Sample records for electrical standby connection

  1. High-ratio voltage conversion in CMOS for efficient mains-connected standby

    Meyvaert, Hans


    This book describes synergetic innovation opportunities offered by combining the field of power conversion with the field of integrated circuit (IC) design. The authors demonstrate how integrating circuits enables increased operation frequency, which can be exploited in power converters to reduce drastically the size of the discrete passive components. The authors introduce multiple power converter circuits, which are very compact as result of their high level of integration. First, the limits of high-power-density low-voltage monolithic switched-capacitor DC-DC conversion are investigated to enable on-chip power granularization. AC-DC conversion from the mains to a low voltage DC is discussed, enabling an efficient and compact, lower-power auxiliary power supply to take over the power delivery during the standby mode of mains-connected appliances, allowing the main power converter of these devices to be shut down fully. Discusses high-power-density monolithic switched-capacitor DC-DC conversion in bulk CMOS,...

  2. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan


    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent.

  3. Global implications of standby power use

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain


    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  4. Standby consumption of household appliances; Standby-Verbrauch von Haushaltgeraeten

    Nipkow, J.; Bush, E.


    While electricity consumption of household appliances is well documented for conventional operation cycles, there are still many gaps in our knowledge regarding consumption in the standby status. The aim of this project was to obtain new findings by carrying out market surveys, measurements and evaluations. The total standby losses for household appliances in Switzerland amount to approximately 400 GWh, and the associated electricity costs are about 80 million Swiss francs. The greatest fraction - approximately 80 percent - is traceable to heating requirements for coffee machines. In some appliance categories the share of standby losses compared to overall electricity consumption is extremely high. This figure for coffee machines in offices is 84 percent, for coffee machines in private households it is 60 percent, and for induction cooker tops it is 48 percent. The main technical requirements for enhancing the energy efficiency of coffee machines are an automatic switch-off function and improved insulation of boilers. According to the latest manufacturers' specifications of induction cooker tops, it is apparently possible to significantly reduce the surprisingly high losses associated with control devices. Generally speaking, the efficiency of power supply units could still be improved. It is now possible to reduce consumption levels from the previously standard level of about 4 W to less than 0.5 W. Since it appears that relatively simple measures may significantly increase the efficiency, it is recommended that action be taken. Here, it is essential to work out detailed guidelines and define testing standards for declaring standby losses. The proposal put forward here for an energy declaration for coffee machines is intended to help test centres, EU authorities and manufacturers to carry out uniform measurements and evaluations. Given the high power consumption of coffee machines, their significant efficiency enhancement potential and the availability of

  5. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    Monroe, Saundra L.; Glass, S. Jill; Stone, Ronnie G.; Bond, Jamey T.; Susan, Donald F.


    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  6. A worldwide review of standby power use in homes

    Meier, Alan K.


    Standby power use is the electricity consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. Results from 21 separate field studies of residential standby power use and eight bottom-up national estimates of standby power use in 17 countries were compiled. Average standby power use in the field measurements ranges from about 30 W in China to over 100 W in New Zealand and the United States. The weighted average of the measurements was about 50 W. The bottom-up estimates found that standby power was responsible for 3-12 percent of residential electricity use. There is insufficient information to determine if standby power use is increasing or declining.

  7. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj


    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  8. Standby energy consumption in Ukraine. Making a case for households

    Martsynkevych, Vladlena


    The current research is the first study of standby energy consumption in households in Ukraine. It provides insights to the scope of the problem and the opportunities to improve the situation. Standby power refers to power consumed by appliances when they are not performing their primary function and are switched ''off''. Measurements of 50 households were performed. Standby power was measured and a questionnaire was used to find out the behavioural patterns. The combined standby power use is about 23.4 W per household, resulting in national 1.3 TW h per year and 0.8% of the national electricity consumption respectively. The CO2 emissions from standby account for 0.1% of the emissions in Ukraine per year. Different scenarios show the possibilities to reduce standby consumption and CO2 emissions from 10% to 70% under different conditions. The main determinant of household electricity consumption is the number of appliances it has. Levels of standby power use are lower in Ukraine than in developed countries. However, the tendencies are such that the penetration level is growing, and, particularly, of new appliances with standby modes. It is pointed out that there is a need for national standards enforcement, raise of public awareness and price incentives for the reduction of standby power consumption. (orig.)

  9. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.


    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  10. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    Huber, W.


    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  11. Performance evaluations of demountable electrical connections

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Buckles, W. E.; Daugherty, M. A.

    Electrical conductors operating in cryogenic environments can require demountable connections along their lengths. The connections must have low resistance and high reliability and should allow ready assembly and disassembly. In this work, the performance of two types of connections has been evaluated. The first connection type is a clamped surface-to-surface joint. The second connection type is a screwed joint that incorporates male and female machine-thread components. The connections for copper conductors have been evaluated experimentally at 77 K. Experimental variables included thread surface treatment and assembly methods. The results of the evaluations are presented.

  12. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James


    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  13. Program For Engineering Electrical Connections

    Billitti, Joseph W.


    DFACS is interactive multiuser computer-aided-engineering software tool for system-level electrical integration and cabling engineering. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in and gaining access to data on functional definition of system, details of end-circuit pinouts in systems and subsystems, and data on wiring harnesses. Objective, to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding error-prone, time-consuming, and costly shuttling of data along multiple paths. Designed to operate on DEC VAX mini or micro computer using Version 5.0/03 of INGRES.

  14. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.


    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.



    A photovoltaic cell module comprising at least two serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, wherein the cells each comprise a first electrode layer, a first charge selective layer, a light harvesting layer which comprises an organic conjugated polymer, and a second charge...... of the pair, which connection is made through the light harvesting layer common to the at least one pair of cells, without forming an electrical connection with the first electrode of the first cell or the second charge selective layer of the second cell; and a method of making such a photovoltaic cell module....... selective layer that selects for an opposite charge to the first charge selective layer, wherein the first electrode layers for each cell are formed such that the first electrode layer of one cell has no direct electrical connection to the first electrode layer of any other cell, and the second charge...

  16. Cold electrical connection for FAIR/ SIS100

    Kauschke, M; Quack, H


    The Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be an international centre for atomic-, plasma- and nuclear- physics, located next to Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. FAIR will be composed from two synchrotrons and four storage rings. Both synchrotrons, SIS100 and SIS300, are designed with superconducting magnets. For radiation protection reasons and landscaping restrictions the synchrotrons will be placed underground, whereas the power supplies will be placed within three service buildings above ground level. To save space and refrigeration power a superconducting electrical connection will be implemented. The mechanical and thermal design of this connection will be presented in the paper.

  17. Standby-consumption in households; Standby-Verbrauch im Haushalt

    Zehnder, U.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in five types of housing on the standby-consumption of various household appliances. 461 measurements were made in 37 households, whereby three modes - ready-for-use, standby and sleep - were examined. 71 different appliances were looked at in six consumer groups. These included entertainment, hygiene/health, kitchen/household, communication, office and garage. Data is presented in tabular form and commented on.

  18. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan



    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  19. Reduction of standby-losses - Obstacles and how to get over them; Verminderung der Standby-Verluste. Hindernisse und Massnahmen zur Ueberwindung

    Nipkow, J. [Arena, Zuerich (Switzerland); Togni, G. [Togni Energie GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Braunwalder, A. [Braunwalder Energie-Kommunikation, Erstfeld (Switzerland)


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how stand-by losses in electrical devices and consumer electronics can be reduced. The project presents an inventory of appliances along with estimates of consumption levels in standby mode. This permitted the authors to identify current priority areas such as consumer electronics, PC workstations and coffee machines. Various tools and measures to be taken are also described, including the implementation of minimum requirements for reducing standby consumption. These are assessed on the basis of a variety of criteria. Implementation measures and projects are proposed that show the greatest potential for success in reducing standby power consumption. A number of implementation projects already initiated while the study was still in progress include the 'Energy City' mouse switching device, the WWF's 'Stop standby' campaign, the 'EnergyBox standby check', hints on PC configuration for standby/sleep mode, the energy-efficient coffee machines promotion campaign, and the 'Topten' list of hi-fi systems with low standby consumption. Base data and modelling methods are reported on, as are measures to be taken.

  20. The experiences of MDE stand-by; Les experiences de MDE stand-by



    The control of the electric power demand (MDE) is a worrying subject for many countries. The consumption of the electrical equipment in stand-by, is evaluated at 20 TWh/year for the ternary and residential sectors in Germany and 5,3 in France. Taking into account the SAVE project (Pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy), this study aims to observe the policies and the experiences of local governments in terms of energy consumption reduction. (A.L.B.)

  1. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  2. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing


    With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu

  3. Estimation of membrane hydration status for standby proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Rugholt, Mark; Nielsen, Morten Busk


    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of inactivity, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. However, the membrane of which PEMFCs are made tends to dry out when...... not in use. This increases the time required to start the system and could lead to the destruction of the fuel cell. In this article an impedance measurement circuit is presented, which is part of a humidity status estimator for monitoring the humidity status of a fuel cell stack during standby....... The impedance measurement circuit has been connected to a fuel cell stack and the operation of estimating the relative humidity has been demonstrated....

  4. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    Christie, B.


    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  5. Concept for the redesign of ECOMAN (standby losses) - Final report; Konzepte fuer Redesign ECOMAN (Standby-Verluste) - Schlussbericht

    Ernst, D.; Haerri, V.V.; Riesen, H.


    A lot of electronic devices are equipped with a so called standby mode. In this mode a device can easily be brought into full functionality directly, by remote control or by timer. Unfortunately, the standby mode implies a high consumption of electrical energy that could be reduced 10 to 20 times by an adequate technology. In Switzerland these losses amount to approximately 1,900 GWh. The so called ECOMAN is an electronic device which can reduce these losses effectively and comfortably. Due to political pressure the producers of electronic devices are forced to find solutions for the problem of standby losses. The ECOMAN would thus be of less importance because the problem would be solved at its roots. This fact and the wish to have a better performance led to a new definition of this device. The ECOMAN has to be improved and shall offer additional functions. E.g. it shall protect the devices from fire hazard or serve as control in the field of building automation. The new concepts were well accepted by the producer who already realized the specification of the first phase of redesign, which serves as basis for the further development of integration. (author)

  6. Are US utility standby rates inhibiting diffusion of customer-owned generating systems?

    Jackson, J. [Texas AandM University, College Station, TX (United States)


    New, small-scale electric generation technologies permit utility customers to generate some of their own electric power and to utilize waste heat for space heating and other applications at the building site. This combined heat and power (CHP) characteristic can provide significant energy-cost savings. However, most current US utility regulations leave CHP standby rate specification largely to utility discretion resulting in claims by CHP advocates that excessive standby rates are significantly reducing CHP-related savings and inhibiting CHP diffusion. The impacts of standby rates on the adoption of CHP are difficult to determine; however, because of the characteristically slow nature of new technology diffusion. This study develops an agent-based microsimulation model of CHP technology choice using cellular automata to represent new technology information dispersion and knowledge acquisition. Applying the model as an n-factorial experiment quantifies the impacts of standby rates on CHP technologies under alternative diffusion paths. Analysis of a sample utility indicates that, regardless of the likely diffusion process, reducing standby rates to reflect the cost of serving a large number of small, spatially clustered CHP systems significantly increases the adoption of these technologies. (author)

  7. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) standby plan

    Hulvey, R.K.


    The FFTF Standby Plan, Revision 0, provides changes to the major elements and project baselines to maintain the FFTF plant in a standby condition and to continue washing sodium from irradiated reactor fuel. The Plan is consistent with the Memorandum of Decision approved by the Secretary of Energy on January 17, 1997, which directed that FFTF be maintained in a standby condition to permit the Department to make a decision on whether the facility should play a future role in the Department of Energy`s dual track tritium production strategy. This decision would be made in parallel with the intended December 1998 decision on the selection of the primary, long- term source of tritium. This also allows the Department to review the economic and technical feasibility of using the FFTF to produce isotopes for the medical community. Formal direction has been received from DOE-RL and Fluor 2020 Daniel Hanford to implement the FFTF standby decision. The objective of the Plan is maintain the condition of the FFTF systems, equipment and personnel to preserve the option for plant restart within three and one-half years of a decision to restart, while continuing deactivation work which is consistent with the standby mode.

  8. Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians

    Hammerschlag Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture points and meridians are commonly believed to possess unique electrical properties. The experimental support for this claim is limited given the technical and methodological shortcomings of prior studies. Recent studies indicate a correspondence between acupuncture meridians and connective tissue planes. We hypothesized that segments of acupuncture meridians that are associated with loose connective tissue planes (between muscles or between muscle and bone visible by ultrasound have greater electrical conductance (less electrical impedance than non-meridian, parallel control segments. Methods We used a four-electrode method to measure the electrical impedance along segments of the Pericardium and Spleen meridians and corresponding parallel control segments in 23 human subjects. Meridian segments were determined by palpation and proportional measurements. Connective tissue planes underlying those segments were imaged with an ultrasound scanner. Along each meridian segment, four gold-plated needles were inserted along a straight line and used as electrodes. A parallel series of four control needles were placed 0.8 cm medial to the meridian needles. For each set of four needles, a 3.3 kHz alternating (AC constant amplitude current was introduced at three different amplitudes (20, 40, and 80 μAmps to the outer two needles, while the voltage was measured between the inner two needles. Tissue impedance between the two inner needles was calculated based on Ohm's law (ratio of voltage to current intensity. Results At the Pericardium location, mean tissue impedance was significantly lower at meridian segments (70.4 ± 5.7 Ω compared with control segments (75.0 ± 5.9 Ω (p = 0.0003. At the Spleen location, mean impedance for meridian (67.8 ± 6.8 Ω and control segments (68.5 ± 7.5 Ω were not significantly different (p = 0.70. Conclusion Tissue impedance was on average lower along the Pericardium meridian, but not

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand... stand-by basis. Stand-by arrangements establish the framework of rapid initiation of government...

  10. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.215 Standby power system. A standby source of power...

  11. Electrical Reliability of a Film-Type Connection during Bending

    Ryosuke Mitsui


    Full Text Available With the escalating demands for downsizing and functionalizing mobile electronics, flexible electronics have become an important aspect of future technologies. To address limitations concerning junction deformation, we developed a new connection method using a film-type connector that is less than 0.1 mm thick. The film-type connector is composed of an organic film substrate, a UV-curable adhesive that deforms elastically under pressure, and electrodes that are arranged on the adhesive. The film-type connection relies on a plate-to-plate contact, which ensures a sufficient contact area. The electrical reliability of the film-type connection was investigated based on changes in the resistance during bending at curvature radii of 70, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. The connection was bent 1000 times to investigate the reproducibility of the connector’s bending properties. The tests showed that no disconnections occurred due to bending in the vertical direction of the electrode, but disconnections were observed due to bending in the parallel direction at curvature radii of 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. In addition, the maximum average change in resistance was less than 70 milliohms unless a disconnection was generated. These results support the application of the new film-type connection in future flexible devices.

  12. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Katja Buss


    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  13. Creation and maintenance of ORACLE standby database%Oracle standby database的建立与维护



    Standby database是oracle数据库的一种有效容错方式,可用来进行数据灾难恢复.详细介绍了Standby database的建立过程和如何对Standby database进行维护,并给出了常见问题的解决方法.

  14. An Energy-Saving Concept of the Smart Building Power Grid with Separated Lines for Standby Devices

    Dmytro Zubov


    Full Text Available Standby power takes 5-10 % of the residential electricity around the world. Some countries lose more than 14 % of the total electricity used in the residential sector. Hence, a new energysaving concept that could help to decrease the power losses is discussed in this paper. Firstly, the two power lines of infrastructure for continuously connected equipment and for standby devices is proposed for new smart buildings. Secondly, the segmented infrastructure with unified hardwareunits is proposed for existing smart buildings (the new one can apply this principle as well. The contactors (i.e. unified hardware units consist of the NodeMcu Lua ESP8266 WiFi IoTdevelopment board, ACS712T ELC-30A current sensor, and the Songle relay. The automatic mode is based on three steps: measurement of the current using ACS712T ELC-30A sensor in all segments except the root; switching off the relays with the current less than or equal to any number in the historical data; switching off the root contactor if all the descendent relays (i.e. contactors are switched off. Second step represents the linear classification with sliding window in machine learning. The software consists of two parts, low-level Arduino sketches and high-level C# Windows form app. They are connected by MQTT broker Mosquitto. The proposed concept was successfully tested using a prototype with three segments, one of which includes smart lighting. The payback period is of approximately one month and a half for the whole-building switch concept.

  15. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal


    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  16. Reduction of Topological Connectivity Information in Electric Power Grids

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Marinelli, Mattia;


    Electric power distribution grids increasingly use higher levels of monitoring and automation, both dependent on grid topology. However, the total amount of information to adequately describe power grids is vast and needs to be reduced when used locally. This work presents an approach for reducing...... and assembling power grid topologies in a decentralized way, such that full details of the local grid neighborhood are preserved, while remote areas get reduced in detail. Full connectivity information is retained. Practical evaluation is performed on a modified version of the 906-bus IEEE European low...

  17. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Schilken, P.


    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  18. Connection equation and shaly-sand correction for electrical resistivity

    Lee, Myung W.


    Estimating the amount of conductive and nonconductive constituents in the pore space of sediments by using electrical resistivity logs generally loses accuracy where clays are present in the reservoir. Many different methods and clay models have been proposed to account for the conductivity of clay (termed the shaly-sand correction). In this study, the connectivity equation (CE), which is a new approach to model non-Archie rocks, is used to correct for the clay effect and is compared with results using the Waxman and Smits method. The CE presented here requires no parameters other than an adjustable constant, which can be derived from the resistivity of water-saturated sediments. The new approach was applied to estimate water saturation of laboratory data and to estimate gas hydrate saturations at the Mount Elbert well on the Alaska North Slope. Although not as accurate as the Waxman and Smits method to estimate water saturations for the laboratory measurements, gas hydrate saturations estimated at the Mount Elbert well using the proposed CE are comparable to estimates from the Waxman and Smits method. Considering its simplicity, it has high potential to be used to account for the clay effect on electrical resistivity measurement in other systems.

  19. Standby-optimisation for existing lift installations - Final report; Standby-Optimierung bestehender Aufzugsanlagen - Schlussbericht

    Lindegger, U. [Schindler Elettronica SA, Locarno (Switzerland); Bettschen, R. [Schindler Aufzuege AG, Ebikon (Switzerland)


    There are about 180,000 elevators in Switzerland. It is interesting to know how much energy those elevators are using and to know their saving potential, if they would optimally use today's available technology. A previous final report (SFOE reference number 250057) has answered these questions. The results have been used in the work for the directive VDI 4707, which defines an energy label for elevators. It can therefore be assumed that a means has been created to have the necessary pressure to continuously improve the energy efficiency of elevators. Since elevators are products with very long lifetime, it will take a couple of decades until the older less efficient elevators got replaced by modern efficient ones. Modernizing elevators is a common practice, where usually modern drive solutions are sold. During the last years, the elevator industry has made high progress in improving the efficiency in the operation. The lack of awareness and the regulatory requirements have continuously increased the standby power. There are no solutions on the market to minimize the standby although 70% of the energy used by elevators in Switzerland count for the standby. Therefore this study has set the target to optimize the standby for existing elevators. The focus has been set to a solution being manufacturer and technology neutral, since the technology and product variations are huge. Using a standby-reduction-device, this study tries to automatically switch off complete elevators from the mains and on demand turns them on again. The study shows the problems faced, the solution chosen and the possible saving potential. As additional goal the study gives practical introduction in the instrumentation and to the energy label for elevators. (authors)

  20. Automatic Switch-On Function Logic Analysis of 220 kV Standby Power Supply%220 kV备用电源自投功能逻辑分析



      介绍了220 kV备自投功能的逻辑,结合现场使用,以主供线路、备投线路、备投母联分析了开关状态设置,以线路备投、母联备投阐述充放电条件的原因。分析了备自投启动逻辑,结合逻辑顺序模拟备自投启动,分步列出动作结果,为220 kV备自投装置验收及运行提供了依据。%Introduction was made to the logic of automatic switch-on function of 220 kV standby power supply. Combined with onsite usage condition, this paper analyzed switch status setting for main supply lines, standby supply automatic switch-on lines, standby sup-ply automatic switch-on busbar connection. Causes of charging and discharging conditions were described according to lines standby automatic switch-on and busbar connection standby switch-on. This paper analyzed standby automatic switch-on starting logic and combined logic sequence to simulate standby automatic switch-on starting and to list action result step by step, which provides basis for acceptance of 220 kV standby power supply automatic switch-on device.

  1. Photovoltaic installation connected to the electric network; Installation photovoltaique raccordee au reseau



    This technical sheet on the connection of a photovoltaic installation to the electric network, provides information on the operating of such an installation, the possibilities of installation on a building, the possible subsidies, types of connection, environmental impacts, the electric power production, the cost estimation, the maintenance and life time and the administrative procedures. (A.L.B.)

  2. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.

  3. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Sedano, Richard [Regulatory Assistance Partnership; Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.


    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  4. Wireless Electrical Device Using Open-Circuit Elements Having No Electrical Connections

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)


    A wireless electrical device includes an electrically unconnected electrical conductor and at least one electrically unconnected electrode spaced apart from the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Each electrode is at a location lying within the magnetic field response so-generated and is constructed such that a linear movement of electric charges is generated in each electrode due to the magnetic field response so-generated.

  5. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By ...

    Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By Solar Powered ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... will be encouraged to pursue further an energy-environmental friendly policy which will lead ...


    V. I. Lukovnikov


    Full Text Available The paper shows how to solve the problem concerning reveal of changes in mathematical models and electric parameters of symmetric three-phase short-circuited asynchronous electric motors in case of their connection to single- or two-phase network in comparison with their connection to three-phase network. The uniform methodological approach permitting to generalize the known data and receive new results is offered in the paper.

  7. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen


    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  8. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. 57.12023 Section 57.12023 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Undergroun...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. 56.12023 Section 56.12023 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12023 Guarding...

  10. Grid connection rules for electric cars integrated as virtual power plant in smart grids

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Thøgersen, Paul Bach


    This paper reviews the situation of V2G and proposes a solution involving a consolidating fleet manager, and a decision making process for the individual V2G electric car owner. A grid connection routine for electric vehicles is proposed. The algorithm dealing with decisions to be taken in foreseen...

  11. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.


    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  12. Turin Shroud-like electric imaging connected to earthquakes

    Liso Giovanna de


    Full Text Available A large amount of long lasting experiments, carried out by the first author with the supervision of coauthoring experts in electrical imaging and Turin Shroud (TS studies, was addressed to obtain TS-like impressions. To this end, the experiments was especially performed by using conducting objects previously enveloped in two-folded cloths, then inserted into a gap bounded by a pair of rocky plates. The prerequisite for image formation seems to be an especially abundant emission of radon, related to earthquakes, ultimately giving rise to a macro-scale background electric field of the order of 1 kV/m in the gap and, more importantly, to micro-scale field amplification. This additional field is localized in the air filled interstices of the exposed fabric, thus causing consequent aging. In spite of the complicate and unpredictable character of the natural phenomenology under examination, the investigators succeeded in categorizing different kinds of impressions and selecting one of them as being thoroughly successful. Specifically, the images of the selected category do exhibit basic physicochemical and optical features distinctive of the figure impressed on the Turin Shroud.

  13. Endocannabinoid release modulates electrical coupling between CCK cells connected via chemical and electrical synapses in CA1

    Jonathan eIball


    Full Text Available Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholesystokinin (CCK interneurons which co-express cannbinoid type-1 (CB1 receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labelling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18-20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral associated (SCA cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released IPSPs that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5M resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI, maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization.

  14. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    May, G. J.

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  15. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.


    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  16. Electrical PV array reconfiguration strategy for energy extraction improvement in grid-connected PV systems


    This paper applies a dynamical electrical array reconfiguration (EAR) strategy on the photovoltaic (PV) generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration, in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different. The EAR strategy is carried out by inserting a controllable switching matrix between the PV generator and the central inverter, which allows the electrical reconnection of the available PV modules. A...

  17. Aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical connections

    Nelson, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results of an experimental program to determine the aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical connections in order to obtain an initial scoping of their performance. Ten types of connections commonly used in nuclear power plants were tested. These included 3 types of conduit seals, 2 types of cable-to-device connectors, 3 types of cable-to-cable connectors, and 2 types of in-line splices. The connections were aged for 6 months under simultaneous thermal (99 C) and radiation (46 Gy/hr) conditions. A simulated LOCA consisting of sequential high dose-rate irradiation (3 kGy/hr) and high-temperature steam exposures followed the aging. Connection functionality was monitored using insulation resistance measurements during the aging and LOCA exposures. Because only 5 of the 10 connection types passed a post-LOCA, submerged dielectric withstand test, further detailed investigation of electrical connections and the effects of cable jacket integrity on the cable-connection system is warranted.

  18. Magic ratios for connectivity-driven electrical conductance of graphene-like molecules.

    Geng, Yan; Sangtarash, Sara; Huang, Cancan; Sadeghi, Hatef; Fu, Yongchun; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas; Decurtins, Silvio; Lambert, Colin J; Liu, Shi-Xia


    Experiments using a mechanically controlled break junction and calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate a new magic ratio rule (MRR) that captures the contribution of connectivity to the electrical conductance of graphene-like aromatic molecules. When one electrode is connected to a site i and the other is connected to a site i' of a particular molecule, we assign the molecule a "magic integer" Mii'. Two molecules with the same aromatic core but different pairs of electrode connection sites (i,i' and j,j', respectively) possess different magic integers Mii' and Mjj'. On the basis of connectivity alone, we predict that when the coupling to electrodes is weak and the Fermi energy of the electrodes lies close to the center of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the ratio of their conductances is equal to (Mii'/Mjj')(2). The MRR is exact for a tight-binding representation of a molecule and a qualitative guide for real molecules.

  19. Reduction of standby energy use in set-top boxes in the United States and the European Union

    Zandelin, S.


    In the US, there were over 110 million set-top boxes in 1999. About half of these boxes were game consoles. In the EU, the number of set-top boxes was estimated to be about 71 millions in 1999. The most common set-top boxes in the EU were analog satellite receivers. That is quite a difference from the US, where almost no analog satellite receivers exist. It is expected that the amount of set-top boxes will increase rapidly when the broadcasts switch to digital. Set-top boxes in the US consume 7.9 TWh of electricity every year. Of this 5.5 TWh, or 70 %, are consumed while in standby mode. The amount of energy used in standby in the US would be enough to heat about 220,000 Swedish houses. Even though almost half of the set-top boxes in the US are game consoles, they only use 30 % of the set-top energy. This is because they have low standby power. Since most analog cable boxes have a very high standby power, 46 % of the set-top energy come from analog cable boxes. Analog cable boxes use 76 % of the energy in standby mode. The set-top electricity consumption in the US is 0.70 % of the residential electricity use. In the EU the total amount of energy used by set-top boxes is 5.1 TWh every year. The fraction used in standby mode in the EU, 60 %, is smaller than in the US. In the EU, the most common boxes are the analog satellite receivers. They use 59 % of the total set-top energy, or 3.0 TWh. The set-top energy share of the residential electricity use in the EU is about 0.85 %. Sweden has a share that is less than half of the EU share. One reason for that could be that a lot of electricity is used for heating in Sweden. In most set-top boxes, high standby power is because most circuitry and components are still powered when they are not in use. By making modest redesigns and changes of communications protocols between the service provider and the user, the energy efficiency could be increased and the standby power consumption reduced significantly. If nothing is done to

  20. Lifetime-Temperature Rise Model for the Evaluation of Degradation in Electric Connections/Contacts

    Kim, J.T.; Kim, N.J. [Daejin University, Pochon (Korea)


    In this paper, 'lifetime-temperature rise model' based on the 'lifetime-resistance model' is theoretically proposed, in order to find out the evaluation method of degradation and the residual lifetime by use of infrared image camera for electric connections/contacts. Two assumptions have been builded up for the 'lifetime-temperature rise model' ; one is associated with the linear relationship between the temperature rise {delta}K and contact resistance, and the other the functional relationship between the temperature of electric connections/contacts and the operating time presenting in the 'lifetime-resistance model'. To prove the proposed model, experiments have been performed for various electric connections/contacts. >From the experimental results, measured values were quite similar to the calculated values, which proved the above-mentioned two assumptions. Therefore, by use of 'lifetime-temperature rise model', it is possible to estimate the trend of degradation and the residual lifetime for electric connections/contacts through the temperature measurements. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.



    obstructed military co-operation of which the evolving crisis in Zimbabwe and the subsequent .... The SADC argues in its charter that the ambition is to create a ..... It was therefore stipulated that the ASF should include standby multi-disciplinary.

  2. On the reliability of a renewable multiple cold standby system

    Vanderperre E. J.


    Full Text Available We present a general reliability analysis of a renewable multiple cold standby system attended by a single repairman. Our analysis is based on a refined methodology of queuing theory. The particular case of deterministic failures provides an explicit exact result for the survival function of the duplex system.

  3. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.


    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  4. Reduced chemical and electrical connections of fast-spiking interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N


    Aberrant neural connections are regarded as a principal factor contributing to epileptogenesis. This study examined chemical and electrical connections between fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (FS-PV) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) neurons (pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate neurons) in a rat model of prenatal irradiation-induced cortical dysplasia. Presynaptic action potentials were evoked by current injection and the elicited unitary inhibitory or excitatory postsynaptic potentials (uIPSPs or uEPSPs) were recorded in the postsynaptic cell. In dysplastic cortex, connection rates between presynaptic FS-PV interneurons and postsynaptic RS neurons and FS-PV interneurons, and uIPSP amplitudes were significantly smaller than controls, but both failure rates and coefficient of variation of uIPSP amplitudes were larger than controls. In contrast, connection rates from RS neurons to FS-PV interneurons and uEPSPs amplitude were similar in the two groups. Assessment of the paired pulse ratio showed a significant decrease in synaptic release probability at FS-PV interneuronal terminals, and the density of terminal boutons on axons of biocytin-filled FS-PV interneurons was also decreased, suggesting presynaptic dysfunction in chemical synapses formed by FS-PV interneurons. Electrical connections were observed between FS-PV interneurons, and the connection rates and coupling coefficients were smaller in dysplastic cortex than controls. In dysplastic cortex, we found a reduced synaptic efficiency for uIPSPs originating from FS-PV interneurons regardless of the type of target cell, and impaired electrical connections between FS-PV interneurons. This expands our understanding of the fundamental impairment of inhibition in this model and may have relevance for certain types of human cortical dysplasia.

