WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrical protective equipment

  1. Protecting electrical equipment against dust explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J

    1981-07-01

    The new ordinance on electrical equipment in hazardous areas and the new VDE 0165/6.80 have brought about significant changes in the field of electrical equipment in areas with a explosion hazard due inflammable dust. There are no constructional regulations yet in this field, and producers, planners, and users are uncertain about what measures to take. The article attempts to clear up a few points.

  2. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An automatic...

  3. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  4. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  5. Evaluation of Electrical Characteristics of Protective Equipment - a Prerequisite for Ensuring Safety and Health of Workers at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Beiu, C.; Antonov, A.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.

    2017-06-01

    The protecting electrical equipment in use are subject to various factors generated by the use, maintenance, storage and working environment, which may change the characteristics of protection against electric shock. The study presents the results of research on the behaviour over time of protective characteristics of insulating covers of material of work equipment in use, in order to determine the type and periodicity of safety tests. There were tested and evaluated safety equipment with plastic and insulating rubber covers used in operations of verifying functionality, safety and maintenance of machinery used in manufacturing industries and specific services from electric, energy and food sector.

  6. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 77.506-1 Section 77.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. Devices providing either short circuit protection or protection against overload shall conform to the...

  7. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 75.518-1 Section 75.518-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. A device to provide either short circuit protection or...

  8. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  9. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  10. Personal Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...

  11. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  12. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  13. Experimental and analytical studies on multiple tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of porcelain electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen; Dai, Junwu; Zhou, Huimeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2017-10-01

    Porcelain electrical equipment (PEE), such as current transformers, is critical to power supply systems, but its seismic performance during past earthquakes has not been satisfactory. This paper studies the seismic performance of two typical types of PEE and proposes a damping method for PEE based on multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD). An MTMD damping device involving three mass units, named a triple tuned mass damper (TTMD), is designed and manufactured. Through shake table tests and finite element analysis, the dynamic characteristics of the PEE are studied and the effectiveness of the MTMD damping method is verified. The adverse influence of MTMD redundant mass to damping efficiency is studied and relevant equations are derived. MTMD robustness is verified through adjusting TTMD control frequencies. The damping effectiveness of TTMD, when the peak ground acceleration far exceeds the design value, is studied. Both shake table tests and finite element analysis indicate that MTMD is effective and robust in attenuating PEE seismic responses. TTMD remains effective when the PGA far exceeds the design value and when control deviations are considered.

  14. Explosion-proof electric actuators and explosion protection of non-electrical equipment; Explosionsgeschuetzte elektrische Stellantriebe und Explosionsschutz von nichtelektrischen Betriebsmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Werner Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    From July 2003 onwards manufacturers may only introduce explosion-proof equipment which conforms to the new EU Directive 94/9/EC, better known as the ATEX Directive, to the market. Contrary to the field of electrical explosion protection, which has for quite some time been subject to clear and binding requirements, uncertainty still prevails in the field of non-electrical explosion protection today, shortly before the end of the deadline. (orig.) [German] Ab Juli 2003 duerfen von den Herstellern nur noch explosionsgeschuetzte Geraete in den Umlauf gebracht werden, die der EU-Richtlinie 94/9/EG, besser bekannt als ATEX Richtlinie, entsprechen. Waehrend im Bereich des elektrischen Explosionsschutzes seit geraumer Zeit klare und verbindliche Vorgaben existieren, herrscht im Bereich des nichtelektrischen Explosionsschutzes bis heute, kurz vor dem Stichtag, noch viel Verunsicherung. (orig.)

  15. Fire prevention and protection for trackless equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    With the increased use of trackless diesel and electrical equipment underground, the fire danger associated with this equipment has increased. The need for adequate fire prevention and protection on all aspects of trackless mechanised mining must be taken into consideration. This paper describes briefly the causes of fires on trackless equipment and the precautions taken to reduce the risk of ignition. 1 tab.

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  17. Protection of electrical and electronic equipment against lightning indirect effects on the Airbus A340 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Olaf

    1991-01-01

    The provisions applied to the Airbus A340 wing wiring against lightning indirect effects are presented. The construction and installation of the wiring's shielding systems are described, and the analysis and tests performed to determine the effectiveness of the measures taken are discussed. A first evaluation of the results of the theoretical analysis together with the provisional results of tests indicate a sufficient safety margin between required and achieved protection levels.

  18. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 33: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND PROTECTION FROM ACTION OF POWERFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF RADIOELECTRONIC, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of basic scientific and technical achievements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and protection from destabilizing and striking action of powerful electromagnetic interference (PEMI of natural and artificial origin of radioelectronic, electrical engineering and electric power equipment. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in a sphere EMC and such areas of knowledge’s as radioelectronics, electrical engineering and electric power engineering. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted modern positions problems EMC and protection of equipment from action on them PEMI. It is shown that PEMI can result in failures in-process and death of examined equipment. Annual harm in the industrially developed countries of the world from the striking affecting of PEMI modern equipment with integral microcircuits and semiconductor devices can make ten of milliards of USD. The basic methods of protection of equipment are resulted from PEMI and protective devices (PD, intended for the increase of effectiveness of modern equipment to the action of external PEMI. Principles of work of the resulted PD and their basic technical descriptions are described. Originality. On the basis of materials of scientific monographs, journal publications, normative documents and internet-reports systematization of basic PD, in-use presently in an area EMC and protection of different equipment from the hazard agency of external PEMI is executed. Practical value. Popularization of scientific and technical knowledge’s in an area EMC and protection of modern equipment from a dangerous action on them PEMI. Formulation of important for society scientific and technical problems and tasks, arising up in an area EMC and providing of the reliable functioning of modern equipment in power electromagnetic interference.

