Electric JV. Ltd. (China); Walter, Mike [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The new DC switchgear of type TracFeed {sup registered} TDx is intended for the use in traction power supply sys-tems of DC 750 V and DC 1500 V rated voltage. It is a continuously further developed version of a switchgear unit that has been successfully used since a number of years and is of compact, air-insulated and type-tested design. After it has been used in various applications in Germany this switchgear unit will for the fi rst time be employed in a large scale in the Beijing Metro line 15 project with 21 substations. (orig.)

  20. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  1. New switchgear concepts for a.c. railway applications; Neue Schaltanlagenkonzepte fuer AC-Bahnanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany); Stollberg, A. [VA TECH SAT GmbH, Waltershausen (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    The power supply of electrified railway lines has been provided by well-tried supply systems of different rated voltage levels which require a switchgear with one or two-pole insulation and have resulted in various designs also with respect to the insulation concept. The newly developed branch-based line testing system in conjunction with the enlarged TracFeed {sup registered} series introduced earlier [1] makes it possible to further reduce the size of the switchgear and its buildings. (orig.)

  2. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  3. Statistical characteristics of transient enclosure voltage in ultra-high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanji; Guan, Yonggang; Liu, Weidong

    2017-06-01

    Transient enclosure voltage (TEV), which is a phenomenon induced by the inner dielectric breakdown of SF6 during disconnector operations in a gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), may cause issues relating to shock hazard and electromagnetic interference to secondary equipment. This is a critical factor regarding the electromagnetic compatibility of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) substations. In this paper, the statistical characteristics of TEV at UHV level are collected from field experiments, and are analyzed and compared to those from a repeated strike process. The TEV waveforms during disconnector operations are recorded by a self-developed measurement system first. Then, statistical characteristics, such as the pulse number, duration of pulses, frequency components, magnitude and single pulse duration, are extracted. The transmission line theory is introduced to analyze the TEV and is validated by the experimental results. Finally, the relationship between the TEV and the repeated strike process is analyzed. This proves that the pulse voltage of the TEV is proportional to the corresponding breakdown voltage. The results contribute to the definition of the standard testing waveform of the TEV, and can aid the protection of electronic devices in substations by minimizing the threat of this phenomenon.

  4. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  5. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  6. Near-term electric vehicle. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-14

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, designated ETV-2. Information is presented on vehicle design and operation; battery performance; control equipment; vehicle body construction from lightweight, fiber-reinforced composite material, flywheel design and fabrication from lightweight, high strength composite material; component testing; computer models of battery and vehicle performance; and preliminary system testing. Component losses were measured during the test program, and although they were satisfactorily low, it is evident that further development would improve the overall system efficiency. The vehicle has been tested on a dynamometer for the equivalent of approximately 2414 km (1500 mi) through all of the various modes of power system operation. The operational tests were successful in demonstrating the principles involved in the vehicle subsystems and the advantages of the concept. Final performance testing and evaluation by JPL will show the degree of compliance with the goals of the program. (LCL)

  7. Electric vehicle fleet implications and analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of : electric vehicles (EVs) used in fleet operations. The study focuses on Battery-Electric : Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs); collective...

  8. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  9. 76 FR 31354 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Transit Connect Electric Vehicle AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final... final determination concerning the country of origin of the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle which may...

  10. Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear for the use in railway power supply systems; Metallgekapselte, luftisolierte Bahnstromschaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany); Blecher, U. [Ritter Starkstromtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Geschaeftsbereich Anlagen und Werk fuer Schaltanlagen, Olfen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The medium-voltage switchgear of type TracFeed TAC has been designed for the use in standard, booster (1AC) and autotransformer (2AC) 25 kV 50/60 Hz railway power supply systems. This railway switchgear is of metal-enclosed air-insulated design and has been type tested according to EN 62271-200. It meets the special requirements described in the paper entitled ''Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for railway power supply'' published in No. 10/2003. (orig.)

  11. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mine electric system, including permanent cables, switchgear, rectifying substations, transformers... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical...

  12. 75 FR 64318 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Legacy Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... Fairplay Legacy line of golf and recreational electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has... line of electric vehicles for purposes of U.S. Government procurement. DATES: The final determination...

  13. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  14. The $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future electric vehicles. Northrop Grumman has achieved the intent of the program by taking several steps toward reducing the cost of the electric vehicle powertrain, demonstrating technologies in the form of hardware and introducing enhancements into production that are consistent with the needs of the market.

  15. Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for traction power supply; Anforderungen an Mittelspannungsschaltanlagen zur Bahnenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girbert, K.H.; Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Differing requirements to be met by medium-voltage switchgear in conjunction with historical developments, applicable standards and regulations and customers' conditions of operation were the factors responsible for the use of open-air switchgear in outdoor and air-insulated and gas-insulated equipment in indoor environments. The requirements made today on single-phase equipment and two-phase equipment for feeding autotransformer systems are described. Priority focus in the article is given to 25 kV 50 Hz applications though the information applies to 1 AC 15 kV 16.7 Hz equipment in principle as well. The equipment is compared with that used for d.c. railways and public power supply systems. (orig.)

  16. Characterizing soil erosion potential using electrical resistivity imaging : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The erosion rate, or erodibility, of soil depends on many soil characteristics including: plasticity, : water content, grain size, percent clay, compaction, and shear strength. Many of these characteristics also : influence soil in situ bulk electric...

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  18. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM Excellence Model in a Low Voltage Switchgear Compan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özmen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish low voltage switchgear sector is made up of several local and international companies. Generally, local companies operating in this sector try to get a competitive advantage by fabricating cheap products, in order to cope with the competition that focuses more on quality. What’s more, international corporations perform quality activities under the organization and control of their top-managements from abroad. Although VIKO is a local producer, it is a company willing to invest more in quality, as well as in research and development. VIKO company is the focus of this self-assessment study, since it lies at the conjunction of companies operating in this sector, it being a local company performing various quality enhancement activities. Simultaneously, the authors consider that this study shall prove useful to create an overview over the entire Turkish low voltage switchgear sector. The evaluation of the company and its core-activities was based upon nine criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM Excellence Model, in order to identify the strengths, the weaknesses and aspects that require improvements. This is the first study worldwide performed in the low voltage switchgear sector and it is aimed at motivating other Turkish companies that operate in this sector to implement The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM Excellence Model in their TQM activities (Total Quality Management.

  19. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  20. Teaching Slow Readers Using the Electric Typewriter. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Katherin E.

    The hypothesis that first and second graders can improve reading skills by learning to type on electric typewriters was tested in this study. Other purposes of the research were to develop linguistic comprehension in Standard English, to produce introductory reading materials which promote phonic understanding as they fix typing-key strokes, and…

  1. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  2. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  3. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-12-04

    The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  6. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. [MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  7. Communications and control for electric power systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, H.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a summary of some of the work done on the Communications and Control project, with particular emphasis on the achievements during the years 1986--1996. During those years, the project moved away from concern with dispersed storage and generation and its impact on power system operation (the team was responsible for studies in this area, and for making a power system simulator that included DSG), and became involved in more concrete work aimed at applying high-tech solutions to problems of power system communications and control. This report covers work done at JPL on the following topics: (1) the measurement of electric and magnetic fields, both ac and dc; (2) the use of optical power to supply low-power electronics; (3) the design of a fault-tolerant communication system designed for distribution automation; and (4) a digital phase locked loop that allows the use of low-power transmitting electronics to recreate a good-quality signal at the receiver. In a report of this kind, only the results and highlights of the work are described.

  8. COMPASS Final Report: Enceladus Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) internal Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage design are documented in this report (Figure 1.1). The SEP Stage was designed to deliver a science probe to Saturn (the probe design was performed separately by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC)). The SEP Stage delivers the 2444 kg probe on a Saturn trajectory with a hyperbolic arrival velocity of 5.4 km/s. The design carried 30 percent mass, 10 percent power, and 6 percent propellant margins. The SEP Stage relies on the probe for substantial guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), command and data handling (C&DH), and Communications functions. The stage is configured to carry the probe and to minimize the packaging interference between the probe and the stage. The propulsion system consisted of a 1+1 (one active, one spare) configuration of gimbaled 7 kW NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion thrusters with a throughput of 309 kg Xe propellant. Two 9350 W GaAs triple junction (at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU), includes 10 percent margin) ultra-flex solar arrays provided power to the stage, with Li-ion batteries for launch and contingency operations power. The base structure was an Al-Li hexagonal skin-stringer frame built to withstand launch loads. A passive thermal control system consisted of heat pipes to north and south radiator panels, multilayer insulation (MLI) and heaters for the Xe tank. All systems except tanks and solar arrays were designed to be single fault tolerant.

  9. Design Improvement for the Reactor Trip Switchgear System for APR1400 Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gyu; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Reactor Trip Switchgear System (RTSS) performs the function to open the Reactor Trip Circuit Breaker (RTCB) when the RTSS receives trip signals from the Plant Protection System (PPS). The RTSS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2) receives the reactor trip signals from four independent PPS divisions and performs the function to interrupt power from the Motor Generator Set (MG Set) to the Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The RTSS for SHN 1 and 2 consists of four Reactor Trip Switchgears (RTSGs) which form the selective 2-out-of-4 logic. The RTSS design for APR 1400 DC has been changed from selective 2-out-of-4 to full 2-out-of-4 logic by configuring two independent sets of RTSS for diversity. The RTSS with the full 2-out-of-4 logic decreases the chances of generating an inadvertent reactor trip by a failure during maintenance or testing. We expect this design change to contribute to enhancing the plant availability. After all, the quantitative reliability analysis will be necessary to visualize the degree of the plant availability enhancement from the design change described in this paper.

  10. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  11. 78 FR 69844 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... phase synchronous generator, and switchgear for each turbine. Tailrace A tailrace structure and culvert... Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered.... b. Project No.: 13272-003. c. Date Filed: November 1, 2013. d. Applicant: Alaska Village Electric...

  12. Design of a New Built-in UHF Multi-Frequency Antenna Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Switchgears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new built-in ultrahigh frequency (UHF antenna sensor was designed and applied in a high-voltage switchgear for partial discharge (PD detection. The casing of the switchgear was initially used as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, which integrated the sensor into the high-voltage switchgear. The Koch snowflake patch was adopted as the radiation patch of the antenna to overcome the disadvantages of common microstrip antennas, and the feed position and the dielectric layer thickness were simulated in detail. Simulation results show that the antenna sensor possessed four resonant points with good impedance matching from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz, and it also presented good multi-frequency performance in the entire working frequency band. PD detection experiments were conducted in the high-voltage switchgear, and the fabricated antenna sensor was effectively built into the high-voltage switchgear. In order to reflect the advantages of the built-in antenna sensor, another external UHF antenna sensor was used as a comparison to simultaneously detect PD. Experimental results demonstrated that the built-in antenna sensor possessed high detection sensitivity and strong anti-interference capacity, which ensured the practicability of the design. In addition, it had more high-voltage switchgear PD detection advantages than the external sensor.

  13. 75 FR 38459 - Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries,'' which states: \\23\\ See Certain Woven... International Trade Administration Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final... Department'') has determined that certain woven electric blankets (``woven electric blankets'') from the...

  14. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... and determined. Design of these key parameters of the coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) in MR-WPS is provided as well as the method of optimizing the resonant windings is given. Finally, a prototype is built and tested. The experimental results are presented in order to show that sufficient and reliable...

  15. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  16. Accounting for electric vehicles in air quality conformity \\0x2012 final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) obtain at least a part of the energy required for their propulsion from electricity. The : market for EVs, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles continues to grow, as many : new and affordable models ...

  17. Operating experience with factory-made air-insulated 1AC/2AC switchgear systems; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit fabrikgefertigten, luftisolierten 1AC-/2AC-Schaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Loenard, D. [Bombardier Transportation GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Today, factory-made air-insulated switchgear systems of the type TracFeed {sup registered} are available for all supply versions of 16.7 Hz and 50 Hz a.c. railways. These are supported by auxiliary equipment to ensure reliable railway operation through specific protective functions and a simplified line test. (orig.)

  18. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, Mark [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  19. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  20. Electric vehicle charging technologies analysis and standards : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project has evaluated the technologies and standards associated with Electric : Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) and the related infrastructure, and the major cost : issue related to electric vehicle (EV) charging -- the cost of utility power. T...

  1. Optimal charging scheduler for electric vehicles on the Florida turnpike : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This project developed a methodology to simulate and analyze roadway traffic patterns : and expected penetration and timing of electric vehicles (EVs) with application directed : toward the requirements for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) si...

  2. 77 FR 73039 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Vantage Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... the Vantage Vehicle EVX1000 and EVR1000 models of electric trucks and the EVC1000 and EVP1000 models... that, based upon the facts presented, the Vantage Vehicle EVX1000 and EVR1000 models of electric trucks...

  3. Prospects for electric cars: electric vehicle impact assessment study. Final report, 15 December 1975--30 April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.

    1978-11-01

    The characteristics of future electric cars were projected by means of parametric models of weight, cost, and performance. They included urban ranges as much as two to four times those of recent electric cars: up to 150 km for improved lead-acid batteries, 250 km for nickel-zinc batteries, and 450 km for lithium-sulfur batteries. From data tapes of major travel surveys in Los Angeles and Washington, these ranges were found to be sufficient for most needs of all three major groups of drivers: secondary and primary drivers at multi-driper households, and drivers at one-driver households. Even with the longest design ranges, however, the electric cars would be incapable of occasional long trips now made by conventional cars, and only at the shortest design ranges would they be competitive in cost. Through modeling of supply and demand for over 200 U.S. utilities it was projected that, by the year 2000, almost 60% of US cars could be electrified, only 17% of the recharging power would come from petroleum. Modeling of air pollutant emissions for 24 large urban regions showed that electrification of all cars would reduce regional hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions by roughly half, but increase sulfur oxide emissions some 20%. Traffic noise would be significantly reduced, even after major quieting of conventional vehicles. Identified resources of battery materials suffice for tens of millions of electric cars, but not necessarily for complete electrification of all US autos. Economic impacts aside from added costs for motorists would be relatively minor.

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  5. Long term performance of gas-insulated switchgear operating under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pharmatrisanti, A.

    2012-01-01

    For the past two decades, electricity utilities have struggled to provide high quality electrical power to their customers while keeping on spending effectively the expenses for operating and maintaining the power system. Unfortunately, under tropical conditions, operation circumstances affect the

  6. Solar repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company Permian Basin Steam Electric Station Unit No. 5. Final report, executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-15

    The conceptual design and economic assessment of a sodium-cooled, solar central receiver repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company's Permian Basin Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 5 are described. As expected, the economic assessment of the specific concept for that site indicates that the cost of energy is greater than that resulting from the burning of natural gas alone in the existing plant (principally as a result of the current cost of heliostats and the scheduled retirement date of Unit No. 5), Favorable economics for similar types of plants can be projected for the future. The annual fuel savings are equivalent to 218,500 barrels of crude oil, with a total dollar value of $21.5 M and $93.6 M for a 7-year life and a 25-year life, respectively. However, it has also been found, from separate studies, that favorable interpretations of the Fuel Use Act and an improved regulatory climate will be necessary for this economic viability to be reached. In particular, a subsidized program to reduce the cost of heliostats to less than $100/m/sup 2/ will be needed. All sodium components, except the receiver, are available on the basis of similar-sized or larger components that have been designed, fabricated, tested and operated in power plants for hundred of thousands of hours. Liquid sodium has been demonstrated for use as a stable, safe, and easily contained heat transfer fluid up to temperature exceeding those required for modern steam plants. (WHK)

  7. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  8. Catalytic upgrading of gas from biofuels and implementation of electricity production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran; Frostaeng, Sten [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The project aimed at research and development concerning processes for production of fuel gas and systems for production of electricity in the small to intermediate size range (100 kW{sub e} to 5 MW{sub e}. The project included building and testing of a complete 'biomass-to-electricity' chain at scale of 100 kW{sub th}. Research work was focused on improvements in reduction of contents of tar and ammonia, and on the influences from sulphur on nickel catalysts, and from chlorine on dolomite catalysts. The project was divided into four main tasks, comprising 19 work packages which included basic and applied research and process development. The work was to some extent a further development of results obtained in a previous EC project (AIR2-CT93-1436). A pilot plant at scale 100 kW{sub th} was designed and erected by BTG. This system consists of a fluidized bed gasifier, a reversal flow tar converter (RFTC), a gas cooler, dust filter and a gas engine. A main effort was put into the optimisation of the RFTC. Tar contents obtained varied between 50 and 150 mg/Nm{sup 3} . Finally, a short test programme was executed, where the technical feasibility of the RFTC was demonstrated successfully at real conditions in the complete biomass-to-electricity system. Specific investment costs were estimated for scales of 0.4, 1 and 2 MW{sub el}. For the largest scale the specific investment costs were estimated to about 165 ECU/kW{sub el}. The fundamental work consisted of basic investigations of catalysts, catalysed reactions, catalyst poisoning by sulphur and tar characterisation. Issues addressed were such as factors that influence activity of different catalysts for elimination of tars, search for new catalysts and optimal use of known and new catalysts. Detailed kinetics of catalysed reactions that convert tar into desired permanent fuel gas components was determined for the most stable tar components, which play major roles in the overall conversion of tar. The

  9. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacaster, A.J. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Electric vehicle charging station implementation plans for the Upstate New York I-90 corridor : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Public charging stations allow electric vehicle (EV) owners to have the ability and confidence to drive throughout New York State; for travel within and between metropolitan areas. Incorporating EV charging station planning into broader local and reg...

  11. Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Electric Positioning Chair. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for electric positioning chair devices. An electric positioning chair is a device with a motorized positioning control that is intended for medical purposes and that can be adjusted to various positions. These devices are used to provide stability for patients with athetosis (involuntary spasms) and to alter postural positions. This order exempts electric positioning chairs, class II devices, from premarket notification, subject to certain conditions for exemption. This exemption from premarket notification, subject to these conditions (and the limitations in the physical medicine devices limitations of exemptions from premarket notification section of the device regulations), is immediately in effect for electric positioning chairs. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the exemption from class II premarket notification section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act).

  12. Electrical engineering support of telemetered traffic monitoring sites : final report, March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    "The aim of this project was to provide electrical engineering support for the telemetered traffic monitoring sites (TTMS) operated by the Statistics Office of the Florida Department of Transportation. This project was a companion to project BD-543-1...