  5. Making the connection. The relationship between fuel poverty, electricity disconnection, and prepayment metering

    O' Sullivan, Kimberley C.; Howden-Chapman, Philippa L.; Fougere, Geoff [Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242 (New Zealand)


    Fuel poverty, or inability to afford adequate heating for a reasonable outlay of expenditure, is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. The connection between fuel poverty, and electricity disconnection or 'self-disconnection' is analysed for four cities using prepayment metering to pay for electricity. A price comparison analysis on a government-sponsored website showed that prepayment metering was more expensive than other payment options. This website analysis was supplemented by qualitative data from older people with chronic respiratory disease expressing their views about electricity disconnection and prepayment metering. We show that prepayment metering for electricity is more expensive than other payment methods in New Zealand and that older people's insights provide valuable context to these issues. Under the present payment schedule, the use of prepayment metering to pay for electricity is not a suitable policy instrument to address fuel poverty, which remains problematic. The deregulated electricity market continues to lead to increases in the real price of residential electricity and in the number of people in fuel poverty. We offer policy suggestions for reducing fuel poverty in New Zealand. (author)

  6. On setting of emergency standby power in hospitals%关于医院配置应急备用电源的探讨

    童福坤; 陈爱东; 白明昊


    The accidental outage of electric power in hospital is a serious problem. The hospital reputation will be influenced upon power failure without a standby power operating emergency, even threatens patients' life. To prevent medical risk caused by accidental outage of electric power, this paper introduced PBY series high-capacity uninterrupted power supply cabinet in the role of hospital emergency standby power. The configuration of the hospital standby power supply was also discussed in the paper which can be the reference for the choice of standby power in hospital.%医院供电系统正常运行非常重要,如果发生意外停电时没有完好的后备电源将会给医院造成损失,甚至威胁患者生命安全.为了保证医院急救医疗设备的供电系统安全可靠,并防止医院意外停电带来的医疗风险,通过使用PBY系列大容量不问断电源柜,介绍其在医院备用电源领域中的作用,并对医院后备电源的配置进行探讨,提供医院选择后备电源的参考.

  7. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Shyi-Wen Wang


    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  8. Optimal design of a maintainable cold-standby system

    Yu Haiyang [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France)]. E-mail:; Yalaoui, Farouk [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chatelet, Eric [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chu Chengbin [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)


    This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility.

  9. Effects of connection of electrical and mechanical potentials in inverse osmosis processes

    Cortes, Farid; Chejne, Farid; Chejne, David; Velez, Fredy; Londono, Carlos [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas - TAYEA, Instituto de Energia, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Antigua (Colombia)


    A theoretical dissertation and experimental assays of the irreversible phenomena applied to electro-kinetics and inverse osmosis is presented. Experimental assays were made on simple equipment to evidence the occurrence of connected irreversible phenomena between electric current flow and global mass flow. The coupling of these two phenomena allowed us to make conclusions about the possibility of reducing operation costs of the inverse osmosis equipment due to increasing the saline solution flow between 12% and 20%. (author)

  10. Method of making electric connections using inkjet printing painting on LTCC substrates

    Futera, K.; Jakubowska, M.; Kozioł, G.; Araźna, A.; Janeczek, K.

    Hybrid microelectronics modules fabricated on LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) substrates are most used in aerospace, automotive and medical industry. Microelectronics modules on LTCC substrates are common application for sensors in ABS or Air Bags systems. High scale of circuit integration and possibility to combine different types of elements and mounting techniques are factor which drags attention of Research Laboratories to develop new generations of hybrid microelectronics modules and new technologies of their fabrication. In the paper new method of fabrication hybrid microelectronic modules on LTCC substrates using Inkjet printing technique is describe. In particular latest achievements of Inkjet printed high resolutions circuits on unfired LTCC foil were presented. Paper also include unprecedented method of filing VIA (Vertical Electrical Connections) using developed in Tele & Radio Research Institute Inkjet printing System. Problems in fabrication hybrid microelectronic modules on LTCC substrates, in particular with screen printing electrical connections and VIA holes filing were discussed. Advantages of proposed new method of fabrication electric connections using Inkjet printing on LTCC substrates were given and possible areas of application were discussed.

  11. Modelling and experimental evaluation of parallel connected lithium ion cells for an electric vehicle battery system

    Bruen, Thomas; Marco, James


    Variations in cell properties are unavoidable and can be caused by manufacturing tolerances and usage conditions. As a result of this, cells connected in series may have different voltages and states of charge that limit the energy and power capability of the complete battery pack. Methods of removing this energy imbalance have been extensively reported within literature. However, there has been little discussion around the effect that such variation has when cells are connected electrically in parallel. This work aims to explore the impact of connecting cells, with varied properties, in parallel and the issues regarding energy imbalance and battery management that may arise. This has been achieved through analysing experimental data and a validated model. The main results from this study highlight that significant differences in current flow can occur between cells within a parallel stack that will affect how the cells age and the temperature distribution within the battery assembly.

  12. Low standby leakage 12T SRAM cell characterisation

    Yadav, Arjun; Nakhate, Sangeeta


    In this work, a low power and variability-aware static random access memory (SRAM) architecture based on a twelve-transistor (12T) cell is proposed. This cell obtains low static power dissipation due to a parallel global latch (G-latch) and storage latch (S-latch), along with a global wordline (GWL), which offer a high cell ratio and pull-up ratio for reliable read and write operations and a low cell ratio and pull-up ratio during idle mode to reduce the standby power dissipation. In the idle state, only the S-latch stores bits, while the G-latch is isolated from the S-latch and the GWL is deactivated. The leakage power consumption of the proposed SRAM cell is thereby reduced by 38.7% compared to that of the conventional six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell. This paper evaluates the impact of the chip supply voltage and surrounding temperature variations on the standby leakage power and observes considerable improvement in the power dissipation. The read/write access delay, read static noise margin (SNM) and write SNM were evaluated, and the results were compared with those of the standard 6T SRAM cell. The proposed cell, when compared with the existing cell using the Monte Carlo method, shows an appreciable improvement in the standby power dissipation and layout area.

  13. Creating the electric energy mix of a non-connected Aegean island

    Stamou, Paraskevi; Karali, Sophia; Chalakatevaki, Maria; Daniil, Vasiliki; Tzouka, Katerina; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Papanicolaou, Panos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Mamasis, Nikos


    As the electric energy in the non-connected islands is mainly produced by oil-fueled power plants, the unit cost is extremely high. Here the various energy sources are examined in order to create the appropriate electric energy mix for a non-connected Aegean island. All energy sources (renewable and fossil fuels) are examined and each one is evaluated using technical, environmental and economic criteria. Finally the most appropriate energy sources are simulated considering the corresponding energy works. Special emphasis is given to the use of biomass and the possibility of replacing (even partially) the existing oil-fueled power plant. Finally, a synthesis of various energy sources is presented that satisfies the electric energy demand taking into account the base and peak electric loads of the island. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  14. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Qiang Jiaxi


    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  15. Making the connection: The relationship between fuel poverty, electricity disconnection, and prepayment metering

    O' Sullivan, Kimberley C., E-mail: [Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242 (New Zealand); Howden-Chapman, Philippa L.; Fougere, Geoff [Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242 (New Zealand)


    Fuel poverty, or inability to afford adequate heating for a reasonable outlay of expenditure, is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. The connection between fuel poverty, and electricity disconnection or 'self-disconnection' is analysed for four cities using prepayment metering to pay for electricity. A price comparison analysis on a government-sponsored website showed that prepayment metering was more expensive than other payment options. This website analysis was supplemented by qualitative data from older people with chronic respiratory disease expressing their views about electricity disconnection and prepayment metering. We show that prepayment metering for electricity is more expensive than other payment methods in New Zealand and that older people's insights provide valuable context to these issues. Under the present payment schedule, the use of prepayment metering to pay for electricity is not a suitable policy instrument to address fuel poverty, which remains problematic. The deregulated electricity market continues to lead to increases in the real price of residential electricity and in the number of people in fuel poverty. We offer policy suggestions for reducing fuel poverty in New Zealand. - Research highlights: {yields} Fuel poverty is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. {yields} Prepayment metering is more expensive than other electricity payment options in NZ. {yields} Older people express fear of disconnection and find using prepayment stressful. {yields} Prepayment metering, as currently used in New Zealand, may contribute to fuel poverty. {yields} Better regulation of domestic pricing structures could reduce fuel poverty in NZ.

  16. Joining characteristics of titanium-based orthodontic wires connected by laser and electrical welding methods.

    Matsunaga, Junko; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Elshahawy, Waleed; Yoshida, Noriaki


    This study investigated the possibility of electrical and laser welding to connect titanium-based alloy (beta-titanium and nickel-titanium) wires and stainless-steel or cobalt-chromium alloy wires for fabrication of combination arch-wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (S-S), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (15 mm long each) were made by electrical welding and laser welding. Non-welded wires (30 mm long) were also used as a control. Maximum loads at fracture (N) and elongation (%) were measured by conducting tensile test. The data (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P welding and those of the S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens welded by laser. On the other hand, the laser-welded Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and β-Ti/β-Ti specimens exhibited higher values of the ML and EL compared to those of the corresponding specimens welded by electrical method. In the heterogeneously welded combinations, the electrically welded Ni-Ti/S-S, β-Ti/S-S and β-Ti/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly (P welded by laser. Electrical welding exhibited the higher values of maximum load at fracture and elongation for heterogeneously welded combinations than laser-welding.

  17. Advances in the Electrical Connection Technique of Thin Film Solar Cells on a Titanium Substrate

    Zwanenburg, R.


    Dutch Space has developed a new solar blanket (the MATRIX) that consists of just Thin Film (TF) solar cells made on titanium substrates. The cells are electrically connected via a number of contact points (pressure contact only). It was found that degradation of these electrical contacts was mainly caused by a too low contact pressure. Measures have been taken to increase the contact pressure and number of contact points. An alternative contact method using conductive adhesive has been tested, but this solution failed as cell delamination from the substrate underneath the bonding spots was observed after thermal cycling tests. An improved contact system with four contact points along the cell width was implemented in an assembly of 24 new TF solar cells. Thermal cycling tests showed a stable performance of the electrical connection. Further improvements are foreseen using a new cell layout with 8 contact points. Unfortunately, cell delamination was observed after the thermal cycling testing. The adhesion between the cell coating and the molybdenum undercoat needs to be improved for the future production of TF cells.

  18. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Kim, Yungrae


    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  19. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Kim, Yungrae


    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  20. Learning theories reveal loss of pancreatic electrical connectivity in diabetes as an adaptive response

    Goel, Pranay


    Cells of almost all solid tissues are connected with gap junctions which permit the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, integral to regulating coordinated function in the tissue. The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for secreting the hormone insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Gap junctions are the only electrical contacts between the beta-cells in the tissue of these excitable islets. It is generally believed that they are responsible for synchrony of the membrane voltage oscillations among beta-cells, and thereby pulsatility of insulin secretion. Most attempts to understand connectivity in islets are often interpreted, bottom-up, in terms of measurements of gap junctional conductance. This does not, however explain systematic changes, such as a diminished junctional conductance in type 2 diabetes. We attempt to address this deficit via the model presented here, which is a learning theory of gap junctional adaptation derived with analogy to neural systems. Here, gap junctions ...

  1. Assessment of Electrical Influence of Multiple Piezoelectric Transducers' Connection on Actual Satellite Vibration Suppression

    Shigeru Shimose


    Full Text Available We conduct comprehensive investigation of a semiactive vibration suppression method using piezoelectric transducers attached to structures. In our system, piezoelectric transducers are connected to an electric circuit composed of the diodes, an inductance, and a selective switch. Our method (SSDI makes better use of counterelectromotive force to suppress the vibration, instead of simple dissipation of vibration energy. We use an actual artificial satellite to verify their high performance compared to conventional semi-active methods. As a consequence, we demonstrate that our semi-active switching method can suppress the vibration of the real artificial satellite to as much as 50% amplitude reduction. In our experiment, we reveal that the suppression performance depends on how multiple piezoelectric transducers are connected, namely, their series or parallel connection. We draw two major conclusions from theoretical analysis and experiment, for constructing effective semi-active controller using piezoelectric transducers. This paper clearly proves that the performance of the method is the connection (series or parallel of multiple piezoelectric transducers and the their resistances dependent on frequency.

  2. Connection of Screw Instability with Electric Current in an Accretion Disc around a Black Hole

    LAN Xiao-Xia; WANG Ding-Xiong; GAN Zhao-Ming


    @@ The screw instability of the magnetic field is discussed based on its poloidal configuration generated by a single toroidal electric current flowing in the equatorial plane of a Kerr Mack hole (BH). The rotation of the BH relative to the disc induces an electromotive force, which in turn results in a poloidal electric current. By using Ampere's law, we calculate the toroidal component of the magnetic field and derive a criterion for the screw instability of the magnetic field connecting the rotating BH with its surrounding disc. It is determined that the screw instability is related to two parameters: the radius of the disc and the BH spin. The occurrence of screw instability is depicted in a parameter space. In addition, we discuss the effect of the screw instability on magnetic extraction of energy from the rotating BH.

  3. Settlement Between Electric Transmission Companies under the Point of Connection Tariff or "Postal Stamp" System (Japanese)

    Hatta, Tatsuo


    This paper discusses how an electric transmission company in a pass-through area should settle the cost of a pass-through with the neighboring transmission companies under the point-of-connection tariff system. First, the paper shows that if the cost of the pass-through is settled based on the principle that determines the (metered) power transmission fares for ordinary customers (i.e. injectors and withdrawers) of the transmission companies, the fare receipts of the pass-through transmission...

  4. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL


    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  5. Using government purchasing power to reduce equipment standby power

    Harris, Jeffrey; Meier, Alan; Bartholomew, Emily; Thomas, Alison; Glickman, Joan; Ware Michelle


    Although the government sector represents only 10 to 15 percent of the economy in most countries, carefully targeted public procurement can play a significant role in market transformation through its influence on both buyers and suppliers. Government leadership in energy-efficient purchasing can set an example for other buyers, while creating opportunities for leading manufacturers and distributors to increase their sales and market share by offering energy-efficient products at competitive prices. Under proper circumstances, a highly visible government purchasing policy can have a disproportionately large influence on the market for efficient products. In the United States, President Bush signed an Executive Order in 2001 directing all federal agencies to buy products with low standby power (1 watt or less where possible). This represents a deliberate choice to use government purchasing - rather than regulations or incentives - as a market-based strategy to encourage energy savings. It also builds upon existing efforts to encourage Federal purchase of energy-efficient products (Energy Star products and others in the top 25th percentile of efficiency). This paper summarizes the Federal Energy Management Program s first 18 months of experience in implementing this Executive Order, including analysis of data on standby power, interactions with manufacturers and industry groups, and the relationship between these efforts and other federal programs concerning product labelling, testing, rating, and efficiency standards. After five years of implementing low-standby power purchasing, we estimate energy savings for federal agencies alone at about 230 GWh/year (worth US$14 million), with spillover effects on the broader market that will save all US consumers nearly 4000 GWh/year (US$300 million).

  6. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    Mandrup, Thomas


    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  7. Estimation of Membrane Hydration Status for Standby Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems by Impedance Measurement: First Results on Variable Temperature Stack Characterization

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by periods of standby, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest possible time. However, the membranes of which proton exchange membrane fuel cells are made...... way for estimating the hydration status and the temperature of its membrane before the system is started up. A summarizing table with the complete characterization of the fuel cell stack is included in this article....

  8. Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid

    Frolov M. Yu.


    Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.

  9. Evolution of Energy Efficiency Programs Over Time: The Case of Standby Power

    Payne, Christopher; Chung, Iris [Hoi; Fisher, Emily


    Issued in 2001, Presidential Executive Order 13221 directed federal agencies to purchase products with low standby power, with the goal of 1) reducing energy consumption in federal facilities, and 2) drawing attention to the problem of high standby power consumption, with guidance provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). At that time, standby power was newly recognized as an increasing building energy load. Since then, procurement of products with low standby power have been set in place in acquisition processes, and the purchasing power of the federal government continues to influence manufacturers design decisions related to standby power. In recent years, FEMP has shifted effort from direct manufacturer outreach for data collection, to integrating low standby requirement into broader acquisition programs including Energy Star and Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT). Another milestone has been the labeling of low standby products on the GSA Advantage website to simplify and enhance compliance. Looking forward into the program?s future, this question arises How do we design programs over time to reflect market and technology changes, by adjusting programmatic requirements while maintaining effectiveness? This paper discusses that question for the case of standby power, which transitioned from covering a single to multiple environmental attributes, both in the context of the program's past and future.

  10. An investigation of standby energy losses in residential sector: Solutions and policies

    Singh Solanki, Parmal [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [G. Narayanamma Institute of Technology and Science (for Women), Hyderabad (India); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    This paper investigates the standby power losses of household appliances and determines these losses by field measurements and bottom-up approaches. It is revealed that average standby power losses of e-appliances at household in Oman is 103.4 Watts and could further increase if other miscellaneous appliances are also taken into account. Calculations show that TV sets alone are responsible to consume 1.89 MW standby powers across the country. The paper considers various technological and socio-economic options to diminish the standby power consumption and signify that 42.72% of energy consumed by appliances can be saved by end-users implementing suitable measures. Energy management programmes like energy efficiency standards, labelling and policy instruments to tackle the standby power losses are also discussed. Finally, paper looks into the barriers and their way-outs to implement the energy efficiency standards and labelling.

  11. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.


    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  12. Thermo-optically tuned photonic resonators with concurrent electrical connection and thermal isolation

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Zortman, William A.; Savignon, Daniel J.


    A photonic resonator system is designed to use thermal tuning to adjust the resonant wavelength of each resonator in the system, with a separate tuning circuit associated with each resonator so that individual adjustments may be made. The common electrical ground connection between the tuning circuits is particularly formed to provide thermal isolation between adjacent resonators by including a capacitor along each return path to ground, where the presence of the capacitor's dielectric material provides the thermal isolation. The use of capacitively coupling necessarily requires the use of an AC current as an input to the heater element (conductor/resistor) of each resonator, where the RMS value of the AC signal is indicative of the amount of heat that is generated along the element and the degree of wavelength tuning that is obtained.

  13. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks

    Hald, Bjørn Olav


    The physiology of biological structures is inherently dynamic and emerges from the interaction and assembly of large collections of small entities. The extent of coupled entities complicates modeling and increases computational load. Here, microvascular networks are used to present a novel...... generative approach to connectivity based on the observation that biological organization is hierarchical and composed of a limited set of building blocks, i.e. a vascular network consists of blood vessels which in turn are composed by one or more cell types. Fast electrical communication is crucial...... sophisticated models of vascular dynamics, the generative approach can be applied to other biological systems, e.g. nervous tissue, the lymphatics, or the biliary system....

  14. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    Post, Richard F.


    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  15. Learning theories reveal loss of pancreatic electrical connectivity in diabetes as an adaptive response.

    Pranay Goel

    Full Text Available Cells of almost all solid tissues are connected with gap junctions which permit the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, integral to regulating coordinated function in the tissue. The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for secreting the hormone insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Gap junctions are the only electrical contacts between the beta-cells in the tissue of these excitable islets. It is generally believed that they are responsible for synchrony of the membrane voltage oscillations among beta-cells, and thereby pulsatility of insulin secretion. Most attempts to understand connectivity in islets are often interpreted, bottom-up, in terms of measurements of gap junctional conductance. This does not, however, explain systematic changes, such as a diminished junctional conductance in type 2 diabetes. We attempt to address this deficit via the model presented here, which is a learning theory of gap junctional adaptation derived with analogy to neural systems. Here, gap junctions are modelled as bonds in a beta-cell network, that are altered according to homeostatic rules of plasticity. Our analysis reveals that it is nearly impossible to view gap junctions as homogeneous across a tissue. A modified view that accommodates heterogeneity of junction strengths in the islet can explain why, for example, a loss of gap junction conductance in diabetes is necessary for an increase in plasma insulin levels following hyperglycemia.

  16. Electrical Resistance of the Solder Connections for the Consolidation of the LHC Main Interconnection Splices

    Lutum, R; Scheuerlein, C


    For the consolidation of the LHC 13 kA main interconnection splices, shunts will be soldered onto each of the 10170 splices. The solder alloy selected for this purpose is Sn60Pb40. In this context the electrical resistance of shunt to busbar lap splices has been measured in the temperature range from RT to 20 K. A cryocooler set-up has been adapted such that a test current of 150 A could be injected for accurate resistance measurements in the low nΩ range. To study the influence of the solder bulk resistivity on the overall splice resistance, connections produced with Sn96Ag4 and Sn77.2In20Ag2.8 have been studied as well. The influence of the Sn60Pb40 solder resistance is negligible when measuring the splice resistance in a longitudinal configuration over a length of 6 cm. In a transverse measurement configuration the splice resistance is significantly influenced by the solder. The connections prepared with Sn77.2In20Ag2.8 show significantly higher resistance values, as expected from the relatively high sol...

  17. Transcranial Electric Stimulation Can Impair Gains during Working Memory Training and Affects the Resting State Connectivity.

    Möller, Annie; Nemmi, Federico; Karlsson, Kim; Klingberg, Torkel


    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising technique that has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance and enhance the effect of cognitive training. However, experimental set up and electrode placement are not always determined based on neurofunctional knowledge about WM, leading to inconsistent results. Additional research on the effects of tES grounded on neurofunctional evidence is therefore necessary. Sixty young, healthy, volunteers, assigned to six different groups, participated in 5 days of stimulation or sham treatment. Twenty-five of these subjects also participated in MRI acquisition. We performed three experiments: In the first one, we evaluated tES using either direct current stimulation (tDCS) with bilateral stimulation of the frontal or parietal lobe; in the second one, we used the same tDCS protocol with a different electrode placement (i.e., supraorbital cathode); in the third one, we used alternating currents (tACS) of 35 Hz, applied bilaterally to either the frontal or parietal lobes. The behavioral outcome measure was the WM capacity (i.e., number of remembered spatial position) during the 5 days of training. In a subsample of subjects we evaluated the neural effects of tDCS by measuring resting state connectivity with functional MRI, before and after the 5 days of tDCS and visuo-spatial WM training. We found a significant impairment of WM training-related gains associated with parietal tACS and frontal tDCS. Five days of tDCS stimulation was also associated with significant change in resting state connectivity revealed by multivariate pattern analysis. None of the stimulation paradigms resulted in improved WM performance or enhanced WM training gains. These results show that tES can have negative effects on cognitive plasticity and affect resting-state functional connectivity.

  18. Voltage dip generator for testing wind turbines connected to electrical networks

    Veganzones, C.; Martinez, S.; Platero, C.A.; Blazquez, F.; Ramirez, D.; Arribas, J.R.; Merino, J.; Gordillo, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, J.A.; Herrero, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hydraulics and Energy, ETSICCP, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n. 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This paper describes a new voltage dip generator that allows the shape of the time profile of the voltage generated to be configured. The use of this device as a tool to test the fault ride-through capability of wind turbines connected to the electricity grid can provide some remarkable benefits: First, this system offers the possibility of adapting the main features of the time-voltage profile generated (dip depth, dip duration, the ramp slope during the recovery process after clearing fault, etc.) to the specific requirements set forth by the grid operation codes, in accordance with different network electrical systems standards. Second, another remarkable ability of this system is to provide sinusoidal voltage and current wave forms during the overall testing process without the presence of harmonic components. This is made possible by the absence of electronic converters. Finally, the paper includes results and a discussion on the experimental data obtained with the use of a reduced size laboratory prototype that was constructed to validate the operating features of this new device. (author)

  19. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  20. Is there any exposure from a mobile phone in stand-by mode?

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    Several studies have been using a GSM mobile phone in stand-by mode as the source for exposure, and they claimed that this caused effects on for instance sleep and testicular function. In stand-by mode the phone is only active in periodic location updates, and this occurs with a frequency set...... by the net operator. Typical updates occur with 2-5 h in between, and between these updates the phone is to be considered as a passive radio receiver with no microwave emission. Thus, the exposure in stand-by mode can be considered negligible....

  1. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu


    Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...

  2. Sinus node, phrenic nerve and electrical connections between superior vena cava and right atrium: lessons learned from a prospective study

    LONG De-yong; MA Chang-sheng; JIANG Hong; DONG Jian-zeng; LIU Xing-peng; HUANG He; TANG Yan-hong; WU Gang; HUANG Cong-xin


    Background When performing superior vena cava isolation, the major concerns are inadvertent ablation on sinus node and right phrenic nerve. However, little is known about the spatial relationship of electrical connections between superior vena cava and right atrium with the sinus node and phrenic nerve locations among individual patients.Methods We studied 87 patients (male/female 60/27, mean age of (51±9) years) with atrial fibrillation. Before superior vena cava isolation, the sinus node site was defined by right atrium activation mapping during sinus rhythm and the right phrenic nerve site was localized via pacing manoeuvre. Superior vena cava was isolated by ablation at the electrical connection under the guidance of circular mapping catheter. The sites of sinus node, phrenic nerve and electrical connections were noted. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t test. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Right atrium activation mapping revealed that the sinus node located at the anterior lateral segment of superior vena cava-right atrium junction in all patients, in 82 patients with detectable diaphragmatic stimulations, the phrenic nerve sites were predominantly at the lateral segment (70/82) with anterior lateral and anterior segments for a few patients. A total of 165 electrical connections were located among all 87 patients, and this averaged 1.8±0.6 (1-3) per patient. The anterior septum (72 patients (43.6%)), the anterior wall (40 (24.2%)), and the posterior septum (35 (35.4%)) of superior vena cava-right atrium junction were the electrical connection regular sites. Superior vena cava was isolated in all patients. Two patients developed sinus bradycardia, with 3 mild superior vena cava stenosis and 2 phrenic nerve palsy.Conclusions The sinus node, phrenic nerve and electrical connection sites were distributed along the superior vena cava-right atrium junctions at expected locations for most patients. The electrical

  3. Basis for Interim Operation for the K-Reactor in Cold Standby

    Shedrow, B.


    The Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) document for K Reactor in Cold Standby and the L- and P-Reactor Disassembly Basins was prepared in accordance with the draft DOE standard for BIO preparation (dated October 26, 1993).


    Geni Gupur


    By using the strong continuous semigroup theory of linear operators we prove the existence of a unique positive time-dependent solution of the model describing a repairable, standby, human & machine system.

  5. PV-Powered CoMP-Based Green Cellular Networks with a Standby Grid Supply

    Abu Jahid


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel framework for PV-powered cellular networks with a standby grid supply and an essential energy management technique for achieving envisaged green networks. The proposal considers an emerging cellular network architecture employing two types of coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission techniques for serving the subscribers. Under the proposed framework, each base station (BS is powered by an individual PV solar energy module having an independent storage device. BSs are also connected to the conventional grid supply for meeting additional energy demand. We also propose a dynamic inter-BS solar energy sharing policy through a transmission line for further greening the proposed network by minimizing the consumption from the grid supply. An extensive simulation-based study in the downlink of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE cellular system is carried out for evaluating the energy efficiency performance of the proposed framework. System performance is also investigated for identifying the impact of various system parameters including storage factor, storage capacity, solar generation capacity, transmission line loss, and different CoMP techniques.

  6. Subdivision based isogeometric analysis technique for electric field integral equations for simply connected structures

    Li, Jie; Dault, Daniel; Liu, Beibei; Tong, Yiying; Shanker, Balasubramaniam


    The analysis of electromagnetic scattering has long been performed on a discrete representation of the geometry. This representation is typically continuous but not differentiable. The need to define physical quantities on this geometric representation has led to development of sets of basis functions that need to satisfy constraints at the boundaries of the elements/tessellations (viz., continuity of normal or tangential components across element boundaries). For electromagnetics, these result in either curl/div-conforming basis sets. The geometric representation used for analysis is in stark contrast with that used for design, wherein the surface representation is higher order differentiable. Using this representation for both geometry and physics on geometry has several advantages, and is elucidated in Hughes et al. (2005) [7]. Until now, a bulk of the literature on isogeometric methods have been limited to solid mechanics, with some effort to create NURBS based basis functions for electromagnetic analysis. In this paper, we present the first complete isogeometry solution methodology for the electric field integral equation as applied to simply connected structures. This paper systematically proceeds through surface representation using subdivision, definition of vector basis functions on this surface, to fidelity in the solution of integral equations. We also present techniques to stabilize the solution at low frequencies, and impose a Calderón preconditioner. Several results presented serve to validate the proposed approach as well as demonstrate some of its capabilities.

  7. Anodic Bonding between LTCC Substrate and Si Substrate with Electrical Connections

    Matsuzaki, Sakae; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    This paper describes metal-metal electrical connection simultaneously established with anodic bonding between a LTCC (low temperature cofired ceramic) substrate and a Si substrate. Metal pads are composed of Sn on Cu. Sn melts during anodic bonding, absorbing the height margin of the metal pads to ensure good contact between the LTCC substrate and the Si substrate. This study first investigated formic acid vapor treatment before anodic bonding to remove an oxide layer on the Sn surface. The removal of the oxide layer proceeds at a process temperature of 150°C or higher. By the treatment at 250°C, the surface of the Sn layer is smoothed due to reflow effect, but the multilayer structure of the metal pads does not significantly change after 5 min treatment. The bonded metal pad is almost uniform in both structure and composition throughout its thickness. The composition of the bonded metal pads is approximately Sn : Cu = 1 : 1 in atomic ratio, and might have a remelting temperature of ca. 415°C, which is much higher than a reflow temperature in device mounting process.

  8. Reliability analysis of imperfect coverage systems with a shared warm standby

    Li Pei-Chang


    Full Text Available Redundancy technique is commonly applied to satisfy the reliability requirements of fault-tolerant systems. Warm standby, a compromise between hot standby and cold standby in term of power consumption and recovery time, has attracted wide attention over the past several decades. However, the existing reliability analysis methods for warm standby system with imperfect coverage are difficult to deal with some cases, such as non-exponential time-to-failure distributions for the system components and the systems with shared standbys. In this paper, a new approach based on step function and impulse function is proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing approaches. The reliability of a system including shared standbys is deduced considering two kinds of imperfect fault coverage models, which contain Element Level Coverage (ELC and Fault Level Coverage (FLC. The proposed approach can applicable to any type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components subject to imperfect fault coverage. A case study is presented to illustrate the applications and advantages.

  9. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    Lofgren, E.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Fairfax Station, VA (United States); Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time independent and a time dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor operated valves (MOVs), motor driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine driven pumps (FDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78%) from environmental factors (standby time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63%) than standby time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby time stresses (approx. 78%). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk informed and performance based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  10. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    Lofgren, E.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Fairfax Station, VA (United States); Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time-independent and a time-dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby-time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby-time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor-operated valves (MOVs), motor-driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine-driven pumps (TDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78 %) from environmental factors (standby-time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63 %) than standby-time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby-time stresses (approx. 78 %). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk-informed and performance-based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  11. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan. Economic and regulatory analysis draft


    This economic and regulatory analysis meets the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which calls for an evaluation of the potential economic impacts of the gasoline rationing contingency plan. In addition, this analysis is intended to satisfy the requirements of the President's Executive Order No. 12044 of March 23, 1978, regarding government regulations, and provides an inflationary impact statement for the proposed rationing plan. To perform the analysis of rationing program impacts on the total national economy, three separate projections were required. First, a projection is made of the ''normal'' U.S. economy for a future period--the last quarter of 1980 through the third quarter of 1981 in this analysis. Second, a projection is made of the impacts which a petroleum supply interruption would have on the U.S. economy during this future period, assuming that DOE's standby allocation and price control regulations were implemented for crude oil and products. Third, and most significant, an estimate is made of the incremental impacts of the gasoline rationing program on this already-perturbed future U.S. economy.

  12. Automatic Distance Monitoring System of Contact Connections in High Voltage Equipment of Electric Power Lines

    M. Diachenko


    Full Text Available The developed automatic distance monitoring system of contact connections in high voltage equipment is based on technology of sensor circuits. The paper shows application of control methodology for contact connections in accordance with time rate of conductor temperature changes and contact connection and also direct measurement of transient resistance.