  19. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: arm and hand protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Fire, heat, cold, electro-magnetic and ionising radiation, electricity, chemicals, impacts, cuts, abrasion, etc. are the common hazards for arms and hands at work. The gloves chosen for protection of the arm and hand should cover those parts adequately and the material of the gloves should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. Criteria for choosing arm and hand protection equipment will be based on their shape and part of the arm and hand protected. Guide lines for choosing such personal protection equipment for nuclear facilities are given. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  20. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  1. Diagnostics of Electric Equipment Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Branovitsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology and results of the investigations pertaining to study of influence of short-circuited turns on transient electrical processes in electric motor windings. Dependence of their damped speed and value of the difference signal, obtained at reciprocal subtraction of damped oscillation curves in absence and in presence of short-circuited turns, on number of turns in the tested windings. It has been determined that damped oscillation curves, immediately attributed to short-circuited turns, have peak values along temporary axis which are areas of the largest transient process sensitivity to КЗ turns.Methodology for diagnostics of single- and three-phase electric motor windings and also other electric equipment, being realized in DO-1 device, has been developed in the paper. The men­tioned device makes it possible to carry out visual comparison and quantitative analysis of damped oscillation curves in the tested windings with standard ones which are set in the device memory and their difference signals.

  2. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  3. Fire protection electrical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-01

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  4. Electrically nonconductive shield for electric equipment generating ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    As a radiation protection shield there is proposed a nonconductive shield fabricated from epoxides or other plastics material and containing finely dispersed radiation absorbing metal. It is to be designed in such a way that it lies in the range of a high electric gradient in the equipment, close to the radiation-producing component. As suitable metals there are mentioned tin, tungsten, and lead resp. their oxides. As an example there is used an X-ray shielding. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  5. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... combined with some consideration on the future human need for the energy service output from the technologies. On the above basis is suggested one set of energy services, which a family in a cold climate can enjoy from just annually consuming 250 kWh of electricity per person. This is actually sufficient......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  6. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of elastomeric respirator masks and protective eyewear such as goggles may be reused if the ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  7. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  8. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U; Hellmann, R [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W; Wortmann, K; Bregas, J [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz (BUND) 1998 und

  9. Progress on EPRI electrical equipment qualification research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of EPRI's electrical equipment qualification research program is to provide technical assistance to utilities in meeting nuclear plant safety requirements in a manner consistent with the state of the art. This paper reports progress on several research projects including: radiation effects studies, which compile data on degradation of organic materials in electrical equipment exposed to operational and accident radiation doses; the Equipment Qualification Data Bank, which is a remotely accessible computer system for disseminating qualification information on in-plant equipment, seismic data, and materials data; an aging/seismic correlation program, which is providing test data showing that, in many cases, age degradation has a negligibly small effect on the performance of electrical components under seismic excitation; a review of condition monitoring techniques, which has identified surveillance methods for measuring key performance parameters that have the potential for predicting remaining equipment life; and large-scale hydrogen burn equipment response tests, which are providing data to assess the ability of equipment to remain functional during and after hydrogen burning in postulated degraded core accidents

  10. Physical protection equipment study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by MITRE for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The major products of this effort are a Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment, a Guide for Evaluation of Physical Protection Equipment, a book of Reference Materials, and a set of guidelines for use in the development of a methodology for measuring levels of security system effectiveness. A summary of recommendations resulting from this study is also presented

  11. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks; Equipements de protection individuelle et risques professionnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  12. Radiation protection calculations for diagnostic medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueter, R.

    1992-01-01

    The standards DIN 6812 and DIN 6844 define the radiation protection requirements to be met by biomedical radiography equipment or systems for nuclear medicine. The paper explains the use of a specific computer program for radiation protection calculations. The program offers menu-controlled calculation, with free choice of the relevant nuclides. (DG) [de

  13. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  14. The first equipment for protection from nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Louis-Paul; Bombardier, Pierre; Reinwalt, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    How can we guarantee the containment of ultrafine particles but also implement the ergonomic and handling constraints voiced by researchers? This is the equation that the engineers at FAURE INGENIERIE had to resolve to develop the first barrier protection equipment for nanoparticle research.

  15. The first equipment for protection from nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Louis-Paul; Bombardier, Pierre; Reinwalt, Jean-Marie [FAURE INGENIERIE S.A., Parc Technologique des Fontaines, Chemin des Fontaines, F-38190 Bernin (France)], E-mail: laboratoire@faureingenierie.com

    2009-05-01

    How can we guarantee the containment of ultrafine particles but also implement the ergonomic and handling constraints voiced by researchers? This is the equation that the engineers at FAURE INGENIERIE had to resolve to develop the first barrier protection equipment for nanoparticle research.

  16. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: eye and face protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In all work places where hazards of various kinds are present and the same cannot be totally controlled by engineering methods, suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be used. There are several types of eye and face protection devices available in the market and it is important that employees use the proper type for the particular job. The main classes of eye and face protection devices required for the industrial operations are as follows: (a) eye protection devices which includes: (i) safety goggles (ii) safety spectacles (iii) safety clipons and eye and face protection devices which are (i) eye shield, (ii) face shield, (iii) wire mesh screen guard. Guide lines for selecting appropriate ear and face protection equipment for nuclear installations are given. (M.K.V.). 4 annexures, 1 appendix

  17. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used in return air outby the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric... other in return air outby the last open crosscut, shall not exceed one ampere as determined from the... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.524 Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby...