  13. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  14. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  15. Electric G-Van demonstration and commercial assessment project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, B.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute was awarded this grant to continue the joint effort initiated by EPRI, and VE International to proceed beyond the prototype phase of the electric G-Van development. The goal of EPRI and VEHMA was to develop a market for the electric G-Van, and to distribute them to commercial fleet operators. The objective of this project was to produce G-Vans in a production facility that would be comparable to the GMC Truck internal combustion engine Vandura Van produced by General Motors in quality, reliability, durability and safety. An initial market assessment/demonstration phase of sixty (60) vehicles was to be undertaken, with the ability to expand production volume quickly to meet market demands. Brief description of each task of this grant is given and the actions taken by EPRI to complete them.

  16. The impact of electric vehicles on the Southern California Edison System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the results of the first phase of an investigation of the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) in southern California. The investigation focuses on the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) which provides electric service for approximately 60% of southern California. The project is supported by the ``Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency`` Program of the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE). The first phase of the research is organized around how EVs might be viewed by customers, vehicle manufacturers and electric utility companies. The vehicle manufacturers` view has been studied with special emphasis on the role of marketable permit systems. The utilities` view of EVs is the subject of this report. The review is particularly important as several case studies of EVs in southern California have been conducted in recent years. The dynamics of a growing population of EVs is explained. Chapter 5 explains a simple method of deriving the electricity demands which could result from the operation of EVs in southern California. The method is demonstrated for several simple examples and then used to find the demands associated with each of the eight EV scenarios. Chapter 6 reports the impacts on SCE operations from the new demands for electricity. Impacts are summarized in terms of system operating costs, reliability of service, and changes in the utility`s average electric rate. Chapter 7 turns to the emissions of air pollutants released by the operation of EVs, conventional vehicles (CVs) and power plants. Chapter 8 takes the air pollution analysis one step further by examining the possible reduction in ambient ozone concentration in southern California.

  17. Ford/DOE sodium-sulfur battery electric vehicle development: Phase I-A final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Phase I-A NaS battery powered electric vehicle study program produced encouraging results insofar as showing that a feasible NaS battery design can be developed for installation in an existing production vehicle, such as the Ford Fiesta. The study has shown that this NaS Battery powered Fiesta (modified to be a 2-passenger vehicle), can have adequate performance and range potential such that its use as a test bed could adequately evaluate the potential of the NaS battery as a power source for further electric vehicles.

  18. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  19. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  20. Final report: Task 4a.2 20% wind scenario assessment of electric grid operational features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Wind integration modeling in electricity generation capacity expansion models is important in that these models are often used to inform political or managerial decisions. Poor representation of wind technology leads to under-estimation of wind's contribution to future energy scenarios which may hamper growth of the industry. The NREL's Wind Energy Deployment System (WinDS) model provides the most detailed representation of geographically disperse renewable resources and the optimization of transmission expansion to access these resources. Because WinDS was selected as the primary modeling tool for the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 study, it is the ideal tool for supplemental studies of the transmission expansion results. However, as the wind industry grows and knowledge related to the wind resource and integration of wind energy into the electric system develops, the WinDS model must be continually improved through additional data and innovative algorithms to capture the primary effects of variable wind generation. The detailed representation of wind technology in the WinDS model can be used to provide improvements to the simplified representation of wind technology in other capacity expansion models. This task did not employ the WinDS model, but builds from it and its results. Task 4a.2 provides an assessment of the electric grid operational features of the 20% Wind scenario and was conducted using power flow models accepted by the utility industry. Tasks 2 provides information regarding the physical flow of electricity on the electric grid which is a critical aspect of infrastructure expansion scenarios. Expanding transmission infrastructure to access remote wind resource in a physically realizable way is essential to achieving 20% wind energy by 2030.

  1. Design of permanent magnet motor actuator used in 550 kV gas-insulated switchgear disconnector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the operating characteristics of disconnector, a limited rotating angle permanent magnet motor actuator is presented in this article. The mathematical relationship between the moving contact stroke and rotation angle of motor is obtained by analyzing the dynamical coordination characteristics of motor actuator used in 550 kV gas-insulated switchgear disconnector. The electromagnetic field equation of motor, motive equation of rotor, and circuit equation of winding are solved simultaneously for acquiring dynamical characteristics of motor. The electromagnetic-mechanical coupled calculating model of motor is established by finite element method, and magnetic saturation of stator tooth is calculated and analyzed. According to the operating principle of motor, the double-closed control system which collects the motor speed and contact stroke signal during the operation of disconnector is developed. The experimental results show that the opening and closing speeds of disconnector are 1.1 and 1.2 m/s, respectively, which meet design requirements. The speed-regulating operation of disconnector is also carried out so that the switching speed of disconnector can adjust by motor actuator and control system.

  2. Near-term electric test vehicle ETV-2. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)

  3. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  4. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  5. Caustic leach-electrowin process for treating electric arc furnace baghouse dust. Final report. 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of one method of removing zinc and lead from electric arc furnace baghouse dust on a laboratory scale. Recent studies and literature are reviewed with attention being given to the formation and characterization of dust. Alternative treatment and disposal options are briefly described. Caustic leach-electrowin testwork is reported. Based on the results of the testwork, flowsheets and material balances are derived and used for the conceptual design of a slave plant to treat 15,000 tonnes per year of dust to produce zinc metal. Target economics, comprising preliminary estimates of capital and operating costs and revenues using somewhat optimistic assumptions, are calculated based on recycling of leach residue to the electric arc furnaces. Economic, commercial and other considerations pertaining to treating dust at a slave plant as compared to a centralized facility are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are enumerated. 10 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Electrically Heated Afterburner Final Report CRADA No. TC-0537-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernazza, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gehrman, F. H. [Retech Services, Inc., Ukiah, CA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    This project was established as a three-year collaboration to develop and improve an innovative hazardous waste-processing system via the addition of an electrically heated afterburner. The fundamental objective of this project was comprehensive engineering of a plasma-fired afterburner with the goal of delivering a scaled demonstration model to process the gaseous effluent from a Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) system. The first stage PACT technology has been already well developed by Retech Services, Inc. (Retech).

  7. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  8. STRUCTURAL FLUCTUATIONS, ELECTRICAL RESPONSE AND THE RELIABILITY OF NANOSTRUCTURES (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Rous; Ellen D. Williams; Michael S. Fuhrer

    2006-07-31

    The goal of the research supported by DOE-FG02-01ER45939 was to synthesize a number of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the relationship between morphological fluctuations, the electrical response and the reliability (failure) of metallic nanostructures. The primary focus of our work was the study of metallic nanowires which we regard as prototypical of nanoscale interconnects. Our research plan has been to link together these materials properties and behaviors by understanding the phenomenon of, and the effects of electromigration at nanometer length scales. The thrust of our research has been founded on the concept that, for nanostructures where the surface-to-volume ratio is necessarily high, surface diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism that governs the fluctuations, electrical properties and failure modes of nanostructures. Our approach has been to develop experimental methods that permit the direct imaging of the electromagnetic distributions within nanostructures, their structural fluctuations and their electrical response. This experimental research is complemented by a parallel theoretical and computational program that describes the temporal evolution of nanostructures in response to current flow.

  9. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  10. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  11. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  12. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  13. COMPASS Final Report: Saturn Moons Orbiter Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): Flagship Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team was approached by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) In-Space Project to perform a design session to develop Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Conceptual Designs (with cost, risk, and reliability) for missions of three different classes: New Frontier s Class Centaur Orbiter (with Trojan flyby), Flagship, and Discovery. The designs will allow trading of current and future propulsion systems. The results will directly support technology development decisions. The results of the Flagship mission design are reported in this document

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility in low pressure switchgear; Compatibilidade eletromagnetica em conjuntos de manobra de baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzmann, Martin [Gustav Hensel GmbH (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Electromagnetic disturbances in electrical installations are a recurring problem. In general, they can be attributed to stray currents. Present in a protection conductors and in the shields of signal cables, these currents interfere in electronic systems of machines and in information technology equipment. This article describes the relevant concepts of electromagnetic compatibility requirements and proposes preventive measures based on the standards.

  15. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  16. Static ice loads on hydro-electric structures: ice load monographs: Volume 1: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, G.; Abdelnour, R.; Gong, Y.; Dinovitzer, A.

    1996-07-01

    Ice loads on hydro-electric structures were measured during a four-year field program. Loads were measured at Hydro-Quebec`s Paugan dam, Ontario Hydro`s Arnprior and Otto Holden dams, and in a large outdoor basin at the National Research Council (NRC) during one winter. Ice loads were measured in the reservoir ice sheet, near the concrete face of the dam, and near the gate and pier of the Paugan dam. Ice stresses were measured continuously by stressmeters that were deployed in the ice. Loads at the Paugan dam and the NRC basin resulted mostly from ice temperature changes. The loads at the Arnprior and Otto Holden dams were produced by a combination of ice temperature and water level changes. The collected data was analyzed in detail and efforts were made to improve techniques for predicting ice loads. Significant progress was made towards the development of detailed, quantitative understanding of static ice loads on hydro-electric structures, and the factors controlling them. However, the ice load predictors are subject to a number of limitations and further work is required before changes to design practices can be recommended with confidence. More field data collection would also improve the definition of loads arising from a combination of water level and ice temperature changes. Additional numerical analyses was also recommended to better define the effects of ice confinement. Appendices were published separately in volume 2 of this report. 43 refs., 18 tabs., 96 figs.

  17. Development of advanced methods for planning electric energy distribution systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenen, T.; Foote, B.L.; Thompson, J.C.; Fagan, J.E.

    1979-10-01

    An extensive search was made for the identification and collection of reports published in the open literature which describes distribution planning methods and techniques. In addition, a questionnaire has been prepared and sent to a large number of electric power utility companies. A large number of these companies were visited and/or their distribution planners interviewed for the identification and description of distribution system planning methods and techniques used by these electric power utility companies and other commercial entities. Distribution systems planning models were reviewed and a set of new mixed-integer programming models were developed for the optimal expansion of the distribution systems. The models help the planner to select: (1) optimum substation locations; (2) optimum substation expansions; (3) optimum substation transformer sizes; (4) optimum load transfers between substations; (5) optimum feeder routes and sizes subject to a set of specified constraints. The models permit following existing right-of-ways and avoid areas where feeders and substations cannot be constructed. The results of computer runs were analyzed for adequacy in serving projected loads within regulation limits for both normal and emergency operation.

  18. Environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-16

    This environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries is intended to identify principal environmental impacts resulting directly or indirectly from the development of electric vehicle batteries. Thus, the result of this study could be used to determine the appropriate following step in the U.S. DOE's EIA process. The environmental impacts considered in this document are the incremental impacts generated during the various phases in the battery life cycle. The processes investigated include mining, milling, smelting, and refining of metallic materials for electrode components; manufacturing processes of inorganic chemicals and other materials for electrolytes and other hardware components; battery assembly processes; operation and maintenance of batteries; and recycling and disposal of used batteries. The severity of the incremental impacts is quantified to the extent consistent with the state-of-knowledge. Many of the industrial processes involve proprietary or patent information; thus, in many cases, the associated environmental impacts could not be determined. In addition, most candidate battery systems are still in the development phase. Thus, the manufacturing and recycling processes for most battery systems either have not been developed by industry, or the information is not available. For these cases, the associated environmental impact evaluations could only be qualitative, and the need for further investigations is indicated. 26 figures, 27 tables. (RWR)

  19. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  1. COMPASS Final Report: Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Centaur Orbiter New Frontiers Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) has been shown in past studies to enable missions to outer planetary bodies including the orbiting of Centaur asteroids. Key to the feasibility for REP missions are long life, low power electric propulsion (EP) devices, low mass Radioisotope Power System (RPS) and light spacecraft (S/C) components. In order to determine the key parameters for EP devices to perform these REP missions a design study was completed to design an REP S/C to orbit a Centaur in a New Frontiers (NF) cost cap. The design shows that an orbiter using several long lived (approx.200 kg xenon (Xe) throughput), low power (approx.700 W) Hall thrusters teamed with six (150 W each) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG) can deliver 60 kg of science instruments to a Centaur in 10 yr within the NF cost cap. Optimal specific impulses (Isp) for the Hall thrusters were found to be around 2000 s with thruster efficiencies over 40 percent. Not only can the REP S/C enable orbiting a Centaur (when compared to an all chemical mission only capable of flybys) but the additional power from the REP system can be used to enhance science and simplify communications. The mission design detailed in this report is a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) powered EP science orbiter to the Centaur Thereus with arrival 10 yr after launch, ending in a 1 yr science mapping mission. Along the trajectory, approximately 1.5 yr into the mission, the REP S/C does a flyby of the Trojan asteroid Tlepolemus. The total (Delta)V of the trajectory is 8.9 km/s. The REP S/C is delivered to orbit on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle with a Star 48 B solid rocket stage

  2. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  3. High performance low cost interconnections for flip chip attachment with electrically conductive adhesive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This final report is a compilation of final reports from each of the groups participating in the program. The main three groups involved in this effort are the Thomas J. Watson Research Center of IBM Corporation in Yorktown Heights, New York, Assembly Process Design of IBM Corporation in Endicott, New York, and SMT Laboratory of Universal Instruments Corporation in Binghamton, New York. The group at the research center focused on the conductive adhesive materials development and characterization. The group in process development focused on processing of the Polymer-Metal-Solvent Paste (PMSP) to form conductive adhesive bumps, formation of the Polymer-Metal Composite (PMC) on semiconductor devices and study of the bonding process to circuitized organic carriers, and the long term durability and reliability of joints formed using the process. The group at Universal Instruments focused on development of an equipment set and bonding parameters for the equipment to produce bond assembly tooling. Reports of each of these individual groups are presented here reviewing their technical efforts and achievements.

  4. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  5. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  6. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  7. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  8. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  9. Final Report: MaRSPlus Sensor System Electrical Cable Management and Distributed Motor Control Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The success of JPL's Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer (NGIS) in Earth remote sensing has inspired a follow-on instrument project, the MaRSPlus Sensor System (MSS). One of JPL's responsibilities in the MSS project involves updating the documentation from the previous JPL airborne imagers to provide all the information necessary for an outside customer to operate the instrument independently. As part of this documentation update, I created detailed electrical cabling diagrams to provide JPL technicians with clear and concise build instructions and a database to track the status of cables from order to build to delivery. Simultaneously, a distributed motor control system is being developed for potential use on the proposed 2018 Mars rover mission. This system would significantly reduce the mass necessary for rover motor control, making more mass space available to other important spacecraft systems. The current stage of the project consists of a desktop computer talking to a single "cold box" unit containing the electronics to drive a motor. In order to test the electronics, I developed a graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB to allow a user to send simple commands to the cold box and display the responses received in a user-friendly format.

  10. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  11. Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D. [Visual Computer Systems Corp., Greenville, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

  12. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovacik, L.; Jones, O.C.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the work on the research project on this cooperative program between DOE and Hitachi, Ltd. Major advances were made in the computational reconstruction of images from electrical excitation and response data with respect to existing capabilities reported in the literature. A demonstration is provided of the imaging of one or more circular objects within the measurement plane with demonstrated linear resolution of six parts in two hundred. At this point it can be said that accurate excitation and measurement of boundary voltages and currents appears adequate to obtain reasonable images of the real conductivity distribution within a body and the outlines of insulating targets suspended within a homogeneous conducting medium. The quality of images is heavily dependent on the theoretical and numerical implementation of imaging algorithms. The overall imaging system described has the potential of being both fast and cost effective in comparison with alternative methods. The methods developed use multiple plate-electrode excitation in conjunction with finite element block decomposition, preconditioned voltage conversion, layer approximation of the third dimension and post processing of boundary measurements to obtain optimal boundary excitations. Reasonably accurate imaging of single and multiple targets of differing size, location and separation is demonstrated and the resulting images are better than any others found in the literature. Recommendations for future effort include the improvement in computational algorithms with emphasis on internal conductivity shape functions and the use of adaptive development of quadrilateral (2-D) or tetrahedral or hexahedral (3-D) elements to coincide with large discrete zone boundaries in the fields, development of a truly binary model and completion of a fast imaging system. Further, the rudimentary methods shown herein for three-dimensional imaging need improving.

  13. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  14. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

  15. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  17. Ford/DOE sodium-sulfur battery electric vehicle development and demonstration. Phase I-1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The results of Phase I-A analyses and design studies are presented. The objective of the Phase I-A effort was to evaluate the sodium-sulfur battery, in an existing conventional production automobile, as a potential power source for an electric vehicle. The Phase I-A work was divided into five (5) major sub-tasks as follows: vehicle specification sub-task; NaS battery packaging study sub-task; vehicle packaging layout sub-task; electrical system study sub-task; and system study sub-tasks covering performance and economy projections, powertrain and vehicle safety issues and thermal studies. The major results of the sodium-sulfur battery powered electric vehicle study program are: the Fiesta was chosen to be the production vehicle which would be modified into a 2-passenger, electric test bed vehicle powered by a NaS battery; the vehicle mission was defined to be a 2-passenger urban/suburban commuter vehicle capable of at least 100 miles range over the CVS driving cycle and a wide open throttle capability of 0 to 50 mph in 14 seconds, or less; powertrain component specifications were defined; powertrain control strategy has been selected; and a suitable test bed vehicle package scheme has been developed.

  18. Final Report Providing the Design for Low-Cost Wireless Current Transducer and Electric Power Sensor Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Burghard, Brion J.; Reid, Larry D.

    2005-01-31

    This report describes the design and development of a wireless current transducer and electric power sensor prototype. The report includes annotated schematics of the power sensor circuitry and the printed circuit board. The application program used to illustrate the functionality of the wireless sensors is described in this document as well.

  19. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  20. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  1. Optional time-of-use prices for electricity: Analysis of PG&E`s experimental TOU rates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, K.; Mehrez, G.

    1992-07-01

    We examine customers` time-of-use (TOU) demand for electricity and their choice between standard and TOU rate schedules. We specify an econometric model in which the customer`s demand curves determine the customer`s choice of rate schedule. We estimate the model on data from Pacific Gas & Electric Company`s experiment with optional TOU prices in the residential sector. With the model, we compare the TOU consumption and price elasticities of customers who chose TOU rates with those who chose standard rates. We also estimate the impact of the TOU rates on the utility`s revenues and costs. The analysis suggests that the TOU rates offered under PG&E`s experiment decreased PG&E`s profits and hence contributed to higher general rate levels. The model can be used, however, to design optional TOU rates that increase profits and lower general rate levels.