  13. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Lucas, H.; Ferroukhi, R. [et al.] [IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  14. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)


    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  15. The history of re-connection and the concept of the solar wind plasma with relatively small electrical conductivity

    Chertkov, A. D.


    Petschek's 're-connection' model, aspiring to be universal, treated as a boundary problem meets unresolvable difficulties connected with impossibility to specify correctly boundary and initial conditions. This problem was incorrectly formulated. Hence, ineradicable logarithmic singularities occurred on the boundary surfaces. Attempts to eliminate them by incorporating the finite electrical conductivity are incorrect. This should lead to the change in the equation type, boundary condition type and in consequence to the change in solutions. Besides, the slow mode shocks cannot be driven by small internal source. As an alternative a new plasma concept is suggested. The state of fully ionized plasma in space depends completely on the entropy of the plasma heating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma should be very far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. Debye's screening is not complete. The excitation of the powerful resonant self-consistent electric fields in plasma provides low electric conductivity. The MHD problems should be treated in frameworks of dissipative theories.

  16. Maintenance of atrial fibrillation by pulmonary vein tachycardia with ostial conduction block: evidence of an interpulmonary vein electrical connection.

    Matsuo, Seiichiro; Jaïs, Pierre; Wright, Matthew; Lim, Kang-Teng; Knecht, Sébastien; Haïssaguerre, Michel


    We report a case of a 56-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who underwent segmental, ostial pulmonary vein (PV) isolation while in arrhythmia. During isolation of the left superior PV (LSPV), organized electrical activity was seen within the vein, suggestive of a PV tachycardia with a cycle length of 90 ms. Simultaneously, organized electrical activity with a cycle length of 180 ms was seen in the left inferior PV (LIPV), suggestive of 2:1 conduction between the LSPV and the LIPV. Isolation of the LIPV resulted in conversion to sinus rhythm, while confirming isolation of the LSPV by the presence of ongoing PV tachycardia in this vein. This case demonstrates a direct electrical connection between the ipsilateral left PVs, leading to maintenance of atrial fibrillation.

  17. Electrical Engineers' Perceptions on Education--Electromagnetic Field Theory and Its Connection to Working Life

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallen, H.


    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n = 99 and n = 120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in…

  18. Electrical Engineers' Perceptions on Education--Electromagnetic Field Theory and Its Connection to Working Life

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallen, H.


    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n = 99 and n = 120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in…

  19. Planning Future Electric Vehicle Central Charging Stations Connected to Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben


    A great interest is recently paid to Electric Vehicles (EV) and their integration into electricity grids. EV can potentially play an important role in power system operation, however, the EV charging infrastructures have been only partly defined, considering them as limited to individual charging...

  20. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon


    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations.The results...

  1. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    Mandrup, Thomas


    African Standby Force is one of five regional structures that are intended to provide robust tools to the continental conflict management regime. In the book The Future of African Peace Operations from 2016, de Coning et al. shows the changing nature and role of African Peace Operations (Coning , Gelot......, & Karlsrud, 2016). They also ask the key question about the future of the African Standby Force, and end by asking an open and important question: how should the future force be structured and equipped to enable it to deal effectively with the hybrid threats that confront African states, which have...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  2. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco


    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  3. Design of grid connected PV systems considering electrical, economical and environmental aspects: A practical case

    Fernandez-Infantes, Alberto; Contreras, Javier [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n., 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3., 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)


    This paper presents the complete design of a photovoltaic installation that may be either used for internal electric consumption or for sale using the premium subsidy awarded by the Spanish Government. Electric optimization strategies are detailed in the project, as well as the sizing of the photovoltaic installation and economic and financial issues related to it. The project optimizes the electricity demand, improving reactive power and studying the convenience of hourly discrimination fees in addition to the design of the photovoltaic installation. A specific computer application for the automated calculation of all relevant parameters of the installation-physical, electrical, economical as well as ecological-has been developed to make the process of calculating photovoltaic installations easier and to reduce the design development time. Moreover, the budget of the photovoltaic installation is included, as well as its corresponding financial ratios and payback periods. Finally, the conclusions reached in the technical and economic design of the installation are shown. (author)

  4. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.


    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  5. Vertical impedance measurements of concrete bridge deck cover condition without a direct electrical connection to the reinforcing steel

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Baxter, Jared; Barton, Jeffrey; Guthrie, W. Spencer


    Vertical impedance measurements provide significant quantitative information about the ability of concrete cover to slow the penetration of chloride ions that can corrode steel reinforcement in a bridge deck. The primary limitations preventing the widespread adoption of vertical impedance for assessment of concrete bridge decks are (1) the necessity to have a direct electrical connection to the embedded steel reinforcement and (2) the low speeds of data acquisition. This work presents solutions to both limitations. A method using a large-area electrode as a reference electrode for vertical impedance testing is validated using both simulations and measurements in the field.

  6. Mathematic model of three-phase induction machine connected to advanced inverter for traction system for electric trolley



    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematical model of induction machine connected to a frequency inverter necessary to adjust the electric motor drive. The mathematical model based on the Park's theory allows the analysis of the whole spectrum (electric car – frequency inverter to drive the electric trolley bus made on ASTRA Bus Arad (Romania. To remove higher order harmonics, the PWM waveform of supply voltage is used, set in the general case. Operating characteristics of electric motor drive are set to sub-nominal frequency (f Bele 2007.Este documento estabelece um modelo matemático de máquina de indução conectado a um inversor de frequência necessário para ajustar o motor de acionamento elétrico. O modelo matemático baseado na Teoria de Park permite a análise de todo o espectro (carro elétrico com inversor de frequência para dirigir o ônibus elétrico feito em ASTRA Bus Arad (Romênia. Para remover harmônicas de ordem mais alta, a forma de onda da tensão de alimentação PWM é utilizado, definido no caso geral. Características de funcionamento do motor de acionamento elétrico são definidas para frequência sub-nominal (f

  7. 12 CFR 960.2 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of members.


    ... members with liquidity or other funding. (b) Fully secured. A Bank, at the time it issues or confirms a... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of members. 960.2 Section 960.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS...


    M. R. Taha


    Full Text Available Increased downscaling of CMOS circuits with respect to feature size and threshold voltage has a result ofdramatically increasing in leakage current. So, leakage power reduction is an important design issue foractive and standby modes as long as the technology scaling increased. In this paper, a simultaneous activeand standby energy optimization methodology is proposed for 22 nm sub-threshold CMOS circuits. In thefirst phase, we investigate the dual threshold voltage design for active energy per cycleminimization. Aslack based genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal reverse body bias assignment to set of noncriticalpaths gates to ensure low active energy per cycle with the maximum allowable frequency at theoptimal supply voltage. The second phase, determine the optimal reverse body bias that can be applied toall gates for standby power optimization at the optimal supply voltage determined from the first phase.Therefore, there exist two sets of gates and two reverse body bias values for each set. The reverse body biasis switched between these two values in response to the mode of operation. Experimental results areobtained for some ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits such as 74L85, 74283, ALU74181, and 16 bit RCA. Theoptimized circuits show significant energy saving ranged (from 14.5% to 42.28% and standby power saving ranged (from 62.8% to 67%.

  9. 12 CFR 960.3 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates. 960.3 Section 960.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS... associates with asset/liability management; or (4) To provide housing associates with liquidity or...

  10. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...


    ... February 14, 2012 Part IV Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC07 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby...: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for......

  11. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    Gardner, P. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  12. Photovoltaic system connected to electric grid in Brazil; Sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede eletrica no Brasil

    Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira Martins [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)], email:; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado Maia; Jannuzzi, Gilberto De Martino [International Energy Initiative (IEI), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email:


    Brazil has in the next decades the big challenge of seeking for solutions to meet its growing energy service needs and, at the same time, satisfy criteria of economics, security of supply, public health, secure universal energy access and environmental sustainability. The growing environmental pressures over the hydropower potential exploitation at the Amazon region and the energy sources even more distant from the customer load center are some of the aspects which are posed in order to seek for solutions. Several countries are betting on grid-connected PV systems. In Brazil, the initiatives to promote the use of PV energy are still a few. Even though the country is endowed with a great solar energy potential, the initiatives to create and consolidate a market for the use of such technology and to develop the national industry for equipment and services are still incipient. The lack of legislation and regulation is one of the barriers pointed out. Thus, the objective of this report is to assess the reasons why the country does not have a specific legislation to promote the use of grid-connected PV systems. For such, grid-connected PV systems installed in Brazil and the existent incentives are identified. The methodology used was based on literature review and conduction of specific questionnaires. The latter was sent to the Ministry of Mines and Energy, researchers and one power distribution company. (author)

  13. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    Salleh N. A. S.


    Full Text Available In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA weather station. For load profile, the information about fishing activities and the amount of subsidy spent by the government were obtained from the interview session with the fishermen and validated with Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM. The results acquired are compared between grid-only and grid-connected RE systems in term of net present cost (NPC, operational cost and payback period. A sensitivity analysis is done to find the minimal Feed-in Tariff (FiT rate that can be implemented in order to encourage the use of RE system in this sector. Then, the relationship between FiT and NPC, payback period and emission of pollutants are analyzed. At current FiT rates RM 0.813/kWh, hybrid grid-PV system manages to achieve its optimal in generating high income from selling the power to the grid with convincing amount of electricity production and short payback period. It is concluded at minimum RM 0.56/kWh of FiT, the grid-connected RE system is possible to be developed because its performance shows better outcome compared to the grid-only system.

  14. Electric Drives with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Connected to Internal Combustion Engines

    Morandin, Mattia


    In recent years, the increasing cost of oil and Earth global warming due to greenhouse gases have pushed the scientific research, the governments and thus the markets in the direction of a higher efficiency of the systems in order to reduce the use of this fuel and therefore its associated emissions of CO2. Nowadays, the most involved sectors of this technological revolution are the fields of electricity generation and the transportation. In fact, these two sectors are the main accountable...

  15. Adaptive system for automatic stabilization of the power factor for electric drives of separation device by means of serially connected capacitors bank

    Borisevich, V. D.; Juromskiy, V. M.


    A method for designing adaptive systems for automatic extremum search to stabilize the power factor of local electric power system of electric is considered. It consists in application of the serially connected capacitors compensating the reactive component of the total electric power of in parallel connected centrifugal machines usually called as an aggregate. Operation of the system just demands measuring voltage at the output of the static frequency converter for electric drives. The proposed control system is designed to stabilize the power factor close to unity in a case of alteration of parameters of a separation cascade or a single separation device in an aggregate. Such system can be operated continuously or connected occasionally depending on a technological situation. In addition, it totally excludes the phenomenon of overcompensation.

  16. In-Plane Electrical Connectivity and Near-Field Concentration of Isolated Graphene Resonators Realized by Ion Beams.

    Luo, Weiwei; Cai, Wei; Xiang, Yinxiao; Wu, Wei; Shi, Bin; Jiang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Ni; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun


    Graphene plasmons provide great opportunities in light-matter interactions benefiting from the extreme confinement and electrical tunability. Structured graphene cavities possess enhanced confinements in 3D and steerable plasmon resonances, potential in applications for sensing and emission control at the nanoscale. Besides graphene boundaries obtained by mask lithography, graphene defects engineered by ion beams have shown efficient plasmon reflections. In this paper, near-field responses of structured graphene achieved by ion beam direct-writing are investigated. Graphene nanoresonators are fabricated easily and precisely with a spatial resolution better than 30 nm. Breathing modes are observed in graphene disks. The amorphous carbons around weaken the response of edge modes in the resonators, but meanwhile render the isolated resonators in-plane electrical connections, where near-fields are proved gate-tunable. The realization of gate-tunable near-fields of graphene 2D resonators opens up tunable near-field couplings with matters. Moreover, graphene nonconcentric rings with engineered near-field confinement distributions are demonstrated, where the quadrupole plasmon modes are excited. Near-field mappings reveal concentrations at the scale of 3.8×10-4λ02 within certain zones which can be engineered. The realization of electrically tunable graphene nanoresonators by ion beam direct-writing is promising for active manipulation of emission and sensing at the nanoscale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simulation of Standby Efficiency Improvement for a Line Level Control Resonant Converter Based on Solar Power Systems

    Ming-Tse Kuo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new scheme to improve the standby efficiency of the high-power half-bridge line level control (LLC resonant converter. This new circuit is applicable to improving the efficiency of the renewable energy generation system in distributed power systems. The main purpose is to achieve high-efficiency solar and wind power and stable output under different load conditions. In comparison with the traditional one, this novel method can improve standby efficiency at standby. The system characteristics of this proposed method have been analyzed through detailed simulations, which prove its feasibility.

  18. Electric field and ion density anomalies in the mid latitude ionosphere: Possible connection with earthquakes?

    Gousheva, M. N.; Glavcheva, R. P.; Danov, D. L.; Hristov, P. L.; Kirov, B. B.; Georgieva, K. Y.


    The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the search for a correlation between seismic activity and ionospherical anomalies. We found observational evidence of possible earthquake effects in the near-equatorial and low latitude ionosphere; these ionospheric anomalies have been proposed by Gousheva et al. [Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov P., Hristov, P., Influence of earthquakes on the electric field disturbances in the ionosphere on board of the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 58 (8) 911-916, 2005a; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Observation from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite of anomalies associated with seismic activity. In: Poster Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies: Space in the Service of Society, RAST '2005, June 9-11, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 119-123, 2005b; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere probably related to strong earthquakes. Adv. Space Res. 37 (4), 660-665, 2006]. This paper presents new results from observations of the quasi-static electric field and ion density on board INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite in the mid latitude ionosphere above sources of moderate earthquakes. Data from INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and seismic data (World Data Center, Denver, Colorado, USA) for magnetically quiet and medium quiet days are juxtaposed in time-space domain. For satellite's orbits in the time period 15.09-01.10.1981 an increase in the horizontal and vertical components of the quasi-static electric field and fluctuations of the ion density are observed over zones of forthcoming seismic events. Some similar post effects are observed too. The emphasis of this paper is put on the anomalies which specify the mid latitude ionosphere. The obtained results contain

  19. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  20. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.


    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  1. A probabilistic study of grid-connected wind electric conversion systems

    Mohanpurkar, Manish

    Scope and Method of Study. Purpose of the study is to model the power output of Wind Electric Conversion System (WECS) as a random variable given that wind speeds incident on them is random. The model is extended to model probability functions for combined power outputs of multiple WECS located in a wind regime. The impact of variable region in the power characteristic on the probability functions for power output of individual and multiple WECS is investigated. This model is employed in performance assessment of wind farms within probabilistic framework to obtain its load supplying capability. Smart grid functionalities and Demand Side Management (DSM) are identified to have complementary behavior beneficial for optimal operation of electric grid. This is demonstrated using the obtained model for wind farms and a possible modification of load demand distribution function. Findings and Conclusions. The power output of WECS is a mixed random variable. Impact of exponent 'n' on the probability density function (pdf) for power output of multiple WECS is "minor" for a low number of WECS. For a large number of WECS, there occurs a major redistribution of probabilities of power outputs leading to distinct pdf plots for different exponents. Increasing wind penetration leads to flatter power duration curves. Smart grid functionalities and DSM techniques if complemented in a suitable manner will assist in greater assimilation of wind energy into the grid.

  2. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.


    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  3. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng


    Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial...... community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power...... density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community...

  4. Concept maps representing knowledge of physics: Connecting structure and content in the context of electricity and magnetism

    Maija Nousiainen


    Full Text Available Many assume that the quality of students’ content knowledge can be connected to certain structural characteristics of concept maps, such as the clustering of concepts around other concepts, cyclical paths between concepts and the hierarchical ordering of concepts. In order to study this relationship, we examine concept maps in electricity and magnetism drawn by physics teacher students and their instructors. The structural analysis of the maps is based on the operationalisation of important structural features (i.e. the features of interest are recognised and made measurable. A quantitative analysis of 43 concept maps was carried out on this basis. The results show that structure and content are closely connected; the structural features of clustering, cyclicity and hierarchy can serve as quantitative measures in characterising structural quality as well as the quality of content knowledge in concept maps. These findings have educational implications in regard to fostering the teacher student’s organisation of knowledge and in monitoring the process of such organisation.


    M. Salah EL-Sherbeny


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the reliability and availability characteristics of three different series system configurations with warm standby components and a repairable service station. The failure time of the primary and warm standby are assumed to be exponentially distributed with parameters and respectively. The repair time distribution of each server is also exponentially distributed with parameter . The breakdown time and the repair time of the service station are also assumed exponentially distributed with parameters and respectively. We derive the reliability dependent on time, availability dependent on time, the mean time to failure, , and the steady-state availability for three configurations and perform comparisons. Comparisons are made for specific values of distribution parameters and of the cost of the components. The three configurations are ranked based on: , and where is either or .

  6. Stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with maximum repair time

    Ashish Kumar


    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to analyze the stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with concept of preventive maintenance, priority and maximum repair time. For this purpose, a stochastic model is developed in which initially one unit is operative and other is kept as cold standby. There is a single server who visits the system immediately as and when required. The server takes the unit under preventive maintenance after a maximum operation time at normal mode if one standby unit is available for operation. If the repair of the failed unit is not possible up to a maximum repair time, failed unit is replaced by new one. The failure time, maximum operation time and maximum repair time distributions of the unit are considered as exponentially distributed while repair and maintenance time distributions are considered as arbitrary. All random variables are statistically independent and repairs are perfect. Various measures of system effectiveness are obtained by using the technique of semi-Markov process and RPT. To highlight the importance of the study numerical results are also obtained for MTSF, availability and profit function.

  7. How to safely use a portable electric generator

    Pak Sang Lee


    Full Text Available If your facility does not have a permanent standby generator to use for temporary power outages, or if you are conducting mobile clinic activities in areas without electrical power, you may need a portable generator to power your electrical devices.

  8. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol.

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng


    Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community compositions were nearly stable. Comparatively, after changing parallel to series connection, there was a lag period for the system to get stable again and the microbial community compositions became greatly different. This study is the first attempt to elucidate the influence of short-term changes in connection on the performance of MFC stack, and could provide insight to the practical utilization of MFC.

  9. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    Mica, Isabella [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)]. E-mail:; Polignano, Maria Luisa [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Marco, Cinzia De [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)


    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes.

  10. Optimization analysis on thermal connection and electrical connection of thermoelectric refrigeration modules%热电制冷模块热连接与电连接的性能优化分析

    申利梅; 陈焕新; 梅佩佩; 钱小龙


    在考虑汤姆逊效应情形下,分析两块热电制冷模块的热连接与电连接方式的制冷性能,讨论热电偶对数比、工作电流和面长比对4种连接方式的制冷量和制冷系数的影响,探讨4种连接方式的最佳工况和适用范围.发现在大制冷量或较小温差需求下可选择热并联电串联模式;在较大温差需求下可选择热串联模式,且热串联电串联的制冷量始终大于热串联电并联的;然而对于中等温差需求,当需要大的制冷量时,可选用热并联电串联,当需要较高的制冷系数时,可选用热串联电串联.为实际应用中多个制冷模块的连接方式的选取提供了理论指导.%The thermal connection and electrical connection of two thermoelectric modules are analyzed when Thomson effect is taken into consideration. The discussion is focused on the refrigerating capacity and coefficient of performance of the four connection patterns, to analyze the contribution of following factors to the performance of thermoelectric refrigeration system, i. e. , the number of thermocouples ratio, operating current, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area to the length of thermoelectric element. It was found that the thermal parallel and electrical series mode could be chosen at the high cooling load or low temperature difference requirement. At the high temperature difference requirement, the thermal series mode could be chosen, and the cooling capacity of thermal series and electrical series mode is always larger than thermal scries and electrical parallel mode. However, at the middle temperature difference requirement, the thermal parallel and electrical series mode could be chosen at the large cooling load requirement, and the thermal series and electrical series mode could be chosen at the high coefficient of performance (COP) requirement. The optimum working conditions and range of application obtained for the four connection patterns will be a theoretical

  11. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector



    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  12. The Study of Cost Rate for Multiple Cold Standby System Replacement Policies


    We consider a replacement policy for a multiple-component cold-standby system, and after we analyze this policy, we want to get the mean total cost rate and the preventive policy to make it the lowest. In this system, the failure rate of the component in operation is constant, and the inspection will control all the processes of the operation. The system is inspected at random points over time to determine whether it is to be replaced. During the process, the replacement decision is based on the number of failed components at the time of inspection.

  13. Optimizing efficiency on conventional transformer based low power AC/DC standby power supplies

    Nielsen, Nils


    This article describes the research results for simple and cheap methods to reduce the idle- and load-losses in very low power conventional transformer based power supplies intended for standby usage. In this case "very low power" means 50 Hz/230 V-AC to 5 V-DC@1 W. The efficiency is measured...... on two common power supply topologies designed for this power level. The two described topologies uses either a series (or linear) or a buck regulation approach. Common to the test power supplies is they either are using a standard cheap off-the-shelf transformer, or one, which are loss optimized by very...

  14. Interspecies electron transfer via hydrogen and formate rather than direct electrical connections in cocultures of Pelobacter carbinolicus and Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M; Liu, Fanghua; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly; Summers, Zarath M; Lovley, Derek R


    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is an alternative to interspecies H(2)/formate transfer as a mechanism for microbial species to cooperatively exchange electrons during syntrophic metabolism. To understand what specific properties contribute to DIET, studies were conducted with Pelobacter carbinolicus, a close relative of Geobacter metallireducens, which is capable of DIET. P. carbinolicus grew in coculture with Geobacter sulfurreducens with ethanol as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor, conditions under which G. sulfurreducens formed direct electrical connections with G. metallireducens. In contrast to the cell aggregation associated with DIET, P. carbinolicus and G. sulfurreducens did not aggregate. Attempts to initiate cocultures with a genetically modified strain of G. sulfurreducens incapable of both H(2) and formate utilization were unsuccessful, whereas cocultures readily grew with mutant strains capable of formate but not H(2) uptake or vice versa. The hydrogenase mutant of G. sulfurreducens compensated, in cocultures, with significantly increased formate dehydrogenase gene expression. In contrast, the transcript abundance of a hydrogenase gene was comparable in cocultures with that for the formate dehydrogenase mutant of G. sulfurreducens or the wild type, suggesting that H(2) was the primary electron carrier in the wild-type cocultures. Cocultures were also initiated with strains of G. sulfurreducens that could not produce pili or OmcS, two essential components for DIET. The finding that P. carbinolicus exchanged electrons with G. sulfurreducens via interspecies transfer of H(2)/formate rather than DIET demonstrates that not all microorganisms that can grow syntrophically are capable of DIET and that closely related microorganisms may use significantly different strategies for interspecies electron exchange.

  15. Theoretical aspects and methods of the parameters identification of the electric traction system devices. the instantaneous powers method; series connection of elements

    T.M. Mishchenko


    Full Text Available Introduction: By means of the mathematical or computer (imitating modeling the emergency, especially stochastic, transient electromagnetic and / or electro energetic processes in the electric traction system of the alternating current should be investigated. It allows expanding the research opportunities, as well as simplifying and reducing the actual testing, because it permits the wide variation of values and parameters reality of the elements of electric power circuits in the traction system without considerable material costs. Purpose: For this purpose the mathematical model of the nonlinear dynamical system "traction substation – electric traction network – electric rolling stock» as a passive two-terminal network with the given input voltage and input current is proposed. Task: The identification problem of the device under study, therefore the two-terminal network, is the determination electrical parameters (active resistance to inductance and capacity of the passive elements, which substitute the two-terminal network. The scheme of its substitution looks like the series connection of passive elements. Methodology: The method of solving this problem for the passive two-terminal network in the traction mode with alternating, nonsinusoidal, deterministic periodic input voltage and input current is proposed. The calculations are executed for the electric locomotives DS3 and 2ES5K. Results: The results for the parameters can be applied in the further calculations of the more complex electric traction systems of the alternating current.

  16. Directly connected series coupled HTPEM fuel cell stacks to a Li-ion battery DC bus for a fuel cell electrical vehicle

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael


    The work presented in this paper examines the use of pure hydrogen fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks in an electrical car, charging a Li-ion battery pack. The car is equipped with two branches of two series coupled 1 kW fuel cell stacks which...... are connected directly parallel to the battery pack during operation. This enables efficient charging of the batteries for increased driving range. With no power electronics used, the fuel cell stacks follow the battery pack voltage, and charge the batteries passively. This saves the electrical and economical...... losses related to these components and their added system complexity. The new car battery pack consists of 23 Li-ion battery cells and the charging and discharging are monitored by a battery management system (BMS) which ensures safe operating conditions for the batteries. The direct connection...

  17. Study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems; Estudo de caracteristicas eletricas e termicas de inversores para sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Rampinelli, Giuliano Arns


    Grid-connected photovoltaic systems directly convert solar energy into electrical energy delivering to the distribution grid a clean and renewable energy. These systems are basically formed by an array of photovoltaic modules and inverters. The inverters are responsible for converting direct current to alternating current. A study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters used in grid-connected photovoltaic systems from a theoretical and experimental analysis. The inverters tests were carried out in two stages: the first stage was performed at Solar Energy Lab. of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil, where it was used a 4,8 kW{sub p} grid-connected photovoltaic system and ten inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters electrical characteristics measured and analyzed were: direct current to alternating current conversion efficiency, maximum power point tracker efficiency, power factor and harmonic distortion in current and voltage. Inverters thermal testing was also conducted and its results are presented ana analyzed. The second stage of the experimental tests was performed at Photovoltaic Solar Energy Lab. at CIEMAT in Spain. It was used 3 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system and seven inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters are single-phase, up to 5 kW and different topologies (high frequency transformer, low frequency transformer and transformerless). The influence of DC voltage input in the behavior of DC to AC conversion efficiency and power factor was analyzed. The results of the tests allowed the development of mathematical models that describe the electrical and thermal behavior of the inverters. The proposed mathematical models were inserted into computer simulation software developed at UFRGS named FVConect. The evolution of the simulation results compared to the experimental results validates the proposed models. The analysis of the behavior of the inverters improves the understanding of the operating os

  18. Electrical Energy Quality Studies in 3 kV DC Electric Traction Systems for Different Schemes of Connection Traction Substation to Power Utility System

    Pavel Jankowski


    Full Text Available The paper present aspects of DC electric traction system influence on electric energetic system. Study is based on modeling and simulation of electrified railway line. After simulation, there was performed analysis of energy quality, whitch using results of simulation and supply systems parameters.

  19. 冷贮备串联系统可靠性指标的估计%On Improving the Estimation of the Reliability Performances for Cold Standby Series System

    师义民; 魏玲; 肖华勇


    运用最大似然法和经验Bayes方法,研究冷贮备串联系统可靠性指标的估计问题,分别给出 了该系统失效率、可靠度函数与平均寿命的点估计。最后利用随机模拟方法,对两种估计结 果进行了比较,结果表明,经验Bayes估计优于最大似然估计。%When applying FPA (failure probability analysis) to estimating the reliability performances in cold standby series system, it suffers from two shortcomings: (1) the parameters of life distribution for all elements must be known as constants ; (2) FPA is not quite satisfactory for small sample case.   We overcome these two shortcomings by experimenting with EBE (empirical Bayes es timation) and MLE (maximum likelihood estimation). Before EBE can be used, we have to obtain first the Bayes estimation of the reliability performances for cold standby series system. Then we obtain the estimated reliablity performences by EBE and MLE. At last, we compare the MLE results with the EBE results by means of Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of the EBE is better than that of the MLE.   The method proposed in this paper can be used to analyze the reliabilities of cold standby series systems in mechanical and electrical appliances. This work rema ins to be done.

  20. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.


    ...-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... in an on-call status shall not be considered hours of work if: (1) The employee is allowed to leave...

  1. 75 FR 8239 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission Activities and Standby Letters of Credit


    ... 2590-AA33 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission Activities and Standby Letters of... Home Loan Bank (Bank) housing associates, the Banks' core mission activities, and Bank issuance of... collection contained in the current Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates regulation, has been...

  2. Standby power supply automatic switching-on relay design and setting of converter station auxiliary power system%换流站站用电备自投装置设计及整定

    胡晓静; 李志勇; 杨慧霞; 蒋冠前; 杨静


    Perfect station auxiliary power system main diagram and efficient standby power supply automatic switching-on logic should be designed in converter station of HVDC system for the safe and stable operation. According to the electric diagram and operation requirement of Pu'er converter station, five operation conditions are considered and charge/discharge logic and thirteen automatic switching-on/off logic are designed for 10 kV standby power supply automatic switching-on relay, two automatic switching-on/off logics are designed for 400 V standby power supply automatic switching-on relay. Meanwhile, the setting principle and coordination are discussed and the recommended settings are given. The standby power supply automatic switching-on/off logic has been applied in Pu'er converter station, experimental results and operation conditions show that standby power supply automatic switching-on relay will trip the circuit breaker of fault line and switch to standby power supply rapidly while one or two station auxiliary power supply fault without reducing HVDC transmission power, the reliability and stability of HVDC system are greatly improved.%为了保证直流输电工程换流站站用电设备安全稳定运行,必须合理设计站用电系统及备用电源自动投入装置的动作逻辑。以糯扎渡直流输电工程普洱换流站为例,根据主接线形式、运行要求和具体运行工况,对10 kV备自投的五种运行工况分别设计了备自投充放电逻辑和十三种动作投切逻辑,对400 V备自投单母分段运行方式设计了两种动作投切逻辑。同时,对备自投装置的定值整定原则及定值配合相关问题进行了研究,给出了推荐定值。所提出的备自投方案经现场实际运行证明:通过10 kV和400 V两级备自投装置的配合,在各种运行工况下某路或某两路站用电源失电时备自投装置都能快速动作投切至备用电源,无需降低直流输送功率或

  3. Improvement of New Type Protection Device Electrical Connection Terminal Installation & Connection Technology in Smart Substation%智能变电站中新型保护装置电连接端子装联工艺的改进



    Following appearance of smart digital substation, the protection devices are upgrading step by step too. Introduction was made to the relationship between protection devices and smart substations. This paper analyzed electrical connection terminal installation & connection technology improvement method, press-in technology and gave its actually implementary procedures and cautions. Compared with the traditional installation & connection welding, this technology is more enviromental protec-tion and economic, more strong in reliability. Technological tests show that each item of test meets the requirements of power industry.%随着智能数字化变电站的出现,其使用的保护装置逐步升级。介绍了保护装置与智能变电站的关系,分析了新型保护装置中的电连接端子装联工艺的改进方法--压接技术,并给出了其具体的实施步骤及注意事项,与传统装联焊接方式相比该技术更加环保经济,可靠性更强,经过工艺试验,结果表明各项测试结果均满足电力行业标准要求。

  4. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Liwei Ju


    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  5. Phase Balancing by Means of Electric Vehicles Single-Phase Connection Shifting in a Low Voltage Danish Grid

    Lico, Pasqualino; Marinelli, Mattia; Knezovic, Katarina


    . This may results in heavy imbalances. This paper uses a real Danish distribution system with household consumers, photovoltaic installation and electrical vehicles (EV). In this paper the possibility to use EVs’ charging spots in order to reduce grid’s imbalances will be investigated. Usually, charging...