  18. Electrostatic Properties of Selected Personal Protective Equipment Regarding Explosion Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jachowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In industries such as the mining, petrochemistry or power industries, personal protective equipment is often used in explosive atmospheres. What causes the occurrence of explosive hazards is ever-present in the work environment they include, electrostatic phenomena as well as the build-up of electrical charges on the surface of the protective equipment used. This paper presents the results of studies which were aimed at determining the fundamental electrostatic parameters of protective helmets as well as eye and face protection, surface resistance and the voltage of electrostatic fields. Examinations on the typical structure of the above mentioned equipment was conducted including the variable values of ambient humidity, which can occur in the working environment and with the use of various types of materials used to generate a charge. The adopted methods and testing equipment have been presented. Using the current, general requirements regarding the electrostatic properties of materials, the examined helmets and eye protection were assessed for their use in explosive atmospheres.

  19. Research on the Reliability Testing of Electrical Automation Control Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Luo

    2014-01-01

    According to the author’s many years’ work experience, this paper first discusses the concepts of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, and then analyzes the test method of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, finally, on this basis, this article discusses how to determine the reliability test method of electrical automation control equipment. Results of this study will provide a useful reference for electrical automation control equipment reliab...

  20. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each...) All electric cooking equipment, attachments, and devices, must be of rugged construction and so...

  1. Authorisation for work with electrical equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Balle, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of training needs must be conducted by the Group Leader for every employee who could potentially be exposed to an electrical hazard. An analysis must be performed taking into account: • the voltage range (TBT, BT, HTA, HTB) • the type of work to be done (for example, work on a low-voltage line) • the type and the characteristics of the structures, installations and equipment • the type of current (alternating or direct) • the person’s ability to perform the operation

  2. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  3. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TANAKA, TINA J.; BAYNES, EDWARD E. JR.; NOWLEN, STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN, JOHN E.; GRITZO, LOUIS A.; SHADDIX, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  4. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J.

    1994-05-01

    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing

  5. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J. [comps.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing.

  6. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. [Statutory Provisions] All...

  7. 46 CFR 111.50-1 - Protection of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... electric equipment must meet the following listed subparts of this chapter: (a) Appliances, Subpart 111.77...) Transformers, Subpart 111.20. ...

  8. Equipment design for reliability testing of protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Tjahjono, H.; Santosa, A. Z.; Tjahjani, S.DT.; Ismu, P.H; Haryanto, D.; Mulyanto, D.; Kusmono, S

    1999-01-01

    The equipment for reliability testing of cable of protection system has been designed as a a furnace with the electric heater have a 4 kW power, and need time 10 minute to reach the designed maximum temperature 3000C. The dimension of furnace is 800 mm diameter and 2000 mm length is isolated use rockwool isolator and coated by aluminium. For the designed maximum temperature the surface temperature is 78 0c. Assemble of specimens is arranged horizontally in the furnace. The failure criteria will be defined based on the behaviour of the load circuit in each line of cable specimens

  9. Radiation protection problems with dental radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooney, P.; Rajan, J.; Malone, J.F.; Gavin, G.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of the EC Patient Directive, the importance of surveying and optimising patient exposure for diagnostic imaging procedures is paramount. In the field of dentistry there has been a heightened interest in areas of equipment performance and patient exposure. This interest, coupled with a number of dental radiation safety incidents investigated by our department, and the issuing of a Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry by the Department of Health, led to the establishment in our department, of an evaluation protocol for the performance and operation of dental X ray equipment. The protocol was used to perform a survey on over 100 dental X ray units in use in the Public Sector in Ireland. This presentation will report on the radiation incidents mentioned above. It will detail the protocol and furnish the results and conclusions of the survey. The survey has made it possible to establish clearly the necessary steps required to ensure compliance with requirements. In addition, the corrective steps taken by the dental authorities will be presented and the overall impact of the regulations and the programme consequent on them will be reviewed. (Author)

  10. 46 CFR 111.51-3 - Protection of vital equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Coordination of Overcurrent Protective Devices § 111.51-3 Protection of vital equipment. (a) The coordination of overcurrent protective devices must be demonstrated for all potential... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of vital equipment. 111.51-3 Section 111.51-3...

  11. Service Offering at Electrical Equipment Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kaňovská

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The aim of the paper is to uncover ways of managing service offering provided by electrical equipment manufactures in the Czech Republic. The segment is extremely important for Czech industry nowadays, especially because of many companies being subcontractors for the car industry and mechanical engineering. The producers of electric equipment comply with the Czech industry classification CZ-NACE 27. Methodology/methods: The questionnaire in the form of the Likert scale was prepared to gather information about customer services. The respondents were usually directors or managers, e.g. employees with high competencies of knowing customer services in this particular market. The total of 22 companies were included in the survey. Research was focused on the following industries classifications belonging to CZ-NACE 27: CZ-NACE 27, CZ-NACE 271 and CZ-NACE 273. According to Czech Statistical Office the total number of companies belonging to these 3 segments is 136. It means 16,2% companies belonging to CZ-NACE 27 participated in our research. Basic statistical methods were used to analyse the complete database. Scientific aim: The paper deals with the problem of service offering provided by today’s manufacturers. Global understanding of services that manufacturers really develop, sell, deliver and manage is still limited. Findings: Managing service offering provided by today‘s manufacturers shows that 1 Manufacturers not offer only tangible products, but also wide range of services and even information and support. 2 New products are not designed only according to company technicians, but also according to their customers. Their products and services are developed, tested and improved according to their needs. 3 Services provide complex customer care from time product selection to its end. Conclusions: Manufacturers of tangible products need to enlarge their product offering to be able to satisfy customers. Therefore