  2. United States Department of Energy`s electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program. Final report, April 1991--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-06

    Drivers in San Juan County, which, is comprised of islands making for short distances on rural (low speed limits) roads, found that present day electric vehicle technology can work in certain applications. An honest, accurate appraisal of the expectations of the vehicle is essential. When needs and capabilities are able to match up, then successful ownership and operation can occur. Today`s EV technology can accomplish certain driving tasks. Careful, honest analysis what is expected of the car can lead to a rewarding EV driving experience. Providing recharge locations in the community proved essential of the peace of mind of the EV driver. Since heating and air conditioning represent electric loads whose reduces range, a moderate to warm year round climate is best for today`s EV. Also, even limited solar recharging has been determined to improve battery pack life.

  3. Ionospheric plasma flow about a system of electrically biased flat plates. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Joel L.

    1993-01-01

    The steady state interaction of two electrically biased parallel plates immersed in a flowing plasma characteristic of low earth orbit is studied numerically. Fluid equations are developed to describe the motion of the cold positively charged plasma ions, and are solved using finite-differences in two dimensions on a Cartesian grid. The behavior of the plasma electrons is assumed to be described by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Results are compared to an analytical and a particle simulation technique for a simplified flow geometry consisting of a single semi-infinite negatively biased plate. Comparison of the extent of the electrical disturbance into the flowing plasma and the magnitude of the current collected by the plate is very good. The interaction of two equally biased parallel plates is studied as a function of applied potential. The separation distance at which the current collected by either plate decreases by five and twenty percent is determined as a function of applied potential. The percent decreases were based on a non-interacting case. The decrease in overall current is caused by a decrease in ionic density in the region between the plates. As the separation between the plates decreases, the plates collect the ions at a faster rate than they are supplied to the middle region by the oncoming plasma flow. The docking of spacecraft in orbit is simulated by moving two plates of unequal potential toward one another in a quasi-static manner. One plate is held at a large negative potential while the other floats electrically in the resulting potential field. It is found that the floating plate does not charge continuously negative as it approaches the other more negatively biased plate. Instead, it charges more and then less negative as ionic current decreases and then increases respectively upon approach. When the two plates come into contact, it is expected that the electrically floating plate will charge rapidly negative to a potential near that of

  4. A deterministic model for the growth of non-conducting electrical tree structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dodd, S J

    2003-01-01

    Electrical treeing is of interest to the electrical generation, transmission and distribution industries as it is one of the causes of insulation failure in electrical machines, switchgear and transformer bushings. In this paper a deterministic electrical tree growth model is described. The model is based on electrostatics and local electron avalanches to model partial discharge activity within the growing tree structure. Damage to the resin surrounding the tree structure is dependent on the local electrostatic energy dissipation by partial discharges within the tree structure and weighted by the magnitudes of the local electric fields in the resin surrounding the tree structure. The model is successful in simulating the formation of branched structures without the need of a random variable, a requirement of previous stochastic models. Instability in the spatial development of partial discharges within the tree structure takes the role of the stochastic element as used in previous models to produce branched t...

  5. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 4: Solar electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This document presents the solar electric propulsion (SEP) concept design developed as part of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the SEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  6. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  7. Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts -- final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes findings from a unique project to improve the end-use electricity load shape and peak demand forecasts made by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). First, the direct incorporation of end-use metered data into electricity demand forecasting models is a new approach that has only been made possible by recent end-use metering projects. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the joint-sponsorship of this analysis has led to the development of consistent sets of forecasting model inputs. That is, the ability to use a common data base and similar data treatment conventions for some of the forecasting inputs frees forecasters to concentrate on those differences (between their competing forecasts) that stem from real differences of opinion, rather than differences that can be readily resolved with better data. The focus of the analysis is residential space cooling, which represents a large and growing demand in the PG&E service territory. Using five years of end-use metered, central air conditioner data collected by PG&E from over 300 residences, we developed consistent sets of new inputs for both PG&E`s and CEC`s end-use load shape forecasting models. We compared the performance of the new inputs both to the inputs previously used by PG&E and CEC, and to a second set of new inputs developed to take advantage of a recently added modeling option to the forecasting model. The testing criteria included ability to forecast total daily energy use, daily peak demand, and demand at 4 P.M. (the most frequent hour of PG&E`s system peak demand). We also tested the new inputs with the weather data used by PG&E and CEC in preparing their forecasts.

  8. Final report : impacts analysis for cyber attack on electric power systems (National SCADA Test Bed FY08).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; LaViolette, Randall A.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the risks due to cyber attack against control systems used in the United States electrical infrastructure, new algorithms are needed to determine the possible impacts. This research is studying the Reliability Impact of Cyber ttack (RICA) in a two-pronged approach. First, malevolent cyber actions are analyzed in terms of reduced grid reliability. Second, power system impacts are investigated using an abstraction of the grid's dynamic model. This second year of esearch extends the work done during the first year.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of potential NO/sub x/ control strategies for the electric power industry. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, S.M.; Peyton, T.O.; Anderson, G.E.; Attaway, L.D.; Hillyer, M.J.; MacBride, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    Eight appendices of basic supporting information for the report on Preliminary Evaluation of Potential NO/sub x/ Control Strategies for the Electric Power Industry are presented. The first appendix presents a collection of federal, state and selected local limitations on the emissions and ambient concentration of NO/sub 2/, and a short summary of the potential for near-term changes in these limitations. It is intended to provide a dynamic summary of these regulatory constraints on the electric power industry, a basis for the strategies examined in the current report, and a starting point for the analysis envisioned for the following phase.The second appendix reviews NO/sub x/ control technologies: The third provides emission data for Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR). The remaining appendices contain information on: models used for projecting NO/sub x/ emissions and concentrations for the subject AQCRs; and basic power plants data, current and proposed, for the USA and for the AQCRs examined. (LCL)

  10. Market and regulatory incentives for cost efficient integration of DG in the electricity system. IMPROGRES project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M. [Liander, Duiven (Netherlands); Trebolle, D. [Union Fenosa Distribucion, Madrid (Spain); Doersam, B. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Bofinger, S.; Gerhardt, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, IWES, Bremerhaven (Germany); Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Achieving the European target of 20% reduction of greenhouse gases in 2020 relies for a major part on increasing the share of renewable electricity generation, and more efficient fossil fuel based generation in combined heat and power installations. Most of these renewable and CHP generators are smaller in size than conventional power plants and are therefore usually connected to distribution grids instead of transmission grids. Different support schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) have been successfully implemented and have resulted in a rapid growth of distributed generation (DG). IMPROGRES scenario analysis shows that the installed capacity of DG in the EU-25 is expected to increase from 201 GW in 2008 to about 317 GW in 2020. A large part of this increase will be made up of more variable and less controllable renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaics.

  11. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, March 1996. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with various impinger capture solutions. Also, the installation of the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit was completed in March. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD Unit and were utilized in the HAP test configuration this month. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold- standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Electrical Power System Upgrades at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-09

    The ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires Federal agency officials to consider the environmental consequences of their proposed actions before decisions are made. In complying with NEPA, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) follows the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021). The purpose of an Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide Federal decision makers with sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact. In this case, the DOE decision to be made is whether to construct and operate a 19.5-mile (mi) (31-kilometer [km]) electric transmission line (power line) reaching from the Norton Substation, west across the Rio Grande, to locations within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Areas (TAs) 3 and 5 at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The construction of one electric substation at LANL would be included in the project as would the construction of two line segments less than 1,200 feet (ft) (366 meters [m]) long that would allow for the uncrossing of a portion of two existing power lines. Additionally, a fiber optics communications line would be included and installed concurrently as part of the required overhead ground conductor for the power line. The new power line would improve the reliability of electric service in the LANL and Los Aktrnos County areas as would the uncrossing of the crossed segments of the existing lines. Additionally, installation of the new power line would enable the LANL and the Los Alamos County electric grid, which is a shared resource, to be adapted to accommodate the future import of increased power when additional power service becomes available in the northern New Mexico area. Similarly, the fiber optics line would allow DOE to take advantage of

  13. Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

  14. Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Jonathan G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Tzu-Fang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vo, Duc T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, Pierre F. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Weber, Anne-Laure [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2017-07-20

    Under a 2006 agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America and the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) of France, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) within DOE and IRSN initiated a collaboration to improve isotopic identification and analysis of nuclear material [i.e., plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U)]. The specific aim of the collaborative project was to develop new versions of two types of isotopic identification and analysis software: (1) the fixed-energy response-function analysis for multiple energies (FRAM) codes and (2) multi-group analysis (MGA) codes. The project is entitled Action Sheet 4 – Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems (Action Sheet 4). FRAM and MGA/U235HI are software codes used to analyze isotopic ratios of U and Pu. FRAM is an application that uses parameter sets for the analysis of U or Pu. MGA and U235HI are two separate applications that analyze Pu or U, respectively. They have traditionally been used by safeguards practitioners to analyze gamma spectra acquired with high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) systems that are cooled by liquid nitrogen. However, it was discovered that these analysis programs were not as accurate when used on spectra acquired with a newer generation of more portable, electrically cooled HRGS (ECHRGS) systems. In response to this need, DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated to update the FRAM and U235HI codes to improve their performance with newer ECHRGS systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed this work for DOE/NNSA.

  15. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    complete wiring to fuel systems. 4. Install power to new dampers/louvers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Wiring shall be similar to installation to existing dampers/louvers. Utilize existing conduits already routed to louver areas to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to complete wiring to new dampers/louvers. 5. Install power to jacket water heaters for new generators 3 and 4 from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 6. Install new neutral grounding resistor and associated parts and wiring for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Grounding resistors will be Government Furnished Equipment (GFE). 7. Install two new switchgear sections, one for generator #3 and one for generator #4, to match existing generator #1 cubicle design and installation and in accordance with drawings and existing parts lists. This switchgear will be provided as GFE. 8. Ground all new switchgear, generators 3 and 4, and any other new equipment to match existing grounding connections for generators 1 and 2, switchgear and other equipment. See drawings for additional details. Grounding grid is already existing. Ensure that all grounding meets National Electrical Code requirements. 9. Cummins DMC control for the generator and switchgear syste

  17. Preliminary evaluation of potential NO/sub x/ control strategies for the electric power industry. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, S.M.; Peyton, T.O.; Anderson, G.E.; Attaway, L.D.; Hillyer, M.J.; MacBride, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    Flow Resources Corporation has conducted an investigation of strategies for the control of nitrogen oxides emitted by the electric utility industry's fossil fuel fired power plants. The study focused on assurance of meeting the current annual NO/sub 2/ primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) through the year 2000. It included four sets of nuclear/coal growth scenarios and three sets of assumed emission restrictions and centered on 20 ''critical'' Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) chosen for their potential for being in NO/sub 2/ noncompliance during the study time period. A review was conducted of federal and state NO/sub x/ regulations and photochemical diffusion modeling (the latter done under subcontract by System Applications, Inc.) The principal conclusion of this study is that in most critical AQCRs, reduction of coal-fired power plant emissions below 0.3 lbs NO/sub x/10/sup 6/ Btu appears to offer little leverage for substantially further reducing annual ambient concentrations of NO/sub 2/. This result, however, varies between AQCRs, and may necessitate a more detailed evaluation of control strategies.

  18. Factors affecting geographic market definition and merger control for the Dutch electricity sector. Final report. Non-confidential version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselle, B. [The Brattle Group, Brussels (Belgium); Newbery, D. [Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harris, D. [The Brattle Group, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    The NMA (Netherlands Competition Authority NMa) asked The Brattle Group to analyse: (1) Factors that would affect geographic market definition for the purpose of merger control in the Dutch electric power industry; and (2) The competitive effects of some specific (hypothetical) mergers in that industry. This study does not refer to any actual merger proceedings, and the NMa have not asked to analyse any mergers of which they have been notified. All mergers analysed are hypothetical. This study is performed using both statistical analysis of historical data, and results from a comprehensive model of the European power market, the Brattle Annual Model (BAM). Standard tools of competitive analysis are used, including the so-called SSNIP test (Small but Significant and Non-transitory Increase in Price) for geographic market definition, and measures of concentration (market shares, Hirschmann-Herfindahl Indices (HHIs), which are used to examine horizontal issues in competitive analysis, and Pivotal Supply Index) for merger analysis, as well as more sophisticated economic modelling (e.g., Cournot model)

  19. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal test block (TER) as the Pilot was operated under forced oxidation conditions. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued as investigations into various activated carbons, metal amalgams, and impinger capture solutions were conducted. Following these studies, a brief test of the Pilot High Velocity FGD configuration (PHV) was conducted. This test block will be continued at the end of the month after the Fall outage is completed. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. During this month`s outage, the inlet and outlet damper plates were sealed to isolate the SCR system from flue gas. Also, the internals of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) and catalyst reactor tower were inspected and cleaned so that the system could be available for future test activities. Monthly inspections of all SCR system equipment placed in this cold-standby mode, as well as the fire safety systems in the SCR building, will continue to be conducted by the ECTC maintenance department and will include manual rotation of the booster fan.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, November 1995. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Pilot High Velocity (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurement studies involving the EPA Draft Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber system was utilized in the TER test configuration this month while the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber unit remained in a state of cold-standby. A monthly inspection was conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems in the SCR building. These inspections will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff each month.

  1. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  2. Chlorine hazard evaluation for the zinc-chlorine electric vehicle battery. Final technical report. [50 kWh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.; Short, T. P.; Tsui, R. K.

    1980-04-01

    Hazards associated with conceivable accidental chlorine releases from zinc-chlorine electric vehicle batteries are evaluated. Since commercial batteries are not yet available, this hazard assessment is based on both theoretical chlorine dispersion models and small-scale and large-scale spill tests with chlorine hydrate (which is the form of chlorine storage in the charged battery). Six spill tests involving the chlorine hydrate equivalent of a 50-kWh battery indicate that the danger zone in which chlorine vapor concentrations intermittently exceed 100 ppM extends at least 23 m directly downwind of a spill onto a warm (30 to 38/sup 0/C) road surface. Other accidental chlorine release scenarios may also cause some distress, but are not expected to produce the type of life-threatening chlorine exposures that can result from large hydrate spills. Chlorine concentration data from the hydrate spill tests compare favorably with calculations based on a quasi-steady area source dispersion model and empirical estimates of the hydrate decomposition rate. The theoretical dispersion model was combined with assumed hydrate spill probabilities and current motor vehicle accident statistics in order to project expected chlorine-induced fatality rates. These calculations indicate that expected chlorine fataility rates are several times higher in a city such as Los Angeles with a warm and calm climate than in a colder and windier city such as Boston. Calculated chlorine-induced fatality rate projections for various climates are presented as a function of hydrate spill probability in order to illustrate the degree of vehicle/battery crashworthiness required to maintain chlorine-induced fatality rates below current vehicle fatality rates due to fires and asphyxiations. 37 figures, 19 tables.

  3. Final Report to the National Energy Technology Laboratory on FY14- FY15 Cooperative Research with the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittal, Vijay [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lampis, Anna Rosa [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2018-01-16

    The Power System Engineering Research Center (PSERC) engages in technological, market, and policy research for an efficient, secure, resilient, adaptable, and economic U.S. electric power system. PSERC, as a founding partner of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS), conducted a multi-year program of research for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) to develop new methods, tools, and technologies to protect and enhance the reliability and efficiency of the U.S. electric power system as competitive electricity market structures evolve, and as the grid moves toward wide-scale use of decentralized generation (such as renewable energy sources) and demand-response programs. Phase I of OE’s funding for PSERC, under cooperative agreement DE-FC26-09NT43321, started in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and ended in FY2013. It was administered by DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) through a cooperative agreement with Arizona State University (ASU). ASU provided sub-awards to the participating PSERC universities. This document is PSERC’s final report to NETL on the activities for OE, conducted through CERTS, from September 2015 through September 2017 utilizing FY 2014 to FY 2015 funding under cooperative agreement DE-OE0000670. PSERC is a thirteen-university consortium with over 30 industry members. Since 1996, PSERC has been engaged in research and education efforts with the mission of “empowering minds to engineer the future electric energy system.” Its work is focused on achieving: • An efficient, secure, resilient, adaptable, and economic electric power infrastructure serving society • A new generation of educated technical professionals in electric power • Knowledgeable decision-makers on critical energy policy issues • Sustained, quality university programs in electric power engineering. PSERC core research is funded by industry, with a budget supporting

  4. Event reconstruction of tt and ttH using the Kinematic Likelihood Fitter in final states with two same-sign electric charge leptons.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091837

    One of the important tests for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics is the measurement of the top quark Yukawa coupling, which can be directly measured in the production of the top-quark pair in association with a Higgs boson, ttH. In this thesis, a likelihood-based fitting tool, known as KLFitter, is implemented to improve the separation power between the ttH signal and the dominant background contribution arising from the top quark pair production, tt, in the final states containing two same-sign electric charge leptons. NLO Monte Carlo samples of the ATLAS detector at √s = 13 TeV is used to test the fit. Improvement of the separation power of the fitter is studied by modifying parameters in the likelihood definition of the fit. Different cases have been analyzed and a better discriminating variable, after modifications to the original KLFitter, has been achieved regarding the performance of the fit.

  5. Bill for a new organization of the electricity market. Final Text; Projet de Loi portant nouvelle organisation du marche de l'electricite. Texte definitif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This text contains the new arrangements introduced to organize the concurrence and the competitiveness in the distribution of the electricity produced in France notably that produced by EDF in the French nuclear power plants. It defines the legal framework for agreements between EDF and electricity providers, i.e. prices and quantities of electricity, purchase obligations. It also defines obligations of the providers with respect to users. It addresses the relationship between local communities and these providers, tariffs, works realized on the network. It also addresses the purchase price of hydroelectricity and of electricity produced from biomass, gas tariff

  6. Final Report for "Toward Quantifying Kinetics of Biotic and Abiotic Metal Reduction with Electrical Geophysical Methods" DE-FG02-08ER64520

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Kamini; Brantley, Susan

    2012-06-07

    Although changes in the bulk electrical conductivity in aquifers have been attributed to microbial activity, electrical conductivity has never been used to infer biogeochemical reaction rates quantitatively. To explore the use of electrical conductivity to measure reaction rates, we conducted iron oxide reduction experiments of increasing biological complexity. To quantify reaction rates, we proposed composite reactions that incorporated the stiochiometry of five different types of reactions: redox, acid-based, sorption, dissolution/precipitation, and biosynthesis. In batch and column experiments, such reaction stiochiometries inferred from a few chemical measurements allowed quantification of the Fe-oxide reduction rate based on changes in electrical conductivity. The relationship between electrical conductivity and fluid chemistry did not hold during the latter stages of the column experiment when electrical conductivity increased while fluid chemistry remained constant. Growth of an electrically conductive biofilm could explain this late stage electrical conductivity increase. This work demonstrates that measurements of electrical conductivity and flow rate, combined with a few direct chemical measurements, can be used to quantify biogeochemical reaction rates in controlled laboratory situations and may be able to detect the presence of biofilms.