  6. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui


    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  7. Screening report : Municipality of Leamington : Leamington Pollution Control Centre stand-by emergency power class environmental assessment



    The Leamington Pollution Control Centre (PCC) is located in Ontario and treats residential and commercial wastewater collected from the Municipality of Leamington. The Leamington PCC currently has one standby diesel generator with a rated capacity of 545 kW. This generator provides power to the plant's disinfection facilities to reduce the risk of back-up into the collection system during power failures. The Municipality of Leamington plans to provide treatment in addition to disinfection during power outages. In order to achieve this, additional standby power is required to run the primary clarifiers, the aeration system and the secondary clarifiers. This document presented a screening report for the new standby generator, whose installation is considered a Schedule B under the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment process. The report reviewed background information on the proposed project; Ontario's Environmental Assessment Act; and the Class Environmental Assessment Act. It outlined the problem statement; identification of solutions; existing conditions; impacts and mitigation during construction and operation; and public consultation procedures. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 appendix.

  8. A 0.7-V Opamp in Scaled Low-Standby-Power FinFET Technology

    O'Uchi, Shin-Ichi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Matsukawa, Takashi; Liu, Yongxun; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Sekigawa, Toshihiro; Koike, Hanpei; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Masahara, Meishoku

    This paper demonstrates a FinFET operational amplifier (opamp), which is suitable to be integrated with digital circuits in a scaled low-standby-power (LSTP) technology and operates at extremely low voltage. The opamp is consisting of an adaptive threshold-voltage (Vt) differential pair and a low-voltage source follower using independent-double-gate- (IDG-) FinFETs. These two components enable the opamp to extend the common-mode voltage range (CMR) below the nominal Vt even if the supply voltage is less than 1.0V. The opamp was implemented by our FinFET technology co-integrating common-DG- (CDG-) and IDG-FinFETs. More than 40-dB DC gain and 1-MHz gain-bandwidth product in the 500-mV-wide input CMR at the supply voltage of 0.7V was estimated with SPICE simulation. The fabricated chip successfully demonstrated the 0.7-V operation with the 480-mV-wide CMR, even though the nominal Vt was 400mV.

  9. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Yutian Chen


    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  10. Progress report to Congress on the standby motor fuel rationing plans



    This report summarizes the standby gasoline rationing plan; describes the differences between this plan and the one that was transmitted by the President to the Congress on March 1, 1979; and cites some problems inherent in rationing gasoline. The mechanisms contained in the plan for meeting the gasoline needs of end users are described: the basic allotments for individuals, basic allotments for firms, hardship allotments, and the ration rights market. A discussion of the ration rights market, an analysis of the gains that result from permitting the exchange of coupons, and an estimate of what the price of a coupon would be in a 20% shortfall is included. The economic impacts of the plan are examined: how rationing would affect the average motorist in a 20% shortfall, how the plan would affect households in different income groups, and how rural, suburban and urban households would fare under rationing. An analysis is presented of the alternative of issuing allotments to all licensed drivers and compares this alternative with the allotment mechanism based on motor vehicles. A description of the measures taken to date, since the enactment of the EECA, to develop a gasoline rationing system, and the costs of these measures are provided. A discussion of the measures necessary to bring the system to a satisfactory state of readiness, the estimated costs of these measures, and a timetable for their completion are included. A brief discussion of diesel fuel rationing is also given.

  11. Compliance with new standards of power consumption in standby mode; Cumplimiento de los nuevos estandares de consumo de potencia en modo de espera o standby

    Najumudeen, H.


    The current developed world has become completely dependent on electric power, which has become the primary fuel to move the economy. developments in electrical and data networks have increased even more this dependence so that conservation and energy savings are a concern today for all nations. (Author)

  12. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Royère, C


    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  13. Development of an Android OS Based Controller of a Double Motor Propulsion System for Connected Electric Vehicles and Communication Delays Analysis

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado


    Full Text Available Developments of technologies that facilitate vehicle connectivity represent a market demand. In particular, mobile device (MD technology provides advanced user interface, customization, and upgradability characteristics that can facilitate connectivity and possibly aid in the goal of autonomous driving. This work explores the use of a MD in the control system of a conceptual electric vehicle (EV. While the use of MD for real-time control and monitoring has been reported, proper consideration has not been given to delays in data flow and their effects on system performance. The motor of a novel propulsion system for an EV was conditioned to be controlled in a wireless local area network by an ecosystem that includes a MD and an electronic board. An intended accelerator signal is predefined and sent to the motor and rotational speed values produced in the motor are sent back to the MD. Sample periods in which the communication really occurs are registered. Delays in the sample periods and produced errors in the accelerator and rotational speed signals are presented and analyzed. Maximum delays found in communications were of 0.2 s, while the maximum error produced in the accelerator signal was of 3.54%. Delays are also simulated, with a response that is similar to the behavior observed in the experiments.

  14. Performance analysis of commercial scale Ar-Cs disk MHD generator connected to electric power system with synchronous generator

    Kang, L.; Matsuo, T. [Kyoto University (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Inui, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Ishikawa, M. [University of Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. of Engineering Mechanics and Systems; Umoto, J. [Fukuyama University (Japan)


    Performance analyses of a commercial scale closed-cycle MHD disk generator are performed. A large scale MHD generator, superconducting magnet, inversion system and synchronous generator are designed. The MHD generator is operated with Ar-Cs plasma and connected to the ac power infinite bus through line-commutated inverters, while the synchronous generator is operated in parallel. The thermal input is 1000 MW, and the power output is 400 and 200 MW, from the MHD and synchronous generators. Fault analyses have found that rather large fluctuations within the MHD generator are induced by faults of the inverter and power transmission line, but control of the inverters can recover the MHD generation system to normal operation within 0.15 s. The feature of behavior of the MHD generator is the same with or without the parallel operation of the synchronous generator. The interaction between the MHD and the synchronous generators is small, and this feature is much different from the open-cycle MHD generation system, since the variation of output current of the closed-cycle disk MHD generator is much smaller compared with open-cycle MHD generators. (author)

  15. Impacts to Electric Power Grid Infrastructures From the Violent Sun-Earth Connection Events of October-November 2003

    Kappenman, J. G.


    The solar flare activity of October-November 2003 reached historic intensity levels and produced several large Earth-directed CME's that had the potential to cause historically large geomagnetic storms as well. These CME's did cause various geomagnetic storm indices, particularly the regional K and Planetary Kp index, to reach maximum levels for many hours. However, the resulting geomagnetic storms, while causing isolated and important disruptions to power grids, were not of historically large size when considering the rate-of-change of regional geomagnetic fields in many locations. Impacts to power grids are caused by large dB/dt variations in regional geomagnetic fields, in most cases the peak geomagnetic disturbance intensities (in nT/min) were only a fraction of what has occurred during historically large geomagnetic storm events. A review will be provided of the CME passages and features of the passage that drove resulting geomagnetic storm events and impacts to electric power grid infrastructures on October 29-30, 2003. A brief overview of the geomagnetic storm disturbance morphologies and intensities relative to other noteworthy storms will also be provided.

  16. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Rehab F. Khalaf


    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  17. 移动城域网SR专线热备保护方案%Hot Standby Protection Scheme for China Mobile MAN SR Private Line



    Through introducing China Mobile MAN status and analysis of MAN private line conservation status in detail, This paper propose two kinds of SR private line hot standby protection scheme:“One-arm BFD+Management VRRP”private line hot standby protection scheme and“Eth-CFM+SRRP”private line hot standby protection scheme .Moreover this article has detailedly compared those two schemes in the end.%文章详细介绍了移动城域网的现状,并对城域网专线保护现状进行了详细分析,同时提出了两种新的SR专线热备保护方案:“单臂BFD+管理VRRP”专线热备方案和“Eth-CFM+SRRP”专线热备方案,并对这两种方案进行了详细的比较。

  18. Estimation of Membrane Hydration Status for Standby Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems by Impedance Measurement: First Results on Stack Characterization

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    Fuel cells have started replacing traditional lead-acid battery banks in backup systems. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of standby, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. In the case of low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems......, a precise estimation of hydration status of the fuel cell during standby is important for a fast and safe startup. In this article, the measurement of the complex impedance of the fuel cell is suggested as a method to estimate the membrane hydration status. A 56-cell fuel cell stack has been symmetrically...... was applied, and the relationship between module of impedance and relative humidity was found. The results showed that measuring the impedance of a fuel cell during standby can be a viable way for estimating the hydration status of its membrane....

  19. Connected Ways and Spontaneous Combustion Fire of Battery Piles for Pure Electric City Bus%纯电动城市客车电池组的连接方式与自燃火灾



    The author introduces some connected ways of battery piles for pure electric city bus, and analyzes the reasons of causing the batteries spontaneous combustion fire.%介绍纯电动客车动力电池组的几种连接方式,分析造成电池自燃火灾的原因。

  20. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin


    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  1. Analysis on Off Mode and Standby Mode of Rice Cookers%电饭锅关机和待机模式的研究

    陈灿坤; 李秀青


    本文对比分析欧盟指令和IEC、EN、GB标准中“关机模式”和“待机模式”的定义,并举例说明电饭锅产品关机和待机模式的区别。%This paper compares the definitions of “off mode” and “standby mode” of EU directive, IEC, EN, and GB standards. Besides, it analyzes the difference between “off mode” and “standby mode” of rice cookers with examples.

  2. Estimation of Membrane Hydration Status for Standby Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems by Impedance Measurement: First Results on Stack Characterization

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    Fuel cells have started replacing traditional lead-acid battery banks in backup systems. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of standby, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. In the case of low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems...... was applied, and the relationship between module of impedance and relative humidity was found. The results showed that measuring the impedance of a fuel cell during standby can be a viable way for estimating the hydration status of its membrane....


    E.P. McCann


    The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side

  4. Unusual explosive growth of a squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp after electrical burn injury and subsequent coverage by sequential free flap vascular connection – a case report

    Beier Justus P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinomos may arise from chronic ulcerating wounds in scars, most commonly postburn scars. Tumour growth usually takes place over months to years. Localization on the scalp is a relatively rare condition. Case presentation This report presents the case of a 63-year-old man with chronic ulceration of a postburn scar of the scalp due to an electrical burn 58 years ago. Sudden tumour growth started within weeks and on presentation already had extended through the skull into frontal cortex. After radical tumour resection, defect was covered with a free radial forearm flap. Local recurrence occurred 6 weeks later. Subsequent wide excision including discard of the flap and preservation of the radial vessels was followed by transfer of a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap, using the radial vessels of the first flap as recipient vessels. The patient received radiotherapy post-operatively. There were no problems with flap survivals or wound healing. Due to rapidly growing recurrence the patient died 2 months later. Conclusion Explosive SCC tumour growth might occur in post-burn scars after more than 50 years. As a treatment option the use of sequential free flap connections might serve in repeated extensive tumour resections, especially in the scalp region, where suitable donor vessels are often located in distance to the defect.

  5. Electrical equipment and grid connection of offshore wind farms. An engineering challenge; Elektrotechnische Ausruestung und Netzanbindung von Offshore-Windparks. Technische Herausforderung



    The new legal framework for wind turbines will bring essential changes in the requirements to be met by manufacturers and the components supplying industry. Those changes relate to: rise in output to about 5 MW per wind turbine, a mandatory mix of sizes of turbines arranged on a wind farm (from 500 MW through to 1 500 MW), safe management of the extremely difficult climatic conditions through appropriate design, minimisation of operation and maintenance requirements, safe transmission of electricity to the on-shore grid connection station, and the relevant energy management functions. (orig./CB) [German] Durch die neuen Rahmenbedingungen werden in den naechsten Jahren die Anforderungen an die Hersteller von Windenergieanlagen (WEA) und deren Zulieferer gekennzeichnet sein. Im wesentlichen sind dies die Vergroesserung der Anlagenleistung auf rd. 5 MW je WEA, die Anordnung unterschiedlicher Anlagengroessen in Windparks im Leistungsbereich zwischen 500 bis 1 500 MW, die Beherrschung der extremen Umgebungsbedingungen, die Minimierung der Aufwendungen fuer Betrieb und Wartung, der sichere Energietransport zum Netzuebergabepunkt an Land sowie das zugehoerige Energiemanagement. (orig./GL)

  6. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  7. Hot Standby System with time Server Based on Embedded Linux%基于嵌入式Linux的时间服务器双机热备系统

    杨莹; 郭伟; 董道鹏


    为保证时间服务器系统能够提供不间断授时服务,可采用双机热备技术,结合嵌入式技术和双机热备技术,用AT91SAM9X25嵌入式微处理器作为核心搭建硬件平台,设计了一个基于嵌入式Linux的时间服务器双机热备系统,提高了系统的可用性.实验测试结果表明,系统运行稳定,实现了双机热备.%Providing incessant time services for time server system,the current solution is the hot standby technique.With embedded Linux and hot standby technology,an time server hot standby system is designed,in which the AT91SAM9X25 embedded micro-processor is used as the key part to build the hardware platform.This function promotes the availability of the system.The experimental results indicate that the system is stable,and Hot-Standby is realized.

  8. The electric power in Latin America; A energia eletrica na America Latina

    Moura Coutinho, Berenice Cabral de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Historia; Bernini, Eduardo Jose [Agencia para Aplicacao de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Demostenes Barbosa da [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This paper shows a study for determination of the possibilities and the perspectives of power distribution systems integration between Brazil and the neighbor countries, for electric power supply. This integration aims the electric power supply of the different regions of the countries with the minimum cost alternative. The stand-by and emergency supply will be obtained with this action, minimizing the occurrence of supply disruptions in the interconnected countries 4 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. National campaign - 100 collectivities connected to the green electric power; Campagne nationale - 100 collectivites se branchent a l'electricite verte



    Since july 2004, the local collectivities, the little and medium enterprises and the craft workers can choose their electric power supplier. This offer can be a chance for the renewable energy. The association ''eco maires'' with the help of the WWF began a campaign to obtain the involvement of 100 collectivities interested by the green electric power. The project is presented. The authors presents also the new European Network on the green electric power, Eugene (European Green Electricity Network), which aims to harmonize criteria on the green electric power and to deliver certificates of quality. (A.L.B.)

  10. Electrical Power Converter

    Ferreira, J.A.


    Electrical power converter for converting electrical power of a power source connected or connectable at an input to electrical DC-power at an output, wherein between the input and the output a first circuit of submodules is provided, wherein said first circuit of submodules and the power source for

  11. Selection and Comparison on Connection Mode Between Hoist and Electric Motor in Design of Hoist System%提升系统设计中提升机与电机联接方式的选择比较



    A large or super large frictional type hoist is more and more widely applied today and the selection on the connection modes between the hoist and the electric motor became more and more important.According to the connection mode between the large frictional hoist and the electric motor,from the hoist structure,stress comparison,equipment layout,performances of the electric motor,cooling ventilation system,electric control system,selection and investment of the crane for the hoist installation and maintenance,operation cost,application and maintenance as well as others,the paper in detail stated the issues to be noted in the design and selection process of the hoist,which could provide the references and proposals to the selection of the connection modes between the hoist and the electric motor.%在大型和超大型摩擦式提升机越来越广泛应用的今天,提升机与电机联接方式的选择也变的越来越重要,文章针对大型摩擦式提升机与电机采用的联接方式,从提升机结构、受力对比、设备布置、电机工况、冷却通风系统、电控系统、安装检修起重机、选取投资及运行费用及使用与维护等方面详细阐述了设计选型过程中应该注意的问题,对提升机与电机的联接方式选择提供了参考建议.

  12. Estimation of membrane hydration status for standby proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Rugholt, Mark; Nielsen, Morten Busk;


    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of inactivity, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. However, the membrane of which PEMFCs are made tends to dry out when...

  13. Verification test for an electric vehicle using capacitor-battery series connection for battery load levelling; Denchi no fuka heijunka no tame no kyapashita to denchi no chokuretsu setsuzoku hoshiki wo saiyoshita denki jidosha no jissho shiken

    Miyaoka, K.; Takehara, J.; Kato, S. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    For the prolongation of the distance that an electric vehicle (EV) can cover on a single charge and of the service life of the EV battery unit, a system is developed, in which the battery unit and the capacitor unit are connected in series for the levelling-off of battery peak loads, and the system is tested aboard a running real vehicle. Installed on the real vehicle is a battery unit that is a series connection of 20 12V-38Ah seal-type lead-acid batteries, each battery consisting of two cells connected in parallel. Driving the vehicle is a DC brushless motor capable of a maximum operation of 9000rpm. Also installed is a capacitor unit that is a parallel connection of 40 2.3V-1800F capacitors, each capacitor consisting of two capacitors connected in parallel. Findings are described below. In a 0-400m acceleration test, 22.5 seconds is recorded with the capacitor unit in operation, meaning an improvement of 0.7 seconds. The maximum speed remains unchanged at 110km/h, which agrees with the pre-calculated value. Although the battery peak load reduction rate in a 15-mode drive pattern marks 23%, the distances covered on a single charge in this drive pattern turn out to be almost the same whether the capacitor unit is in operation or not. 3 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 一种绿色环保待机控制电路分析%Analysis of Green Standby Control Circuit



    介绍了一种节能电路,对电源进行简单管理,在待机时停止对主IC供电,达到待机功耗的最小化.利用电视机遥控的编码规则,在引导码的4.5 ms低电平时间打开电源开关,给系统供电.%A kind of energy to power circuit is introduced in this paper, simple management is supplied, while stopping standby power, IC standby power consumption is stopped to minimization. Using the TV remote control, in the encoding rules guiding yards of 4.5 ms low-level time, the power switch is turned on, and the power supply is given to system.

  15. How good are experienced interventional cardiologists in predicting the risk and difficulty of a coronary angioplasty procedure? A prospective study to optimize surgical standby.

    Brueren, B R; Mast, E G; Suttorp, M J; Ernst, J M; Bal, E T; Plokker, H W


    The prediction of the risk of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has either been based on coronary lesion morphology or on clinical parameters, but a combined angiographic and clinical risk assessment system has not yet been evaluated prospectively. Five experienced interventionalists categorized 7,144 patients with 10,081 stenoses (1.4 lesion/patient) for both the risk and the difficulty of the procedure. Risk categories are as follows: 1 = low risk; 2 = intermediate risk; 3 = high risk. This division was made for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty planning purposes. Category 1 patients denotes those in whom surgical standby is not required; category 2 patients, surgical standby not required but available within 1 hr; category 3 patients, surgical standby required. Difficulty categories are as follows: 1 = easy lesion; 2 = moderately difficult lesion; 3 = difficult lesion. Success was defined as a reduction of the degree of stenosis to less than 50%, without acute myocardial infarction, emergency redilatation, emergency bypass grafting, or death within 1 week. The procedure was not successful in difficulty category 1 in 1.6%, in category 2 in 3.5%, and in category 3 in 9.9%. Complications occurred in risk category 1 in 3.5%, in category 2 in 5.2%, and in category 3 in 12.4%. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Experienced cardiologists can well predict the risk and success of a coronary angioplasty procedure. This helps to optimize surgical standby, although even in the lowest-risk category complications can occur.

  16. Computer Simulation of Spatial Arrangement and Connectivity of Particles in Three-Dimensional Microstructure: Application to Model Electrical Conductivity of Polymer Matrix Composite

    Louis, P.; Gokhale, A. M.


    Computer simulation is a powerful tool for analyzing the geometry of three-dimensional microstructure. A computer simulation model is developed to represent the three-dimensional microstructure of a two-phase particulate composite where particles may be in contact with one another but do not overlap significantly. The model is used to quantify the "connectedness" of the particulate phase of a polymer matrix composite containing hollow carbon particles in a dielectric polymer resin matrix. The simulations are utilized to estimate the morphological percolation volume fraction for electrical conduction, and the effective volume fraction of the particles that actually take part in the electrical conduction. The calculated values of the effective volume fraction are used as an input for a self-consistent physical model for electrical conductivity. The predicted values of electrical conductivity are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental data on a series of specimens having different particulate volume fraction.

  17. Connected Traveler

    Schroeder, Alex


    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  18. Improvements in electric power supply in coal mines

    Minovskii, Yu.P.; Nabokov, Eh.P.; Savel' ev, G.P.


    Reviews measures taken by major coal producing countries to increase output levels. Discusses research carried out into advance design of equipment in FRG, UK, USA and France and proposes establishment of central automatic control of electric power supply system in Soviet mines, improvement in underground power supply equipment, increase in reliability, stabilization of standby capacity in low voltage circuits, maintenance-free electrical equipment, and efficient spare part storage in underground workings. States that introduction of the proposed system (details are given) will ensure that Soviet mines will eventually reach the development level of foreign mines. 2 refs.

  19. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  20. Transparent electric convection heater

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.


    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  1. A novel concept of electrical drives based on two five-phases PMSM connected in parallel and supplied by a single inverter

    Tounsi, K.; Djahbar, A.; Zegaoui, A.; Boutoubat, M.; Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Allouache, H.; Aillerie, M.


    In this paper, the vector control of a parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) drive supplied by a single current-controlled voltage source inverter is presented. This system consists of a two five-phase PMSMs; the stators windings of both machines are connected in parallel in appropriate manner by using of the phase transposition property, which allows a decoupled control of the two machines. Based on the mathematical model of the multi-machine drive system, the decoupled dynamic of each machine from the group is obtained using the vector control algorithm. The independent control is ensured by controlling the stator currents and the speed of each machine under vector control consideration. Selected simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method under various dynamic operating conditions.

  2. Engineering model of the electric drives of separation device for simulation of automatic control systems of reactive power compensation by means of serially connected capacitors

    Juromskiy, V. M.


    It is developed a mathematical model for an electric drive of high-speed separation device in terms of the modeling dynamic systems Simulink, MATLAB. The model is focused on the study of the automatic control systems of the power factor (Cosφ) of an actuator by compensating the reactive component of the total power by switching a capacitor bank in series with the actuator. The model is based on the methodology of the structural modeling of dynamic processes.

  3. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos


    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  4. Design and simulation of a novel E-mode GaN MIS-HEMT based on a cascode connection for suppression of electric field under gate and improvement of reliability

    Li, Weiyi; Zhang, Zhili; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Shichuang; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun


    We proposed a novel AlGaN/GaN enhancement-mode (E-mode) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a dual-gate structure and carried out the detailed numerical simulation of device operation using Silvaco Atlas. The dual-gate device is based on a cascode connection of an E-mode and a D-mode gate. The simulation results show that electric field under the gate is decreased by more than 70% compared to that of the conventional E-mode MIS-HEMTs (from 2.83 MV/cm decreased to 0.83 MV/cm). Thus, with the discussion of ionized trap density, the proposed dual-gate structure can highly improve electric field-related reliability, such as, threshold voltage stability. In addition, compared with HEMT with field plate structure, the proposed structure exhibits a simplified fabrication process and a more effective suppression of high electric field. Project supported by the Key Technologies Support Program of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2013002-2) and the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Projects of China (No. 2013YQ470767).

  5. Electrical source imaging and connectivity analysis to localize the seizure-onset zone based on high-density ictal scalp EEG recordings

    Staljanssens, Willeke; Strobbe, Gregor; Van Holen, Roel; Birot, Gwenael; Michel, Christophe; Seeck, Margitta; Vulliémoz, Serge; van Mierlo, Pieter


    Functional connectivity analysis of ictal intracranial EEG (icEEG) recordings can help with seizure-onset zone (SOZ) localization in patients with focal epilepsy1. However, it would be of high clinical value to be able to localize the SOZ based on non-invasive ictal EEG recordings to better target or avoid icEEG and improve surgical outcome. In this work, we propose an approach to localize the SOZ based on non-invasive ictal high- density EEG (hd-EEG) recordings. We considered retrospectiv...

  6. PLC在内桥接线备用电源自动投入中的应用%Application of PLC on Standby Power Supply' s Automation Plunge



    介绍了可编程序控制器(PLC)在内桥接线备用电源自动投切装置中的应用,并介绍了交流不间断电源(UPS)在交流控制电源中的应用。%This paper introduces the application of PLC on standby power supply' s automation plunge, and the application of UPS on power supply of alternating current control are also discussed.

  7. Competitiveness of grid-connected solar electricity in Sweden - as seen from the perspective of the utilities and the net owners; Konkurrenskraft foer naetansluten solel i Sverige - sett ur kraftfoeretagens och naetaegarnas perspektiv

    Carlstedt, Nils-Eric [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Bjoern; Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Olof [Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Neij, Lena [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)


    The objective of this report was to analyse the competitiveness of grid-connected solar power in Sweden - and specifically the competitiveness for energy companies and net owners. In theory, solar power could to a large extent fulfil the electricity demand in Sweden, especially in the summer. However, the high cost of solar cells is a major barrier to implementation. Future technology development and increased efficiency could, however, lead to important cost reductions. The question is if such expected cost reductions would make grid-connected solar power a preferable investment option for energy companies and an interesting alternative for the net owners. The results of the study show that solar power will not be a competitive alternative for the energy companies in Sweden, not in 2020 and probably not in 2050. Other alternatives such as new investments in wind turbines and bio-mass based technology options will be producing electricity at a lower cost. Moreover, solar power will have an unfavourable production profile, generating power in the summertime when less needed. However, by using the reservoirs of the hydro power systems in Sweden as storage capacity, approximately 5 TWh solar power could be allowed in the Swedish electricity system. The results of the study indicate that solar power could have a positive effect on the electricity distribution system since distributed generation will result in lower losses in the system. Moreover, solar power will be produced during daytime when the electricity demand will peak. One of the main challenges for the net owners would be to design the net in such a way that the net and the solar cells could work together in the best possible way. Another challenge would be the high cost for connecting the solar cells to the grid; this cost needs to be reduced. Looking instead at the house-owners as possible investors, solar cells appear as a much more attractive alternative for the future, the value of the solar power is

  8. Enhanced integrated converter. Combined cabled-connected and inductive charging of electric vehicles; Hoeher integrierter Stromrichter. Kombiniert kabelgebundenes und induktives Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Jung, Marco; Barth, Heike; Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)


    The main goal of the German energy concept is the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in which regenerative energy and electromobility play a pioneering role. Large emission reductions can be made through the use of electric vehicles charged with renewable energy, where the battery acts as mobile storage unit. Current charging systems only allow for cable based charging. New developments now permit vehicle battery charging via contactless, inductive methods. Using the same power electronics and inductors, a new, higher integrated inverter is capable of both single and three phase charging as well as inductive charging. (orig.)

  9. Design of 1.1 MW Solar Energy PV Electricity Generation and Grid Connected System%1.1MW太阳能光伏发电并网系统的设计

    陆建国; 张竟若; 唐风芹; 汤士敏


    随着光伏技术的不断成熟,太阳能光伏发电正由补充能源逐渐向替代能源过度.常州科教城太阳能光伏发电并网系统主要包含TSM - 230PC05光伏组件、PVS -8防雷汇流箱、PMB型直流防雷配电柜、SG100K3型逆变器、升压站及并网接入系统、光伏发电展示系统和电网调度通讯系统.讨论了主要设备的选型、并网接入点的选择和提高光伏并网电能质量的措施等相关技术问题.实际运行表明,主要参数符合国标规定,系统运行平稳,达到了使用要求.%While technology for solar photovoltaic technology is becoming more and more mature, solar photovoltaic power generation system has been transferring from traditional supplementary energy to emerging substitutes . A solar energy PV electricity generation and system is developed in Changzhou science and technology & education city. It consists of many parts, such as TSM - 230PC05 PV modules, PVS - 8 convergence boxes for lighting protection, PMB current power distribution cabinets, SG100K3 inverters, boosting stations, grid connected system, PV electricity generation display system, and power network control and communication system, etc. Some correlation techniques were discussed, such as type selection of main equipments, point selection of grid connection, and measures for improving electrical energy quality of PV grid connected , etc. Actual motion shows that system key parameters are in line with the set of national standard, and system run smoothly. This design meets the need of utilization.

  10. Probabilistic methodology for determining the optimum number of stand-by transformers in distribution substations; Metodologia probabilistica para determinacao do numero otimo de transformadores reservas em subestacoes de distribuicao

    Costa, Joao Guilherme de C.; Silva, Armando M. Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia], Emails:,


    A new probabilistic methodology for determining the optimum number of stand-by transformers in distribution substations is presented. The calculus has three steps: reliability evaluation of a transformer system with a stand-by stock; calculus of investment and operation costs for different composition alternatives of stock; identification of the number of stand-by transformers, which minimizes the total cost. Concerning the the step 1, the operative states of the system are represented by a Markov process, where it is possible to calculate indicators as probability, frequency and average duration of failure, as well as to estimate average values of no-supplied energy and costs. The proposed methodology is applied to a 72 kV transformer system and the obtained results are discussed in details.

  11. Design of Surge Protection & Ground Connection at Four Electricity Integration Field in Railway Section%铁路区间四电综合场坪防雷接地系统集约化设计实践



    On the basis of the previous substation design and the study of the national and industrial standards and railway technique specifications for surge protection and grounding design, and with reference to Ha - Da passenger dedicated line, surge protection & ground connection design of Four Electricity ( Communication, Signal, Power and Electrification) Integration field in railway section is discussed and practiced to solve the problems encountered in this regard. This paper puts forward new ideas with respect to some particulars and requirements, which may be used as references in future design of surge protection & ground connection.%在参考以往变电站接地设计的基础上,通过对国家和行业标准以及铁路技术规章有关防雷接地要求的研究,以哈大客运专线为例,对铁路区间四电场坪各系统设备进行统一的综合接地设计进行探讨和实践,试图解决类似设计中所面临的主要难点,并在某些细节的做法和要求提出了自己的看法,希望能对以后的设计有所借鉴。

  12. About Connections

    Kathleen S Rockland


    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  13. Gendered Connections

    Jensen, Steffen Bo


    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  14. HR Connect

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  15. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. 模块式电源监控系统双机热备份的设计%Design of Dual Hot Standby with Monitoring System of Power Supply Module

    曾成; 赵艳玲


    To satisfy the strict requirement on reliability for module power, dual hot standby mechanism with fault-tolerant control is proposed in this paper. Design requirement of dual hot standby is research and analyzed, then the design of dual hot standby with monitoring system of module power supply is completed based on CAN bus communication. State diagnosis, real time synchronization strategies and switch control in the realization process of the dual hot standby with monitoring system are discussed further based on CAN bus communication protocol design basis, and gives design and implementation specifically.%为了满足模块式电源对可靠性的严格要求,提出了具有容错控制的双机热备份机制。研究分析了双机热备份的设计需求,完成了基于CAN总线通信的模块式电源监控系统双机热备份的设计。本文在CAN总线通信协议设计的基础上,深入讨论了在双机热备份实现过程中监控系统的状态诊断方法、实时数据同步策略以及切换控制,并给出了具体的设计和实现。

  17. Connected Traveler


    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  18. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, February 1996. Final technical report



    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System and the Trace Element Removal test blocks. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with impinger capture solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) was utilized in the TER test configuration this month. The B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit is being installed utilizing the Mini Pilot Flue Gas System. The 1.0 MW Cold- Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  19. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S


    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  20. Order-theoretical connectivity

    T. A. Richmond


    Full Text Available Order-theoretically connected posets are introduced and applied to create the notion of T-connectivity in ordered topological spaces. As special cases T-connectivity contains classical connectivity, order-connectivity, and link-connectivity.