  12. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  13. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  14. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  15. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  16. Factory automation for heavy electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokutani, Takashi; Ninomiya, Iwao; Hatayama, Naokatsu; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The heightening of productivity in the factories manufacturing heavy electric equipment has been advanced so far by the rationalization of direct workings such as NC, robots and the adoption of FMS (flexible manufacturing system). However, as CAD advances, the effective utilization of these data and the expansion to future CIM (computer integrated manufacture) have become to be demanded. In the Hitachi Works of Hitachi Ltd., it was decided to advance the synthetic rationalization by adopting FA (factory automation) system. Steam turbine blades, pipings for nuclear power plants and motor coils were taken up as the objects since these are important parts, and for the purpose of the drastic heightening of QA level, the heightening of accuracy and the shortening of processes, the synchronization with field installation schedule and the creation of safe working place environment, the FA projects for these three sections were simultaneously planned. When the automation of non-mass production factories is promoted, there are the unmanned factories combining FMS lines for relatively many products and those characterized by FMC of shortening preparation time for small lot products, and this is the examples of the former. The system constitution for FA and the production management combined with it are described. The high reliability of the optical network was regarded as important. (Kako, I.)

  17. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-01-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  18. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... also enable the flightcrew to use radio equipment. (4) The part of the equipment protecting the eyes... Regulations: (1) The equipment must be designed to protect the appropriate crewmember from smoke, carbon... must include— (i) Masks covering the eyes, nose and mouth, or (ii) Masks covering the nose and mouth...

  19. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  20. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  1. Qualification of electric equipments for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Raimondo, E.

    1983-03-01

    Description of the testing equipment, testing methods and standards of the resistance to seisms of electrical equipments (switches, pump motors, electrovalves, ...) for electronuclear power plants in France. Presentation of the French design and construction rules for electrical devices in the domestic and export nuclear market (resistance to thermodynamical and chemical stresses, to seisms, etc...) [fr

  2. Development of electric discharge equipment for small specimen sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kitagawa, Hideaki; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the on-site electric discharge sampling equipment that can effectively take samples such as small specimens from the surface portion of the plant components. Compared with the conventional sampling equipment, our sampling equipment can take samples that are thinner in depth and larger in area. In addition, the affection to the equipment can be held down to the minimum, and the thermally-affected zone of the material due to electric discharge is small, which is to be ignored. Therefore, our equipment is excellent in taking samples for various tests such as residual life evaluation.

  3. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  4. Method for protecting an electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  5. Respiratory and protective equipment at a large nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-12-01

    A variety of personal protective equipment is used in a large nuclear facility to protect employees against both nuclear and ordinary industrial materials. Equipment requirements are based on risk evaluation and may range from a minimum of shoe covers to whole body protection by air-supplied plastic suits. Types of equipment are listed and one-year costs are given. Criteria for evaluating and compartmentalizing risks are discussed. Air-supplied suits and hoods are discussed in detail

  6. Design and construction rules for electrical equipments of nuclear islands. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The French design and construction for electrical equipments of nuclear islands (RCC-E) deals with equipments of which the failure may have consequences on the safety of persons or appreciable effects on the availability of the power plant. This book presents the rules concerning (1) qualification procedure, (2) the design of functional units, (3) the installation (environmental conditions, protection rules), (4) the constituent elements of equipments, (5) the control and testing methods

  7. Mandatory certification of personal protection equipment against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyze the regulations establishing mandatory certification of personal protection equipment, including those aim to protect against ionizing radiation due to the external irradiation and to the radioactive contamination. (author)

  8. Protecting power equipment against magnetohydrodynamic effects (MHD of electromagnetic pulses (EMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the effects of geomagnetic-induced currents (GIC on electrical equipment of power systems and analyzes technical measures for protection against such effects. It is noted that the difference between highaltitude nuclear detonation and solar storm GICs forces applying different methods of electrical equipment protection. It also illustrates that enhancement of transformer immunity to GICs without saturation prevention is not an effective measure to protect the power system. The article offers a special relay designed for fast disconnection of the transformer under GICs.

  9. Protective equipment of radiological protection and the worker wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassia, Flor Rita de; Huhn, Andrea; Lima, Gelbcke Francine

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research with workers of seven hemodynamic service of Santa Catarina, Brazil aimed to analyze the use of radiological protection equipment (RPE), as well as wear to the health of workers who use these causes. The study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010, totaling approximately 30 hours of observations. Results showed resistance to the use of RPE and also showed wear to workers' health, mainly due to the weight and discomfort they cause, as may weigh 7-9 pounds, depending on the model used. Evidenced also the absence of workers due herniated disc, back pain, and other musculo skeletal problems. These complaints, in addition to being related to the use of these protective gear also related with the time that workers remain standing for long periods on certain procedures, such as angioplasty. Given these results, the research recommended the use of these devices with materials, that are already being produced, making lighter aprons, thus avoiding fatigue and back pain and also provide greater comfort by reducing workers' resistance to its use and its adverse consequences

  10. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.677 Equipment protection and enclosure. (a) Except as provided... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment protection and enclosure. 169.677 Section 169.677 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL...