  7. 77 FR 12086 - Final Staff Guidance, Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric Power-Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... ``Electric Power--Introduction,'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No...--Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ] ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... Section 8.1 on ``Electric Power--Introduction,'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML111180542) and the companion BTP 8...

  8. Electricity of nuclear origin and primary and end-use energy consumption; Electricite nucleaire et consommation d'energie primaire et finale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In France, the electricity of nuclear origin corresponds to about 40% of the primary energy consumption, while electricity as a whole represents about 23% of the end-use energy. This apparent paradox can be explained by 2 methodological points: 1 - the primary energy consumption, in the case of electricity, includes only the energy of nuclear, hydraulic, wind, photovoltaic and geothermal origin. On the other hand, the end-use energy consumption includes all forms of electricity consumed, i.e. the electricity of both primary and secondary origin. 2 - By international convention, the coefficients used to convert MWth into tpe (ton of petroleum equivalent) can change according to two factors: the power generation source and the type of kWh considered, either produced or consumed. The coexistence of different concepts and definitions is justified by the different usages made with them. Therefore, calculations referring to different definitions or equivalence coefficients are not immediately comparable. (J.S.)

  9. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications. Final report: RoboCon electrical interfacing -- system architecture, and Interfacing NDDS and LabView

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.

    1998-04-30

    The first appendix contains detailed specifications of the electrical interfacing employed in Robocon. This includes all electrical signals and power requirement descriptions up to and including the interface entry points for external robots and systems. The reader is first presented with an overview of the overall Robocon electrical system, followed by sub-sections describing each module in detail. The appendices contain listings of power requirements and the electrical connectors and cables used, followed by an overall electrical system diagram. Custom electronics employed are also described. The Network Data Delivery Service (NDDS) is a real-time dissemination communications architecture which allows nodes on a network to publish data and subscribe to data published by other nodes while remaining anonymous. The second appendix explains how to facilitate a seamless interface between NDDS and LabView and provides sample source code used to implement an NDDS consumer which writes a string to a socket.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  11. SOTEA, a software tool for ascertaining the efficiency potential of electrical drives - Final report; SOTEA, Softwaretool zur Ermittlung des Effizienzpotenzials bei elektrischen Antrieben - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C. U. [S.A.F.E. Schweizerische Agentur fuer Energieeffizienz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Heldstab, T. [hematik, Heldstab Systemoptimierung und Informatik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    As a scientific base for the Swiss electric motor efficiency implementation program Topmotors a software tool for industry managers has been developed and tested. The software allows an energy efficiency engineer in a first contact with industrial managers and with few simple data on the plant operation to estimate the energy efficiency potential of electric motor systems including pay-back and investment. The data can be fed to a laptop computer on site and the results can be shown immediately. The software has been programmed and tested with five prime users. The generally positive reactions were evaluated and the tool subsequently improved. 11 industrial objects with a total of 77.6 GWh electricity consumption and 7.9 million CHF electricity cost were studied. The SOTEA estimate is an annual efficiency improvement of the electric motor systems of 6.9 GWh (11 % of electricity for motors) with an average pay-back time of 1.7 years. The SOTEA software tool is publicly available since September 2008 under www.topmotors.ch, from 1 April 2009 in a Beta-2b version. It has been downloaded until 28 June 2009 218 times by 132 persons. It will be improved with results from new pilot studies. To avoid problems with different update versions a direct internet solution will be studied. The program will also be made available internationally for English speaking users for the IEA 4E EMSA project: International Energy Agency, Implementing Agreement for Efficient Electrical End-Use Equipment, Electric Motor Systems Annex www.motorsystems.org. (authors)

  12. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field

  13. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in the July 2009 final rule, but opted to... for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 87... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office...

  14. How to verify lightning protection efficiency for electrical systems? Testing procedures and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkl, Josef; Zahlmann, Peter [DEHN and SOEHNE, Neumarkt (Germany)], Emails: Josef.Birkl@technik.dehn.de, Peter.Zahlmann@technik.dehn.de

    2007-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of applications, installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), through which partial lightning currents flow, and highly sensitive, electronic devices to be protected closely next to each other due to the design of electric distribution systems and switchgear installations which is getting more and more compact. In these cases, the protective function of the SPDs has to be co-ordinated with the individual immunity of the equipment against energetic, conductive impulse voltages and impulse currents. In order to verify the immunity against partial lightning currents of the complete system laboratory tests on a system level are a suitable approach. The proposed test schemes for complete systems have been successfully performed on various applications. Examples will be presented. (author)

  15. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  16. Analysis of Unequal Electric Field by Moving Metal Particle in GIS Using SNM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.S. [Hyosung Corporation, Changwon (Korea); Choi, S.Y.; Ko, Y.H. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    In compared with air insulated switchgear, GIS has a high efficiency and confidence. Insulation method using SF{sub 6} gas has a very excellent insulation characteristic for high voltage equipment but has a characteristic that insulation heredity is changed for internal unequal electric field. So analysis of time varying electromagnetic field in GIS is very important for structure design and trouble diagnosis process. In compared with established method, the SNM(Spatial Network Method) in this paper can observe variation of electromagnetic field with real time and get result very similar to measurement. In order to know variation of electromagnetic field distribution in fast moving particle, we make used of SNM. (author). 15 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Evaluation of electrical energy consumption and reduction potential at the 7th Army Training Command (ATC), U. S. Army, Europe. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.R.; Dubravec, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    The 7th Army Training Command (ATC), U.S. Army, Europe, has accrued increasingly higher electrical utility bills over the past few years. As is true at most installations, the 7th ATC buildings are not equipped with electricity meters so it is difficult to identify the major power consumers. To determine electrical energy use patterns and potentially find energy conservation opportunities (ECOs), the 7th ATC asked the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) to study electricity consumption at two of its communities, Grafenwohr and Hohenfels, Federal Republic of Germany. Results of the predictive modeling and field testing showed several possible ECOs at Grafenwohr and Hohenfels, such as dimming exterior lights during some hours of the night, providing better controls on oversized ventilation systems in gymnasiums, and training dining hall personnel in energy-conservative practices. A major electrical power consumer is the training ranges; however, since the training mission has priority over energy use, little can be done at this time to reduce consumption there. In the future, target ranges may become available that provide the same quality of training with a lower energy demand.

  18. Final Report to the National Energy Technology Laboratory on FY09-FY13 Cooperative Research with the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittal, Vijay [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) was formed in 1999 in response to a call from U.S. Congress to restart a federal transmission reliability R&D program to address concerns about the reliability of the U.S. electric power grid. CERTS is a partnership between industry, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. It researches, develops, and disseminates new methods, tools, and technologies to protect and enhance the reliability of the U.S. electric power system and the efficiency of competitive electricity markets. It is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE). This report provides an overview of PSERC and CERTS, of the overall objectives and scope of the research, a summary of the major research accomplishments, highlights of the work done under the various elements of the NETL cooperative agreement, and brief reports written by the PSERC researchers on their accomplishments, including research results, publications, and software tools.

  19. Infrastructure, Components and System Level Testing and Analysis of Electric Vehicles: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-353

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.

    2013-05-01

    Battery technology is critical for the development of innovative electric vehicle networks, which can enhance transportation sustainability and reduce dependence on petroleum. This cooperative research proposed by Better Place and NREL will focus on predicting the life-cycle economics of batteries, characterizing battery technologies under various operating and usage conditions, and designing optimal usage profiles for battery recharging and use.

  20. BEST: A Learner-Centered Workplace Literacy Partnership of the Vermont Institute for Self-Reliance and General Electric Aircraft Engines Rutland, VT. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashof, Judith R.

    The Vermont Institute for Self Reliance (VISR) conducted a Basic Educational Skills for Training (BEST) program, a national demonstration project in workplace literacy, from April 1990 to March 1992. BEST provided learner-centered, context-based literacy instruction onsite, on company time, at two General Electric (GE) Aircraft Engines Rutland…

  1. Comparative ranking of 0. 1 to 10 MW(e) solar thermal electric power systems. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kowalik, J.S.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1 to 10 MW(e), operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW(e), a range that is attractive to industrial and other non-utility applications. This volume summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 10 MW(e). Volume II presents data on performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  2. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report; Development of Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems for Solar Electricity; DE-FG36-08GO88002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, J. Roger P. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-01-21

    This project will develop and validate a new technology for lowest cost production of utility-scale solar electric power, at a price competitive with fossil fuel generation. The second phase objective is to produce a working prototype of a new concentrating photovoltaic generator. The target output for the prototype is 15 kW. The prototypes will be built using new methods chosen with the potential to meet the cost objective of $1/watt installed, when replicated in high volume.

  4. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  5. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carlson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garretson, Thomas [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gourley, LauraLee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Karner, Donal [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); McGuire, Patti [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirkpatrick, Mindy [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shrik, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schey, Stephen [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wishard, Jeffery [Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  7. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  8. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J.; Alarcon Maldonado, E.; Silva Oliver, J.; Ortiz Segura, J.; Vargas Rubio, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an inquiry conducted to a sample of homes of a group of dwellings. The objective of this inquiry was to know the number of dwellers, the electric household appliances and the type of artificial lighting characteristic of a three-bed room apartment of approximately 65 square meters. In the Introduction is given the information related to the distribution of the monthly consumption of the entire group of dwellings for two separate periods for more than six years, which allows to determine the yearly average rates of growth. The information collected in the inquiry is presented in graphical form of frequency of electric household appliances and the light bulb rating of the more typical electric appurtenances. The results correspond to the answers in 188 inquiries judged reliable (230 questionnaires were delivered to the homes). The analysis of the information allows the knowledge of the electricity consumption capacity that the sampled homes have and to infer the consumption capacity of the entire group of dwellings. [Espanol] En este trabajo se reportan los resultados de una encuesta aplicada a una muestra de hogares en un conjunto habitacional. El objetivo de la encuesta es conocer el numero de habitantes, el equipamiento en electrodomesticos y la iluminacion artificial que caracteriza a un departamento de tres recamaras de aproximadamente 65 m{sup 2}. En la introduccion se suministra la informacion de la distribucion del consumo mensual promedio de toda la unidad habitacional para dos periodos separados por mas de seis anos, lo que permite determinar las tasas promedio anuales de crecimiento. La informacion recopilada en la encuesta se presenta a manera de graficas de frecuencias de los electrodomesticos, de las capacidades de los focos o de las caracteristicas mas importantes de los aparatos electricos. Los resultados corresponden a las respuestas de 188 encuestas declaradas confiables (se entregaron cuestionarios a 230 hogares

  9. Universal features of particle motion in ac electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, L.; Seeger, M.

    2015-11-01

    Mobile particles present as contaminants in high voltage gas insulated switchgear (GIS) may constitute a risk for insulation failure. The understanding of their motion in the electric field of the insulation gap is therefore essential for quality control in manufacturing, commissioning and in service monitoring. Published research on particle motion in ac electric fields has shown that this rather complex process depends on numerous parameters, many of which remain unknown under practical conditions. This renders modelling, generalization of experimental data and practical application difficult. The scope of this paper therefore is to develop a unified description of particle motion which minimizes the number of controlling parameters, enables the comparison of experimental data and allows simple interpretation relations to be derived. This is achieved by making the controlling equations dimensionless with an appropriate choice of reference values and by using simplifying assumptions for the specific conditions prevailing in GIS. The resulting generalized description of the process can then be summarized in the form of 2D patterns (dynamic maps). Approximate scaling relations are derived between specific features of these patterns and particle-related parameters. A reference case is discussed in detail. The non-linear character of the equation of motion suggests that the particle motion may be a deterministic process with chaotic features. This is confirmed by a preliminary chaos-theoretical analysis of the process.

  10. Design and cost study for development of lead--acid batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [Goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinlein, C E

    1977-01-01

    A design for an improved state-of-the-art (ISOA) battery is proposed in this report. It is believed that this ISOA design is the most efficient design achievable within the constraints of the ISOA battery development program. These constraints include realistic time and financial limitations, and compatibility with existing high-speed production equipment. The ISOA battery is in fact an improved, state-of-the-art lead--acid battery suitable for use in an electric vehicle. A durable, light-weight polypropylene container and cover complete with single-point watering and venting features are incorporated in the ISOA design. A number of materials and process parameters with profound affect on battery performance will be chosen only after extensive evaluation and cell testing. Development of an advanced lead--acid electric vehicle battery will involve the evaluation and application of effective forward concepts in the design of the battery. Many weight-saving designs will be incorporated. Significant improvements in active material efficiencies and integrity are required. The goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 life cycles are ambitious but achievable. The cycle life goal appears to be the most formidable. Investigations of charging equipment and parameters will be undertaken. The impact of manufacturing plants on the environment and natural resources is discussed. 3 figures, 23 tables. (RWR)

  11. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Erdman, Bill (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (, . Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  12. Testing of electric-powered vehicles of the latest generation on the island of Ruegen and energy supply for electric-powered vehicles by solar energy and electric power stations. Appendix. Final report; Erprobung von Elektrofahrzeugen der neuesten Generation auf der Insel Ruegen und Energieversorgung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge durch Solarenergie und Stromtankstellen. Anhang. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voy, C.

    1996-12-01

    This final report (2 volumes) describes the project contents and the results of the works in the frame of a research project subsidised by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology as well as by the Ministry of Finance of Mecklenburg Vorpommern. Based on the areas of responsibility of the Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft mbH, Zirkow the results of the project on Ruegen are presented in 13 chapters. They provide an overview of the total project. The operational results, such as driving performance, readiness for use and reliability of the components of all electric-powered vehicles have been evaluated. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht (2 Baende) stellt den Projektinhalt und die Ergebnisse der Arbeiten fuer ein vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) sowie dem Wirtschaftsministerium Mecklenburg Vorpommern gefoerdertes Vorhaben dar. In 13 Kapiteln werden die Ergebnisse des Ruegenprojektes aus den Aufgabenbereichen der DAUG ausgefuehrt, die zur Uebersicht des Gesamtprojektes dienen. Im Besonderen werden hierbei die Betriebsergebnisse, wie z.B. Fahrleistungen, Einsatzbereitschaft und Zuverlaessigkeit der Komponenten fuer alle Elektrofahrzeuge ausgewertet. (orig./AKF)

  13. Testing of electric-powered vehicles of the latest generation on the island of Ruegen and energy supply of electric-powered vehicles by solar energy and electric power stations. Final report; Erprobung von Elektrofahrzeugen der neuesten Generation auf der Insel Ruegen und Energieversorgung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge durch Solarenergie und Stromtankstellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voy, C.

    1996-12-01

    This final report (2 volumes) describes the project tasks and the results of the works in the framework of a research project subsidised by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology as well as by the Ministry of Finance of Mecklenburg Vorpommern. Based on the areas of responsibility of the Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft mbH, Zirkow the results of the project on Ruegen are presented in 13 chapters. They provide an overview of the total project. The operational results, such as driving performance, readiness for use and reliability of the components of all electric-powered vehicles have been evaluated. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht (2 Baende) stellt den Projektinhalt und die Ergebnisse der Arbeiten fuer ein vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) sowie dem Wirtschaftsministerium Mecklenburg Vorpommern gefoerdertes Vorhaben dar. In 13 Kapiteln werden die Ergebnisse des Ruegenprojektes aus den Aufgabenbereichen der Deutschen Automobilgesellschaft mbH, Zirkow (DAUG) ausgefuehrt, die zur Uebersicht des Gesamtprojektes dienen. Im Besonderen werden hierbei die Betriebsergebnisse, wie z.B. Fahrleistungen, Einsatzbereitschaft und Zuverlaessigkeit der Komponenten fuer alle Elektrofahrzeuge ausgewertet. (orig./AKF)

  14. IMPROVED ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATING COMPLEX NON-EQUIPOTENTIAL GROUNDING DEVICES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT CONDUCTIVITY OF NATURAL GROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Starkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The method of natural concentrated groundings substitution by the set of electrodes taking them into account in the algorithm of electric characteristics calculation for complicated grounding connections of electric installation is offered. An equivalent model as a set of linear electrodes is chosen in accordance with two criteria: leakage resistance and potentials on the ground surface. Methodology. We have applied induced potential method and methods for computing branched electrical circuits with distributed parameters. Results. We have obtained the algorithm for calculating complex non-equipotential grounding connections, which makes it possible to obtain refined values of the potential distribution in the electric stations and substations with outdoor switchgear. Originality. For the first time, we have taking into account the conductivity of natural concentrated grounds by a set of vertical and horizontal electrodes based on equivalent electrical characteristics applied to a two-layer ground. Practical value. The using of the proposed calculation algorithm in the electric grids of JSC «Kharkivoblenergo» made it possible to determine the values of the potential distribution at short circuit in electrical substation taking into account the influence of the conductivity of natural concentrated groundings.

  15. Non-electric applications of geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns. Final report, October 1976--November 1977. [Barrow, Huslia, Kiana, Nikolski, Nome, and Wrangell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquhar, J.; Grijalva, R.; Kirkwood, P.

    1977-11-01

    The potential for direct (non-electric) utilization of local-gradient geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns is summarized. A major objective of this study was to stimulate development and use of the geothermal resource provided by the earth's average thermal gradient, as opposed to the few anomalies that are typically chosen for geothermal development. Hence, six towns for study were selected as being representative of remote Alaskan conditions, rather than for their proximity to known geothermal resources. The moderate-temperature heat available almost everywhere at depths of two to four kilometers into the earth's mantle could satisfy a major portion of the nation's heating requirements--but the cost must be reduced. It is concluded that a geothermal demonstration in Nome would probably be successful and would promote this objective.