  1. Getting Connected

    Larkin, Patrick


    That the world outside schools is changing faster than ever is old news. Unfortunately, that the world "inside" schools is changing at a glacial pace is even older news. As school leaders, principals have an important choice to make as they move into the second decade of the 21st century. School leaders have a moral obligation to connect and…

  2. Connecting dots

    Murakami, Kyoko; Jacobs, Rachel L.


    of connecting the dots of recalled moments of individual family members lives and is geared towards building a family’s shared future for posterity. Lastly, we consider a wider implication of family reminiscence in terms of human development.

  3. Learning Connections

    Royer, Regina D.; Richards, Patricia O.


    In this edition of Learning Connections, the authors show how technology can enhance study of weather patterns, reading comprehension, real-world training, critical thinking, health education, and art criticism. The following sections are included: (1) Social Studies; (2) Language Arts; (3) Computer Science and ICT; (4) Art; and (5) Health.…

  4. Rendimento de motor elétrico como parâmetro de dimensionamento de bitola de alimentador conectado diretamente ao transformador Electric motor efficiency as parameter for sizing a directly connected into transformer feeder cable

    Delly Oliveira Filho


    Full Text Available O dimensionamento de condutores de energia elétrica não leva em consideração critérios de racionalização do uso de energia elétrica. O estudo abrangeu uma avaliação sobre o dimensionamento de condutores alimentadores de energia elétrica de motores conectados diretamente a transformadores utilizados na eletrificação rural. No dimensionamento dos condutores alimentadores, indica-se que, além do atendimento à norma técnica (dimensionamento em função da capacidade de corrente do condutor e da queda de tensão admissível, também sejam considerados: (i o número de horas de funcionamento; (ii as características elétricas e preço de condutores; (iii as características da instalação, como comprimento do ramal e potência do motor. Provou-se que, em algumas situações, é vantajoso aumentar a bitola do condutor além daquela exigida pela norma técnica, a fim de se economizarem energia e gastos pela menor perda no alimentador e maior rendimento do motor elétricoThe feeder conductors sizing does not take into account criterion for rational use of electricity. This study is about feeder conductors sizing evaluation for motors connected directly to transformers used in rural electrification. In the feeder conductors sizing indicate that besides the attendance of the technical standard (i.e. sizing as a function of the feeder current capacity and the allowable voltage drop is also to be considered: (i the number of working hours, (ii the feeder's electrical characteristic and price, (iii the installation characteristics as length and engine's rate. According to the above, in some situations it may be advantageous to increase the gauge of the conductor. It was proven that in some situations it is advantageous to increase the conductor gauge beyond that required by the standards in order to save energy and expenses by the lower feeder losses and by the electric motor higher efficiency

  5. A Grid-Connected Desalination Plant Operation

    Won Ko


    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid-connected desalination plant operation approach is suggested. In desalination plant, large amount of energy is needed to operate pump and motor; hence most of energy is electricity. For this reason, the largest part of the operation cost is electricity charges. To demonstrate power usage, small size desalination measuring system mounted plant is used. Finally, to show the result of a grid-connected desalination plant operation, electric tariff rate of Korea is used. The result shows that total cost reduction rate is calculated about 1.6% of annual total electric plant operation cost.

  6. Miscellaneous electricity use in U.S. homes

    Sanchez, Marla C.; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Meier, Alan; Huber, Wolfgang


    Historically, residential energy and carbon saving efforts have targeted conventional end uses such as water heating, lighting and refrigeration. The emergence of new household appliances has transformed energy use from a few large and easily identifiable end uses into a broad array of ''miscellaneous'' energy services. This group of so called miscellaneous appliances has been a major contributor to growth in electricity demand in the past two decades. We use industry shipment data, lifetimes, and wattage and usage estimates of over 90 individual products to construct a bottom-up end use model (1976-2010). The model is then used to analyze historical and forecasted growth trends, and to identify the largest individual products within the miscellaneous end use. We also use the end use model to identify and analyze policy priorities. Our forecast projects that over the period 1996 to 2010, miscellaneous consumption will increase 115 TWh, accounting for over 90 percent of future residential electricity growth. A large portion of this growth will be due to halogen torchiere lamps and consumer electronics, making these two components of miscellaneous electricity a particularly fertile area for efficiency programs. Approximately 20 percent (40 TWh) of residential miscellaneous electricity is ''leaking electricity'' or energy consumed by appliances when they are not performing their principal function. If the standby power of all appliances with a standby mode is reduced to one watt, the potential energy savings equal 21 TWh/yr, saving roughly $1-2 billion annually.

  7. A method for connecting electrodes in a storage battery

    Toda, K.; Karasava, S.


    The electrode units, placed into the body of a storage battery (AB), are electrically connected by welding connecting elements which pass through the partitions in the body. The processing is conducted with heating and pressure simultaneously.

  8. Photovoltaic systems connected to electric power like distributed generators: the recent situation at the PVPS-IEA and at the Brazilian scenario; Sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede eletrica como geradores distribuidos: a situacao recente no PVPS-IEA e no cenario brasileiro

    Quaglia, Renato Brito; Oliveira, Sergio Henrique Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], email:


    In this paper it is considered the use of Distributed Generation (GD) as a further option to centralized generation of electricity and treats its photovoltaic systems connected to power network (SFCR's) technology as an option in this interesting 'new' model to plan the expansion of the brazilian electrical energy matrix, mainly in urban centres. For this reason, it was necessary to mention the main characteristics of this technology as distributed generators, and the profile of his generation when connected in homes and commercial buildings. Moreover, it presents the benefits that these systems can offer the electricity sector, society and the economy. In the study of Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), specifically the situation of this technology in Germany, realized that the creation of mechanisms of financial incentives provided to implement some of the main barriers associated with the integration of photovoltaic systems as distributed generators. In assessing the Brazilian context, there was the incipient photovoltaic market in the country, even taking some systems already installed, note that the vast majority are intended for studies of Research and Development. There is also the exploitation of photovoltaic systems connected to the network for use in homes, businesses or industries, probably because of the lack of incentive programs for SFCR's. Although there is a programme of incentives to Alternative Sources of Electricity - Proinfa, it does not consider the SFCR's in its guidelines for qualification, only the wind systems, small hydroelectric plants and systems powered by biomass. Point is, therefore, the need for the creation of an energy policy that encourages the Brazilian market photovoltaic, more precisely a policy of offering incentives conditions of maturity of this technology when connected to the network - technical standards, decrease costs, creation of hand of specialized work, installation of manufacturers

  9. 新一代铁路计算机双机切换与外设延长系统的研究%Research on New Generation Railway Active-Standby Switching and Peripheral Signal Extending System

    宋宇; 曹桂均; 王健; 姚宇峰


    Active-standby switching and peripheral signal extending were two significant functions of the modern railway computer system. To meet the requirement of the synthetic automation of marshaling yard, the New Generation Railway Active-Standby Switching and Peripheral Signal Extending System was developed on basic of the preceding technique. This paper expounded it in composition, principle and design of hardware and software.%为满足编组站综合自动化(SAM)系统的需要,在原有双机切换设备和外设延长设备技术的基础上,研究开发了新一代铁路计算机双机切换与外设延长系统.本文从设备组成、工作原理和软硬件设计等方面对其进行阐述.

  10. Power-supply control circuit to reduce standby power consumption of air conditioner%一种能够降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路



    A power-supply control circuit was designed to reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioners. The control circuit determines the working status of an air conditioner by a sampling circuit to detect the actual operating current, and cuts off the power at socket automatically when the air conditioner is in standby mode for more than a minute or so. The actual measurement proves that the control circuit can effectively reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioner. The standby power consumption is less than 1 W when the control circuit is working. The optocoupler triac taken as a core element and the infrared receiver are used in the control circuit. The control circuit does not affect the normal use of the air conditioner's remote controller when it is working%为了有效降低空调的待机功耗,设计了一种旨在降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路.该控制电路通过取样电路检测空调实际工作电流的大小,判断空调的工作状态,当检测到空调处于待机状态超过1 min左右,控制电路自动切断空调插座的电源.实测证明该控制电路可以有效降低空调的待机功耗,可以做到待机功耗不大于1W.该控制电路采用光耦可控硅作为核心控制元件,控制电路中使用了红外接收器,其正常工作时不会影响空调遥控器的正常使用.

  11. New hot standby protection scheme for MAN key client private line%一种新的城域网大客户专线热备保护方案

    张红欣; 胡国栋; 闰青


    Through analysis of MAN key client private line conservation status, we propose a new hot standby protection scheme, one manage VRRP realize batch standby switch of key client private lines, deploying BFD technology to ensure proper management of the state in manage VRRP. Key client private lines themselves do not enable VRRP protocol, but the same IP address on the pairing SR. Standby SR released by small COST value downstream traffic lanes routed to implement the interface standby switch after switching. Using this program can save public IP address, when failure to achieve large-volume customers fast automatic switching lanes, dedicated to improve the reliability of MAN key client private lines.%本文通过对城域网大客户专线的保护现状进行分析,提出了一种新的热备保护方案:由一个管理VRRP实现批量大客户专线的主备切换,部署BFD技术来保证管理VRRP处于合适状态。大客户专线本身不启用VRRP协议,而是在配对SR上配置相同的IP地址。通过备用SR对外发布小COST值的业务路由来实现专线接口主备切换后的下行流量切换。采用本方案,能够节约公网IP地址,实现故障时大客户专线的批量快速自动切换,提升大客户专线的可靠性。

  12. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    None, None


    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  13. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  14. Evoked Effective Connectivity of the Human Neocortex

    Entz, László; Tóth, Emília; Keller, Corey J.; Bickel, Stephan; Groppe, David M.; Fabó, Dániel; Kozák, Lajos R.; Eroőss, Loránd; Ulbert, István; Mehta, Ashesh D.


    The role of cortical connectivity in brain function and pathology is increasingly being recognized. While in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies have provided important insights into anatomical and functional connectivity, these methodologies are limited in their ability to detect electrophysiological activity and the causal relationships that underlie effective connectivity. Here, we describe results of cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping using single pulse electrical stimul...

  15. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))


    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  16. Acoustic vibration test detects intermittent electrical discontinuities

    Grieve, S. M.; Roberts, D. E.


    Nondestructive test method detects faulty electrical connections in inaccessible or hidden portions of electronic harness assemblies and connectors. Method employs readily available commercial equipment.

  17. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert


    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  18. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would...

  19. Improvement of Zero-sequence Directional Component for Parallel Lines with Magnetically Strong and Electrically Weak Connection%平行线弱电强磁下零序方向元件的改进



    平行线在弱电强磁的影响下,相邻线接地故障时可能会引起本线零序方向纵联保护的误动.文中分析了目前克服弱电强磁所采取的解决方案,指出消除零序方向元件比相电压中零序互感电压是防止零序方向保护误动的一种有效手段.根据上述原理,提出了2种新型零序方向保护方案.考虑零序电压与母线相电压受到相同的零序互感影响,引入非故障相电压差、零序电压与故障相电压之差2种电压作为比相参考电压,从而形成不受零序互感影响的零序方向保护判据.PSCAD/EMTDC的仿真分析表明,文中提出的新保护方案在平行线弱电强磁时能保证可靠不误动.%Under the impact of parallel lines with magnetically strong and electrically weak connection, the false tripping of the league zero-sequence directional protection happens when ground faults occur on another line of the parallel lines. The current solution methodologies are analyzed. This problem is caused by the zero-sequence mutual potential between two lines. This can be solved by using polar voltages which do not contain zero-sequence mutual in zero-sequence directional protection. Based on this principle, two novel methods of zero-sequence directional protection are proposed using non-fault phase voltage difference ae well as zero-sequence voltage and fault phase voltage difference, thus the zero-sequence directional protection criteria are formed without the impact of zero-sequence mutual inductance. The feasibility of new zero-sequence directional protection schemes are verified by PSCAD/EMTDC simulations.

  20. 500kV主变后备保护联跳分段开关的二次回路改进建议%Secondary Circuit Improvement Suggestion of 500kV Main Transformer Standby Protection Shunt Tripping Subsection Switch



    双母双分段220kV母线接线方式在倒闸操作等特殊运行方式下,提高了保护拒动或误动的风险。在分析了接入刀闸辅助接点来自动切换跳闸回路的基础上,提出了一种基于保护装置平台的改进思路,即在跳闸逻辑中增加刀闸位置的判据。该方法在微机保护装置中简单易行,便于现场人员快速判断刀闸辅助接点的分合以及整个跳闸出口回路的完好性、正确性,提高了变压器后备保护的可靠性。%Under tripping operation etc special running modes, the 220 kV bus bar connection method of double bus bar double subsection had raised protection misguiding or mis-tripping risks. On the basis of analyzing automatic switching tripping circuit connected by auxiliary contractors, this paper raised an improved idea based on protection device platform, that was to say that a judgment of tripping logic was added into knife blade position. The method is simple and easy in microcomputer protection device, easy for onsite working personnel to quickly judge making and breaking of knife blade auxiliary contractors, as well as the integrality and correctness of entire tripping, which raises the transformer standby protection reliability.

  1. Connected Me - Proof of Concept

    Vajravelu, Dilip Kumar


    Connected Me is a Human Body Communication (HBC) system, which is used fortransferring data through human body. The working principle is based on theorycalled Body Coupled Communication (BCC), which uses electrostatic couplingfor transferring data between device and human body. Capacitance between bodyand electrode acts as an electrical interface between devices. BCC has become aprominent research area in the field of Personal Area Network (PAN), introducedby Zimmerman in 1995. Until now ther...

  2. Connectivity of communication networks

    Mao, Guoqiang


    This book introduces a number of recent developments on connectivity of communication networks, ranging from connectivity of large static networks and connectivity of highly dynamic networks to connectivity of small to medium sized networks. This book also introduces some applications of connectivity studies in network optimization, in network localization, and in estimating distances between nodes. The book starts with an overview of the fundamental concepts, models, tools, and methodologies used for connectivity studies. The rest of the chapters are divided into four parts: connectivity of large static networks, connectivity of highly dynamic networks, connectivity of small to medium sized networks, and applications of connectivity studies.

  3. Electric power distribution handbook

    Short, Thomas Allen


    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  4. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas


    The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...... when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills...

  5. Connection Strings Property on ADO Connection Object

    Girigi Deogratias; Wu Min; Cao Weihua


    The connection string property on ADO connection object contains the information used to establish a connection to the data source. The syntax, the keyword of that information must be in specific format. Depending on the type of data you are connecting to, you need either specify an OLEDB provider or use on ODBC driver. The biggest problem, the industries face is the proliferation of data access interfaces, and the complexity of creating,maintaining and programming against them, and the network problem when communicating over the Intranet or the Internet. This paper first provides an in-depth look of the standard arguments supported by ADO connection string; then gives the easier way for understanding the meaning, the utility and the syntax of the connection strings property on ADO connection object, and finally proposes solution to work around the problems due to the connection strings errors.

  6. Electricity in the Sky



    Without any warning, the stormy sky flashes ghostly white. Jagged branches connect the earth and clouds in an eerie electric web,then disappear.Seconds later a resounding thunderclap warns you that the storm’s center is just a few miles away.

  7. Minimum cost connection networks

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  8. Attribute-space connectivity and connected filters

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.


    In this paper connected operators from mathematical morphology are extended to a wider class of operators, which are based on connectivities in higher dimensional spaces, similar to scale spaces, which will be called attribute-spaces. Though some properties of connected filters are lost, granulometr


    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu


    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.


    童承凤; 胡庆


    为实现Android平台上的双网双待功能,研究Android平台的系统架构以及Android framework层上已经实现的双卡处理机制.提出一种在无线接口层(RIL)上依样建立一套新的RIL Driver处理机制,从而将双卡分别进行处理的方法.实现基于Android系统平台的GSM和CDMA双网双待机制,对Android系统平台和主要的Phone应用模块进行了详细的分析.结果表明,在Android系统原有架构基础上进行双网双待设计,具有简单、易扩展的优点,且更好地满足广大Android手机用户的需求.%To implement Dual-Net Dual-Standby function based on Android platform, the authors have studied the system architecture of Android platform and the achieved mechanism of dual card processing on framework layer. According to the sample, they propose a method that establishes a new RIL Driver processing mechanism in framework layer which allows separate processing of the dual cards. They have implemented the Dual-Net Dual-Standby mechanism of GSM and CDMA based on the Android system platform,and given a detailed analysis of Android system platform and the chief phone application module. The result shows that ,on the original basis structure of the Android system, the design of Dual-Net Dual-Standby has the advantages of simplicity and extensibility so that it better meets the needs of the majority of Android mobile phone users.

  11. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  12. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  13. Zee electrical interconnect

    Rust, Thomas M. (Inventor); Gaddy, Edward M. (Inventor); Herriage, Michael J. (Inventor); Patterson, Robert E. (Inventor); Partin, Richard D. (Inventor)


    An interconnect, having some length, that reliably connects two conductors separated by the length of the interconnect when the connection is made but in which one length if unstressed would change relative to the other in operation. The interconnect comprises a base element an intermediate element and a top element. Each element is rectangular and formed of a conducting material and has opposed ends. The elements are arranged in a generally Z-shape with the base element having one end adapted to be connected to one conductor. The top element has one end adapted to be connected to another conductor and the intermediate element has its ends disposed against the other end of the base and the top element. Brazes mechanically and electrically interconnect the intermediate element to the base and the top elements proximate the corresponding ends of the elements. When the respective ends of the base and the top elements are connected to the conductors, an electrical connection is formed therebetween, and when the conductors are relatively moved or the interconnect elements change length the elements accommodate the changes and the associated compression and tension forces in such a way that the interconnect does not mechanically fatigue.

  14. A Sub-Threshold 8T SRAM Macro with 12.29 nW/KB Standby Power and 6.24 pJ/access for Battery-Less IoT SoCs

    Farah B. Yahya


    Full Text Available We present an ultra-low power (ULP 1 KB SRAM macro for Internet of Things (IoT battery-less systems-on-chip (SoCs operating under varying energy harvesting conditions. The unique combination of features within this array allows battery-less SoCs to retain important information for a significantly longer period of time when energy harvesting conditions are poor. The array uses 8T high-threshold (high-VT static random access memory (SRAM cells with word line boosting to eliminate write failures coupled with a read-before-write scheme to address read-disturb in half-selected cells. Due to the reduced on current in high-VT devices, read word line boosting is implemented to improve the drive strength of the read buffer, and to eliminate read failures. Leakage currents through the unselected cells during a read operation is addressed by boosting the footer virtual VSS (VVSS of the read port to the supply voltage (VDD. To reduce the power consumption of instruction memories in battery-less SoCs, two features were utilized in this array: a read burst mode is used when reading consecutive addresses to reduce the read energy, and instructions with higher percentages of “1” data are defined since reading a “1” is less costly than reading a “0” in 8T cells. The proposed array can operate at a wide range of supply voltages (350–700 mV and has two ULP modes: standby with retention (1.5 pW/bit and shutdown without retention (0.13 pW/bit. Aggressive power gating of all peripherals during the standby state reduces the array power consumption down to 12.29 nW/KB at 320 mV with data retention. Compared to previously published 8T arrays, the proposed design provides the lowest standby power. The complete shutdown of the array allows further reduction down to 1.09 nW/KB and is suitable for reducing the power consumption of data memories in battery-less SoCs. The measured results from a commercial 130 nm chip show that the proposed array consumes a

  15. Minimum cost connection networks

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    . We use three axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well as all...... connection costs; and, (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on estimated connection costs and allocates true connection costs of the selected network....

  16. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. The location and the electrical rating of all stationary electric apparatus in connection...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1365 - Electric cables and equipment.


    ...) Electrical cables must be installed such that the risk of mechanical damage and/or damage cased by fluids... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables and equipment. 23.1365... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1365 Electric cables and equipment. (a) Each electric connecting...

  18. Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study.

    Vinnemeier, Christof D; Rothe, Camilla; Kreuels, Benno; Addo, Marylyn M; Vygen-Bonnet, Sabine; Cramer, Jakob P; Rolling, Thierry


    Guidelines in several European countries recommend standby emergency treatment (SBET) for travellers to regions with low or medium malaria transmission instead of continuous chemoprophylaxis: travellers are advised to seek medical assistance within 24 h in case of fever and to self-administer SBET only if they are not able to consult a doctor within the time period specified. Data on healthcare-seeking behaviour of febrile travellers and utilization of SBET is however scarce as only two studies were performed in the mid-1990s. Since tourism is constantly increasing and malaria epidemiology has dramatically changed in the meantime more knowledge is urgently needed. Some 876 travellers to destinations in South and Southeast Asia with low or medium malaria transmission were recruited in the travel clinic of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Demographic and travel-related data were collected by using questionnaires. Pre-travel advice was carried out and SBET was prescribed in accordance to national guidelines. Post-travel phone interviews were performed to assess health incidents during travel and individual responses of travellers to febrile illness. Out of 714 patients who were monitored, 130 (18%) reported onset of fever during travel or 14 days after return. Of those travellers who reported fever, 100 (80%) carried SBET during travel. The vast majority of 79 (79%) febrile travellers who carried SBET did not seek medical assistance. Overall, 14 (14%) febrile patients who carried SBET and six (20%) patients who did not carry SBET took the correct measure (doctor visit or timely SBET administration) as a response to febrile illness, respectively. Only two travellers self-administered SBET, but both of them applied the wrong regimen. In view of declining malaria transmission and improving medical infrastructure in most countries of Southeast Asia and obvious obstacles concerning SBET as shown in this study the current strategy should be re

  19. Electricity Customers

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  20. 连接片阻值对电动汽车用动力电池性能的影响%The Effects of Connecting Plate Resistance on the Performance of Power Battery for Electric Vehicles

    王丽梅; 程勇


    [ Abstract] In view of the effects of the resistance of connecting plates and the position of terminal post on the performance of a battery module, a model for battery cell is developed based on Matlab/Simscape, with which and connecting plates simulated as a resistance, a model for battery module is built and a simulation is conducted to analyze the effects of connecting plate resistance on the performance of battery module. The results indicate that con-necting plate make the battery cell connected directly to terminal post the first cell to reach discharge cut-off voltage set by battery management system, which influences the performance of battery. The battery cell connected to termi-nal post also ages first, leading to the over-discharge of its adjacent cell, and hence affecting the safety of battery module. Finally with the maximum SOC difference between cells set to 0. 05, battery modules with different num-bers of cells are simulated, and the reasonable ratio of connection plate resistance to battery ohmic resistance is ob-tained.%鉴于单体电池间连接片的阻值和极柱的位置影响单节电池的性能,基于Matlab/Simscape开发了单体电池模型,并利用此模型和以电阻模拟的连接片构建了单节电池模型,仿真分析了连接片阻值对单节电池性能的影响。结果表明,连接片的存在使与极柱相连的单体电池最先达到电池管理系统设定的放电截止电压,以致影响电池的性能;与极柱相连的单体电池的率先老化导致与其相邻的单体电池出现过放电的现象,影响单节电池的安全性。最后,设定各单体电池SOC间最大偏差为0.05,对不同并联电池数目的单节电池进行仿真,得出连接片与电池欧姆内阻阻值的合理比例。

  1. Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Metallic Electrical Contacts

    Toranzos, Victor J; Mochán, W Luis; Zerbino, Jorge O


    We study the optical and electrical properties of silver films with a graded thickness obtained through metallic evaporation in vacuum on a tilted substrate to evaluate their use as semitransparent electrical contacts. We measure their ellipsometric coefficients, optical transmissions and electrical conductivity for different widths, and we employ an efficient recursive method to calculate their macroscopic dielectric function, their optical properties and their microscopic electric fields. The topology of very thin films corresponds to disconnected islands, while very wide films are simply connected. For intermediate widths the film becomes semicontinuous, multiply connected, and its microscopic electric field develops hotspots at optical resonances which appear near the percolation threshold of the conducting phase, yielding large ohmic losses that increase the absorptance above that of a corresponding homogeneous film. Optimizing the thickness of the film to maximize its transmittance above the percolation...

  2. Measurement of an Electric Arc Spectra

    Šimek, D.


    Article is focused on electric arc spectroscopy diagnostics related to electric low voltage apparatuses. The first attempts of spectroscopy measurements are dealt with. An example of radiation spectra of the electric arc burning between copper electrodes is presented. The problems connected with the measurements are discussed.

  3. Nurses stand by, on standby

    Kjær, Malene; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    configurations (Goodwin, 2000) and more overall activities (that are, of course, also accomplished locally). In the professional literature, this alertness is often ‘hidden’ in the definition of nursing as a symbiosis of communication, ethics for the patient and technical skills. With this study we want to fill......Nursing profession consists of never-ending diagnostic work and she has to treat smells, visual cues and noises from people and machines as being potentially relevant next attention and action spaces A nurse needs to have a broad perspective on the daily routines: which patient is next in line...... for surgery, does any colleague need assistance, and so on. To do this diagnostic work, nurses move within and between different hospital spaces and, at the same time, their level of attention (Norris, 2004) shifts between local, often occasioned, sites of engagement (Scollon & Scollon, 2004) or contextual...

  4. Standby gasoline rationing plan: narrative


    The objectives of the rationing plan are to provide a mechanism capable of maintaining an orderly and equitable market for gasoline in a severe supply shortfall, and capable of rapid implementation; and to comply with requirements of EPCA, which mandates the development of a contingency rationing plan. Eligibility for ration allotments will be based principally on motor vehicle registration records, maintained in a national vehicle registration file. Supplemental allotments will be granted for certain priority activities to ensure the maintenance of essential public services. Supplemental allotments will also be granted to businesses and government organizations with significant off-highway gasoline requirements. Local rationing boards or other offices will be established by states, to provide special allotments to hardship applicants, within DOE guidelines. The background and history of the plan are described. The gasoline rationing plan operations, government operations, program costs, staffing, and funding are also detailed in this report. (MCW)

  5. Discussion on major standby database back-cutting scheme of railway dispatching system%谈铁路调度系统主备用数据库的倒切方案



    The paper discusses the application principle of standby database of railway dispatching system,introduces two kinds of back-cutting from major database to standby database,compares their merits and defects,puts forward new back-cutting method on the basis of background back-cutting method,summarizes the application demands of new back-cutting method,which will be good for guaranteeing normal operation of the railway dispatching system.%论述了铁路调度系统中备用数据库的应用原理,介绍了主用数据库向备用数据库倒切的两种方式,对比分析了前、后台倒切方式的优劣点,并提出了一种基于后台倒切的新的倒切方式,总结了这种新的倒切方式的应用要求,有利于保证整个铁路调度系统的正常运转。

  6. 超限高层建筑电气设计重点简析%Analysis on Key Points of Electrical Design for Super High-rise Buildings



    In combination with project cases, the key points of electrical design for the following aspects of super high-rise buildings are deeply analyzed : power supply scheme, emergency / stand-by power source, transformation and distribution substation, and escape lighting etc.%结合工程案例.对超限高层建筑的供电方案、应急/备用电源、变配电所,以及疏散照明等电气设计重点内容作深入分析。

  7. 凯迪电力通信接入方式的研究和选择%The Research and Selection of the Connection Mode of Kaidi Electric Power Communication



    The paper proposed three typical Kaidi Electric Power communication access solutions in the basis of linking the disad-vantage and framework of Xianning electric existing communications access network, and adopted SDH and intelligent PCM as Kaidi Electric Power communication access solutions by comprehensive comparative analysis of economy ,network performance and technology and maintenance management etc. It makes the designed network transfers integrated service effectively, such as the power of marketing data,dispatcher telephone,televised meeting,office MIS and so on,and has definite reference value of the communication network transform of power companies and the formulation of communication plan.%该文结合咸宁电力现有通信接入网络的缺陷和构架,提出了三种典型的凯迪电力通信接入方案,并通过经济性、网络性能与技术、维护管理等方面的综合比较分析,采用SDH+PCM作为凯迪电力通信的接入方案技术。结果表明所设计的网络能有效地用于传输电力营销数据、调度电话、会议电视、办公管理自动化系统等综合业务,该文的研究内容对各电力企业改造通信网络、制订通信规划具有一定参考价值。


    V. P. Kharkov


    Full Text Available In the article the questions connected with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly electric aircraft are considered. It is suggested to use modern accumulators based on the lithium-thionyl chloride as a source of electrical energy.

  9. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    Watson, Heather Christine [Dublin, CA; Roberts, Jeffrey James [Livermore, CA


    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Bissontz, Jay E.


    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  11. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    Kim, Oleksiy S.


    of 72 ohms is numerically investigated and its performance is compared to that of the multiarm spherical helix antenna of the same size. Both antennas yield equal quality factors, which are about 1.5 times the Chu lower bound, but quite different cross-polarization characteristics.......This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  12. Electric Power


    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade Electric Power Industry Office (CCPIT Electric Power), one of the pro-fessional industrial branches of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), was established in 2006.

  13. Electricity economics

    Hu, Zhaoguang


    Systematically analyzing for the first time the production output from electricity consumption for enterprises, sectors, and industries, this study uses the function of EAI (electricity as input), and includes national E-GDP figures for more than 20 countries.

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-85 - Electrical bonding.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical bonding. 98.25-85 Section 98.25-85 Shipping... § 98.25-85 Electrical bonding. (a) Each cargo tank shall be electrically grounded to the hull. The.... This electrical connection shall be maintained until after the cargo hose has been disconnected and...

  15. Possible mechanism of electrical field origin around celestial bodies

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.


    Slow magnetic field variations in stars and planets create a quasistationary electrical field which may be observed. It is supposed that the electrical field near the Earth surface may be partially connected with variation of the Earth magnetic field. Two examples of the electrical field distribution around the infinite cylinder, and the circular loop with a lineary growing with time electrical currents are given.

  16. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo


    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  17. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing


    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less

  18. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    Slade, Paul G


    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  19. Asymptotically hyperbolic connections

    Fine, Joel; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos


    General Relativity in 4 dimensions can be equivalently described as a dynamical theory of SO(3)-connections rather than metrics. We introduce the notion of asymptotically hyperbolic connections, and work out an analog of the Fefferman-Graham expansion in the language of connections. As in the metric setup, one can solve the arising "evolution" equations order by order in the expansion in powers of the radial coordinate. The solution in the connection setting is arguably simpler, and very straightforward algebraic manipulations allow one to see how the obstruction appears at third order in the expansion. Another interesting feature of the connection formulation is that the "counter terms" required in the computation of the renormalised volume all combine into the Chern-Simons functional of the restriction of the connection to the boundary. As the Chern-Simons invariant is only defined modulo large gauge transformations, the requirement that the path integral over asymptotically hyperbolic connections is well-d...

  20. Analysis on Off Mode and Standby Mode of Typical Household Appliances At Hone and Abroad%中外典型家用电器关机和待机模式的分析比较

    杨丕达; 黄凯杰


    由于中外标准中对“关机模式”和“待机模式”的定义不完全一致,以及标准使用者对相关定义理解的差异,常常导致产品设计生产、市场准入评估和市场监督中出现不同程度的误解。%Bacause of the definitions of“off mode”and“standby mode”are inconsistent, and those standards users have different understandings of related definitions, it results in the misunderstandings in the products design production, the market access evaluation and the market surveillance.