  11. Planning of maintenance of electrical equipment in nuclear plants/laboratories [Paper No.: VB-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfactory operating performance of electrical systems ensures continuous availability of power to the various plants and machinery in nuclear plant and laboratories. For effective optimal functioning of the electrical equipment and to reduce their down time, scheduled planning of maintenance to the equipment is essential. Maintenance of power plant, nuclear or fossil, and industrial plant and research laboratories demands essential ingredients such as right type of trained and motivated technical personnel, adoption of standard procedures for maintenance, adequate safety and protection for equipment, safety procedures adopted in the installation to prevent hazards to the workers, provision of adequate stores and inventories, facilities for quick repairs and testing of equipment and effective planning of procedures for their maintenance. While breakdown maintenance allows equipment to operate before it is repaired or replaced, preventive maintenance makes use of scheduled inspection and periodical equipment overhaul and has little value for predicting future continuous performances of equipment. The engineered maintenance is most advantageous and offers maximum operating time to reduce down time of the equipment while adding predictive testing technique to aid in determining the frequency of overhaul of equipment. The important checks to be conducted and preventive maintenance programme to be scheduled are discussed in this paper. The safety and reliable functioning of the electrical equipment depend on proper optimal design, selection of equipment, their installation, subsequent maintenance and strict compliance with safety regulations. (author)

  12. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  13. Case Based Asset Maintenance for the Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jung, Jae-Cheon; Chang, Young-Woo; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hang-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Ho; Hur, Yong; Lee, Dong-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The electric equipment maintenance strategies are changing from PM(Preventive Maintenance) or CM(Corrective Maintenance) to CBM(Condition Based Maintenance). The main benefits of CBM are reduced possibility of service failures of critical equipment and reduced costs or maintenance work. In CBM, the equipment status need to be monitored continuously and a decision should be made whether an equipment need to be repaired or replaced. For the maintenance decision making, the CBR(Case Base Reasoning) system is introduced. The CBR system receives the current equipment status and retrieves the case based historic database to determine any possible equipment failure under current conditions. In retrieving the case based historic data, the suggested DSS(Decision Support System) uses a reasoning engine with an equipment/asset ontology that describes the equipment subsumption relationships

  14. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  15. FUNDAMENTALS OF RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Engr. Anumaka; Michael Chukwukadibia

    2011-01-01

    Today, the electric power system consists of complex interconnected network which are prone to different problems that militates against the reliability of the power system. Inadequate reliability in the power system causes problems such as high failure rate of power system installations and consumer equipment, transient and intransient faults, symmetrical faults etc. This paper provides an extensive review of the powers system and equipment reliability and related failure patterns in equipment.

  16. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection. 75.814 Section 75.814... Longwalls § 75.814 Electrical protection. (a) High-voltage circuits must be protected against short circuits... with— (i) Ground-fault protection set to cause deenergization at not more than 40 percent of the...

  17. Electric equipment technical regulation on a relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It is about a relay for power protection. It describes the definitions of structure, a point of contact protection of contact, reclosing, relay scheme and input circuit. It explains normal use condition, special use condition, rated frequency, rated voltage and rated current, fluctuation range of permission of incoming relay. It deals with general structing outer case, correction device, operation indicator and outer terminal condition sort and method of the test. It adds the marks and pictures about currents

  18. Lightning effects on electrical and nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives the physical bases on which lightning protection of buildings and other erections such as nuclear power stations depend. To this end it first examines the impact phenomena of lightning, the operating systems of lightning conductors and methods of protection using metal mesh. It then describes various secondary effects of lightning, particularly those which occur inside buildings as a result of the potential rise in earthing systems and electromagnetic induction phenomena. 18 refs [fr

  19. Environmental/dynamic mechanical equipment qualification and dynamic electrical equipment qualification program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Equipment qualification research is being conducted to investigate acceptable criteria, requirements, and methodologies for the dynamic (including seismic) and environmental qualification of mechanical equipment and for the dynamic (including seismic) qualification of electrical equipment. The program is organized into three elements: (1) General Research, (2) Environmental Research, and (3) Dynamic Research. This paper presents the highlights of the results to date in these three elements of the program

  20. New version of VDE 0118 Installation of electrical equipment in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, L

    1981-10-22

    Preparatory work for the new version of VDE 0188 is reviewed. The major modifications in parts 1 and 2 are mentioned in particular the changes in operating conditions which have been considered and the modified definitions of clean rooms, earthing, underground protective wire system, and mobile operating equipment. Part 2 discusses operating equipment such as motors, inductive voltage transformers, transformers, condensers, lines, lighting units and underground short circuit protection. Part 3 - intrinsically safe electrical equipment, auxiliary circuits, telecommunication systems - will be discussed in a sequel article in Glueckauf.

  1. UV Tanning Equipment | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Sun lamps and tanning equipment emit ultraviolet (UV) rays. People who are exposed to UV rays over a long period of time are more likely to develop skin cancer. People with light skin are in more danger because their skin is more sensitive to UV rays.

  2. Problems associated with accelerated thermal aging of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential problems that may be experienced when accounting for aging mechanisms in organic polymers when utilizing accelerated thermal aging techniques for electrical equipment qualification. Included are discussions of actual experiences and problems encountered in the qualification of electrical and electronic equipment for a complete nuclear power plant. The wide variety of approaches to thermal accelerated aging by various manufacturers of diverse equipment types provides depth to the discussion. A description of how to account for aging mechanisms is also presented

  3. 29 CFR 1926.951 - Tools and protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... falling objects, electric shock, or burns. (b) Personal climbing equipment. (1) Body belts with straps or...) Be equipped with three-wire cord having the ground wire permanently connected to the tool frame and... “Double Insulated”; or (iii) Be connected to the power supply by means of an isolating transformer, or...