  16. Measures to enhance rational energy use in electric drives. Final report; Massnahmen zur Foerderung der rationellen Energienutzung bei elektrischen Antrieben. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Schleich, J.; Herzer, G.; Toensing, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Electric drives account for nearly 60 % of the total power consumption in Germany (70 % in the industrial sector and about 44 % in the small consumer sector). There is a high potential for savings (Landwehr et al. 1996, ISR et al. 1996, Nadel et al. 1992) but it is little used so far. The study attempts to identify and systematize the limits set by the market to the application of energy conservation measures in electric motors. This is followed by an outline of strategies to overcome these obstacles. Experience from other countries are integrated where efforts were made to put the potential savings into practice. [German] Der Kraftstrombedarf fuer elektrische Antriebe betraegt in Deutschland knapp 60% des gesamten Stromeinsatzes (ca. 70% des Industriestrombedarfs und ca. 44% des Strombedarfs im Sektor Kleinverbrauch). Trotz dieser hohen Anteile ist bisher bei keinem der Marktteilnehmer (Motoren- und Anlagenhersteller, Haendler und Endanwender) grosses Interesse an Stromsparmassnahmen im Bereich Elektromotoren zu erkennen. Zudem zeigen erste grobe Schaetzungen (Landwehr et al. 1996, ISR et al. 1996, Nadel et al. 1992), dass im Bereich Elektromotoren erhebliche wirtschaftliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen. Durch eine Erhoehung des Wirkungsgrades allein lassen sich ca. 3% einsparen. Groessere Potentiale koennen durch Drehzahlregelung - ca. 10% - und vor allem bei Optimierung des gesamten Systems (Stromuebertragung - Motor - Regelung - Kraftuebertragung - Arbeitsmaschine) - ueber 20% - erschlossen werden. Ziel dieser Studie ist es, zunaechst die Marktbeschraenkungen bei der Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur rationellen Energienutzung bei Elektromotoren zu identifizieren und zu systematisieren. Im Anschluss daran werden moegliche Strategien zur Ueberwindung dieser Marktbeschraenkungen aufgezeigt, systematisiert und analysiert. In diesem Zusammenhang werden auch Erfahrungen aus anderen Laendern, in denen von politischer und wirtschaftlicher Seite zum Teil betraechtliche

  17. Advanced Electric Distribution, Switching, and Conversion Technology for Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, James V.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Power Control Unit currently under development by Sundstrand Aerospace for use on the Fluids Combustion Facility of the International Space Station is the precursor of modular power distribution and conversion concepts for future spacecraft and aircraft applications. This unit combines modular current-limiting flexible remote power controllers and paralleled power converters into one package. Each unit includes three 1-kW, current-limiting power converter modules designed for a variable-ratio load sharing capability. The flexible remote power controllers can be used in parallel to match load requirements and can be programmed for an initial ON or OFF state on powerup. The unit contains an integral cold plate. The modularity and hybridization of the Electrical Power Control Unit sets the course for future spacecraft electrical power systems, both large and small. In such systems, the basic hybridized converter and flexible remote power controller building blocks could be configured to match power distribution and conversion capabilities to load requirements. In addition, the flexible remote power controllers could be configured in assemblies to feed multiple individual loads and could be used in parallel to meet the specific current requirements of each of those loads. Ultimately, the Electrical Power Control Unit design concept could evolve to a common switch module hybrid, or family of hybrids, for both converter and switchgear applications. By assembling hybrids of a common current rating and voltage class in parallel, researchers could readily adapt these units for multiple applications. The Electrical Power Control Unit concept has the potential to be scaled to larger and smaller ratings for both small and large spacecraft and for aircraft where high-power density, remote power controllers or power converters are required and a common replacement part is desired for multiples of a base current rating.

  18. Allocation of petroleum feedstock: Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Sollers Point SNG Plant, Sollers Point, Baltimore County, Maryland. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1978-04-01

    An allocation of naphtha feedstock up to 2,186,000 barrels per year to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) to operate its synthetic natural gas (SNG) facility is being considered. The allocation would enable BG and E to produce 10,800,000 mcf of SNG during a 180 day period. Operation of the plant at design capacity is expected to result in annual pollution emissions as follows: 626.4 tons of sulfur oxides, 168.5 tons of nitrogen oxides and 21.6 tons of particulate matter. Incremental emissions due to plant operations relative to existing emissions in Baltimore County are less than 1%. All Federal and State air quality standards should be met. Treated effluent is to be discharged into the Patapasco River where the environmental impacts are not expected to be significant. The SNG facility has been designed to be in compliance with all applicable Federal, State and local effluent standards. Water consumption requirements of 335,000 gallons per day are not expected to significantly tax the area's water resources. Sound generated by the SNG facility will be inaudible or imperceptible. All other operational impacts on land use, population, visual quality, roadways, community facilities and services and ecological systems were judged to be minimal. Environmental impacts resulting from various alternatives ranging from full allocation through denial of an allocation are discussed.

  19. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  20. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  1. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  2. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  3. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  4. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  5. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  6. Final Report: Superconducting Joints Between (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x Coated Conductors via Electric Field Assisted Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Here we report the results from a project aimed at developing a fully superconducting joint between two REBCO coated conductors using electric field processing (EFP). Due to a reduction in the budget and time period of this contract, we reduced the project scope and focused first on the key scientific issues for forming a strong bond between conductors, and subsequently focused on improving through-the-joint transport. A modified timeline and task list is shown in Table 1, summarizing accomplishments to date. In the first period, we accomplished initial surface characterization as well as rounds of EFP experiments to begin to understand processing parameters which produce well-bonded tapes. In the second phase, we explored the effects of two fundamental EFP parameters, voltage and pressure, and the limitations they place on the process. In the third phase, we achieved superconducting joints and established base characteristics of both the bonding process and the types of tapes best suited to this process. Finally, we investigated some of the parameters related to kinetics which appeared inhibit joint quality and performance.

  7. Report on the electricity market and gas market in Baden-Wuerttemberg 2011/2012. Final Report; Bericht ueber den Strom- und Gasmarkt in Baden-Wuerttemberg 2011/2012. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-07

    The first two chapters of this booklet deal with the competition, the market structure and prices on the electricity market and the gas market in Germany and especially in Baden-Wuerttemberg. The third chapter reports on the classification of the electricity market and the gas market in the context of the energy policy and the development of the German electricity foreign trade. The development of the price of electricity and the price of gas is predicted.

  8. Identification of brominated flames retardants used in plastics from end of life electric-electronic equipment; Identificacion de retardadores a la llama bromados en plasticos de equipos electricos y electronicos al final de su vida util

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Laboa, G.; Pinedo, C.

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is the qualitative and semi-quantitative identification of the most common brominated flame retardants used in some relevant plastics from End of life Electric-Electronic Equipment, in order to obtain a reliable recycled materials regarding the tendencies of the Draft WEEE (Wastes from Electric and Electronic Equipment) and the Draft RoHS (Restriction of certain hazardous substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directives. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF THE MAIN ELECTRIC CONNECTION CIRCUITS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the main circuit of electrical connections at a nuclear electric power plant that has two units with a capacity of 1,200 MW each has been determined. Reliability, economical, maneuverable properties of the atomic power plant under study are largely determined by its main circuit, so the choice of the circuit for the design and its status in the process of operation occur to be critical objectives. Main electrical connection circuits in nuclear electric power plants are selected on the basis of the schematic networks of the energy system and the land attached to the plant. The circuit of the connection of a nuclear power plant to the grid in the original normal operating modes at all stages of the construction of such a plant should provide the outcome of the full added capacity of a nuclear power plant and the preservation of its stability in the power system without the influence of the emergency system automatics when any outgoing transmission line is disabled. When selecting the main circuit the individual capacity of the installed units and their number are taken into account as well as the order of development of the plant and power supply system; the voltage on which the power of a plant is delivered; a shortcircuit current for switchgear high voltage and the need for their limitation by circuit means; the most power that can be lost when damage to any switch. A model of reliability of the main circuit of electrical connections is designed to detect all types of accidents that are possible at the coincidence of failures of elements with the repair and operational modes that differs in composition and damageability of the equipment, as well as under conditions of the development of accidents due to failure of operation of devices of relay protection and automation.

  10. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  11. 75 FR 72909 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Energy Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 227 / Friday, November... CFR Part 40 Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System Issued...

  12. 78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure; Final...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...

  13. 78 FR 803 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure; Final...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardt, Frank [Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The equipment developed under this grant provides a solution to convert thermal energy into electricity for heat sources such as geothermal heat or waste heat from industrial processes. In the course of this research effort we developed a series-counterflow configuration for multiple units to increase the efficiency of the conversion process.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  17. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  18. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  19. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Appendix E, Transmission Reinforcement Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin.

  20. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  1. Electrical termination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  2. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  3. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  4. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  5. Stochastic search techniques for post-fault restoration of electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different techniques have been suggested in the literature to determine the optimal ... switchgear operations are represented by membership functions. ... 2.1 Representation. In the large distribution system considered by us, each node in the network is labelled with a 4-digit or 5-digit number. These numbers are not used in ...

  6. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Conductivity and Magnetism in Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot Solids. One outcome of the project is the discovery of a rather universal 1/f noise magnitude in electrical transport across nanocrystals. The noise is extensive in the number of dots in the device, and inversely proportional to the interdot resistance. The other outcome is a study of the magneto-resistance of light and heavy doped chalcogenides semiconductor quantum dots with Manganese. Strong MR was observed at low temperature in n-doped Mn doped quantum dot films, and this was attributed to the formation of magnetic polarons.

  7. CO{sub 2} intensity in electricity delivered to Swiss end-users. Summary report; Intensite CO{sub 2} de l'electricite vendue aux consommateurs finaux en Suisse. Resume du rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Volkart, K.; Widmer, D

    2009-07-15

    In this short summary report published by TEP Energy GmbH in Zuerich the main findings of a study made for the Swiss gas and oil industries on the effective CO{sub 2} intensities involved in Swiss electricity consumption are presented and discussed. The authors present their ideas on how CO{sub 2} emissions should be calculated on the basis of figures on Swiss power generation, imports and exports in a European context. The results obtained from the use of three methods for viewing Swiss electricity consumption involving net and gross power export and import are briefly discussed.

  8. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  9. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed A. Naseem, Husam H. Abu-Safe

    2007-02-09

    The purpose of this project was to investigate metal-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon at low temperatures using excitation sources such as laser and rapid thermal annealing, as well as, electric field. Deposition of high quality crystalline silicon at low temperatures allows the use of low cost soda-lime glass and polymeric films for economically viable photovoltaic solar cells and low cost large area flat panel displays. In light of current and expected demands on Si supply due to expanding use of consumer electronic products throughout the world and the incessant demand for electric power the need for developing high grade Si thin films on low cost substrate becomes even more important. We used hydrogenated and un-hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering techniques (both of which are extensively used in electronic and solar cell industries) to fabricate nano-crystalline, poly-crystalline (small as well as large grain), and single-crystalline (epitaxial) films at low temperatures. We demonstrated Si nanowires on flat surfaces that can be used for fabricating nanometer scale transistors. We also demonstrated lateral crystallization using Al with and without an applied electric field. These results are critical for high mobility thin film transistors (TFT) for large area display applications. Large grain silicon (~30-50 µm grain size for < 0.5 µm thick films) was demonstrated on glass substrates at low temperatures. We also demonstrated epitaxial growth of silicon on (100) Si substrates at temperatures as low as 450°C. Thin film Si solar cells are being projected as the material of choice for low cost high efficiency solar cells when properly coupled with excellent light-trapping schemes. Ar ion laser (CW) was shown to produce dendritic nanowire structures at low power whereas at higher powers yielded continuous polycrystalline films. The power density required for films in contact with Al

  12. Electricity market modeling trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventosa, Mariano E-mail: mariano.ventosa@iit.upco.es; Baillo, Alvaro; Ramos, Andres; Rivier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The trend towards competition in the electricity sector has led to efforts by the research community to develop decision and analysis support models adapted to the new market context. This paper focuses on electricity generation market modeling. Its aim is to help to identify, classify and characterize the somewhat confusing diversity of approaches that can be found in the technical literature on the subject. The paper presents a survey of the most relevant publications regarding electricity market modeling, identifying three major trends: optimization models, equilibrium models and simulation models. It introduces a classification according to their most relevant attributes. Finally, it identifies the most suitable approaches for conducting various types of planning studies or market analysis in this new context.

  13. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Philip L.

    2012-11-11

    Our research program was aimed at elucidating the nature of proton transport in ionomer membranes by means of a combination of analytical theory and molecular modeling. There were two broad thrusts. The first of these was directed towards understanding the equilibrium structure of Nafion and related polymers at various levels of hydration. The second thrust was concerned with the transport of protons through a membrane of this type. The research on structure proceeded by building on existing work, but with the introduction of some novel techniques, among which is a hybrid Molecular Dynamics--Monte Carlo approach. This method permits rapid computations by temporarily decoupling the motion of the polar side chains from that of the perfluorinated backbone, while still retaining the essential aspects of the constraint that phase separation can only continue to a very limited degree. Competition between an elastic energy due to this constraint and the tendency to phase separation lead to the equilibrium structure, which turns out to be qualitatively different at different levels of hydration. The use of a carefully formulated dielectric function was necessary to achieve accurate results. The work on transport of protons in Nafion-like membranes also involved a combination of theory and simulation. Atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations were employed to determine some of the characteristic parameters for the diffusion of hydronium in hydrated membranes. These results were used in a theoretical model of non-linear diffusion to predict transport coefficients. Among our results was the discovery that treatment with strong electric fields may enhance the properties of the polymer membranes. Our computer simulations showed that the vigorous application of a stretching force or an electric field can modify the structure of the ionomer that lies at the heart of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell. If these predictions are verified experimentally, then it should be

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  15. Results of a survey on the electricity end uses conducted in Guadalajara and Monterrey homes; Resultados de una encuesta de usos finales de electricidad en los hogares de Guadalajara y Monterrey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael; Nixon, Michael [University of California, Berkeley, CA. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents here the results of a survey conducted in summer 1992 at Guadalajara and Monterrey homes. The survey main objective was to examine the potential of the replacement of incandescent bulbs for fluorescent compact bulbs (FCBs) to save electricity. Additionally it was determined the saturation level of other electric home appliances. Considering the physical restrictions of lanterns, during the evening demand peak hours a maximum of about 3.6 million of FCBs can be introduced into the electric network between 8:00 and 9:00 Pm, economizing about 207 MW. It was found that the importance of lighting, the potential of FCBs and the equipment with electric home appliances varies significantly in accordance with the electricity consumption at home. Lighting represents at least about 22% and 14% of the total electricity consumption in the homes of Guadalajara and Monterrey, respectively. This percentage is higher among low electricity consumption users. The saturation in electrical home appliances demonstrated the importance of the refrigerators, TV sets, and air conditioning units (these ones only for Monterrey). In both cities about 1.5 TV sets and 0.96 refrigerators per home were reported. In Monterrey 0.4 air conditioning units and 1.6 electric fans per home were reported. In Guadalajara only about 0.5 fans per home were reported. The results of this survey show the importance of promoting programs to increase the energy efficiency to cover the lighting and refrigeration needs in both cities and air conditioning in Monterrey. [Espanol] Se muestran los resultados de una encuesta realizada en el verano de 1992 en los hogares de Guadalajara y Monterrey. La encuesta tenia como objetivo principal examinar el potencial de reemplazo de focos incandescentes con focos compactos fluorescentes (FCFs) para ahorrar electricidad. Ademas se determino el nivel de saturacion de otros enseres electricos en los hogares. Tomando en cuenta restricciones fisicas de luminarias

  16. How to Organize Electricity Savings in a Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of Integrated Ressource Planning is described and it is demonstrated how this is in conflict with the sub-optimizing necessary in a liberalized market. Afterwards are outlined how the measuring of savings energy consumption constitutes a fundamental problem. Finally are dicussed...... the future actors in the electricity sector and their roles in implementing electricity savings, followed by some proposals for an energy policy....

  17. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  18. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  19. Mitigating Interconnection Challenges of the High Penetration Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic (PV) in the Electrical Distribution Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-563

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of the electric power systems. Some of the urgent areas for research, as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers and utilities, are potential for transient overvoltage from PV inverters, multi-inverter anti-islanding, impact of smart inverters on volt-VAR support, impact of bidirectional power flow, and potential for distributed generation curtailment solutions to mitigate grid stability challenges. Under this project, NREL worked with SolarCity to address these challenges through research, testing and analysis at the Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF). Inverters from different manufacturers were tested at ESIF and NREL's unique power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability was utilized to evaluate various system-level impacts. Through the modeling, simulation, and testing, this project eliminated critical barriers on high PV penetration and directly supported the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of increasing the solar PV on the electrical grid.

  20. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Electrical actuators applications and performance

    CERN Document Server

    De Fornel, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This helpful resource covers a large range of information regarding electrical actuators. In particular, robustness, a very problematic issue, is fully explored in a dedicated chapter. The text also deals with he estimate of non-measurable mechanical variables by examining the estimate of load moment, then observation of the positioning of a command without mechanical sensor. Finally, it examines the conditions needed to measure variables and real implementation of numerical algorithms. This is a key working resource for electrical engineers.

  2. Medium-term forecast of the Germany-wide electricity supply to final consumers for the calendar years 2016 to 2020. Study on behalf of the German transmission system operators; Mittelfristprognose zur Deutschland-weiten Stromabgabe an Letztverbraucher fuer die Kalenderjahre 2016 bis 2020. Studie im Auftrag der Deutschen Uebertragungsnetzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Friedrichsen, Nele; Klobasa, Marian

    2015-10-15

    The German transmission system operators are obliged to make and publish forecasts on the development of the nationwide EEG apportionment on a calendar year basis. An important part of this study is a forecast of the electricity consumption to final consumers. In addition the electricity consumption of the self-suppliers,the final consumption is to be investigated according to the privilege categories for which the EEG apportionment has to be paid in a reduced amount. The final consumption amounted to about 463 TWh in 2014 and falls steadily to about 446 TWh by 2020. In 2016 the final consumption is about 460 TWh. The decline in final consumption is slightly more pronounced than in the case of net electricity demand, which is attributable to the rising self-supply. The net electricity demand in 2014 was about 513 TWh, which is about 15 TWh lower than in 2013. The decline is due in part to an increase in energy efficiency in electricity-based applications and on the other hand to mild weather. In the reference scenario, net electricity demand will decline from about 512 TWh in 2016 to about 506 TWh in 2020. The net electricity demand in the sectors of households and industry is decreasing, but increasing in the area of the TCS sector and the transport sector. In the course of the renewal of the EEG in 2014, regulations for the self-supply of electricity have been introduced for the first time, according to which operators of new plants larger than 10 kW and an annual self-sufficiency of more than 10 MWh have to pay a proportionate EEG apportionment, which increases in the subsequent years. While this regulation in the TCS sector leads to a stagnation of self-supply, the industrial sector is expected to continue replacement construction. An increase in the PV self-supply volume is expected for private households. Self-supply will increase from around 52 TWh in 2016 to around 53 TWh in 2020. The development of the future non-privileged final consumption, which is

  3. STUDY OF KEY DESIGN PARAMETERS OF DIFFERENTIAL-PHASE PROTECTION OF BUSBARS OF POWER FACILITIES AND FACTORS OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS AFFECTING THEIR CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nicenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with questions concerning to the main design parameters of differential-phase busbar protection switchgear with voltage 110–750 Kv of electric power stations and substations, the choice of which is provided by its selective and reliable operation in all possible power system conditions. Article contains the block diagram and operating characteristic of protection. The factors that have a direct impact on the determination error by the reacting body to protect the relationship between the phases of the currents circulating connections that are connected to the busbar system are determined. The influence degree of these factors as well as possible ways to tune away from its impact protection are given. Possibility of the differential-phase principle application for busbars protection on the basis of conditions for ensuring its sufficient sensitivity and selectivity in normal mode was analysed, when the external short circuit on the connections of the busbars and for faults in the protection zone of action. Guided by the assumptions made in carrying out an approximate calculation of the angular errors of the current transformers in the power system transient modes the characteristic which allows to set the dependence of the values of these errors on the lifetime of the transitional process in the electrical network is built

  4. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...