  1. Electric ignition and airless kindle for underfeed stokers

    Crowther, M.E. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)


    The leaflet describes a project carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of two methods of reducing the amount of coal used for kindling on boilers fitted with underfeed stokers. Many coal-fired boilers use underfeed stokers to deliver their fuel. When heat is not required, the stoker is put into standby `kindle` mode, and the fire kept alight by the periodic delivery of small amounts of coal and air. CRE Group Ltd., assessed two techniques for reducing the fuel used for kindling: electric ignition and airless kindle. Electric ignition eliminates entirely the need for kindling by automatically re-igniting the coal in the stoker retort using a hot air jet. CRE Group`s development work aimed to overcome earlier design problems and improve cost-effectiveness and reliability. Airless kindle reduces the size and frequency of coal feed in kindle mode. Although it does not entirely eliminate the use of kindle, it saves almost as much fuel for a lower capital outlay and minimal maintenance costs. This option has proved so attractive to the host organisations (Derbyshire Country Council, Nottinghamshire Country Council and Haven Nurseries) that the boiler used for trials for the electric ignition system has now been converted to airless kindle. 3 figs., 4 photos.

  2. 110kV变电站备用电源自动切换装置应用试验%Application Test on Automatic Switching Device for Standby Power of 110 kV Substation



    The power supply mode of on-load automatic switching standby power is that the on-load automatic switching standby power works as the power supply in case of the breakdown of common power source to avoid the large-scale blackout and improve the power supply reliability and quality .Fast switchover device plays an important part in the power supply system ,whose switching success rate is essential to high-efficiency opera‐tion of the power supply system .By introducing the working principle of fast switchover mode ,the paper em‐phasizes its advantages over several other power switching modes and reaches the conclusion that the application of fast switchover device can better guarantee the normal operation of power supply system .%备用电源带负荷自动切换供电方式是:在常用电源故障失电的情况下,可以通过备用电源带负荷自动切换作为电源,避免全站(所)失电造成大面积的停电,从整体上提高供电可靠性,改善供电质量,从而确保矿井安全供电。快切装置是供电系统中的重要装置,本文介绍了快切装置的工作原理,得出了将快切装置运用于供电系统中可以更好地保证系统正常运行这一结论。

  3. Electric drives

    Boldea, Ion


    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  4. Electrical contracting

    Neidle, Michael


    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  5. Characterization of the distributed generation of electricity by grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Brazil, with respect to technical, economic and regulatory aspects; Caracterizacao da geracao distribuida de eletricidade por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede, no Brasil, sob os aspectos tecnico, economico e regulatorio

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva


    This work characterizes the distributed generation of electricity from Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS) in Brazil, according to technical, economic and regulatory aspects. The country currently has 35 GCPS in operation, totaling an installed power of 161.32 kW{sub p}. Most of this power is in the South and Southeast and has been implemented by universities, research centers and electric power utilities, with a small participation of private initiative. The solar energy generation cost from GCPS was calculated for sixteen strategically selected localities. This value varies according to the greater or minor availability of the solar resource and the adopted discounting rate. The average value found was 0.56 US$ /kWh, about 2,1 times bigger than the average residential tariff in the same cities. Arguing that the conventional tariff tends to grow in coming years, pressed by the imbalance between supply and demand, and that the cost of photovoltaic generation tends to decrease over the same period due to productivity gains in the manufacturing process of photovoltaic components, a mathematical model was developed to predict the time that these two indicators will be equal. It was found that the average time of equalization will be 7.0 years and may be less than 5.0 years in locations where the conventional energy is more expensive than the national average and average annual irradiation is higher than that in the rest of the country. Finally, this work presents how the Brazilian legislation deals with the photovoltaic generators connected to the public distribution network, showing the points for and legal obstacles to the dissemination of GCPS. (author)

  6. Landfill Gas Electricity Project Interconnection Webinar

    This page contains information about a webinar LMOP offered to LMOP Partners to address questions associated with connecting electricity generating systems to the grid during LFG energy project planning and implementation.


    Yuri Yu. Yankin


    Full Text Available Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.

  8. Electric vehicles


    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  9. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute


    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  10. PQ Control Based Grid Connected DG Systems

    P Siva Srinivas1 ,


    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG generally refer to small scale electric power generators produce electricity that is bound to an electric distribution system. Distributed generation systems such as photovoltaic (PV or wind energy systems are parts of the future smart grids. By applying intelligent techniques these future grids change as smarter grids. During the past few years electrical energy consumption to the investment is increased when compared to cost on transmission and distribution resulting in compromised reliability and high energy costs. So there is need to change from conventional grid to smart grid. Micro grids consist of small power sources called distributed generation system. Many distributed generation systems such as photovoltaic systems are grid interfaced through power electronic voltage source inverters. In this paper a boost inverter technique is explained and distributed generation sources such as PV and fuel cell are connected in series with the help of PQ controller technique the above system is evaluated.

  11. Stability Analysis of Electric Power System in Respect of Large Wind Farm Connection%大规模风电接入电网的稳定性分析

    马小刚; 刘一兵; 焦攀; 张金霞


    Large wind farm connected with power system will greatly have impact on the system stability and dynamic characteristics. Combination with the features of wind power generation, based on the power flow analysis and transient stability, the influence of large wind farm on power system is discussed by considering the tie lines power flow control. Taking the simulation calculation of a real grid for an example, it analyzes the effect of wind generation power on the steady-state operation and transient dynamic characteristics of power system. Application of AGC to tie lines power control is also studied.%针对大规模风电接入电网将严重影响系统的稳态运行和动态特性的问题,结合风电特性,以潮流分析、暂态稳定为基础并考虑联络线潮流控制,探讨了大规模风电接入对电网运行的影响.以实际电网为例进行仿真计算,分析了风电接入后稳态运行状况的变化和风电并网对系统暂态动态特性的影响,研究了AGC控制在联络线功率控制中的应用.

  12. Eccentric connectivity index

    Ilić, Aleksandar


    The eccentric connectivity index $\\xi^c$ is a novel distance--based molecular structure descriptor that was recently used for mathematical modeling of biological activities of diverse nature. It is defined as $\\xi^c (G) = \\sum_{v \\in V (G)} deg (v) \\cdot \\epsilon (v)$\\,, where $deg (v)$ and $\\epsilon (v)$ denote the vertex degree and eccentricity of $v$\\,, respectively. We survey some mathematical properties of this index and furthermore support the use of eccentric connectivity index as topological structure descriptor. We present the extremal trees and unicyclic graphs with maximum and minimum eccentric connectivity index subject to the certain graph constraints. Sharp lower and asymptotic upper bound for all graphs are given and various connections with other important graph invariants are established. In addition, we present explicit formulae for the values of eccentric connectivity index for several families of composite graphs and designed a linear algorithm for calculating the eccentric connectivity in...

  13. On eccentric connectivity index

    Zhou, Bo


    The eccentric connectivity index, proposed by Sharma, Goswami and Madan, has been employed successfully for the development of numerous mathematical models for the prediction of biological activities of diverse nature. We now report mathematical properties of the eccentric connectivity index. We establish various lower and upper bounds for the eccentric connectivity index in terms of other graph invariants including the number of vertices, the number of edges, the degree distance and the first Zagreb index. We determine the n-vertex trees of diameter with the minimum eccentric connectivity index, and the n-vertex trees of pendent vertices, with the maximum eccentric connectivity index. We also determine the n-vertex trees with respectively the minimum, second-minimum and third-minimum, and the maximum, second-maximum and third-maximum eccentric connectivity indices for

  14. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis


    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  15. Institutions for Asian Connectivity

    Bhattacharyay, Biswa


    To make Asia more economically sustainable and resilient against external shocks, regional economies need to be rebalanced toward regional demand- and trade-driven growth through increased regional connectivity. The effectiveness of connectivity depends on the quality of hard and soft infrastructure. Of particular importance in terms of soft infrastructure which makes hard infrastructure work are the facilitating institutions that support connectivity through appropriate policies, reforms, sy...

  16. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    McClain, Gary R


    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  17. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi


    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  18. Minimum cost connection networks

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich


    demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  19. Asymptotically hyperbolic connections

    Fine, Joel; Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos


    General relativity in four-dimensions can be equivalently described as a dynamical theory of {SO}(3)˜ {SU}(2)-connections rather than metrics. We introduce the notion of asymptotically hyperbolic connections, and work out an analogue of the Fefferman-Graham expansion in the language of connections. As in the metric setup, one can solve the arising ‘evolution’ equations order by order in the expansion in powers of the radial coordinate. The solution in the connection setting is arguably simpler, and very straightforward algebraic manipulations allow one to see how the unconstrained by Einstein equations ‘stress-energy tensor’ appears at third order in the expansion. Another interesting feature of the connection formulation is that the ‘counter terms’ required in the computation of the renormalised volume all combine into the Chern-Simons functional of the restriction of the connection to the boundary. As the Chern-Simons invariant is only defined modulo large gauge transformations, the requirement that the path integral over asymptotically hyperbolic connections is well-defined requires the cosmological constant to be quantised. Finally, in the connection setting one can deform the 4D Einstein condition in an interesting way, and we show that asymptotically hyperbolic connection expansion is universal and valid for any of the deformed theories.

  20. The Connected Traveler

    Young, Stanley


    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  1. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop


    ... content into the curriculum; and as classroom management software tools move everything from homework... consider promising strategies for achieving the President's goal of connecting virtually all K-12 students... policies and consider the most promising strategies for equipping K-12 schools for digital learning....

  2. Electromagnetism from extra space multi connectivity

    Gauthier, C. [Moncton Univ., Moncton (France). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Statistique


    In a unified field theory of the Kaluza-Klein type, it is used a multi connected extra space to interpret geometrically the quantum properties of physics. This paper presents a pure geometric interpretation of electromagnetism. The electric change of a body is identified with its cross-section for interaction of twisted waves due to the extra space multi connectivity. A by-product of this interpretation is an expression for the permittivity of free space as an integral of the flux of these waves over their frequencies.

  3. Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections

    Ortolano, M.; Callegaro, L.


    The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow (i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantized resistance, or (ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the indefinite admittance matrix: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.

  4. Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections

    Ortolano, Massimo


    The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantised resistance, or ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the \\emph{indefinite admittance matrix}: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.

  5. Electrical Microengineering of Redox Enzymes


    of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 96, No. 9, 1992 3581 electrical connection to the electrode and their packing is theo - of electrons is of essence in...Heller, A. Anal. Cheme 1991,63, (8) Geiger, 0.; Goariach, H. Biochemistry 1966,25,6043-4048 2268. (9) Cleton- Jansen , A. W-. Groen, N.; Wink, K., Van

  6. Atmospheric electricity

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  7. Electrical stator

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.


    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  8. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.


    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  9. Making Connections with Estimation.

    Lobato, Joanne E.


    Describes four methods to structure estimation activities that enable students to make connections between their understanding of numbers and extensions of those concepts to estimating. Presents activities that connect estimation with other curricular areas, other mathematical topics, and real-world applications. (MDH)

  10. Tokens of Connection

    Crowley, Theresa


    When teachers make the effort to build a solid relationship with each student, built on trust, they often engender a life-long connection, one that's life-changing for the student. But how can teachers grow such long-lasting relationships with all students, especially disenfranchised learners and those who make it hard to connect? Crowley, a…

  11. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical monthly report



    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal test block (TER) as the Pilot was operated under forced oxidation conditions. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued as investigations into various activated carbons, metal amalgams, and impinger capture solutions were conducted. Following these studies, a brief test of the Pilot High Velocity FGD configuration (PHV) was conducted. This test block will be continued at the end of the month after the Fall outage is completed. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. During this month`s outage, the inlet and outlet damper plates were sealed to isolate the SCR system from flue gas. Also, the internals of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) and catalyst reactor tower were inspected and cleaned so that the system could be available for future test activities. Monthly inspections of all SCR system equipment placed in this cold-standby mode, as well as the fire safety systems in the SCR building, will continue to be conducted by the ECTC maintenance department and will include manual rotation of the booster fan.

  12. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    Li, Xueliang


    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  13. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    Jirsa, Viktor K


    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  14. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.


    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  15. 46 CFR 111.30-3 - Accessibility of switchboard components and connections.


    .... 111.30-3 Section 111.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-3 Accessibility of switchboard components and connections. Each component and bus bar connection on a switchboard that is not...

  16. Electric machine

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI


    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  17. Quality control based on electrical resistivity measurements

    Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Jalali, Said


    The electrical resistivity of concrete is one of the main parameters controlling the initiation and propagation of reinforcement corrosion. It is common knowledge that concrete electrical resistivity is mainly dependent on the w/c ratio (pore connectivity), volume and type of cement, temperature and the moisture. This research work studies the effect of specimen shape and temperature of measurement on electrical resistivity measurements of concrete using the four-point Werner electrode. In ad...

  18. Optical and electrical properties of nanostructured metallic electrical contacts

    Toranzos, Victor J.; Ortiz, Guillermo P.; Mochán, W. Luis; Zerbino, Jorge O.


    We study the optical and electrical properties of silver films with a graded thickness obtained through metallic evaporation in vacuum on a tilted substrate to evaluate their use as semitransparent electrical contacts. We measure their ellipsometric coefficients, optical transmissions and electrical conductivity for different widths, and we employ an efficient recursive method to calculate their macroscopic dielectric function, their optical properties and their microscopic electric fields. The topology of very thin films corresponds to disconnected islands, while very wide films are simply connected. For intermediate widths the film becomes semicontinuous, multiply connected, and its microscopic electric field develops hotspots at optical resonances which appear near the percolation threshold of the conducting phase, yielding large ohmic losses that increase the absorptance above that of a corresponding homogeneous film. Optimizing the thickness of the film to maximize its transmittance above the percolation threshold of the conductive phase we obtained a film with transmittance T  =  0.41 and a sheet resistance Rs\\text{max}≈ 2.7 Ω . We also analyze the observed emission frequency shift of porous silicon electroluminescent devices when Ag films are used as solid electrical contacts in replacement of electrolytic ones.

  19. Hermetic electronics package with dual-sided electrical feedthrough configuration

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.


    A hermetic electronics package includes a metal case with opposing first and second open ends, with each end connected to a first feedthrough construction and a second feedthrough construction. Each feedthrough contruction has an electrically insulating substrate and an array of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending therethrough, with the electrically insulating substrates connected to the opposing first and second open ends, respectively, of the metal case so as to form a hermetically sealed enclosure. A set of electronic components are located within the hermetically sealed enclosure and are operably connected to the feedthroughs of the first and second feedthrough constructions so as to electrically communicate outside the package from opposite sides of the package.

  20. Quantifying bicycle network connectivity.

    Lowry, Michael; Loh, Tracy Hadden


    The intent of this study was to compare bicycle network connectivity for different types of bicyclists and different neighborhoods. Connectivity was defined as the ability to reach important destinations, such as grocery stores, banks, and elementary schools, via pathways or roads with low vehicle volumes and low speed limits. The analysis was conducted for 28 neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington under existing conditions and for a proposed bicycle master plan, which when complete will provide over 700 new bicycle facilities, including protected bike lanes, neighborhood greenways, and multi-use trails. The results showed different levels of connectivity across neighborhoods and for different types of bicyclists. Certain projects were shown to improve connectivity differently for confident and non-confident bicyclists. The analysis showed a positive correlation between connectivity and observed utilitarian bicycle trips. To improve connectivity for the majority of bicyclists, planners and policy-makers should provide bicycle facilities that allow immediate, low-stress access to the street network, such as neighborhood greenways. The analysis also suggests that policies and programs that build confidence for bicycling could greatly increase connectivity.

  1. The connection revisited; De aansluiting revisited

    Janssen, J.E.


    A previous article of this journal (NTE 2006, no 5, pp 155-164) was dedicated to the connection in the Dutch Electricity Act 1998. Since then there have been several amendments in regulation, decisions and jurisprudence to justify a follow-up article. This article aims to provide a thematic overview of the developments in Dutch regulation, NMa decisions and jurisprudence with regard to electricity and gas connection in the last three years, linking up to the themes addresses in the above-mentioned article. The focus is broadened to connections under the Electricity Act and the Gas Act. [Dutch] In een vorig artikel van dit tijdschrift (NTE 2006, no. 5, p. 155-164) is aandacht besteed aan de aansluiting in de Elektriciteitswet 1998 (de E-wet). Sinds die tijd is er in de regelgeving, beschikkingspraktijk en jurisprudentie genoeg gewijzigd om een vervolg te rechtvaardigen. Dit artikel beoogt een thematisch overzicht te geven van de ontwikkelingen in de regelgeving, de beschikkingspraktijk van de NMa en jurisprudentie met betrekking tot de elektriciteits- en gasaansluiting in de laatste drie jaar. Daarbij is waar mogelijk aangeknoopt bij de thema's in het hierboven genoemde artikel. De focus is verbreed naar aansluitingen onder zowel de E-wet als de Gaswet.

  2. Singularities of invariant connections

    Amores, A.M. (Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)); Gutierrez, M. (Universidad Politecnica, Madrid (Spain))


    A reductive homogeneous space M = P/G is considered, endowed with an invariant connection, i.e., such that all left translations of M induced by members of P preserve it. The authors study the set of singularities of such connections giving sufficient conditions for it to be empty, or, in other cases, familities of b-incomplete curves converging to singularities. A full description of the b-completion of a connection with M = R[sup m] (or a quotient of it) is given with information on its topology. 5 refs.

  3. Covariant Magnetic Connection Hypersurfaces

    Pegoraro, F


    In the single fluid, nonrelativistic, ideal-Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved "magnetic connections" between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D {\\it magnetic connection hypersurfaces} in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when ${\\bf E} \\cdot {\\bf B} = 0$.

  4. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    Underwood, Mark L.; Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Nakamura, Barbara J.; Oconnor, Dennis E.


    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.


    Jordan, K.C.


    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  6. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    Benini, Marco [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Dappiaggi, Claudio [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Schenkel, Alexander [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachgruppe Mathematik


    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  7. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles


    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  8. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    McAllister, Iain Wilson


    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  9. Connective Tissue Naevus

    Bhat Ramesh M


    Full Text Available A young adult female patient of connective tissue naevus presented with papules and indurated plaques on both les and left arm. Histopathology showed increased amount of collagen in the dermis. Osteopoikilosis was absent.

  10. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity


    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist’s toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses c...

  11. The design analysis for the main control room and standby shutdown point for HTR-PM%高温气冷堆核电站示范工程主控室和备用停堆点设计分析



    This paper describes the general design of the main control room(MCR)and standby shutdown point for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble module(HTR-PM).The function of design,layout of control panels and main function and characteristics of MCR and standby shutdown point are specially introduced and analyzed in detail.%简要概述了华能山东石岛湾核电厂高温气冷堆核电站示范工程(简称HTR-PM)的主控室和备用停堆点的整体设计,着重对主控室和备用停堆点的功能设计、台盘布置、主要作用和特点进行了介绍和分析,为以后的实际工程提供参考。

  12. Connective Tissue Disorder


    2008349 A clinical analysis of 32 patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in diffuse connective tissue diseases. CHEN Guangxing(陈光星), et al. Dept Rheumatol, PUMC & CAMS Beijing 100730. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(5):362-365.Objective To provide clues to diagnosis and treatment for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage(DAH)in patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases(CTD).Method To analyze restropectively the data of clinical features,

  13. Reliability of power connections

    BRAUNOVIC Milenko


    Despite the use of various preventive maintenance measures, there are still a number of problem areas that can adversely affect system reliability. Also, economical constraints have pushed the designs of power connections closer to the limits allowed by the existing standards. The major parameters influencing the reliability and life of Al-Al and Al-Cu connections are identified. The effectiveness of various palliative measures is determined and the misconceptions about their effectiveness are dealt in detail.

  14. NEACP Onboard Connectivity Study


    Methodology Framework .............................. 6-3 6.2.2 Sources of ME Cost Savings with NOCH ............... 6-5 6.2.3 Additional Benefits of 1OCU...processing system (MPS) installation connects all record and data communications equipment to a common MIL -STD-1553B bus and automates many of the manual...Local Area Network Concepts A NOCH developed around a generic bus would provide connectivity throughout the aircraft, thereby reducing or eliminating

  15. Connections between Frontier Markets

    Eliza-Olivia Lungu


    Full Text Available The global financial system presents a high degree of connectivity and the network theory provides the natural framework for visualizing the structure of it connections. I analyse the financial links established between the frontier markets and how these links evolve over a 10 years period (2001 - 2011. I identify patterns in the network looking both at the node specific statistics (degree, strength and clustering coefficient and at the aggregated network statistics (network density and network asymmetry index.

  16. The Cause and Mechanism of Cardiac Electrical Instability. Defibrillation Mechanism

    Rustam G. Habchabov


    Full Text Available The reason for the ominous arrhythmias pathway, causing sudden somatic death from cardiovascular diseases is still not clear, cardiological examinations of this phenomenon are conducted throughout the world. Laceration of connective insulating tissue membrane of heart pathway with ectopic nodes oxidation may cause ominous arrhythmias; nobody has considered this cause as a cardiac electrical instability before. Defibrillator electric discharges cannot penetrate into myocardium due to the connective insulating tissue membrane, nobody has considered nervous system, transmitting electricity.

  17. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Jakab, Lajos


    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  18. Electrical Conductivity.

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan


    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  19. Electrical Injuries

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  20. Electricity derivatives

    Aïd, René


    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  1. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876... Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a) Identification. A nonimplanted electrical continence device is a device that consists of a pair of electrodes on a plug or a pessary that are connected by an...

  2. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers high spatial and temporal resolution that provides unique information for understanding the function and properties of nanostructures on their characteristic length scales. Under controlled environmental conditions and with the ability to dynamically...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... materials and devices with the specimen being contacted by electrical, mechanical or other means, with emphasis on in situ electrical measurements performed in a gaseous or liquid environment. We will describe the challenges and prospects of electrical characterization of devices and processes induced...

  3. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    ... Connective Tissue Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Connective Tissue August 2016 Questions and Answers about Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue This publication contains general information about heritable (genetic) ...

  4. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)


    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  5. Linear connections on matrix geometries

    Madore, J; Mourad, J; Madore, John; Masson, Thierry; Mourad, Jihad


    A general definition of a linear connection in noncommutative geometry has been recently proposed. Two examples are given of linear connections in noncommutative geometries which are based on matrix algebras. They both possess a unique metric connection.

  6. Embedded generation connection incentives for distribution network operators

    Williams, P.; Andrews, S.


    This is the final report with respect to work commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as part of the New and Renewable Energy Programme into incentives for distribution network operators (DNOs) for the connection of embedded generation. This report, which incorporates the contents of the interim report submitted in February 2002, considers the implications of changes in the structure and regulation in the UK electricity industry on the successful technical and commercial integrated of embedded generation into distribution networks. The report examines: the obligations of public electricity suppliers (PESs); current DNO practices regarding the connection of embedded generation; the changes introduced by the Utilities Act 2000, including the impact of new obligations placed on DNOs on the connection of embedded generation and the requirements of the new Electricity Distribution Standard Licence conditions; and problems and prospects for DNO incentives.

  7. Connectable solar air collectors

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  8. 珠海发电厂01启备变内部故障定位分析%Fault Location Analysis of No. 1 Standby Transformer of Zhuhai Power Plant



    针对启备变在受电过程中发生的故障,从故障录波图形着手,采用频谱分析的方法,判断出了故障发生的原因,准确而及时地定位了故障点,为事故抢修和及时送电争取了时间,提高了电厂厂用电系统供电的可靠性。%Aiming at the fault occurred in the charging process of the standby transformer,starting from the fault recorder graphics,and by the method of frequency spectrum analysis,this paper found the reason for the failure, timely and accurately located the fault point. This saves time for emergency repair and timely transmission,and im-proves the reliability of power system of power plant.

  9. Exponential stability analysis of a two unit deteriorating standby modified system%两部件退化备用可修复系统指数稳定性分析



    The exponential stability analysis of a two unit deteriorating standby modified system is studied by the method of functional analysis and the theory of a linear-operator semi-group that is on the Banach space.Firstly,the existence of rigorous dominant eigenvalue is proved,then that the time-dependent solution of the system converging exponentially to the static solution of the system is proved by analyzing the restriction of the growth of the system operator essential spectrum and the change of the system operator essential spectral radius after disturbance.%运用泛函分析的方法和Banach空间上的线性算子半群理论,研究了两部件退化备用可修复系统的指数稳定性.首先证明了该系统存在严格占优本征值,而后通过对系统本质谱的增长性约束以及经扰动本质谱半径变化的分析,证明了该系统的时间依赖解指数收敛于系统的稳态解.

  10. Comparing the Topological and Electrical Structure of the North American Electric Power Infrastructure

    Cotilla-Sanchez, Eduardo; Hines, Paul D. H.; Barrows, Clayton; Blumsack, Seth


    The topological (graph) structure of complex networks often provides valuable information about the performance and vulnerability of the network. However, there are multiple ways to represent a given network as a graph. Electric power transmission and distribution networks have a topological structure that is straightforward to represent and analyze as a graph. However, simple graph models neglect the comprehensive connections between components that result from Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws. This paper describes the structure of the three North American electric power interconnections, from the perspective of both topological and electrical connectivity. We compare the simple topology of these networks with that of random (Erdos and Renyi, 1959), preferential-attachment (Barabasi and Albert, 1999) and small-world (Watts and Strogatz, 1998) networks of equivalent sizes and find that power grids differ substantially from these abstract models in degree distribution, clustering, diameter and assortativity, and thus conclude that these topological forms may be misleading as models of power systems. To study the electrical connectivity of power systems, we propose a new method for representing electrical structure using electrical distances rather than geographic connections. Comparisons of these two representations of the North American power networks reveal notable differences between the electrical and topological structure of electric power networks.

  11. The CONNECT project

    Assaf, Yaniv; Alexander, Daniel C; Jones, Derek K


    diameter and axonal density). This unique insight into both tissue microstructure and connectivity has enormous potential value in understanding the structure and organization of the brain as well as providing unique insights to abnormalities that underpin disease states. The CONNECT (Consortium......In recent years, diffusion MRI has become an extremely important tool for studying the morphology of living brain tissue, as it provides unique insights into both its macrostructure and microstructure. Recent applications of diffusion MRI aimed to characterize the structural connectome using...... tractography to infer connectivity between brain regions. In parallel to the development of tractography, additional diffusion MRI based frameworks (CHARMED, AxCaliber, ActiveAx) were developed enabling the extraction of a multitude of micro-structural parameters (axon diameter distribution, mean axonal...

  12. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  13. Connectivity and superconductivity

    Rubinstein, Jacob


    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  14. Informatics Solutions for Prosumers connected to Smart Grids

    Simona Vasilica OPREA


    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief overview about electricity consumption optimization based on consumption profiles of electricity prosumers that are connected to smart grids. The main object of this approach is identification of informatics solutions for electricity consumption optimization in order to decrease electricity bill. In this way, larger scale integration of renewable energy sources is allowed therefore entire society will gain benefits. This paper describes the main objectives of such informatics system and stages for its implementation. The system will analyze the specific profile and behavior of each electricity consumer or prosumer, automatically assist him to make right decisions and offer optimal advice for usage of controllable and non-controllable appliances. It will serve, based on big data transfer from electricity consumers or prosumers, as a powerful tool for grid operators that will be able to better plan their resources.

  15. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Krishnendra Shekhawat


    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  16. electric vehicle

    W. R. Lee


    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  17. Electrical Connection of Enzyme Redox Centers to Electrodes


    complex with a water soluble diepoxide to form a hydrophilic, substrate and product permeable -lItm thick redox epoxy film. In redox-epoxy film based...product permeable -ltm thick redox epoxy film. In redox-epoxy film based glucose sensors interference by electrooxidizable ascorbate, urate and...inhalation (derived of the large lung surface area) and continuous, non-invasive administration, in the case of iontophoresis . The use of these

  18. Transient contact resistance in electrical connections with flat pins

    Merlyan S. V.


    Full Text Available On the basis of experimental research, the authors have obtained dependences allowing to find promptly and with a small amount of calculations the optimum pressure value for elastic elements of flat contacts with different coatings (tin-bismuth, nickel, palladium, silver, gold, using the preset value of contact resistance Rпер. Moreover, the obtained results of estimation of quantity and stability of Rпер allow to choose the optimal coating according to the operating conditions of the contacts.

  19. Natural connections given by general linear and classical connections

    Janyška, Josef


    We assume a vector bundle $p: E\\to M$ with a general linear connection $K$ and a classical linear connection $\\Lam$ on $M$. We prove that all classical linear connections on the total space $E$ naturally given by $(\\Lam, K)$ form a 15-parameter family. Further we prove that all connections on $J^1 E$ naturally given by $(\\Lam, K)$ form a 14-parameter family. Both families of connections are described geometrically.

  20. The connected brain

    van den Heuvel, M.P.


    The connected brain Martijn van den Heuvel, 2009 Our brain is a network. It is a network of different brain regions that are all functionally and structurally linked to each other. In the past decades, neuroimaging studies have provided a lot of information about the specific functions of each separ

  1. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…



    930734 Measurement of serum soluble interleukin—2 receptor in connective tissue diseases.CAI Houronget al.Dept Intern Med,Affili Gulou Hosp,Med School,Nanjing Univ,Nanjing,210008,ShanghaiJ Immunol 1993;13(4):216—218December 1993 Vol 10 No 4

  3. Clip, connect, clone

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper


    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  4. Revisiting city connectivity

    Mans, U.


    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  5. Wireless Connectivity and Capacity

    Halldorsson, Magnus M


    Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...

  6. Connecting with Your Audience.

    Mamchur, Carolyn


    A workshop model on presentation skills for teachers in the classroom is presented. The goals and techniques would apply to many teaching situations in the college classroom, as well as lectures and symposium presentations. Making a personal connection, focusing on audience, and empowering the audience are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Connecting Competing Memories

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Research Expert Meeting: Connecting Competing Memories of War in Contemporary Europe5 March 2014NIAS hosts, 6 - 7 March, the expert meeting of the Consortium for 'The Cultural Heritage of War in Contemporary Europe'. The aim is to draft main themes and discuss financial and research structures regar

  8. Technology and Internet Connections.

    Allen, Denise; Lindroth, Linda


    Suggests that teachers can use computer software and Internet connections to enhance curriculum and capitalize student's natural interest in sports and sports figures. Provides a list of activities that students can do in relation to the Olympic games and gives information on how technology can assist in such activities. Appropriate Internet…

  9. The Anansi Connection.

    Carger, Chris Liska


    Describes a teacher educator's efforts to connect children's literature, sponsored by a partnership between Northern Illinois University and Chicago Public Schools. In one project, student teachers used award-winning picture books to inspire African-American eighth graders to create pastels on black paper. In another, regional folk tales inspired…

  10. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  11. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity.

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier


    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist's toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses can provide insights into experience-dependent plasticity at the macro level of large-scale functional networks. Such insights are foundational to the design of training and remediation interventions that will best facilitate recovery of function. In this review, we consider what is currently known about the origin and function of iFC in the brain, and how this knowledge is informative in neuropsychological settings. We then summarize studies that have examined experience-driven plasticity of iFC in healthy control participants, and frame these findings in terms of a schema that may aid in the interpretation of results and the generation of hypotheses for rehabilitative studies. Finally, we outline some caveats to the R-fMRI approach, as well as some current developments that are likely to bolster the utility of the iFC paradigm for neuropsychology.