  4. The influence of residents' behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements. The main focus is to better understand household residents' behaviour in regards to the proper methods of handling waste electrical and electronic equipment and possible storage of the obsolete equipment that brings disturbances with collection of the waste equipment. The study explores these issues depending on size of municipality and the household residents' knowledge about legal methods of post-consumer management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Poland, where the collection rate of that type of waste is about 40% of the total mass of waste electrical and electronic equipment appearing in the market.The research was informed by various sources of information, including non-government organisations, Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and Central Statistics Office in Poland, questionnaires, and interviews with the household residents. The questionnaires were distributed to daytime and vocational students from different universities and the customers of an electronic equipment superstore. The results show that a resident's behaviour in regards to the handling of obsolete waste electrical and electronic equipment can significantly reduce the collection rate, especially when the waste is discarded improperly - mixed with municipal waste or sold in scrapyards. It is possible to identify points that are necessary to be improved to achieve a higher collection rate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

  6. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. Activity plan for year 2002 is included [sr

  7. Effectiveness of ultraviolet light personal protective equipment used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... (UV) light personal protective equipment (PPE) used by arc welders in the informal sector. ... all had formal education: 31.1% had primary school level as the highest attained education level, ...

  8. Personal protective equipment for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in North America, Europe and Australia use different approaches for the estimation of exposure reduction effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) in registration processes of agrochemical pesticides. TNO has investigated current views and facts for the use of

  9. 30 CFR 77.501 - Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric distribution circuits and equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.501 Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on electric distribution circuits or equipment...

  10. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  11. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  12. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlicka, R.; Brestovansky, L.

    1996-01-01

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. Measurements enumarated in paragraph 1 are made on disconnected electric

  13. Market study on the Mexican market for electrical distribution equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical survey of the development of the Mexican electric power sector is presented, along with an overview of the state of the Mexican economy since the late 1980s and the present characteristics of the Mexican electricity sector. The Mexican market for electric power generation and distribution equipment is then assessed, from the perspective of Canadian suppliers and manufacturers intending to enter this market. Projected consumption of electrical generation and distribution equipment in Mexico for 1994 is estimated at US$1,035,600,000 ($719.4 million in production, $356.9 million in imports, and $40.7 million in exports). This market increased 12.3% in 1990, and since power demand in Mexico has been growing faster than growth in capacity, it is possible that investments in the electricity sector will grow at faster rates. Items which are traditionally imported include nuclear reactors and related equipment, boilers, turbines, power breakers, valves, coal and ash handling equipment, relays, automatic controls, and chemical treatment equipment. The USA has the greatest share of the import market with 35%, followed by Japan (22%), Switzerland (18%), and Germany (13%). Canadian exports have concentrated on distribution equipment and only totalled $1.7 million in 1990. Electricity is distributed to some 16.6 million users over a national interconnected system having total installed capacity of 30,513 MW in 1991. There are plans to increase capacity by 9.7 GW by 1994 and another 37.4-47.8 GW between 1995 and 2010. Projections of electricity needs by region are listed along with the new power plants targeted for investment. Market liberalization and lowering of tariffs have made the Mexican market more accessible to exporters. 8 tabs

  14. Advances in impact resistance testing for explosion-proof electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculescu Vlad Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, construction and exploitation of electrical equipment intended to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres presents a series of difficulties. Therefore, the approach of these phases requires special attention concerning technical, financial and occupational health and safety aspects. In order for them not to generate an ignition source for the explosive atmosphere, such equipment have to be subjected to a series of type tests aiming to decrease the explosion risk in technological installations which operate in potentially explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection being a concern of researchers and authorities worldwide, testing and certification of explosion-proof electrical equipment, required for their conformity assessment, are extremely important, taking into account the unexpected explosion hazard due to potentially explosive atmospheres, risk which has to be minimized in order to ensure the occupational health and safety of workers, for preventing material losses and for decreasing the environmental pollution. Besides others, one of the type tests, which shall be applied, for explosion-proof electrical equipment is the impact resistance test, described in detail in EN 60079 which specifies the general requirements for construction, testing and marking of electrical equipment and Ex components intended for use in explosive atmospheres. This paper presents an analysis on the requirements of the impact resistance test for explosion-proof electrical equipment and on the possibilities to improve this type of test, by making use of modern computer simulation tools based on finite element analysis, techniques which are widely used nowadays in the industry and for research purposes.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.95 - Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life... in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or... construction for the work to be performed. (d) Payment for protective equipment. (1) Except as provided by...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.106 - Payment for protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment...

  17. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  18. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  19. NASA Developments in Personnel Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has some unique and challenging PPE needs: there are credible threats to air quality (fire, ammonia leak, hydrazine leak)that require a contingency breathing apparatus that operates for many hours - but there is not enough space or up-mass to provide supplied air tanks. We cannot use "Scott Air Tanks" commonly used by firefighters and other first responders. NASA has developed a respirator based emergency breathing device. It uses a "one size fits everybody in the astronaut corps" hooded mask with excellent chemical permeability and fire resistance properties, and a filtering respirator cartridge that protects the wearer from ammonia leaks, hydrazine leaks, or products of combustion. If you need a small, lightweight emergency breathing system that lasts longer than a supplied air system, we should meet and learn if NASA sponsored technology development can help.