  5. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Damiano, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehta, Chaitanya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Collins, Price [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lish, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cady, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lollar, Victor [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Wet, Dane [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bayram, Duygu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  6. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  8. Análisis de los factores determinantes de la repetición del proceso de compra en el comercio electrónico entre empresas y consumidores finales. Aplicación al mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Urueña López, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación en general e Internet en particular han supuesto una revolución en nuestra forma de comunicarnos, relacionarnos, producir, comprar y vender acortando tiempo y distancias entre proveedores y consumidores. A la paulatina penetración del ordenador, los teléfonos inteligentes y la banda ancha fija y/o móvil ha seguido un mayor uso de estas tecnologías entre ciudadanos y empresas. El comercio electrónico empresa–consumidor (B2C) alcanzó en 2010 e...

  9. Análisis de los factores determinantes de la repetición del proceso de compra en el comercio electrónico entre empresas y consumidores finales. Aplicación al mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Urueña López, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación en general e Internet en particular han supuesto una revolución en nuestra forma de comunicarnos, relacionarnos, producir, comprar y vender acortando tiempo y distancias entre proveedores y consumidores. A la paulatina penetración del ordenador, los teléfonos inteligentes y la banda ancha fija y/o móvil ha seguido un mayor uso de estas tecnologías entre ciudadanos y empresas. El comercio electrónico empresa–consumidor (B2C) alcanzó en 2010 e...

  10. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  11. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  12. In-depth investigation of high-energy arcing faults (HEAF) of electrical components with possible induced fires; Vertiefte Untersuchungen zum hochenergetischen Versagen elektrischer Komponenten (HEAF) mit moeglicher Brandfolge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewekamp, Marina

    2015-11-15

    Main objective of the project 3611R01301 performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is an in-depth investigation of fires at electrical components induced by high energy arcing faults (HEAF) according to their non-negligible significance to nuclear safety. This report provides an overview on the insights with respect to high energy arcing faults at electrical components mainly gained from investigations of the national as well as international operating experience from nuclear installations. Moreover, the insights from the international operating experience have resulted in an experimental program carried out in the frame of a task by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in order to investigate failures of electrical components, e. g. breakers, switchgears or transformers, installed in nuclear power plants of the member countries due to HEAF and potential consequential fires. The results of the in-depth analyses and experimental investigations shall be used for identifying potential areas of damage in a suitable manner. The results based on inter-national research shall also be checked with respect to their applicability to the situation in German nuclear power plants.

  13. Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

    1979-03-30

    The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The direct current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.

  14. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  15. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  16. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  17. Teaching Electricity and Engineering with LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    When learning about electricity, students are typically asked to complete a simple circuit involving a battery, wire, and lightbulb. This activity can be enhanced by adding discussion and discourse and can take on a unique final form in the case of "The Friendship Detector." In such electrical circuit activities, the completed circuit is…

  18. Grid integration of electric-powered vehicles in existing and future energy supply structures. Advances in systems analyses 1. Final report; Netzintegration von Fahrzeugen mit elektrifizierten Antriebssystemen in bestehende und zukuenftige Energieversorgungsstrukturen. Advances in System Analyses 1. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen; Bickert, Stefan; Hennings, Wilfried [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The research project examines whether a fleet of vehicles with electric propulsion system (xEV) can be integrated into existing and future energy supply systems for effective integration of fluctuating power production as well as for energy storage. A multi-sectoral, system-wide scenario analysis is performed to evaluate the grid integration of electric vehicles. The effect of an xEV fleet and the impacts of various battery charging scenarios, including the option of feeding power back into the grid, are addressed by detailed technical and economic models and summarized by an energy system model. The suitability of different powertrain concepts is analysed, giving consideration to their individual applications by users. Based on the results of a German nationwide survey of mobility patterns and analyses of 47 test subjects, individual driving profiles for private cars are drawn up and stored in a database. They are used as input for the vehicle energy model. This model calculates the energy requirements of different xEV concepts and facilitates optimized powertrain design and battery sizing for the respective applications. The results show that if the batteries are charged overnight it is possible to cover a major fraction of daily driving distances by electric power. Additional charging during the day does not significantly improve this fraction. The auxiliaries have a greater influence on the vehicle's energy demand than individual driving patterns. Battery lifetime is extended by recharging the battery as required and preferably as late as possible before the next trip. In most cases, using the batteries for grid services reduces battery lifetime and leads to higher specific costs. Models of the transmission grid and typical distribution grids are developed. It is shown that charging one million xEV in 2020 and six million in 2030 (as envisaged by the German Federal Government) is technically feasible without major structural modifications of the

  19. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  20. 1995 PVUSA progress report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1995, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions, and serves as the final report under Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s project management.

  1. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  2. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  3. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  4. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  5. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  6. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. Comparative assessment of electric power and hydrogen as CO{sub 2}-free end use energy sources. Final report; Vergleich von Strom und Wasserstoff als CO{sub 2}-freie Endenergietraeger. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Buenger, Ulrich; Weindorf, Werner [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    This study compares the use of hydrogen and electricity in selected applications, with the intention to find out which of the two energy sources is better suited for a given purpose. This includes also a comparison with established, conventional solutions. The analyses are for Germany for the years 2015 and 2030. Life Cycle Analyses (LCA) are carried out taking into account the aspects of economic efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency in mobile application and power supply to buildings. For better comparability, selected primary energy sources are assumed that are the same for both end use energy sources. In order to get a more complete picture, also further analyses are carried out and current research findings are taken into account. It is often discussed whether hydrogen may be used in niche applications even before its general introduction; these niche applications may have specific boundary conditions, e.g. high demands on local environmental protection. The investigation therefore considered important niche applications of hydrogen and fuel cells. The results of the study for economic efficiency in the mobility sector must be interpreted carefully as this application is dominated by the power system, i.e. battery or fuel cell. In both cases, a significant cost reduction will be necessary: From about 700 to 1.000 Euro/kWh today to 250 to 300 Euro/kWh in the case of batteries, and to less than 100 Euro/kWel in the case of fuel cell systems. Further improvements are required, e.g. longer service life. Economic efficiency may be achieved within five to ten years, depending on the energy situation in general, i.g. fossil fuel prices, environmental protection goals for the transportation sector, financial incentives and user acceptance. The best results are expected in passenger cars with a high annual mileage. The high mileage can compensate the higher cost of the car as compared to a similar car with an internal combustion engine. [German

  9. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  10. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price; Rapport fait au nom de la commission de l'economie, du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire (1) sur la proposition de loi de MM. Ladislas PONIATOWSKI, et tendant a autoriser les consommateurs finals domestiques d'electricite et les petites entreprises a retourner au tarif reglemente d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition.

  11. Electrically-Generated Spin Polarization in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0143 Electrically-generated spin polarization in non -magnetic semiconductors Vanessa Sih UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 03...SUBTITLE (YIP) - Electrically-generated spin polarization in non -magnetic semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0258 5c...that produced electrically-generated electron spin polarization in non -magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Electrically-generated electron spin

  12. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  13. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  14. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  15. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  16. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR 32059 (July 7... Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  17. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    .... DOE finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR... for Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 123 / Wednesday, June 26... Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  18. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... electric motors. 73 FR 78220. After considering comments from interested parties, DOE finalized key... for Electric Motors; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 240 / Friday, December 13, 2013... Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  19. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  20. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  1. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  2. Verb-Final Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  3. Electricity Supply Infrastructure Improvements: Final Technical Status Report, December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarski, D.; Brad, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report is about a work effort where the overall objectives were to establish a methodology and approach for selected transmission and distribution (T&D) grid modernization; monitor the results; and report on the findings, recommendations, and lessons learned. The work reported addressed T&D problems and solutions, related reliability issues, equipment and operation upgrades, and respective field testing.

  4. Electricity market module: Electricity fuel dispatch submodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    In previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO), international electricity trade was represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Electricity Market Module (EMM) modeling framework as an exogenous input. The exception to this exogenous treatment was for firm power projections, i.e., new Canadian hydroelectric model builds. The AEO95 implementation of EMM allowed Canadian hydroelectric projects to be selected in the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) submodule on an annual basis and otherwise addressed as any other purchased power commitments. This technical memorandum addresses modifications to the Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule implemented in AEO96 to enhance the treatment of international electricity trade through the representation of economy imports from Canada.

  5. Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gramatyka; R. Nowosielski; P. Sakiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the current status of waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling anddisposal in Europe, and its impact on the environment, human health and the economy.Design/methodology/approach: The production of electric and electronic equipment is one of the fastestgrowing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of WEEE. Increased recycling of WEEE issupposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.Findings: Based on comprehensive bi...

  6. Electric power annual 1994. Volume 2, Operational and financial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-28

    This year, the annual is published in two volumes. Volume I focused on US electric utilities and contained final 1994 data on net generation, fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost. This Volume II presents annual 1994 summary statistics for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are preliminary data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on form EIA-861) and for electric utility financial statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, and demand- side management. Final 1994 data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity and gross generation, as well as supply and disposition information, are also provided in Volume II. Technical notes and a glossary are included.

  7. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  8. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  9. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  10. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Remi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence ...

  11. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  12. State electricity profiles, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

  13. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  15. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  16. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  17. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bup Kyung; Oh, Tong In; Sajib, Saurav Zk; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-04-01

    To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments.

  18. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... barriers for saving energy in general are in different ways caused by the political insistence on eternal economic expansion, in some aspects against the public preferences. Of the many ‘here and now’ policies to promote the dissemination of energy efficient appliances, buildings and other end......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  19. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  20. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  1. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  2. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  3. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  4. Consideration of potentials of environmental reliefs by means of a freater use of small, electric-powered vehicles within the scope of the project 'e-mobility'. Final report; Betrachtung der Umweltentlastungspotenziale durch den verstaerkten Einsatz von kleinen, batterieelektrischen Fahrzeugen im Rahmen des Projekts ''E-Mobility''. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Florian; Harthan, Ralph; Hermann, Hauke; Kasten, Peter; Loreck, Charlotte; Seebach, Dominik; Timpe, Christof; Zimmer, Wiebke

    2011-10-15

    Based on the findings of the fleet test 'e-mobility Berlin' and in combination with our own experiences, data analysis and simulation of the Eco-Institute (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany), possible environmental effects of electric-powered vehicles are to be quantified up to 2030. Besides direct effects, also indirect effects on the electricity industry and emissions are considered. Regulatory framework of electric mobility are discussed.

  5. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  6. Electrical Assessment, Capacity, and Demand Study for Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Cost: The options with the lowest lifecycle cost are to be favored • Operational Consideration: This is to capture operational impacts and/or changes...building 1,250 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 1X1 33,852 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 1X2 22,110 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 2X2 990 LF 64% Ductbank, 4...in. PVC , 2X3 278 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 3X4 708 :LF 64% MV Switchgear 15kV Air-Circuit Breaker 24 80% 5kV Air-Circuit Breaker 4 80% 15kV

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  11. Home Electrical Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bathrooms, and other areas where the risk of electric shock is higher. Consider having GFCIs installed in locations required by the National Electrical Code, such as kitchens, bathrooms, garages, unfinished basements and ...

  12. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  13. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1974-01-01

    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  14. Microreactors with electrical fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of electric fields in chemistry is considered an important concept of process intensification. The combination of electricity with chemistry becomes particularly valuable at smaller scales, as they are exploited in microreaction technology. Microreactor systems with integrated electrodes

  15. Coherent Structures in Plasmas Relevant to Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    University Grant/Contract Title The full title of the funded effort. Coherent Structures in Plasma Relevant to Electric Propulsion Grant/Contract...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0229 Coherent Structures in Plasmas Relevant to Electric Propulsion Mark Cappelli LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final Report...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coherent Structures in Plasmas Relevant to Electric Propulsion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0017 5c

  16. Electric Field Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  17. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  18. 78 FR 76045 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with high pressure compressor (HPC...-30-AD; Amendment 39-17694; AD 2013-24-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  19. 78 FR 47534 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with affected transfer gearbox...-17-AD; Amendment 39-17536; AD 2013-15-20] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  20. 78 FR 50320 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...) Applicability This AD applies to all General Electric Company (GE) model GEnx- 2B67B turbofan engines with...-08-AD; Amendment 39-17553; AD 2013-16-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  1. 77 FR 58471 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-17203; AD 2012-19-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company...

  2. 78 FR 72552 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...-18-AD; Amendment 39-17669; AD 2013-23-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain General Electric Company model GEnx...

  3. 78 FR 56594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... General Electric Company (GE): (1) GE90-76B, -85B, -90B, and -94B turbofan engines with stage 1 high...-11-AD; Amendment 39-17571; AD 2013-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  4. 78 FR 19983 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...-37-AD; Amendment 39-17403; AD 2013-06-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF34-8C and CF34...

  5. 76 FR 67594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...-29-AD; Amendment 39-16840; AD 2011-21-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General Electric...

  6. 78 FR 72567 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and -115B turbofan engines with variable bypass valve (VBV...-20-AD; Amendment 39-17673; AD 2013-23-18] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  7. Effects of Static Electricity and Fabrication Parameters on PVDF Film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    69

    cast on Teflon, Pyrex, Stainless Steel (SS), and Grounded Stainless Steel (GSS) substrates. Finally, all samples are dried using ... electricity, a Stainless Steel substrate was used which was not grounded and the electrical charges would be .... These methods were utilized in this research to produce PVDF films to study their ...

  8. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  9. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  10. Schneider Electric sozdajot set

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maailma juhtiv elektriseadmete müüja Schneider Electric ühendab oma ettevõtted Balti- ja Põhjamaades uude divisjoni, mille nimeks saab Schneider Nordic Baltic. Eestis luuakse AS Schneider Electric Eesti, mis seni tegutses AS-i Lexel Electric nime all

  11. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  12. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...... markets as penetration of renewable energy sources increases...

  13. Electric field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji

    2015-01-01

    This book prepares newcomers to dive into the realm of electric field analysis. The book details why one should perform electric field analysis and what are its practical implications. It emphasizes both the fundamentals and modern computational methods of electric machines. The book covers practical applications of the numerical methods in high voltage equipment, including transmission lines, power transformers, cables, and gas insulated systems.

  14. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  15. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  16. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  18. Electrical Power Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power converter for converting electrical power of a power source connected or connectable at an input to electrical DC-power at an output, wherein between the input and the output a first circuit of submodules is provided, wherein said first circuit of submodules and the power source

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  20. Final Design, Special Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, A; Hourican, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The final design review for the 5 different Septa and 5 different Bumper, Chopper and Kicker systems is given. The specifications for all items have been finalized and the parameters have been fixed and these are shown in two tables. The present status of each special magnet is reported on.

  1. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  2. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  3. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  4. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  5. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  6. THE EFFECT OF LIGHTNING ON HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SUBSTATIONS’ LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of the effects of lightning on low voltage systems of high voltage electrical substations with outdoor switchgears of 110 kV. The topicality of research is associated with a wide spreading of such substations as well as with a high reliability requirements of their work and, also, with their widespread distribution and high probability of lightning strikes to the substation or around it. The highest probable and the most dangerous effects of lightning on low voltage systems of a substation are determined on the basis of critical review and special literature analysis and, also, of systematization of practical information that had been collected during the survey of operating substations. Adequate physical models were developed for the list of hazardous effects based on physical processes of lightning. A model of each effect was studied on the basis of the sensitivity theory. The accuracy and adequacy of the models were verified by means of comparison of calculation results for the models under investigation with the results of calculations fulfilled in accordance with specialized programs, as well as from practical or theoretical data obtained by other authors. The factors that had been included in the models were studied and were defined in accordance with their nature (natural or artificial, the range of possible values in a substation was determined; the coefficients of elasticity were calculated. The obtained results enable to ascertain the contribution of the factor in the effect of lightning and the ability to control the factor. The relationship between the factors and the effects of lightning are shown as graphs. For practical application the information, obtained as the result of the research, was organized in the form of checklists that can be applied when collecting baseline information to develop the lightning protection of the substation, to examine the existing lightning protection, to

  7. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  8. History of Circuit Breakers and Expectations of Japanese Original Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yoshio; Yoshinaga, Kiyoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    This paper studies the history of high voltage circuit breaker engineering. Methods of analysis are (1) to collect facts in regard to its development, (2) to review the history in order to find essential factors and (3) to identify its pros and cons from engineering point of view. The amount of electric power consumption has increased and gradually the circuit breaker concept was developed. At first the oil circuit breakers were developed in Europe and the air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker were developed. Finally the SF6gas circuit breakers are developed together with the gas insulated switchgear and what is next? The future research and development policy is also discussed.