  12. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Jian Song


    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  13. On contravariant product conjugate connections

    A. M. Blaga


    Full Text Available Invariance properties for the covariant and contravariant connections on a Riemannian manifold with respect to an almost product structure are stated. Restricting to a distribution of the contravariant connections is also discussed. The particular case of the conjugate connection is investigated and properties of the extended structural and virtual tensors for the contravariant connections are given.

  14. Costs of the grid connection of wind turbines

    Siden, G. [Halmstad Univ. (Sweden)


    The costs of the grid connection of wind turbines in Sweden have until now been about 5 % of the total investments, provided that the distance of the connection cable is limited. Now the grid will soon be filled locally and it will be necessary to strengthen it. The costs for this can also be about 5 %, and the total cost about 10 %. Improvements in the electrical systems of the wind turbines and the connection technique can give less disturbance in the grid and diminish the costs. It is important to agree on how to share the costs for strengthening the grid. Otherwise, it can become an obstacle when building new wind turbines. (author)

  15. A method for connecting electrodes in a storage battery

    Toda, K.; Karasava, S.


    Groups of electrodes are placed into a common casing for the storage battery (AB) divided by partitions. The groups are electrically connected, inserting connecting elements into openings in the partitions and melting them with compression and heating. One of the connecting elements is made in the form of a cylinder with a flat face, while the other is made in the form of a cylinder with a head which has the form of a segment turned by its convex side towards the flat face of the first cylinder in the cross section.

  16. An improved molecular connectivity index

    李新华; 俞庆森; 朱龙观


    Through modification of the delta values of the molecular connectivity indexes, and connecting the quantum chemistry with topology method effectively, the molecular connectivity indexes are converted into quantum-topology indexes. The modified indexes not only keep all information obtained from the original molecular connectivity method but also have their own virtue in application, and at the same time make up some disadvantages of the quantum and molecular connectivity methods.

  17. Networking in private households. Impacts on electricity consumption

    Aebischer, B. [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)


    With the rapidly increasing use of the Internet for private purposes, it is possible that the concept of the 'intelligent home', which has been a matter of wishful thinking for many years now, will become reality in the near future. The fusion of the various media is both the catalyst and, at the same time, the first visible sign of this evolution. The development of user-friendly people-to-machine interfaces and new services, together with the possibility to 'have a look' back home and intervene from there at any time and from any location, will also foster the interconnection of white goods and the intelligent control of other building equipment and services. The impact of this development on energy demand are wide-ranging and could take on considerable dimensions. Inside the house, the induced increase in energy demand is probably far more significant than the quantity of energy saved by more efficient control. It is estimated that electricity demand in the private households sector will increase by a maximum of 1.3% per annum over the next two decades. Even if this Internet-induced increase should only be half as fast, the interconnection of equipment and services would still be the most important driver of electricity demand in the household sector. The most promising measure to slow down this increase consists in minimising the electricity consumption of components and equipment in standby and off modes, We recommend an internationally co-ordinated procedure supported by national information and education campaigns. (author)

  18. Electrical interconnect

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar


    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  19. Low-voltage grid-connection of photovoltaic power systems

    Collinson, A.; Thornycroft, J.


    This report summarises the results of a project aimed at developing technical guidelines concerning grid connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter generators which are to be published in draft form as the {sup U}K Technical Guidelines for Inverter Connected Single Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Generators up to 5kVA{sup .} The background to the use of PV in the UK is traced, and the technical criteria for electrical integration of PV systems, and UK guidelines for grid connected PV systems are examined. The findings of the working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems are also presented in this report. Appendices discuss the UK technical guidelines, the IEA Task V activities,, utility aspects of grid-connected PV systems, and demonstration tests on grid-connected PV systems, and lists Task V reports.

  20. Connecting Science with Society

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......CRIS2010, the 10th conference in the bi-annual series organized by euroCRIS, focuses on the connecting role of Current Research Information Systems (CRIS). Aalborg, Denmark where CRIS2010 is held, is located near the intersection of the Northern Sea and Kattegat, a place were not only the waters...... of two seas are exchanged, but also goods and culture. In a similar way, Current Research Information Systems are at the intersection between (publicly funded) research and society. They do not only connect actors, activities and results within the research domain but also play a crucial role in raising...

  1. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte


    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... issues of digital heritage with audiences’ everyday practices in a museum. We point to the fact the use of social media in museums not only challenge us to rethink the design of technology for museum experiences. Social media also challenge us to rethink conceptions of museums and cultural heritage......We suggest that social media can contribute to reconnecting audiences’ everyday practices to issues of cultural heritage in museum institutions. Social media can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing...

  2. Electric vehicle with downhill electro-generating system

    Stulbach, N.; Yuter, S.C.


    A vehicle adapted to be driven by an electrical motor electrically connected to charge storage battery means and having an electro-operating system is described comprising a first dynamo electric generator, first mechanical turns amplifier means for coupling said first dynamo electric generator to a road wheels axle of the vehicle, a second dynamo electric generator, downhill sensing means coupled to a portion of the vehicle, and second mechanical turns amplifier means responsive to said downhill sensing means for automatically coupling said second dynamo electric generator to a road wheels axle of the vehicle only when the vehicle is going downhill, whereby said first dynamo electric generator is driven by the amplified rotation of the axle whenever said axle rotates thereby converting movement of the vehicle into electrical energy, and said second dynamo electric generator is automatically driven by the amplified rotation of the axle only when said vehicle is going downhill thereby converting downhill movement of the vehicle into electrical energy.

  3. Electric Propulsion

    Baggett, R.


    Next Generation Electric Propulsion (NGEP) technology development tasks are working towards advancing solar-powered electric propulsion systems and components to levels ready for transition to flight systems. Current tasks within NGEP include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), Carbon Based Ion Optics (CBIO), NSTAR Extended Life Test (ELT) and low-power Hall Effect thrusters. The growing number of solar electric propulsion options provides reduced cost and flexibility to capture a wide range of Solar System exploration missions. Benefits of electric propulsion systems over state-of-the-art chemical systems include increased launch windows, which reduce mission risk; increased deliverable payload mass for more science; and a reduction in launch vehicle size-- all of which increase the opportunities for New Frontiers and Discovery class missions. The Dawn Discovery mission makes use of electric propulsion for sequential rendezvous with two large asteroids (Vesta then Ceres), something not possible using chemical propulsion. NEXT components and thruster system under development have NSTAR heritage with significant increases in maximum power and Isp along with deep throttling capability to accommodate changes in input power over the mission trajectory. NEXT will produce engineering model system components that will be validated (through qualification-level and integrated system testing) and ready for transition to flight system development. NEXT offers Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration and outer-planet missions a larger deliverable payload mass and a smaller launch vehicle size. CBIO addresses the need to further extend ion thruster lifetime by using low erosion carbon-based materials. Testing of 30-cm Carbon-Carbon and Pyrolytic graphite grids using a lab model NSTAR thruster are complete. In addition, JPL completed a 1000 hr. life test on 30-cm Carbon-Carbon grids. The NSTAR ELT was a life time qualification test started in 1999 with a goal of 88 kg

  4. Weldless Flange Connections

    Andersson, Mattias; Jonsson, Henrik; Löfqvist, Stefan; Maigne, Remi; Bravo, Unai


    This development project is a bachelor’s degree thesis work that will conclude the education program ”Development Technology” at Blekinge Institute of Technology. The development project has been done in cooperation with Faurecia Exhaust Systems AB in Torsås that constructs and manufactures manifolds, catalytic converters, mufflers and whole exhaust systems. The task with this project was to find a new solution concept for the connection of pipes into flanges in manifolds. The concept that Fa...

  5. Connecting textual segments

    Brügger, Niels


    In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader......-alone computers and in local and global digital networks....

  6. Connecting with Citizens

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria


    /2007. If Norway, like Denmark, significantly reduces its number of municipalities, the majority of municipalities will undergo significant change and experience loss of identity. Each new municipality will need to create meaningful new identities attractive to publics fearful of alienation inside a community...... they have no relationship to. The study examines how municipalities reach out to connect with their publics, and whether they employ emotional and engaging discourse. Our data consists of 20 Norwegian and 20 Danish municipal websites....

  7. The Cluster Web System of Health and Medical Community Based on Hot Standby Technology%基于双机热备技术的医疗卫生集群网站部署

    万世盛; 张建军; 刘燃荣; 任佳


    随着企事业单位对计算机系统依赖程度的日益增加,系统的可靠性和安全性也变得越来越重要.针对这个问题,结合医疗卫生集群门户网站系统,介绍了基于高可用双机热备的工作原理、技术特点及部署方案.实践证明,采用这种技术可有效实现数据的安全存储,提高系统可靠性,同时也能最大程度减少服务器中断时间,保证系统对外提供安全可靠的服务.%As a lot of enterprises and entities are getting more and more reliant on computer systems for their daily operation, the reliability and security of computer systems have become increasingly important for them. Based on the studying of health and medical cluster website systems,this essay focuses on the hot standby technology,as well as its technological characteristics and implementation process. It is proved that the application of this technology can effectively improve the reliability of the systems,make sure that data are securely saved,improve the load balancing capability of servers,and in the meantime it will reduce the risk of interrupting the servers, these will in return ensure the duly operation of computer systems and provide more reliant and secure service to clients.

  8. The Cluster Web System of Health and Medical Community Based on Hot Standby Technology%基于双机热备技术的医疗卫生集群网站部署

    万世盛; 张建军; 刘燃荣; 任佳


    随着企事业单位对计算机系统依赖程度的日益增加,系统的可靠性和安全性也变得越来越重要.针对这个问题,结合医疗卫生集群门户网站系统,介绍了基于高可用双机热备的工作原理、技术特点及部署方案.实践证明,采用这种技术可以有效的实现数据的安全存储,提高系统的可靠性,同时也能最大程度的减少服务器的中断时间,从而保证系统对外提供更加安全可靠的服务.%As a lot of enterprises and entities are getting more and more reliant on computer systems for their daily operation, the reliability and security of computer systems have become increasingly important for them Based on the studying of health and medical cluster website systems,this essay focuses on the hot standby technology,as well as its technological characteristics and implementation process It is proved that the application of this technology can effectively improve the reliability of the systems,make sure that data are securely saved,improve the load balancing capability of servers,and in the meantime it will reduce the risk of interrupting the servers, these will in return ensure the duly operation of computer systems and provide more reliant and secure service to clients.

  9. Connective tissue ulcers.

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent


    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers.

  10. Energy storage connection system

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.


    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  11. Point of Connection Transmission Pricing in India

    Soonee, S. K.; Barpanda, S. S.; Joshi, Mohit; Mishra, Nripen; Bhardwaj, Vaishally


    The National Electricity Policy (NEP) [1], issued by the Government of India, mandates transmission prices to be distance and direction sensitive and capture utilization of the network by each network user. In line with the mandate, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) [2] has issued Sharing of Interstate Transmission Charges and Losses Regulations, 2010 [3], to introduce point of connection (PoC)-based transmission pricing methodology in India. The methodology under the above regulations introduces one of the major reforms of its kind in the Indian power sector and seeks to share the total transmission charges in proportion to respective utilization of the transmission system by different entities. In this paper, the authors have enumerated their experience gained from the implementation of PoC-based transmission pricing regime in India. Authors have also discussed various issues encountered in the process of implementation and the methodology adopted.

  12. Electric monopoly

    Norton, C.


    A controversial proposal to deregulate a major part of the electric utility industry could transform how electric power is produced. The proposal involves one-third of US energy consumption and violates the classic economic theory that tightly regulated natural monopolies serve society's needs best. Supporters of the proposal suggest that free-market competition may now be valid because new technologies and new power-supply sources can introduce innovation and efficiency into cost control. Many states, for example, allow utilities to pass capital costs through to their users. Alternative energy sources could include small hydro, wind power, and industrial cogeneration. Opponents, who question whether there really is a free market in energy production, suggest better regulation to protect consumers. Some of the opposition will come from utilities wanting to keep their captive markets. (DCK)

  13. Electricity unplugged

    Karalis, Aristeidis


    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  14. Electric Car


    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  15. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro


    A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...... and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric...

  16. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)


    assessments and analyses focused on identifying the sources and criticality of manufacturing variability on high pressure turbine blade evaluate manufacturing variability as it relates to overall engine performance, whereas General Electric Aviation focused on airflow efficiency...VizSpace’s web crawlers extract opportunities nightly from various Federal, OEM and public and private sites and match and deliver them to suppliers. As a

  17. Largest Grid-connected Solar Power Project in China


    @@ With the support of the National High-technology Development Program, scientists and engineers from the CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering recently completed a study on key technologies for megawatt-level building-integrated and grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)power generation. The project was checked and accepted by an expert panel on March 25.

  18. Charging/Safety-Interlock Connection For Capacitor Bank

    Rippel, Wally E.


    Electrically controlled mechanical interlock apparatus prevents connection of bank of capacitors to battery or other dc power supply until capacitors precharged to nearly full supply voltage. Precharge eliminates excessive inrush current, which damages capacitors, wires, or connectors. Circuit in apparatus also discharges capacitors after power turned off or capacitors disconnected from power supply.

  19. The renewable electric plant information system

    Sinclair, K.


    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  20. Neutron electric polarizability

    Alexandru, Andrei


    We use the background field method to extract the "connected" piece of the neutron electric polarizability. We present results for quenched simulations using both clover and Wilson fermions and discuss our experience in extracting the mass shifts and the challenges we encountered when we lowered the quark mass. For the neutron we find that as the pion mass is lowered below $500\\MeV$, the polarizability starts rising in agreement with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. For our lowest pion mass, $m_\\pi=320\\MeV$, we find that $\\alpha_n = 3.8(1.3)\\times 10^{-4}\\fm^3$, which is still only one third of the experimental value. We also present results for the neutral pion; we find that its polarizability turns negative for pion masses smaller than $500\\MeV$ which is puzzling.

  1. ToolConnect: A Functional Connectivity Toolbox for In vitro Networks.

    Pastore, Vito Paolo; Poli, Daniele; Godjoski, Aleksandar; Martinoia, Sergio; Massobrio, Paolo


    Nowadays, the use of in vitro reduced models of neuronal networks to investigate the interplay between structural-functional connectivity and the emerging collective dynamics is a widely accepted approach. In this respect, a relevant advance for this kind of studies has been given by the recent introduction of high-density large-scale Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) which have favored the mapping of functional connections and the recordings of the neuronal electrical activity. Although, several toolboxes have been implemented to characterize network dynamics and derive functional links, no specifically dedicated software for the management of huge amount of data and direct estimation of functional connectivity maps has been developed. toolconnect offers the implementation of up to date algorithms and a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) to analyze recorded data from large scale networks. It has been specifically conceived as a computationally efficient open-source software tailored to infer functional connectivity by analyzing the spike trains acquired from in vitro networks coupled to MEAs. In the current version, toolconnect implements correlation- (cross-correlation, partial-correlation) and information theory (joint entropy, transfer entropy) based core algorithms, as well as useful and practical add-ons to visualize functional connectivity graphs and extract some topological features. In this work, we present the software, its main features and capabilities together with some demonstrative applications on hippocampal recordings.

  2. ToolConnect: a functional connectivity toolbox for in vitro networks

    Vito Paolo Pastore


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of in vitro reduced models of neuronal networks to investigate the interplay between structural-functional connectivity and the emerging collective dynamics is a widely accepted approach. In this respect, a relevant advance for this kind of studies has been given by the recent introduction of high-density large-scale Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs which have favored the mapping of functional connections and the recordings of the neuronal electrical activity. Although several toolboxes have been implemented to characterize network dynamics and derive functional links, no specifically dedicated software for the management of huge amount of data and direct estimation of functional connectivity maps has been developed. TOOLCONNECT offers the implementation of up to date algorithms and a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI to analyze recorded data from large scale networks. It has been specifically conceived as a computationally efficient open-source software tailored to infer functional connectivity by analyzing the spike trains acquired from in vitro networks coupled to MEAs. In the current version, TOOLCONNECT implements correlation- (cross-correlation, partial-correlation and information theory (joint entropy, transfer entropy based core algorithms, as well as useful and practical add-ons to visualize functional connectivity graphs and extract some topological features. In this work, we present the software, its main features and capabilities together with some demonstrative applications on hippocampal recordings.

  3. ToolConnect: A Functional Connectivity Toolbox for In vitro Networks

    Pastore, Vito Paolo; Poli, Daniele; Godjoski, Aleksandar; Martinoia, Sergio; Massobrio, Paolo


    Nowadays, the use of in vitro reduced models of neuronal networks to investigate the interplay between structural-functional connectivity and the emerging collective dynamics is a widely accepted approach. In this respect, a relevant advance for this kind of studies has been given by the recent introduction of high-density large-scale Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) which have favored the mapping of functional connections and the recordings of the neuronal electrical activity. Although, several toolboxes have been implemented to characterize network dynamics and derive functional links, no specifically dedicated software for the management of huge amount of data and direct estimation of functional connectivity maps has been developed. toolconnect offers the implementation of up to date algorithms and a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) to analyze recorded data from large scale networks. It has been specifically conceived as a computationally efficient open-source software tailored to infer functional connectivity by analyzing the spike trains acquired from in vitro networks coupled to MEAs. In the current version, toolconnect implements correlation- (cross-correlation, partial-correlation) and information theory (joint entropy, transfer entropy) based core algorithms, as well as useful and practical add-ons to visualize functional connectivity graphs and extract some topological features. In this work, we present the software, its main features and capabilities together with some demonstrative applications on hippocampal recordings. PMID:27065841

  4. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde


    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid......-connected windmill operates as a low-pass filter, whereby two following observations are made: 1. interaction between the electrical grid and the mechanical systems of grid-connected windmills is given by a low frequency oscillation as the result of disturbances in the electric grid; 2. flicker, which is commonly......An advanced model of a grid-connected windmill is set up where the windmill is a complex electro-mechanical system. The windmill model is implemented as a standardised component in the dynamic simulation tool, PSS/E, which makes it possible to investigate dynamic behaviour of grid...

  5. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    Berinde, Ioan, E-mail:; Bălan, Horia, E-mail:; Oros, Teodora Susana, E-mail: [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering and Management (Romania)


    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  6. Naturally Connecting the World


    @@ During China International Trade Fair for Home Textiles and Accessories held in Shanghai 2010(on Aug.25th the second day of the fair),Cotton Council International(CCI)hosted an exchange meeting targeted the COTTON USATM home textile licenses,taking"Naturally Connecting the World-Opportunities for Sourcing and Collaboration with Cotton-Made Home Textiles"as the theme of the meeting.CCI's representative institution in China invited the domestic famous home textile brands,enterprises and their customers to participate in the exchange which aims to introduce the current development trend of the global cotton textile industry through CCI,the powerful platform of communication.

  7. Transcultural Tectonic Connections

    Carter, Adrian


    This paper presents an understanding of Jørn Utzon, as one of the most profound exponents of a transcultural and tectonic approach to modern architecture in the late twentieth century. The paper will examine the sources of inspiration, intersections and connections in Utzon’s architecture; which...... ruins in Mexico. The Sydney Opera House’s signature sail-like roof shells derive from knowledge of boat building in his youth and ancient Chinese and Japanese temple roofs floating above a stone base. With the choice of ceramic tiles to accentuate the sculptural character of the shells, owing its...

  8. Practicing (Dis)connections

    day-to-day character of the work practices entailed, tracing their at once embedded, yet, distributed and disparate – (dis)connected – configurations. In the course of an MRI exam, from the screening of the patient to the scanning itself, and onto the subsequent processing and analysis of the images...... and redistribution of knowledge-practices in and through sociotechnical change, particularly in the light of the advent of film-less radiology, and how MRI comes to be particularly implicated in the transition/development in radiology toward practices entailing picture archive and communication systems (PACS...

  9. Design optimization of grid-connected PV inverters

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede


    The DC/AC inverters are the key elements in grid-connected PV energy production systems. In this paper, new design optimization techniques focused on transformerless (very high efficiency) PV inverters are proposed. They have been developed based on an analysis of the deficiencies of the current......, state-of-the-art PV inverters design technology, which limits the amount of PV energy supplied into the electric grid. The influences of the electric grid regulations and standards and the PV array operational characteristics on the design of grid-connected PV inverters have also been considered....... The simulation results verify that the proposed optimization techniques enable the maximization of the PV energy injected into the electric grid by the optimized PV installation....

  10. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  11. Solar Electricity


    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  12. LHCb connects its pipes


    Two weeks ago the first beryllium section of the LHCb beam vacuum chamber was installed. This three-day operation, after requiring lengthy preparation work, demanded patience and precision as the first of four sections of the beampipe was connected to the vertex locator (VeLo) vacuum vessel. The AT-VAC Group with the collaboration of PH/LBD, including Gloria Corti, Tatsuya Nakada, Patrice Mermet, Delios Ramos, Frans Mul, Bruno Versollato, Bernard Corajod, and Raymond Veness. (Not pictured: Adriana Rossi and Laurent Bouvet) This first installed section is composed of a nearly two-metre long conical tube of one-millimetre thick beryllium and of a thin spherical-shaped window, 800 millimeter diameter, made of an aluminum alloy, and has the appearance of a mushroom lying on its side. The window is connected to the conical part of the beampipe through an aluminum alloy bellow, which is needed to allow for mechanical alignment once the assembly is installed. Beryllium was chosen as the material for 12 m of the 19...

  13. Connectivity-oriented urban projects

    Philibert Petit, E.


    This thesis is about connections in the built environment, networked connections for the mobility of people at the smallest scale of the urban realm: the pedestrian scale. It deals with applications of the new science of networks as a tool for observation and assessment of connectivity in the urban

  14. Comparative Analysis of Inversors for Small PV Systems Grid Connected; Analisis Comparativo de inversores para la conexion a Red de Pequnos Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Ramirez, L.


    The energy produced by a grid connected photovoltaic system is a function of weather conditions, mainly available radiation and temperature, photovoltaic array efficiency and inverter characteristics. The results obtained in experimental measurements with four small grid-connected inverters are described in this work. The main goal is to know the inverter performance in real operation conditions. For this purpose a 2 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system has been used. These results allow us to know both the inverter efficiency and its output power quality. The following parameters have been evaluated as a function of but put inverter power efficiency, point of maximum power tracking, intensity and voltage waveform, total harmonic distortion and harmonic values to 31 order, frequency, power factor and reactive power. Other interesting parameters like stand-by energy consumption and daily losses due to the inverter threshold have also been analyzed. the results allow us to know the inverter features as a function of its real work point. In our comparative study it is possible to observe remarkable differences between the inverters; these results show how important it is to have a unique standard for inverters to photovoltaic grid-connected systems. (Author)

  15. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  16. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin.......With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices...

  17. Connecting the Production Multiple

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    was implementing sales and operations planning (S&OP) process to foster integration on its demand chain. Although actors wanted to see what it is to produce, that is to say, the object Production, as a singular object that could be diffused across time and space, Production became more multiple because the S......&OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in this sense attracts different absent local practices, which in turn make accounting fluid to account for the Production multiple. The accounting fluid brings together accounting inscriptions and particularity of locals. In the language of circulating references, reduction and amplification no longer go...

  18. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    Østensen, Monika; Cetin, Irene


    Rheumatic diseases (RDs) occur preferentially in women, often during the childbearing age. The interaction of pregnancy and the RD is varied, ranging from spontaneous improvement to aggravation of disease symptoms or life-threatening flares. Risks for the mother with RD and the child differ in regard to the presence of organ manifestations, organ damage, disease activity, presence of specific autoantibodies, and therapy. Pregnancy complications comprise hypertension, preeclampsia, premature delivery, and side effects of therapy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include recurrent miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal demise, and they are frequently encountered in RD with organ manifestations and harmful autoantibodies. Because of the difference in the prevalence of RDs, knowledge on the gestational course of disease and pregnancy outcome is limited to the fairly common RDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Pregnancies in RD are connected with increased risks for mother and child and need interdisciplinary care and management.

  19. Connect the future



    <正>China has been developed so rapidly that it economic strength grows fast like a rocket.It leads China to become the World’s second-largest economy.Because the change of our life conditions,more and more people are wiling to go abroad,in order to feel the fresh air,civilized language,advanced science,and harmony atmosphere,all of these things like baptism which shocked people’s heart.The pursuit of better life quality requires more and more important elements such as beautiful landscape,clean lake,elegant buildings,rigorous law and kind people,since the beauty of landscape depends on it’s quality,the prosperity of a country rely on it’s power.I’ve been dreaming to become a messenger who can establish connect between different countries and various people.

  20. Connection Cryostats for LHC Dispersion Suppressors

    Marque, S; Genet, M; Skoczen, B


    The lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being built at CERN is based on 8 standard arcs of 2.5 km length. Each arc is bounded on either side by Dispersion Suppressors connected to the arc by connection cryostats providing 15m long drift spaces. As for a dipole magnet, the connection cryostat provides a continuity of beam and insulation vacuum, electrical powering, cryogenic circuits, thermal and radiation shielding. In total 16 modules will be constructed. The stringent functional specification has led to various design options. Among them, a light mechanical structure has been developed with a stiffness comparable to that of a dipole magnet, for alignment purpose. Thermal studies, including lambda front propagation, have been performed to ensure a cooling down time to 1.9 K within the time budget. A special cooling scheme around the beam tubes has been chosen to cope with heat loads produced during operation. We report on the general design of these modules and on the adopted manufacturing process whi...

  1. Quantum, Photo-Electric Single Capacitor Paradox

    Kapor, Darko


    In this work single capacitor paradox (a variation of the remarkable two capacitor paradox) is considered in a new, quantum discrete form. Simply speaking we consider well-known usual, photoelectric effect experimental device, i.e. photo electric cell, where cathode and anode are equivalently charged but non-connected. It, obviously, represents a capacitor that initially, i.e. before action of the photons with individual energy equivalent to work function, holds corresponding energy of the electrical fields between cathode and anode. Further, we direct quantum discretely photons, one by one, toward cathode where according to photo-electrical effect electrons discretely, one by one, will be emitted and directed toward anode. It causes discrete discharge of the cell, i.e. capacitor and discrete decrease of the electrical field. Finally, total discharge of the cell, i.e. capacitor, and total disappearance of the electrical field and its energy will occur. Given, seemingly paradoxical, capacitor total energy loss...

  2. An Online Virtual Laboratory of Electricity

    Gómez Tejedor, J. A.; Moltó Martínez, G.; Barros Vidaurre, C.


    In this article, we describe a Java-based virtual laboratory, accessible via the Internet by means of a Web browser. This remote laboratory enables the students to build both direct and alternating current circuits. The program includes a graphical user interface which resembles the connection board, and also the electrical components and tools…

  3. An Online Virtual Laboratory of Electricity

    Gómez Tejedor, J. A.; Moltó Martínez, G.; Barros Vidaurre, C.


    In this article, we describe a Java-based virtual laboratory, accessible via the Internet by means of a Web browser. This remote laboratory enables the students to build both direct and alternating current circuits. The program includes a graphical user interface which resembles the connection board, and also the electrical components and tools…

  4. Analysis of the influences of grid-connected PV power system on distribution grids

    Dumitru Popandron


    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of producing an electric power of 2.8 MW using a solar photovoltaic plant. The PV will be grid connected to the distribution network. The study is focused on the influences of connecting to the grid of a photovoltaic system, using modern software for analysis, modeling and simulation in power systems.



    Objectives. Dendro-dendritic and dendro-somatic projections are common between spinal motoneurons. We attempted to clarify whether there are functional connections through these projections.Methods. Motoneurons were antidromically stimulated by the muscle nerve and recorded intracellularly to examine the direct interaction between them, after the related dorsal roots had been cut.Results. Excitatory connections, demonstrated by depolarizing potentials in response to muscle nerve stimulation, were found between motoneurons innervating the same muscle or synergistic muscles, but never between motoneurons innervating antagonistic muscles. These potentials were finely graded in response to a series of increasing stimuli and resistant to high frequency (50Hz) stimulation.Conclusions.These results indicate that excitatory connections, with certain specificity of spatial and temporal distribution, occur in the spinal motoneurons. It is also suggested that electrical coupling should be involved in these connections and this mechanism should improve the excitability of the motoneurons in the same column.

  6. Grid connection and EEG plants; Netzanschluss von EEG-Anlagen

    Schlabbach, Juergen


    Recently, the significance of renewable energy sources for the supply of electric power in Germany has increased. On the basis of physical-technical connections of the photovoltaic power, wind power and hydropower, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the typical technical design of these power plants. The features in the evaluation of the grid compatibility of the connection as well as the grid connection conditions of generation facilities are described which are predetermined by technical regulations and regulations for different voltage levels. Special questions concerning the projection of the grid connection also are considered as well as the calculation of the grid impedance, protection layout and the resilience of overhead lines and cables.

  7. Electrical measuring device, method and computer program product

    Meijer G.C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.


    The invention relates to an electrical measuring device for performing an electrical -impedance measurement in a contactless manner. The measuring device comprises a measuring unit which is provided with the impedance (7,8) to be measured and a passive resonance circuit (4) connected thereto for

  8. In Situ TEM Creation and Electrical Characterization of Nanowire Devices

    Kallesøe, Christian; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Booth, Timothy J.;


    characterize the formation of the contact between the nanowire and the cantilever, showing that the nature of the connection depends on the flow of heat and electrical current during and after the moment of contact. We measure the electrical properties and high current failure characteristics of the resulting...

  9. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den


    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den


    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  11. 核应急柴油发电机组电气系统国产化设计%Localized Design of the Electrical System for Nuclear Emergency Diesel Generator Set



    文章以恰希玛二期工程(C2项目)为依托项目,简要地介绍了核应急机组电气控制特点和特殊要求,确定选配了相关电气设备以实现核应急备用电源的电气系统控制、检测和保护功能.通过相关设计和试验验证了应急备用电源的性能指标、技术指标、动态特性和静态特性等能够满足成套预期设定的目标要求.同时证明了12P A6B柴油机、发电机及其辅助设备成套后相关的电气技术指标,能够满足巴基斯坦恰希玛C2项目工程备用电源的使用要求.%Based on CHASNUPP 2 project (hereinafter C2 project), the characteristics and special requirements for the electric control of the diesel generator set are briefly introduced Re-lated electric equipment is selected to carry out the functions of control, monitoring and pro-tection of the electric system. Through related design and tests, various performance indices, technical indices and dynamic and static characteristics satisfying the aim of complete plant design intended target of the emergency stand-by power are verified. it is proved that relat-ed electrical technical indices after completing of 12PA6B diesel engine, generator and auxiliary equipment could satisfy the stand-by power operating requirement.

  12. The Connectivity Analysis of Intermittent Connected Wireless Network

    Li Yun; Zhou Yahui; Liu Qilie; Wang Xiaoying


    The connectivity is a basic and important characteristic to the network, it expresses the situation of link connectivity directly, and provides important reference for the entire network plan. Using statistics and probability Theory, this article emphasizes the probability between any two nodes in the network which nodes are equally distributed and the connectivity of whole network. At last, this article has made verification through simulation and has made out a conclusion, the simulation result agrees with theoretical analysis.