  20. Earthquake protection of nuclear power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrotzki, Peter [GERB Vibration Control Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  1. Earthquake protection of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrotzki, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear power plants. Electrical equipment of the safety system. Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard applies to electrical parts of safety systems employed at nuclear power plants, including components and equipment of any interface whose failure could affect unfavourably properties of the safety system. The standard also applies to non-electrical safety-related interfaces. Furthermore, the standard describes the generic process of qualification certification procedures and methods of qualification testing and related documentation. (P.A.)

  3. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  4. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedlicka, R; Brestovansky, L [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  6. Annual report of the group for maintenance of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, M.

    1965-01-01

    This report includes detailed description of repairs and revisions of the electrical equipment of the RA reactor which were done according to the annual plan during the periods when reactor was not operated. Unplanned repairs are part of this report as well [sr

  7. Fluorolon coatings of cold drying for radiation-protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigorina, I.I.; Egorov, B.N.; Timofeeva, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    A composition of the volatile fraction (butyl acetate:acetone = 3:1) is proposed for fluorolon 32L base varnishes possessing high viability. Formulations for the fluorolon air-drying enamels of various colous are presented. Fluorolon coatings based on these enamels are detailed, providing satisfactory adhesion properties. A fairly high chemical stability of these coatings is shown making it possible to employ them for anti-corrosion protection of outer surfaces, equipment and building constructions for chemical equipment

  8. The Mexican market for electrical equipment and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.

    1994-05-01

    Most of Mexico's electric power needs are supplied by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Total installed capacity is ca 33,000 MW, of which ca 42% comes from oil-fired generation and 26% hydroelectric. Electricity consumption is expected to grow at ca 6%/y between 1993 and 2000; to meet this demand, CFE plans to build nearly 14,000 MW of additional generating capacity to cost ca $34 billion. A new law governing the electric power sector recently privatized electrical project construction and provided for private financing. Construction of all larger generation and transmission projects has been privatized, thereby deregulating and simplifying the bidding process for Canadian firms wishing to bid, subcontract, or supply equipment or materials. The most notable opportunities for Canadian firms are in transmission projects. The Mexican electrical manufacturing industry comprises ca 2,000 firms employing 150,000 people. Branch plants of global firms plus domestic companies supply over 70% of market demand. Production of equipment and materials for the electrical sector is well integrated with suppliers and customers, and manufacturers are seeking imports to replace abandoned product lines as the industry rationalizes. These, along with more sophisticated equipment not made in Mexico, provide opportunities for Canadian suppliers. The North American Free Trade Agreement gives preference to Canadians over offshore competitors, and eliminates many barriers to exports. Canada's Export Development Corporation provides financing with a line of credit for the electrical sector. Marketing in Mexico is best done through personal visits and capable local representation. A directory of Mexican electrical manufacturers who import is appended. 1 tab

  9. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  10. Environmental qualification program of electric equipment for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzitano, Grazielle F.; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the environmental qualification program for important electrical equipment (EQPEE) used for safety in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The environmental qualification program started in United States of America by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1979. In that event, some equipment installed inside the reactor containment of TMI failed due the harsh conditions that occurred after the accident. Because of this fact, the NRC issued the Regulation 50.49 'Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'. The Brazilian regulatory commission CNEN also asked Angra 1 to follow this regulation and to implement an EQPEE similar to the programs adopted by American and other NPPs around the world. Due to the importance to maintain the critical equipment operating in normal and abnormal environment conditions, the program aims to assure that this equipment remains qualified to work under the harsh conditions found inside the reactor containment. The aging of these components are also analyzed in this program that is important in the process to extend the operating life of Angra 1 for more 20 years, which is normally referred as Long Term Operation (LTO). (author)

  11. Environmental qualification program of electric equipment for Angra 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzitano, Grazielle F.; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: grazi@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: candeia@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of the environmental qualification program for important electrical equipment (EQPEE) used for safety in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The environmental qualification program started in United States of America by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1979. In that event, some equipment installed inside the reactor containment of TMI failed due the harsh conditions that occurred after the accident. Because of this fact, the NRC issued the Regulation 50.49 'Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'. The Brazilian regulatory commission CNEN also asked Angra 1 to follow this regulation and to implement an EQPEE similar to the programs adopted by American and other NPPs around the world. Due to the importance to maintain the critical equipment operating in normal and abnormal environment conditions, the program aims to assure that this equipment remains qualified to work under the harsh conditions found inside the reactor containment. The aging of these components are also analyzed in this program that is important in the process to extend the operating life of Angra 1 for more 20 years, which is normally referred as Long Term Operation (LTO). (author)

  12. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  13. 30 CFR 75.503-1 - Statement listing all electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all electric face equipment being used at each mine as of the time of filing, all such equipment being... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement listing all electric face equipment...-General § 75.503-1 Statement listing all electric face equipment. Each operator of a coal mine shall...

  14. Accidents, injuries and the use of personal protective equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are often neglected and their health and safety are generally overlooked. This study ... respondents had an accident at the workplace while 4% had injury, 60% had burns/scald injury while 72% had falls. In all, 6(54.5%) who ... Key words: Hospital cleaners, personal protective equipment, accidents, injuries, workplace.

  15. Total qualification of class 1E electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.

    1982-09-01

    For nuclear power plant projects in France, Framatome and its partners Electricite de France (EDF) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have responded to the present qualification context by implementing a wide-ranging qualification program to acquire significant organizational and practical experience. The following sections detail Framatome's approach to the activities of an organization mandated to provide a complete spectrum of qualification services. Thorough implementation of a Class 1E electric equipment qualification program by the competent organization or qualifier entails completion of three consecutive steps: 1) program preparation, 2) program implementation, and 3) analysis of test results and conclusion. The qualifier assumes extensive responsibility for each of these steps. The following sections present test facilities used in France to conduct a total qualification program for Class 1E electric equipment

  16. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan; Institution of Engineering and Technology

    2011-01-01

    Combining a theoretical background with examples and exercises, this book allows the reader to easily follow requirements for high quality electrical service in utilities and industrial facilities around the world.