  9. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  10. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  11. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  12. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  13. Ultra-capacitor electrical modeling using temperature dependent parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajnef, W.; Briat, O.; Azzopardi, S.; Woirgard, E.; Vinassa, J.M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL CNRS UMR 5818 - ENSEIRB, 33 - Talence (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with ultra-capacitor electrical modeling. For a proper characterization and identification, a dedicated test bench is designed. First, the ultra-capacitor electric behavior is presented and an electrical model is proposed. The model parameters are identified using a combination of constant currents and frequency response measurements. Then, the temperature dependence of the ultra-capacitor parameters is investigated. Therefore, constant currents and impedance spectroscopy tests are done at different ambient temperatures. Finally, the electrical model parameters are adjusted according to temperature. (authors)

  14. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  15. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  16. A CALCULATION METHOD OF TRANSIENT MODES OF ELECTRIC SHIPS’ PROPELLING ELECTRIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yarovenko

    2017-12-01

    propulsion power plant according to the final result – according to the indicators characterizing the vessel and its maneuvering properties. The use of a system of dimensionless units provides a generality to the results obtained. Electric ships with equal values of dimensionless parameters will have correspondingly the same values (in relative units of maneuvering quality indicators. Practical value. The developed mathematical model and the research method constructed on its basis allow calculating the current values of the basic regime parameters of all the components of the ship’s propulsion complex. A mathematical apparatus for estimating the main indicators of the quality of electric ships’ maneuvering is proposed. There is an opportunity to improve the electric ships’ maneuvering characteristics by optimizing the operation of propulsion motors.

  17. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  18. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  19. Essays on electricity theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  20. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  1. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... Marketing and Trade Corp., 333 Ludlow Street, Suite 1230, Stamford, CT 06902. A final decision will be made...

  2. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ...; Operation Without Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... control system that requires a continuous source of electrical power in order to keep the system operable... incorporates an electronic flight control system that requires a continuous source of electrical power in order...

  3. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  4. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  5. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  6. Electrical Circuit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  7. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  8. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  9. Temperature changes associated with excitation of the electric organ in the African electric catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, I; Byrne, P M

    1994-04-29

    By using heat-sensors made from synthetic pyroelectric film, it was shown that excitation of the Malapterurus electric organ brings about first a rapid rise, then a slow fall and finally a very slow rise in the temperature of the organ. Difficulties encountered in determining these rapid temperature changes by the method of employing thermistor probes are pointed out.

  10. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  11. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  12. Electrical Signaling, Photosynthesis and Systemic Acquired Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical signaling in higher plants is required for the appropriate intracellular and intercellular communication, stress responses, growth and development. In this review, we have focus on recent findings regarding the electrical signaling, as a major regulator of the systemic acquired acclimation (SAA and the systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The electric signaling on its own cannot confer the required specificity of information to trigger SAA and SAR, therefore, we have also discussed a number of other mechanisms and signaling systems that can operate in combination with electric signaling. We have emphasized the interrelation between ionic mechanism of electrical activity and regulation of photosynthesis, which is intrinsic to a proper induction of SAA and SAR. In a special way, we have summarized the role of non-photochemical quenching and its regulator PsbS. Further, redox status of the cell, calcium and hydraulic waves, hormonal circuits and stomatal aperture regulation have been considered as components of the signaling. Finally, a model of light-dependent mechanisms of electrical signaling propagation has been presented together with the systemic regulation of light-responsive genes encoding both, ion channels and proteins involved in regulation of their activity. Due to space limitations, we have not addressed many other important aspects of hormonal and ROS signaling, which were presented in a number of recent excellent reviews.

  13. electrical and thermo-electric characterization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-04

    Sep 4, 2005 ... in Semiconductors, Phys. Rev. 93, 632. -637. Champness, C. H. and Chen, C. H. (1995):. Electrical and Optical Properties of. Sputtered CdO Thin Films, Solar. Energy Mater. Solar Cells 37, 72 -'76. Chu, T. L. and Chu, S. S. (1990): Degenerate. Cadmium Oxide Films for Electronic. Devices, J. Electron. Mater ...

  14. An Electric Power Consumption Analysis System for the Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongpil Cheon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rising demand for electric vehicles, the number of electric vehicle charging stations is increasing. Therefore, real-time monitoring of how the power consumption by charging stations affects the load on the peripheral power grid is important. However, related organizations generally do not provide actual power consumption data in real time, and only limited information, such as the charging time, is provided. Therefore, it is difficult to calculate and predict the power load in real time. In this paper, we propose a new model for estimating the electric power consumption from the supplied information, i.e., the charging time and the number of charging involved. The experimental results show that by displaying this information on a map, it is possible to visually monitor the electric power consumption of the charging stations with an accuracy rate of about 86%. Finally, the proposed system can be used to relocate and select the location of vehicle charging stations.

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  17. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    analyses of the demand side indicated a need for such analyses. A model of the energy chain from primary energy to energy services is presented. Electricity consumption pattern are discussed. The vast options for saving electricity through more efficent end-use technologies are presented, and the barriers...

  18. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  19. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  20. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  1. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  2. Static and Current Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  8. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for renewable

  9. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  10. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  11. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  12. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  13. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  15. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  16. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  17. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  18. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  19. Rosetta: The Final Furlong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    By the time of the meeting, the Rosetta spacecraft will have formally arrived at its target comet, and final landing site selection will be in progress. One of the instruments that will be sent down to the surface of the comet is Ptolemy (a GC-MS).

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Chris [Altamont Environmental, Inc.

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  1. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  2. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weber; R. Carter; C.J. Stanford; A. Weber

    2003-01-01

    textabstract[MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at

  3. Reactor decommissioning at Magnox Electric sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joynson, Dennis [Magnox Electric plc (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    There is almost continuous public debate about the cost-effectiveness of reprocessing spent nuclear fuels, and the practicality, cost and ethics of the final disposal of nuclear wastes. These questions may never be fully resolved but, meanwhile, Magnox Electric is pressing ahead with decommissioning its oldest nuclear power stations. Here, the author describes the work carried out so far at Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston A. (Author).

  4. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  5. CEEM Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, John [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-11-26

    The mission of the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM) was to serve the Department of Energy and the nation as a center of excellence dedicated to advancing basic research in nano-structured materials and devices for applications to solar electricity, thermoelectric conversion of waste heat to electricity, and solidstate lighting. The foundation of CEEM was based on the unique capabilities of UCSB and its partner institutions to control, synthesize, characterize, model, and apply materials at the nanoscale for more efficient sustainable energy resources. This unique expertise was a key source of the synergy that unified the research of the Center. Although the Center’s focus was basic research, It’s longer-term objective has been to transfer new materials and devices into the commercial sector where they will have a substantial impact on the nation’s need for efficient sustainable energy resources. As one measure of the impact of the Center, two start-up companies were formed based on its research. In addition, Center participants published a total of 210 archival journal articles, of which 51 were exclusively sponsored by the DOE grant. The work of the Center was structured around four specific tasks: Organic Solar Cells, Solid-State Lighting, Thermoelectrics, and High Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic devices. A brief summary of each follows – detailed descriptions are in Sections 4 & 5 of this report. Research supported through CEEM led to an important shift with respect to the choice of materials used for the fabrication of solution deposited organic solar cells. Solution deposition opens the opportunity to manufacture solar cells via economically-viable high throughput tools, such as roll to roll printing. Prior to CEEM, most organic semiconductors utilized for this purpose involved polymeric materials, which, although they can form thin films reliably, suffer from batch to batch variations due to the statistical nature of the chemical

  6. Holographic equilibration under external dynamical electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali-Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The holographic equilibration of a far-from-equilibrium strongly coupled gauge theory is investigated. In particular, the dynamics of a probe D7-brane in an AdS-Vaidya background is studied in the presence of an external time-dependent electric field. Defining the equilibration times teqc and teqj, at which condensation and current relax to their final equilibrated values, receptively, the smallness of transition time kM or kE is enough to observe a universal behaviour for re-scaled equilibration times kMkE(teqc−2 and kMkE(teqj−2. kM(kE is the time interval in which the temperature (electric field increases from zero to finite value. Moreover, regardless of the values for kM and kE, teqc/teqj also behaves universally for large enough value of the ratio of the final electric field to final temperature. Then a simple discussion of the static case reveals that teqc≤teqj. For an out-of-equilibrium process, our numerical results show that, apart from the cases for which kE is small, the static time-ordering, that is teqc≤teqj, persists.

  7. Electric steering; Die elektrische Lenkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Modern industrial trucks already have a large number of electronic systems. With electric steering systems, all steering systems have electronic interfaces, which will influence the safety, functionality and cost of a vehicle. Optimization of the driver workplace, the installation of active safety systems, and the optimization of the failure characteristics can improve passive and active safety. With electronic interfaces to all vehicle control system, the truck can be integrated easily in automatic transport processes. Finally, the simplified interfaces in the vehicle will reduce the overall cost. Failure management is an indispensable precondition for the introduction of electric steering systems, as are correct specifications. A status report is presented. [German] Eine Vielzahl von Systemen sind im modernen schweren Nutzfahrzeug bereits elektronisch (by Wire) realisiert. Mit der elektrischen Lenkung sind saemtliche Systeme zur Laengs- und Querregelung des Fahrzeuges mit elektronischen Schnittstellen versehen. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Sicherheit, die Funktionalitaet und die Kosten des Gesamtfahrzeuges. Durch Optimierung des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes, Einfuehrung aktiver Sicherheitssysteme und Optimierung des Ausfallverhaltens koennen die passive wie aktive Sicherheit des Fahrzeuges verbessert werden. Mit den elektronischen Schnittstellen zu allen Fahrzeugfuehrungssystemen kann das Nutzfahrzeug in hervorragender Weise in automatisierte Transportaufgaben integriert werden. Schliesslich lassen sich durch die vereinfachten Schnittstellen im Fahrzeug Kosten im Gesamtfahrzeug reduzieren. Die Beherrschung des Ausfallverhaltens ist aber ebenso wie eine angepasste Vorschriftenlage Voraussetzung fuer die Einfuehrung der elektrischen Lenkung. Ueber den Stand der Entwicklung wird berichtet. (orig.)

  8. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  9. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills......The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...

  10. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Atoms to electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for some 12 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1982. In the 1990's, it is expected to become second only to coal as a source of our electric power, almost doubling its present contribution to our national electricity supply. 14 references, 40 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Electrical futures past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal.

  13. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  14. Drives for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Internal combustion and electricity as engine driving forces are compared with regard to their specific weight, engine characteristics, efficiency in converting the primary energy and trends of development. Electric drives show a number of advantages especially in cities where frequent stop-and-go traffic is the rule: low emissions, low noise and good utilization of the primary energy are the main advantages here. Technically one needs to have suitable batteries and driving systems. With the Na-S-heavy duty battery coming on to the market a wave of innovations on the area of high-efficiency electric drives is expected in the following years. (orig.).

  15. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  16. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  17. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  18. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  19. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  20. Concentrating solar collector - final design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Final report of program to improve commercially available concentrating solar collector describes final hardware, discusses problems encountered, and presents certification statements, photographs, and recommendations for modification.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  2. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  3. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  4. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  5. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  6. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  7. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Introduction Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible areas of energy, often referred to as radiation , ... Abstract ] Staff Directory Freedom of Information Act OIG Web Policies Request Translation Services Employment Verification Contact Us ...

  8. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  9. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly...

  10. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  11. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  12. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  13. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set......-ons such as a solar panel or a cable connection to other similar systems and the acquisition of basic skills within electric power engineering....

  14. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  15. Electric power annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  16. Integrated Electric Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Millsaps, Knox T.

    2010-01-01

    Patent An integrated electric gas turbine comprises a compressor that includes a plurality of airfoils. An electric motor is arranged to drive the compressor, and a combustor is arranged to receive compressed air from the compressor and further arranged to receive a fuel input. A turbine is arranged to receive the combustion gases from the combustor. A generator is integrated with the turbine and arranged to provide a power output. A controller is connected between the...

  17. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    equivalent turbine moment of inertia for the vehicle about a central vertical axis (assumed equal to 33000 slug ft2 for the 19.5 ton vehicle), v... hydrokinetic transmissions. A comparison of the ’acceleration times (from zero to 20 miles per hour) for the electric and hydrokinetic transmissions is given...in table 5.5-4. The electric transmis- sions in most cases meet or exceed the speed on grade achievable with the hydrokinetic transmissions. 5-214

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  19. Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Lutwick; Helen Cunning

    2011-05-25

    Hackensack University Medical Center's major initiative to create a cleaner healthier and safer environment for patients, employees and the community served by the medical center is built on its commitment to protect the environment and conserve precious energy resources. Since 2004 the Medical Center launched a long term campaign to temper the negative environmental impact of proposed and existing new construction at the medical center and to improve campus wide overall energy efficiency. The plan was to begin by implementing a number of innovative and eco-friendly enhancements to the Gabrellian Women's and Children's Pavilion, in construction at the time, which would lead to Certification by the US Green Building Councils Leadership & Environmental Design (LEED) program. In addition the medical center would evaluate the feasibility of implementing a photovoltaic system in the new construction (in development and planned) to provide clean pollution free electricity. The steps taken to achieve this included conducting a feasibility study complete with architectural and engineering assessments to determine the potential for implementation of a photovoltaic system on the campus and also to conduct an energy survey that would focus on determining specific opportunities and upgrades that would lead to a healthier energy efficient interior environment at the medical center. The studies conducted by the medical center to determine the viability of installing a photovoltaic system identified two key issues that factored into leaderships decision not to implement the solar powered system. These factors were related to the advanced phase of construction of the women's and children's pavilion and the financial considerations to redesign and implement in the ambulatory cancer center. The medical center, in spite of their inability to proceed with the solar aspect of the project upheld their commitment to create a healthier environment for the patients

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Cunning

    2012-05-08

    Hackensack University Medical Center's major initiative to create a cleaner healthier and safer environment for patients, employees and the community served by the medical center is built on its commitment to protect the environment and conserve precious energy resources. Since 2004 the Medical Center launched a long term campaign to temper the negative environmental impact of proposed and existing new construction at the medical center and to improve campus wide overall energy efficiency. The plan was to begin by implementing a number of innovative and eco-friendly enhancements to the Gabrellian Women's and Children's Pavilion, in construction at the time, which would lead to Certification by the US Green Building Councils Leadership & Environmental Design (LEED) program. In addition the medical center would evaluate the feasibility of implementing a photovoltaic system in the new construction (in development and planned) to provide clean pollution free electricity. The steps taken to achieve this included conducting a feasibility study complete with architectural and engineering assessments to determine the potential for implementation of a photovoltaic system on the campus and also to conduct an energy survey that would focus on determining specific opportunities and upgrades that would lead to a healthier energy efficient interior environment at the medical center. The studies conducted by the medical center to determine the viability of installing a photovoltaic system identified two key issues that factored into leaderships decision not to implement the solar powered system. These factors were related to the advanced phase of construction of the women's and children's pavilion and the financial considerations to redesign and implement in the ambulatory cancer center. The medical center, in spite of their inability to proceed with the solar aspect of the project upheld their commitment to create a healthier environment for the patients

  1. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    When electricity restructuring initiatives were introduced in Alberta, and finalized with the institution of retail electricity market competition in 2001, it was argued that the changes would deliver lower electricity prices to residential consumers. However, residential electricity prices in Alberta increased dramatically in 2001, and have never returned to their pre-restructuring levels. Proponents of restructuring argue that electricity prices would have been even higher under continued regulation, citing the effect of considerably higher natural gas prices and the roles of other variables. However, many Alberta residential electricity consumers tend to attribute their higher electricity prices to factors such as market power and manipulation associated with restructuring. Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential electricity prices is developed, estimated for the prerestructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the postrestructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential

  2. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  3. Electricity and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2005-01-01

    Shocked by static? Mixed up about magnets? Curious about currents? This book will help you get beyond memorizing electricity-related formulas, rules, and procedures so you can understand the topic at a deep level deep enough to teach it with confidence and comfort. By covering the basics of static electricity, current electricity, and magnetism, the book develops a scientific model showing that electricity and magnetism are really the same phenomenon in different forms. A bonus feature: access to interactive software that you can download from the NSTA Web site. The software will help you investigate electrical circuits from simple to complex without having to buy a lot of expensive materials (or risking electrocution!). Electricity and Magnetism is the fifth title in the award-winning NSTA Press Stop Faking It! Series. As author Bill Robertson writes, The book you have in your hands is not a textbook. It is, however, designed to help you get science at a level you never thought possible, and also to bring yo...

  4. Research on Relation between El Nino Climate and Summer Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, B.; Lin, J. Y.; Liu, C.

    2018-01-01

    El Nino is a typical climate phenomena. Such phenomena would have influence on climate in China and furthermore impact the electricity condition. This paper is purposed to explore how El Nino phenomena affecting electricity and make prediction on summer electricity consumption. Since meteorological characteristics are complex and multiplex, a variety of meteorological factors should be considered and the paper used Body Feeling Temperature to measure it. Furthermore, to make prediction on summer electricity, the paper used the Pearson Analysis to measure the correlation between weather and electricity and then extracted the weather-used electricity from the whole society electricity using least square method. Finally, the paper built the model on relation between weather-used electricity and body feeling temperature, and took Beijing as an example to make electricity prediction. The prediction idea and model the paper put forward is reliable and practicable.

  5. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Eggleston

    2005-03-28

    The purpose of this grant was to experimentally investigate asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral (Penning-Malmberg) plasma trap. These traps provide an excellent platform for transport studies since the plasmas are generally well confined. One can then study transport in a controlled manner: the plasma is perturbed and the resulting transport measured. The focus of this research is the transport produced by applied asymmetric electric fields. The main results of our research concern (1) the theory of asymmetry-induced transport, (2) an absolute comparison of theory predictions with experimental results, (3) the amplitude scaling of the transport, (4) the frequency dependence of the transport, (5) the development of techniques to determine the relative contribution of mobility and diffusion to the transport, and (6) measuring the effect of small axial magnetic variations on the transport.

  6. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Long, S.; Li, Binsheng; Lamke, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The overall goal of the contract is to provide general support and advice to the DOE, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/EF) on the opportunities for coal and Clean Coal Technology trade in the Asia-Pacific region. The report which follows is divided into six subsections, each pertaining to separate subtasks the U.S. Department of Energy requested. Subtask A includes two reports, one which outlines important coal and clean coal technology news events which occurred during the second half of 1993, and another which outlines the potential for Clean Coal Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. Subtask B and the first paper in Subtask C contain advisories and briefing papers that present and explain the coal, electricity and Clean Coal Technology situation in China. The second paper in Subtask C is an overview of the coal supply, demand and trade situation in the Asian region with coal projections to the year 2010. Subtask D is an overview of meetings with Asian energy and policy representatives which were carried out to (1) gather key information relevant to this contract, and (2) examine areas for closer cooperation on important coal/CCT-related energy issues. The tasks listed in the contract proposal as Subtasks E and F are summarized in respective sections of this report. Subtask E specifies the activities carried out under the APEC Experts` Group on Clean Coal Technologies, and Subtask F explains the work done by the Coal Project in building contacts and working relationships with key energy and technology planners in China (including The State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Electric Power and Tsinghua University, and the State Planning Commission). The Subtask E section also includes activities to develop and strengthen the role of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Activities.