  13. A sustainability strategy for Ireland's electricity network

    O' Sullivan, J.; Shine, J.; Walsh, A. (ESB Networks (Ireland)); Keane, A.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M. (Univ. College Dublin, Electricity Research Centre (Ireland))


    The electricity system of Ireland is unique as it has no synchronous connections to other systems, while the existing non-synchronous connection provides limited flexibility. When coupled with a target of 40% electricity from renewables by 2020, exceeding any other country, the challenge is truly striking. However, this challenge also gives Ireland the opportunity to be the world leader in this area. The unique experience in solving this problem will provide the technology and knowledge to harness renewable energy sources globally and limit the dependency on petrochemicals. The continued development of the electricity distribution network as a smart network is a critical element of this process which spans electricity generation, transportation and energy end use. This paper described the various elements of ESB Networks' sustainability strategy and the associated research themes being jointly pursued by ESB Networks, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin. (au)

  14. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    Grahn, Pia


    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  15. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  16. Standby for the Gen-Set



    Diesel Gen-Sets are hardly romantic instruments, yet they do save lives. Humming away in the corner for back-up power or emergency generation, this compact form of power supply, keeps hospital lights on, computers going and often proves a vital, if unnoticed addition to festivals and outdoor events. And as many master engine builders have discovered, this is a rapidly growing market. (author)

  17. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  18. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments


    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  19. Interaction between hollow needles - electric field, light emission and ozone generation study in multineedle to plate electrical discharge

    Kriha, Vitezslav


    Multi hollow needle to plate electrical discharges in air are studied as ozone sources. Dependence of ozone concentration as an function of applied voltage, discharge current, mutual hollow needles position and electrical connection, working gas flow rate, distances between needles tips and plate electrode, visible light emission was measured experimentally in these systems. Electric field was numerically modeled. Light emission and electrical field distributions were compared. Coming from light emission and electric field a model of energy density spatial distribution was built. This model was finally compared with ozone generation.

  20. Reliability Analysis of a Repairable System with Multiple Warm Standby Units and a Repairman's N-policy Vacation%修理工N-策略休假的带有温贮备的可修系统的可靠性分析

    岳德权; 祁洪娟; 曹静; 李兰巧


    修理工休假的多部件温贮备可修系统模型广泛应用于电力系统,医疗设备系统和制造系统等领域.本文研究了修理工N-策略休假的多部件温贮备可修系统,探讨该系统的稳态可用度和稳态故障频度.利用Markov过程理论和递归迭代的方法,求出了系统稳态概率的迭代计算公式,并进一步得到了系统稳态可用度和稳态故障频度.%The multi-unit repairable system with warm standby units and repairman's vacation has much applications in many systems such as power systems, medical instrumentation systems and manufacturing systems, etc. We study a repairable system with multiple warm standby units and a repairman's AT-policy vacation. The purpose of this paper is to study the steady state availability and the steady state failure frequency of the system. By using the Markov process and the recursive method, we derive the recursive formula for calculating steady state probability. Furthermore, we obtain the steady state availability and the steady state failure frequency of the system.

  1. GUI for studying the parameters influence of the electric arc model for a three-phase electric arc furnace

    Ghiormez, L.; Prostean, O.; Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.


    This paper presents an analysis regarding the modeling of the behavior for a three-phase electric arc furnace installation. Therefore, a block diagram is implemented in Simulink that represents the modeling of the entire electric arc furnace installation. This block diagram contains also the modeling of the electric arc which is the element that makes the electric arc furnace behaving as a nonlinear load. The values for the model parameters of the electric arc furnace installation are like the ones from the real installation taken into consideration. Other model parameters are the electric arc model ones. In order to study the influence of the parameters of the electric arc models, it is developed a Matlab program that contains the graphical user interfaces. These interfaces make connection with the models of the electric arc implemented in Simulink. The interfaces allow the user to modify parameters for each of the electric arc model. Current and voltage of the electric arc are the variables taken into account to study the influence of the parameters on the electric arc models. Waveforms for voltage and current of the electric arc are illustrated when a parameter of the model is modified in order to analyze the importance of this parameter on the electric arc model. Also, for each of the models is presented the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc because this characteristic gives information about the behavior of the electric arc furnace installation.

  2. Electrical measuring device, method and computer program product

    Meijer G.C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.


    The invention relates to an electrical measuring device for performing an electrical -impedance measurement in a contactless manner. The measuring device comprises a measuring unit which is provided with the impedance (7,8) to be measured and a passive resonance circuit (4) connected thereto for generating a measuring signal to be wirelessly received by a separate active transmitting and receiving unit for determination of the electrical impedance, upon wireless reception of an interrogation ...

  3. Electrical engineering. Basic knowledge. 2. ed.; Elektrotechnik. Allgemeine Grundbildung

    Frielingsdorf, H.; Lintermann, F.J.


    The textbook provides information on the following subjects: Fundamentals of electric circuits, connection of electric resistors, technical circuits, electric fields and condensers, magnetic fields and coils, fundamentals of a.c. engineering, dangerous body currents, fundamentals of electronical and control engineering. [German] Lehrbuch mit folgendem Inhalt: Grundbegriffe des elektrischen Stromkreises, Zusammenschaltung elektrischer Widerstaende, technischer Stromkreis, elektrisches Feld und Kondensator, magnetisches Feld und Spule, Grundlagen der Wechselstromtechnik, gefaehrliche Koerperstroeme, Grundlagen der Elektronik und Steuerungstechnik.(GL)

  4. Wideband energy harvesting based on mixed connection of piezoelectric oscillators

    Wu, P. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Li, B. Y.; Shu, Y. C.


    An approach for wideband energy harvesting together with power enhancement is proposed by integrating multiple piezoelectric oscillators with mixed parallel-series connection. This gives rise to the feasibility of shifting the operation frequency band to the dominant frequency domain of ambient excitations. There are two types of connection patterns discussed here: the p-type (s-type) is the parallel (series) connection of all sets of oscillators where some of them may be connected in series (parallel). In addition, the standard interface circuit used for electric rectification is adopted here. The analytic estimates of output power are derived and explicitly expressed in terms of different matrix formulations for these two connection patterns. They are subsequently validated and are found in good agreement with numerical simulations and experimental observations. Finally, the experimental results from the mixed connection of 4 piezoelectric oscillators show that the peak power of each array is about 3.4 times higher than that generated by a single piezoelectric oscillator. In addition, the bandwidth of the array capable of switching connection patterns is around 2.8 times wider than that based on a single array configuration. Hence, the effective bandwidth is enlarged without the loss of peak power.

  5. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.


    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  6. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    Masulli, Paolo

    attention on symplectic manifolds equipped with a family of star products, indexed by a parameter space. In this situation we can define a connection in the trivial bundle over the parameter space with fibres the formal smooth functions on the manifold, which relates the star products in the family...... and is called a formal connection. We study the question of classifying such formal connections. To each star product we can associate a certain cohomology class called the characteristic class. It turns out that a formal connection exists if and only if all the star products in the family have the same...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  7. (UnCommonly Connected

    Emily M. Hodge


    Full Text Available As states continue to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS, state educational agencies (SEAs are providing professional development and curricular resources to help districts and teachers understand the standards. However, little is known about the resources SEAs endorse, the states and/or organizations sponsoring these resources, and how states and organizations are connected. This study investigates the secondary English/language arts resources provided by 51 SEAs (2,023 resources sponsored by 51 SEAs and 262 intermediary organizations. Social network analysis of states and sponsoring organizations revealed a core-periphery network in which certain states and organizations were frequently named as the sponsors of resources, while other organizations were named as resource sponsors by only one state. SEAs are providing a variety of types of resources, including professional development, curriculum guidelines, articles, and instructional aids. This study offers insight into the most influential actors providing CCSS resources at the state level, as well as how SEAs are supporting instructional capacity through the resources they provide for teachers.

  8. Mesoscale Connections Summer 2017

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Our challenge derives from the fact that in metals or explosives grains, interfaces and defects control engineering performance in ways that are neither amenable to continuum codes (which fail to rigorously describe the heterogeneities derived from microstructure) nor computationally tractable to first principles atomistic calculations. This is a region called the mesoscale, which stands at the frontier of our desire to translate fundamental science insights into confidence in aging system performance over the range of extreme conditions relevant in a nuclear weapon. For dynamic problems, the phenomena of interest can require extremely good temporal resolutions. A shock wave traveling at 1000 m/s (or 1 mm/μs) passes through a grain with a diameter of 1 micron in a nanosecond (10-9 sec). Thus, to observe the mesoscale phenomena—such as dislocations or phase transformations—as the shock passes, temporal resolution better than picoseconds (10-12 sec) may be needed. As we anticipate the science challenges over the next decade, experimental insights on material performance at the micron spatial scale with picosecond temporal resolution—at the mesoscale— are a clear challenge. This is a challenge fit for Los Alamos in partnership with our sister labs and academia. Mesoscale Connections will draw attention to our progress as we tackle the mesoscale challenge. We hope you like it and encourage suggestions of content you are interested in.

  9. The Chitin Connection

    Goldman, David L.; Vicencio, Alfin G.


    ABSTRACT Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an essential component of the fungal cell wall. Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is also important in maintaining cell wall integrity and is essential for Cryptococcus neoformans virulence. In their article, Gilbert et al. [N. M. Gilbert, L. G. Baker, C. A. Specht, and J. K. Lodge, mBio 3(1):e00007-12, 2012] demonstrate that the enzyme responsible for chitosan synthesis, chitin deacetylase (CDA), is differentially attached to the cell membrane and wall. Bioactivity is localized to the cell membrane, where it is covalently linked via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Findings from this study significantly enhance our understanding of cryptococcal cell wall biology. Besides the role of chitin in supporting structural stability, chitin and host enzymes with chitinase activity have an important role in host defense and modifying the inflammatory response. Thus, chitin appears to provide a link between the fungus and host that involves both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, there has been increased attention to the role of chitinases in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, especially asthma. We review these findings and explore the possible connection between fungal infections, the induction of chitinases, and asthma. PMID:22448043

  10. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  11. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François


    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  12. Hitchin's connection in metaplectic quantization

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Lauridsen, Magnus Roed


    We give a differential geometric construction of a connection, which we call the Hitchin connection, in the bundle of quantum Hilbert spaces arising from metaplectically corrected geometric quantization of a prequantizable, symplectic manifold, endowed with a rigid family of Kähler structures, all...... manifold in question. Furthermore, when we are in a setting similar to the moduli space, we give an explicit formula and show that this connection agrees with previous constructions....

  13. Study on electrical impedance matching for broadband ultrasonic transducer

    Kim, Geon Woo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kwang Sae [Elache Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonic transducers with high resolution and resonant frequency are required to detect small defects (less than hundreds of μm) by ultrasonic testing. The resonance frequency and resolution of an ultrasonic transducer are closely related to the thickness of piezo-electric materials, backing materials, and the electric impedance matching technique. Among these factors, electrical impedance matching plays an important role because it can reduce the loss and reflection of ultrasonic energy differences in electrical impedance between an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic defects detecting system. An LC matching circuit is the most frequently used electric matching method. It is necessary for the electrical impedance of an ultrasonic transducer to correspond to approximately 50 Ω to compensate the difference in electrical impedance between both connections. In this study, a 15 MHz immersion ultrasonic transducer was fabricated and an LC electrical impedance circuit was applied to that for having broad-band frequency characteristic.

  14. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))


    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  15. Fiscal Content of Financial Programs Supported by Stand-by Arrangements in the Upper Credit Tranches, 1969-78 (Objectifs de finances publiques des programmes financiers soutenus par des accords de confirmation portant sur les tranches de crédit supérieures, 1969-78) (Componentes fiscales de los programas financieros respaldados por acuerdos de derecho de giro en los tramos superiores de crédito, 1969-78)

    W. A. Beveridge; Margaret R. Kelly


    The paper catalogs and analyzes the fiscal policy content of financial programs under the 105 stand-by arrangements in the upper credit tranches approved by the Fund's Executive Board in the ten years to 1978. A growing tendency toward use of a fiscal performance clause was observed, with the most usual clauses being the use of bank credit by the government or the size of the overall budget balance. Evidence is presented indicating a close association between observance of the fiscal performa...

  16. Interstate Connections - CEHC [ds619

    California Department of Resources — The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) commissioned the California Essential Habitat Connectivity...

  17. Privacy and the Connected Society

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  18. Power system services provided by inverter connected distributed energy resources

    For the last few years there has been a significant increase of DER units in Denmark, of those units more and more are connected to the power system using inverters. These inverter connected units have the potential to support the electrical power system with various power system services. One of...... of the services that can be provided is local voltage support. This brings up the question of how the voltage support function is implemented to control multiple DER units as well as how the response of the units can be estimated and evaluated....

  19. Contact-independent electrical conductance measurement

    Mentzel, Tamar S.; MacLean, Kenneth; Kastner, Marc A.; Ray, Nirat


    Electrical conductance measurement system including a one-dimensional semiconducting channel, with electrical conductance sensitive to electrostatic fluctuations, in a circuit for measuring channel electrical current. An electrically-conductive element is disposed at a location at which the element is capacitively coupled to the channel; a midpoint of the element aligned with about a midpoint of the channel, and connected to first and second electrically-conductive contact pads that are together in a circuit connected to apply a changing voltage across the element. The electrically-conductive contact pads are laterally spaced from the midpoint of the element by a distance of at least about three times a screening length of the element, given in SI units as (K.di-elect cons..sub.0/e.sup.2D(E.sub.F)).sup.1/2, where K is the static dielectric constant, .di-elect cons..sub.0 is the permittivity of free space, e is electron charge, and D(E.sub.F) is the density of states at the Fermi energy for the element.


    Mu eQiao


    Full Text Available Understanding how the nervous system functions requires mapping synaptic connections between neurons. Several methods are available for imaging neurons connected by chemical synapses, but few enable marking neurons connected by electrical synapses. Here, we demonstrate that a peptide transporter, Pept2, can be used for this purpose. Pept2 transports a gap junction-permeable fluorophore-coupled dipeptide, beta-alanine-lysine-N-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin-3-acid (βALA. Cre-dependent expression of pept2 in specific neurons followed by incubation in βALA labeled electrically-coupled synaptic partners. Using this method, we analyze light-dependent modulation of electrical connectivity among retinal horizontal cells.

  1. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome


    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  2. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.


    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  3. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies


    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  4. Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia


    In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

  5. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Diehl, Brian E.


    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  6. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    Summerfield, Martin


    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  7. Electrical safety guidelines


    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  8. Electrical engineer's reference book

    Laughton, M A


    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  9. DOE handbook electrical safety



    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  10. Financial Connections and Systemic Risk

    Allen, F.; Babus, A.; Carletti, E.


    We develop a model where institutions form connections through swaps of projects in order to diversify their individual risk. These connections lead to two different network structures. In a clustered network groups of financial institutions hold identical portfolios and default together. In an

  11. The Always-Connected Generation

    Bull, Glen


    The Pew Internet and American Life project characterizes the millennials--the first generation to come of age in the new millennium--as the first "always-connected" generation. Significant aspects of culture are changing as a result. A changing world where all students are connected all the time has substantial educational implications. Despite…

  12. Financial Connections and Systemic Risk

    Allen, F.; Babus, A.; Carletti, E.


    We develop a model where institutions form connections through swaps of projects in order to diversify their individual risk. These connections lead to two different network structures. In a clustered network groups of financial institutions hold identical portfolios and default together. In an uncl

  13. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    Delage, J-P


    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  14. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)


    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  15. Hierarchies of Predominantly Connected Communities

    Hamann, Michael; Wagner, Dorothea


    We consider communities whose vertices are predominantly connected, i.e., the vertices in each community are stronger connected to other community members of the same community than to vertices outside the community. Flake et al. introduced a hierarchical clustering algorithm that finds such predominantly connected communities of different coarseness depending on an input parameter. We present a simple and efficient method for constructing a clustering hierarchy according to Flake et al. that supersedes the necessity of choosing feasible parameter values and guarantees the completeness of the resulting hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy contains all clusterings that can be constructed by the original algorithm for any parameter value. However, predominantly connected communities are not organized in a single hierarchy. Thus, we develop a framework that, after precomputing at most $2(n-1)$ maximum flows, admits a linear time construction of a clustering $\\C(S)$ of predominantly connected communities that contains ...



  17. Pore Space Connectivity and the Transport Properties of Rocks

    Bernabé Yves


    Full Text Available Pore connectivity is likely one of the most important factors affecting the permeability of reservoir rocks. Furthermore, connectivity effects are not restricted to materials approaching a percolation transition but can continuously and gradually occur in rocks undergoing geological processes such as mechanical and chemical diagenesis. In this study, we compiled sets of published measurements of porosity, permeability and formation factor, performed in samples of unconsolidated granular aggregates, in which connectivity does not change, and in two other materials, sintered glass beads and Fontainebleau sandstone, in which connectivity does change. We compared these data to the predictions of a Kozeny-Carman model of permeability, which does not account for variations in connectivity, and to those of Bernabé et al. (2010, 2011 model, which does [Bernabé Y., Li M., Maineult A. (2010 Permeability and pore connectivity: a new model based on network simulations, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10203; Bernabé Y., Zamora M., Li M., Maineult A., Tang Y.B. (2011 Pore connectivity, permeability and electrical formation factor: a new model and comparison to experimental data, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B11204]. Both models agreed equally well with experimental data obtained in unconsolidated granular media. But, in the other materials, especially in the low porosity samples that had undergone the greatest amount of sintering or diagenesis, only Bernabé et al. model matched the experimental data satisfactorily. In comparison, predictions of the Kozeny-Carman model differed by orders of magnitude. The advantage of the Bernabé et al. model was its ability to account for a continuous, gradual reduction in pore connectivity during sintering or diagenesis. Although we can only speculate at this juncture about the mechanisms responsible for the connectivity reduction, we propose two possible mechanisms, likely to be active at different stages of sintering and diagenesis

  18. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

    Wong, C J


    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  19. Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Mondol, Jayanta Deb; Yohanis, Yigzaw G [School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland BT370QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    The impact of photovoltaic (PV) array size, orientation, inclination, load profile, electricity buying price, feed-in tariffs, PV/inverter sizing ratio ('sizing ratio') and PV/inverter cost ratio ('cost ratio') on the economic viability of a grid-connected PV system was investigated using a validated TRNSYS simulation model. The results showed that the fractional load met directly by a PV system depends on matching between PV supply and building load profile, sizing ratio and PV inclination. The profitability of a grid-connected PV system increases if the PV system is sized to reduce excess PV electrical energy fed to the grid when the feed-in tariff is lower than electricity buying price. The effect of feed-in tariffs on PV saving for selected European countries has been shown. The cost of the PV electricity depends on sizing ratio, PV and inverter lifetimes, cost ratio, PV inclination and financial parameters. The effect of cost ratio on the optimum PV/inverter sizing ratio is less significant when the cost ratio lies within 7-11. The minimum PV electricity cost at low and high insolation conditions were obtained for sizing ratios of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. The lowest PV electricity cost was found for surface slopes within 30-40 for the selected European locations. The PV electricity cost for cost ratio of 5 and 13 varied from 0.44-0.85 EURkWh{sup -1} to 0.38-0.76 EURkWh{sup -1}, respectively within high to low insolation conditions when the PV module unit cost, market discount rate, PV size, PV lifetime and inverter lifetime were assumed to be 6.5 EURW{sub p}{sup -1}, 3%, 13 kW{sub p}, 20 years and 10 years, respectively. (author)

  20. Consistency of EEG source localization and connectivity estimates.

    Mahjoory, Keyvan; Nikulin, Vadim V; Botrel, Loïc; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Fato, Marco M; Haufe, Stefan


    As the EEG inverse problem does not have a unique solution, the sources reconstructed from EEG and their connectivity properties depend on forward and inverse modeling parameters such as the choice of an anatomical template and electrical model, prior assumptions on the sources, and further implementational details. In order to use source connectivity analysis as a reliable research tool, there is a need for stability across a wider range of standard estimation routines. Using resting state EEG recordings of N=65 participants acquired within two studies, we present the first comprehensive assessment of the consistency of EEG source localization and functional/effective connectivity metrics across two anatomical templates (ICBM152 and Colin27), three electrical models (BEM, FEM and spherical harmonics expansions), three inverse methods (WMNE, eLORETA and LCMV), and three software implementations (Brainstorm, Fieldtrip and our own toolbox). Source localizations were found to be more stable across reconstruction pipelines than subsequent estimations of functional connectivity, while effective connectivity estimates where the least consistent. All results were relatively unaffected by the choice of the electrical head model, while the choice of the inverse method and source imaging package induced a considerable variability. In particular, a relatively strong difference was found between LCMV beamformer solutions on one hand and eLORETA/WMNE distributed inverse solutions on the other hand. We also observed a gradual decrease of consistency when results are compared between studies, within individual participants, and between individual participants. In order to provide reliable findings in the face of the observed variability, additional simulations involving interacting brain sources are required. Meanwhile, we encourage verification of the obtained results using more than one source imaging procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Theft of electricity in Indonesia

    Priatna, Dedy Supriadi

    In 1996, among 196 million Indonesian people, only 47.6% had access to electricity; 45.4% in rural areas and 51.5% in urban. 64% of population lived in 61,975 villages, and electric power was supplied to 69% of villages. The government has set a goal to achieve nearly universal services by the year 2014. The government can use existing installed capacity of PLN's system more efficiently. Theft of electricity, which currently constitutes a large share of PLN's losses, should be reduced. The potential of the private sector including captive power and local communities, to participate in electric power generation can also be utilized. The large interest that has been shown by the private sector might be followed by making electric power provision profitable and therefore attractive for the private sector. PLN profits, that in 1996 were only 5.22% instead of the 8% recommended by the World Bank as the best practice for Indonesia, have to be increased by improving their performance levels. The government should also seek solutions for the extremely poor households who will never be able to afford both connection charges and a monthly bill. In 1996 the extremely poor households included 5,251,788 households, constituting 12.1% of the total Indonesian households. Only 1.2% of these households had access to electricity. The objective of this study is to seek the policies that can be implemented in Indonesia that will make it possible to generate and deliver electricity profitably, and reduce theft while providing nearly universal services. For this purpose, the options that are proposed in this study are reducing theft of electricity; something like the CAMPFIRE that has successfully reduced poaching of elephants in Africa: that is, consumer-owned systems, both partially (distribution facilities) and completely (generation and distribution facilities); performance-based regulation (PBR); and solutions for supplying the extremely poor based on the minimum subsidies from the

  2. Framework for Connections on Facebook

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    There is a substantial amount of current information systems and marketing research focused on social networking sites, most frequently on Facebook. Often, these studies utilize available metadata on user on-line behavior, such as what links the users clicked on. In order to better understand...... behavior of Facebook users, it makes sense to investigate also whom the users connect to. It is possible to hypothesize that behavior of people, who connect only to relatives on Facebook, differs from behavior of people, who are connected only to their classmates. The paper offers a framework of Facebook...

  3. Practical lessons in remote connectivity.

    Kouroubali, A.; Starren, J.; Barrows, R. C.; Clayton, P. D.


    Community Health Information Networks (CHINs) require the ability to provide computer network connections to many remote sites. During the implementation of the Washington Heights and Inwood Community Health Management Information System (WHICHIS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC), a number of remote connectivity issues have been encountered. Both technical and non-technical issues were significant during the installation. We developed a work-flow model for this process which may be helpful to any health care institution attempting to provide seamless remote connectivity. This model is presented and implementation lessons are discussed. PMID:9357643

  4. Comparing the Topological and Electrical Structure of the North American Electric Power Infrastructure

    Cotilla-Sanchez, Eduardo; Barrows, Clayton; Blumsack, Seth


    The topological (graph) structure of complex networks often provides valuable information about the performance and vulnerability of the network. However, there are multiple ways to represent a given network as a graph. Electric power transmission and distribution networks have a topological structure that is straightforward to represent and analyze as a graph. However, simple graph models neglect the comprehensive connections between components that result from Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws. This paper describes the structure of the three North American electric power interconnections, from the perspective of both topological and electrical connectivity. We compare the simple topology of these networks with that of random (Erdos, 1959), preferential-attachment (Barabasi,1999) and small-world (Watts, 1998) networks of equivalent sizes and find that power grids differ substantially from these abstract models in degree distribution, clustering, diameter and assortativity, and thus conclude that these topological f...

  5. Electrical installations technology

    Whitfield, J F


    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  6. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Morus, I R


    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  7. Network based management for multiplexed electric vehicle charging

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching Yen; Qui, Li


    A system for multiplexing charging of electric vehicles, comprising a server coupled to a plurality of charging control modules over a network. Each of said charging modules being connected to a voltage source such that each charging control module is configured to regulate distribution of voltage from the voltage source to an electric vehicle coupled to the charging control module. Data collection and control software is provided on the server for identifying a plurality of electric vehicles coupled to the plurality of charging control modules and selectively distributing charging of the plurality of charging control modules to multiplex distribution of voltage to the plurality of electric vehicles.

  8. Nested investigation of subsurface connectivity between hillslopes and streams

    Beiter, Daniel; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus


    The high spatial variability of the subsurface, and thereby the spatial variability of its hydrological characteristics, still pose a great challenge to in-depth understanding and prediction of subsurface flow and the mechanisms that dynamically connect hillslopes and streams. Even though physical processes in porous media are theoretically very well understood, predicting hillslopes' responses to a specific (precipitation) event can be very intricate, due to the structural heterogeneity of real hillslope-stream systems. In the here presented study (carried out as part of the Catchments As Organized Systems (CAOS) research unit) we assess the linkage between hillslopes and streams via subsurface flow paths. This linkage can also be called "Connectivity", which describes separate regions within a certain catchment as being in a linked state - or not - via water flux. We focus our experimental efforts on several hillslopes with differing geological and morphological properties and seek for indications of connectivity at the hillslope/stream reach scale. These hillslopes are instrumented with soil moisture sensors and observation wells measuring shallow groundwater levels, electric conductivity and temperature continuously. This gives us a first indication of subsurface storage fluctuations and hillslope responses. This setup is extended at selected sites by additional observation wells and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects which are measured in time lapse mode. Hillslope scale forced flow through experiments, where subsurface water flux is induced from upslope, will give an indication for a potential maximum of connectivity in a more or less controlled, yet real, environment. First results of these experiments are reported alongside with response patterns to natural rainfall events. The aim is to identify hydrological and morphological controls on subsurface connectivity depending on the site's characteristics, the system's current state and the

  9. Improved Performance of Connected Foundations for Resilient Energy Transmission Infrastructure in Soft Soils

    Doohyun Kyung


    Full Text Available The connected foundation is an effective structural type of foundation that can improve the sustainability of electrical transmission towers in soft soils to serve as a resilient energy supply system. In this study, the performance of electrical transmission towers reinforced with connected beams was investigated using a series of field load tests. Model transmission tower structures were manufactured and adopted into the tests. Based on the load capacity mobilization and failure mechanism, a criterion to define the load carrying capacity for connected foundation was proposed. It was found that the performance of connected foundation varies with the mechanical property of connection beam. The load capacity and differential settlement increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing connection beam stiffness. Such effect of connection beam was more pronounced as the height of load application point or tower height (zh increases. Based on the load test results, a design model was proposed that can be used to evaluate the sustainable performance and load carrying capacity of connected foundations. Field load tests with prototype transmission tower structure models were conducted to check and confirm the performance of connected foundation and the proposed design method.

  10. Limitation of Electrical Power in January


    During maintenance work on CERN's 400 kV main electrical supply in Prevessin, the laboratory will be connected to the 130 kV Suisse network in Meyrin from 4 to 22 January. Due to the on-going LHC activities during this period, the power demand will be very close to the technical limitations of this source. The effort of every one to reduce the consumption of electrical energy during this period is vital to avoid powercuts caused by exceeding the maximum capacity of the system. Mario Batz TS/CV Gerard Cumer TS/EL

  11. Limitation of Electrical Power in January


    During maintenance work on CERN's 400 kV main electrical supply in Prevessin, the laboratory will be connected to the 130 kV Suisse network in Meyrin from 4 to 22 January. Due to the on-going LHC activities during this period, the power demand will be very close to the technical limitations of this source. The effort of every one to reduce the consumption of electrical energy during this period is vital to avoid powercuts caused by exceeding the maximum capacity of the system. Mario Batz TS/CV Gerard Cumer TS/EL

  12. Resistor network approaches to electrical impedance tomography

    Borcea, Liliana; Vasquez, Fernando Guevara; Mamonov, Alexander V


    We review a resistor network approach to the numerical solution of the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The networks arise in the context of finite volume discretizations of the elliptic equation for the electric potential, on sparse and adaptively refined grids that we call optimal. The name refers to the fact that the grids give spectrally accurate approximations of the Dirichlet to Neumann map, the data in EIT. The fundamental feature of the optimal grids in inversion is that they connect the discrete inverse problem for resistor networks to the continuum EIT problem.



    In this paper,using the notion of an isolating block and Conley's attractor theory,an existence criterion of trajectories connecting a pair of invariant sets of ordinary differential equations is given.

  14. Mundtlig eksamen via Adobe Connect

    Kjær, Christopher


    I løbet af de sidste tre år har der på Syddansk Universitet (SDU) været afholdt mere end 20 mundtlige kandidatforsvar samt andre mundtlige eksaminationer via webkonferencesystemet Adobe Connect. Formålet med denne artikel er at videregive de praktiske erfaringer fra gennemførelsen af disse...... eksaminationer samt at opstille nogle hensigtsmæssige retningslinjer for dem, der ønsker at give sig i kast med mundtlig eksamination via Adobe Connect. Der indledes derfor med en generel præsentation af Adobe Connect samt de elementer ved systemet, som oftest anvendes i forbindelse med mundtlig eksamination...... mundtlige eksaminationer via Adobe Connect....

  15. Connecting and Networking for Schools

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  16. Connectivity threshold for Bluetooth graphs

    Broutin, Nicolas; Fraiman, Nicolas; Lugosi, Gábor


    We study the connectivity properties of random Bluetooth graphs that model certain "ad hoc" wireless networks. The graphs are obtained as "irrigation subgraphs" of the well-known random geometric graph model. There are two parameters that control the model: the radius $r$ that determines the "visible neighbors" of each node and the number of edges $c$ that each node is allowed to send to these. The randomness comes from the underlying distribution of data points in space and from the choices of each vertex. We prove that no connectivity can take place with high probability for a range of parameters $r, c$ and completely characterize the connectivity threshold (in $c$) for values of $r$ close the critical value for connectivity in the underlying random geometric graph.

  17. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    Klonoff, David C


    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. [Connective tissue diseases in adolescents].

    Peitz, J; Tantcheva-Poór, I


    In this article we provide a brief review of systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease in adolescents. As skin manifestations often belong to the presenting symptoms and may have a significant impact on the quality of life, dermatologists play an important role in the management of patients with connective tissue diseases. Early diagnosis and therapy onset are crucial for the patients' long-term outcome.

  19. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    Christopher M. Ormerod


    Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  20. Isolating highly connected induced subgraphs

    Penev, Irena; Thomasse, Stephan; Trotignon, Nicolas


    the existence of a highly connected subgraph. We give several variants of our result, and for each of these variants, we give asymptotics for the bounds. We also compute optimal values for the case when k = 2. Alon, Kleitman, Saks, Seymour, and Thomassen proved that in a graph of high chromatic number......, there exists an induced subgraph of high connectivity and high chromatic number. We give a new proof of this theorem with a better bound....