  7. Federal Power Commission 1977 final annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    This is the 57th and final annual report of the Federal Power Commission. It was prepared so that the Congress and the public will have a full record of the Commission's history. The Commission issued annual reports every year beginning in 1920, except for a five-year period during World War II when abbreviated versions were prepared. The Commission was originally charged with the licensing and regulation of certain uses of the country's water resources, and later was given additional responsibilities, including the regulation of electric rates and services for wholesale transactions, and the regulation of natural gas pipelines and producers, all operating in interstate commerce. The total budget for the Commission in fiscal 1977 was $41,582,000. The Commission's average monthly employment during the year was 1,378. Highlights of 1977 concerning natural gas, electric power, rules and regulations, and legislation are summarized. A history of the FPC is included, followed by in-depth information on natural gas; electric power; legal aspects; and statistics in 4 appendixes. (MCW)

  8. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects

  9. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-25

    cosm =0.6 it is necessary to lower the load of generator approximately/exemplarily to 140/0 (according to the data of plant "electric power"). As a...cooling gas: the less gai density, that is less than loss. with hydrogen cooling with overpressure 0.035-0.05 Atm(gage) the density of the cooling gas is...under creation condition in machine frame of the overpressure of DOC = 79134822 PAGE gas on the order of 5-6 atm( gaye ) L42-5]. However, at such pressures

  10. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  11. Study on Electricity Business Expansion and Electricity Sales Based on Seasonal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Han, Xueshan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guangsen; Sun, Donglei; Wang, Bolun

    2017-05-01

    [1] proposed a novel analysis and forecast method of electricity business expansion based on Seasonal Adjustment, we extend this work to include the effect the micro and macro aspects, respectively. From micro aspect, we introduce the concept of load factor to forecast the stable value of electricity consumption of single new consumer after the installation of new capacity of the high-voltage transformer. From macro aspects, considering the growth of business expanding is also stimulated by the growth of electricity sales, it is necessary to analyse the antecedent relationship between business expanding and electricity sales. First, forecast electricity consumption of customer group and release rules of expanding capacity, respectively. Second, contrast the degree of fitting and prediction accuracy to find out the antecedence relationship and analyse the reason. Also, it can be used as a contrast to observe the influence of customer group in different ranges on the prediction precision. Finally, Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is accurate to help determine the value of expanding capacity and electricity consumption.

  12. Final results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Eskut, E; Onengüt, G; Van Beuzekom, M G; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Cassol, F; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Righini, P; Simone, S; Vivolo, L; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van der Donckt, M; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Luppi, C; Ishii, Y; Kazuno, M; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Flegel, W; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Niu, E; Øverås, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R; Uiterwijk, J W E; Weinheimer, C; Wong, H; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Mailov, A A; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Brooijmans, G; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Hérin, J; Kalinin, S; Makhlioueva, I; Artamonov, A; Gorbunov, P; Khovansky, V; Shamanov, V; Tsukerman, I; Bonekämper, D; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Kotaka, Y; Kozaki, T; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Obayashi, Y; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G De Lellis G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, M; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, V; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Capone, A; De Pedis, D; Di Liberto, S; Dore, U; Ludovici, P F Loverre L; Maslennikov, A; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Santacesaria, G Rosa R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2008-01-01

    The final oscillation analysis of the complete set of data collected by CHORUS in the years 1994-1997 is presented. Reconstruction algorithms of data extracted by electronic detectors were improved and the data recorded in the emulsion target were analysed by new automated scanning systems, allowing the use of a new method for event reconstruction in emulsion. CHORUS has applied these new techniques to the sample of 1996-1997 events for which no muons were observed in the electronic detectors. Combining the new sample with the data analysed in previous papers, the overall sensitivity of the experiment to the $\

  13. Service dogs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  15. Evaluation of Electric Power Procurement Strategies by Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yuichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    In deregulated electricity markets, the role of a distribution company is to purchase electricity from the wholesale electricity market at randomly fluctuating prices and to provide it to its customers at a given fixed price. Therefore the company has to take risk stemming from the uncertainties of electricity prices and/or demand fluctuation instead of the customers. The way to avoid the risk is to make a bilateral contact with generating companies or install its own power generation facility. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electric power procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing a mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming and additionally considering the characteristics of the start-up cost of electric power generation facility to evaluate strategies of combination of the bilateral contract and power auto-generation with its own facility for procuring electric power in deregulated electricity market. In the beginning we proposed two approaches to solve the stochastic dynamic programming, and they are a Monte Carlo simulation method and a finite difference method to derive the solution of a partial differential equation of the total procurement cost of electric power. Finally we discussed the influences of the price uncertainty on optimal strategies of power procurement.

  16. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Dubois, Arthur; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a suite of hybrid-electric propulsion technologies for aircraft. These technologies have the benefit of lower emissions, diminished noise, increased efficiency, and reduced fuel burn. These will provide lower operating costs for aircraft operators. Replacing internal combustion engines with distributed electric propulsion is a keystone of this technology suite, but presents many new problems to aircraft system designers. One of the problems is how to cool these electric motors without adding significant aerodynamic drag, cooling system weight or fan power. This paper discusses the options evaluated for cooling the motors on SCEPTOR (Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research): a project that will demonstrate Distributed Electric Propulsion technology in flight. Options for external and internal cooling, inlet and exhaust locations, ducting and adjustable cowling, and axial and centrifugal fans were evaluated. The final design was based on a trade between effectiveness, simplicity, robustness, mass and performance over a range of ground and flight operation environments.

  17. Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nir; Bono, David; Dedic, Nina; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Rudenko, Andrii; Suk, Ho-Jun; Cassara, Antonino M; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels; Tsai, Li-Huei; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-06-01

    We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayya, Walid

    2007-03-20

    The state of New York through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has developed a suite of digester projects throughout the state to assess the potential for anaerobic digestion systems to improve manure management and concurrently produce energy through the production of heat and electrical power using the biogas produced from the digesters. Dairies comprise a significant part of the agribusiness and economy of the state of New York. Improving the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of dairies is a goal of NYSERDA. SUNY Morrisville State College (MSC) is part of a collection of state universities, dairy farms, cooperatives, and municipalities examining anaerobic digestion systems to achieve the goals of NYSERDA, the improvement of manure management, and reducing emissions to local dairy animal sites. The process for siting a digester system at the MSC’s free-stall Dairy Complex was initiated in 2002. The project involved the construction of an anaerobic digester that can accommodate the organic waste generated at Dairy complex located about a mile southeast of the main campus. Support for the project was provided through funding from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. The DOE contribution to the project provided additional resources to construct an expanded facility to handle waste generated from the existing free-stall dairy and the newly-constructed barns. Construction on the project was completed in 2006 and the production of biogas started soon after the tanks were filled with the effluent generated at the Dairy Complex. The system has been in operation since December 17, 2006. The generated biogas was consistently flared starting from December 20, 2006, and until the operation of the internal combustion engine/generator set were first tested on the 9th of January, 2007. Flaring the biogas continued until the

  20. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  1. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  3. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  4. Solar electric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, G.

    Subjects discussed in connection with solar electricity are related to solar radiation fundamentals, wind electric conversion and utilization, the basic theory of solar cells, photovoltaic materials, photovoltaic technology, components of solar thermal electric systems, solar thermal power plants, and integrated solar thermal electric complexes. The solar technology development in the Arab world is also examined, taking into account the horizon of solar energy in the Arab countries, solar energy activities at the Scientific Research Council in Iraq, solar energy activities at the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan, the solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, application of solar energy in Libya, prospects of solar energy for Egypt, solar energy programs in Qatar, performance characteristics of a 350 kW photovoltaic power system for Saudi Arabian villages, nonconventional energy in Syria, wind and solar energies in Sudan, solar electric research and development program in Tunisia, and solar energy research and utilization in Yemen Arab Republic. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  5. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargione, Joseph

    2012-02-24

    The United States has abundant wind resources, such that only about 3% of the resource would need to be developed to achieve the goal of producing 20% of electricity in the United States by 2030. Inappropriately sited wind development may result in conflicts with wildlife that can delay or derail development projects, increase projects costs, and may degrade important conservation values. The most cost-effective approach to reducing such conflicts is through landscape-scale siting early in project development. To support landscape scale siting that avoids sensitive areas for wildlife, we compiled a database on species distributions, wind resource, disturbed areas, and land ownership. This database can be viewed and obtained via http://wind.tnc.org/awwi. Wind project developers can use this web tool to identify potentially sensitive areas and areas that are already disturbed and are therefore likely to be less sensitive to additional impacts from wind development. The United States goal of producing 20% of its electricity from wind energy by the year 2030 would require 241 GW of terrestrial nameplate capacity. We analyzed whether this goal could be met by using lands that are already disturbed, which would minimize impacts to wildlife. Our research shows that over 14 times the DOE goal could be produced on lands that are already disturbed (primarily cropland and oil and gas fields), after taking into account wind resource availability and areas that would be precluded from wind development because of existing urban development or because of development restrictions. This work was published in the peer reviewed science journal PLoS ONE (a free online journal) and can be viewed here: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0017566. Even projects that are sited appropriately may have some impacts on wildlife habitat that can be offset with offsite compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate one approach to mapping and quantifying mitigation costs

  7. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  9. Our Lives with Electric Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing......, and sustaining life. Some mediate human sociality across time and space, while others knit ecological and interspecies relationships together. Still others create possibilities for controlling, managing, exploiting, and ending life. Against this backdrop any anthropology of electricity seems to require electric...... things. Can we still imagine the possibility of lives without electric things? Can electric things help us to address the possibilities and limits of life with electricity? Can our lives with electricity ever be disentangled from electric things? What are the unique capacities and material politics...

  10. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuelsthose chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  11. Summer student final report

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    During my time spent at CERN I worked under the Technology Department of CERN, in the Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity (MPE) Group. The MPE Group supports LHC operations and maintains state of the art technology for magnet circuit protection and interlock systems for the present and future accelerators, magnet test facilities and CERN hosted experiments[1]. As a member of Magnet Powering Interlocks & Software (TE-MPE-MS) section I was involved in three different projects and used not only CERN developed tools like FESA Framework, but also open source C++ frameworks, Google Test and Google Mock. I had a chance to work with Programmable Logic Controllers and real-time devices known as Front End Computers. I was part of a software developer team, and familiarized myself with the Scrum agile software development methodology. The description and results of my work are presented in three parts of this report. Each part describes a separate project created during my participation in the CERN Summer St...

  12. Electric power emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  13. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  14. Electric generators: Roesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-04-01

    A new and unique type of electrical generator is described that will provide constant frequency output (within 0.01% or better) regardless of rotational speed variations. It accomplishes this with no added bulk over conventional generators, and with excellent efficiency. The same principle that permits constant frequency output also provides the means for output voltage regulation with varying drive speed and/or varying load. Onsite power generation aspects of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) concept include the requirement to follow community electric loads and the possible use of internal combustion piston engines with waste heat recovery to drive electric generators. The diesel engine is a prime candidate from commercially available technologies for which part-load shaft efficiency is better at reduced speed than for constant-speed operation required by conventional AC generators. The unique characteristics of the Roesel generator allow prime mover speed to decrease with load and offer improved engine-generator system efficiency in ICES applications.

  15. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  16. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  17. Study on Electricity Purchase Optimization in Coordination of Electricity and Carbon Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dunnan; Meng, Yaru; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-07-01

    With the establishment of carbon emissions trading market in China, the power industry has become an important part of the market participants. The power grid enterprises need to optimize their own strategies in the new environment of electricity market and carbon market coordination. First, the influence of electricity and carbon trading coordination on electricity purchase strategy for grid enterprises was analysed in the paper. Then a power purchase optimization model was presented, which used the minimum cost of low carbon, energy saving and environment protection as the goal, the power generation capacity, installed capacity and pollutant emission as the constraints. Finally, a provincial power grid was taken as an example to analyse the model, and the optimization order of power purchase was obtained, which provided a new idea for the low carbon development of power grid enterprises.

  18. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  19. DANAERO MW: Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from ...... analysis of the data is given with the main objective to explore in detail the influence of atmospheric and wake turbulence on MW turbine performance, loading and stability. Finally, validation and demonstration of simulation codes are carried out.......This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from...

  20. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  1. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  2. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  3. The PHENIX final texts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Fontaine, B.; Vanier, M.; Gauthe, P.; Pascal, V.; Prulhiere, G.; Jaecki, P.; Martin, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Tenchine, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Dupraz, R.; Woaye Hune, A. [AREVA NP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    The 250 MWe (140 MWe since 1993) PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor was shut down on March 6, 2009. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests was performed during May 2009 - January 2010. These tests covered core physics, fuel behaviour and thermal-hydraulics areas. Detailed analysis of the tests results is ongoing. It will be used for the extension of the validation of ERANOS and DARWIN codes for core physics, TRIO{sub U} and CATHARE for thermal-hydraulics and GERMINAL for fuel behaviour. In addition, the program included 2 tests related to the comprehension of the four negative reactivity transients (AURN) experienced during the reactor operation in 1989 and 1990 and not yet fully explained. This was also a great opportunity to involve young engineers in the different processes like the design of the tests, their carrying out and the analysis of the results. The standard instrumentation of the reactor was completed by specifically designed devices. (authors)

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Tanis

    2005-11-25

    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below.

  5. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B.M.; Eklund, Y.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  6. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  7. Electric power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Sengupta, Samarjit

    2011-01-01

    In the present day deregulated power market electric power quality issues have become great concerns of utilities, end users and manufacturers. Worldwide researches are going on to address those issues. Electric Power Quality has evolved from the researches carried out by the authors. The key features of the book can be highlighted as follows: the contents focuses, on one hand, different power quality issues, their sources and effects and different related standards, which are required for students, researchers and practising engineers and, on the other hand, measurement techniques for differe

  8. The new electricity age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael; Willnow, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    A sustainable energy system requires optimal integration of all components resulting in an integrated energy system. To setup the integrated energy system three steps have to be completed: 1. Optimal selection and allocation of the Energy Mix 2. Efficiency increase along all steps of the energy conversion chain 3. Holistic optimization across infrastructures and across regions using Smart Grid Technologies Due to greater complexity caused by growing demand for electricity and decentralized generation only end-to-end intelligence from power plants via networks to end-use applications, so-called smart grid technologies will enable the integrated energy system and thus the New Electricity Age.

  9. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  10. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  11. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  12. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  13. The greening of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, J.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    As people`s values change, the requirements imposed on products change as well. One value which is becoming increasingly important is that of an environmental orientation. Consumers are demanding that manufacturers supply information on the extent to which the production, use, and disposal of products negatively affect the natural environment. For industry, electricity is one of the factors of production. As such, it is also a commodity. The power industry must respond to the demands of consumers and be prepared to explain how electricity is generated

  14. Newnes electrical pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, E A

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electrical Pocket Book, Twenty-first Edition, provides engineers with convenient access to various facts, tables, and formulae relating to the particular branch of engineering being dealt with. In the case of electrical engineering, it is essential that the engineer have a clear understanding of the methods by which the various formulae are derived to ensure that any particular formulae is applicable to the conditions being considered. The first section of the Pocket Book is devoted to the theoretical groundwork upon which all the practical applications are based. This covers symbols,

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  17. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  18. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...

  19. Electric field changes and cloud electrical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. Philip

    1989-09-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are currently operating a large network of electric field mills to detect lightning and electrified clouds that might present hazards to ground operations, launches, and landings. Here we summarize recent results of least squares analyses of multistation measurements of field changes that were produced by cloud-to-ground (Q model) and intracloud (P model) lightning. The values of the optimum parameters of 113 lightning events that occurred in one small storm on July 11, 1978, and a portion of a large storm on July 6, 1978, are tabulated and graphed. We note that, in both storms, there is considerable symmetry in the direction of P vectors around the Q region and that this pattern is consistent with the classic double-dipole model of thundercloud charges. We note also that the vertical separation of the Q and P regions depends on the storm intensity.

  20. The Grace Follow-On Quiet Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amann Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The final portion of the paper provides information about the power and energy budgeting and operational aspects of the EPS such as undervoltage and overcurrent H/W features of the PCU/PDU design, and the EPS related On-board Software and On-Board Control Procedures. Finally, the system level power analysis is provided to provide the reader with a better understanding of the expected behaviour of the electrical power parameters.

  1. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Hennings, Wilfried [Research Centre Juelich, Programme Group Humans, Environment, Technology (MUT), 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  3. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  4. Application of integral equation theory to analyze stability of electric field in multimode microwave heating cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhengming; Hong, Tao; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhu, Huacheng; Huang, Kama

    2017-10-01

    Microwave heating uniformity is mainly dependent on and affected by electric field. However, little study has paid attention to its stability characteristics in multimode cavity. In this paper, this problem is studied by the theory of Freedholm integral equation. Firstly, Helmholtz equation and the electric dyadic Green's function are used to derive the electric field integral equation. Then, the stability of electric field is demonstrated as the characteristics of solutions to Freedholm integral equation. Finally, the stability characteristics are obtained and verified by finite element calculation. This study not only can provide a comprehensive interpretation of electric field in multimode cavity but also help us make better use of microwave energy.

  5. An Research on Electrical Vehicle'S Charge-Discharge Behavior Based on Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyin, Wang; Junyong, Liu

    Electric Vehicle is the future trend of the automobile industry, and the energy exchanging between the electrical vehicles and the grid through the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology becomes possiable. V2G leads to a rapid load growth effecting the benefit of the grid, which wasn't discussed. The charge and discharge model of the electrical vehicles is discussed using the multinomial logit model based on the discrete choice theory, then preliminarily evaluates the effects of economic benefit both on the motorist and the grid. Finally, suggestions on period division and electricity pricing for charge and discharge of the electrical vehicle are given.

  6. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  7. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  8. Electric Guitar and Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  9. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  10. Graphing Electric Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  11. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele...

  12. Electrical aspects of rainout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  13. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  14. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  15. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  17. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  18. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  19. Turning Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cells are therefore packaged together to form a 'solar module' or a 'solar panel' that provides a useful voltage and current. The efficiency of silicon solar cells for the conversion of light energy to electricity has increased steadily over the years to present values of up to 18% for amorphous silicon, and 25% for.

  20. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities, retail prices, and welfare in the electricity industry. Welfare is maximized if market liberalization is combined with vertical separation. The driving force behind this result is the risk of rent extraction faced...