  17. Study of National Electric System equipment until 2000 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report by the German firm Lahmeyer International is about the historical development of the supply of Electric Power, description of the current system, previous studies, organization, power plants, hydroelectric plants and existing construction, transmission system, hydrological studies and water resources, operation of hydro thermal generation, medium-term demand, energy sources and generation in the medium term, list of thermal plants, evaluation of alternative equipment plans in Uruguay at a med dium term.

  18. Shaking table testing of electrical equipment in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, J.S.; Zabala, F.; Santalucia, J.; Sisterna, C.; Magrini, M.; Oldecop, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the testing facility, the methodology applied and the results obtained in the seismic qualification tests of different types of electric equipment. These tests were carried out on a shaking table that was developed and built at the Earthquake Research Institute of the National University of San Juan, Argentine. The equipment tested consist of 500 KV and 132 KV current transformers, a 500 KV voltage transformer, a 145 KV disconnecter and a relay cabinet. The acceleration response of the tested equipment was measured at several locations distributed along its height, and strains were measured at critical points by strain gauges cemented on the base of the porcelain insulator. All the information was recorded with a data acquisition system at a sampling rate of 200 times per second in each channel. The facility developed at this Institute is the largest one in operation in Argentina at present and the equipment tested is the highest, heaviest and more slender one which has been seismically qualified on a shaking table in this country. These tests have been a valuable experience in the field of structural dynamic testing applied to equipment of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Equipment for radiography in Yugoslavia - security and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrijevic, R.; Vucina, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive method of material control by using radioisotopes is developed in Yugoslavia. This method of quality control is professionally performed by 30 firms. This paper presents the overview of the equipment used in the industrial radiography by using radioisotopes. Special attention was devoted to the security during the work and to the radiation protection of the operator and other personnel around the working place. In general it could be concluded that the main drawback which influences the security is the fact that most cases old and whom out equipment is in use. Other factors influencing the security are also discussed. (author)

  20. Problems of radiation protection at medical use of radiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larwin, K.

    1979-01-01

    For medical use of radiation equipment man is not only operator, but also object (patient). The question, if or how much it is necessary to expose the patient, is a medical problem and therefore not to be discussed here. For the user of medical equipments we have often special conditions. For many diagnostic applications the physician has to stay in the application room in contact with the patient. As a typical example for the problems of radiation protection there is discussed the situation on a well known fluoroscopic unit for lung and stomach examinations. (author)

  1. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  2. A REVIEW ON TEXTILES IN SPACE PROTECTION EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNTER EROGLU Nilsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts need the lander for decelerate and bridle the speed when they land on the space surface slowly. This lander could be controlled velocity magnitude in any direction or orientation and provide protection. The landers consist of airbags and parachutes. The airbag is a type of vehicle safety device, have a soft cushioning and is an occupant restraint system. The parachute provides to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by the hauling. Space protection equipments must have some properties because of astronaut’s entry, descend and landing in safely. Textiles in airbags provide these properties especially which are light weight, low gas permeability, high strength, low cost, low temperature flexibility and low coefficient of friction. For textiles in parachutes must have properties such as smooth, porosity, air permeability, high strength, cost-effective, stability light weight and good in drag and lift. Airbags and parachutes in space protection equipment’s are improved in systems provide easy stability. Recently, inflatable technologies for space protection equipments plays a fundamental role in building re-entry capsule. It can be performed a variety of pre-flight analyses to ensure the success of the tests of protection systems from day to day. In this review, space protection systems, their textile materials and properties, their advantages and disadvantages are presented.

  3. Promoting fluoroscopic personal radiation protection equipment: unfamiliarity, facts and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of risk can cause inappropriate fear. Personal protective equipment (PPE) offered for the prevention of brain cancer in interventional fluoroscopists (IR-PPE). Similar items are offered for cell-phone use (RF-PPE). Publications on fluoroscopy staff brain cancer and similar papers on cell-phone induced brain cancer were reviewed. An internet safety product search was performed, which resulted in many tens of thousands of hits. Vendor claims for either ionizing radiation or radio frequency products seldom addressed the magnitude of the risk. Individuals and institutions can buy a wide variety of safety goods. Any purchase of radioprotective equipment reduces the funds available to mitigate other safety risks. The estimated cost of averting an actuarial fatal brain cancer appears to be in the order of magnitude $10 000 000-$100 000 000. Unwarranted radiation fears should not drive the radiation protection system to the point of decreasing overall safety. (authors)

  4. Intergranular corrosion protective of austenitic stainless steel chemical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyukov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A complex of protective measures was developed for each concrete case of intergranular fracture of equipment, i.e.: decrease in the level of strains, surfacing with materials resistant to intergranular fracture under the conditions; permissible correction of process parameters, permitting a shift in corrosion potential towards decrease in the rate of intergranular corrosion. It is shown that even if the eguipment was subject to interfranular corrosion, but the fracture is not of catastrophic character, it proved possible to develop and apply complex methods of protection from the above types of corrosion fracture and to elongate the service life by 5-15 years

  5. Review of Climatic Protection Techniques for Electronic Equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    that the water vapour to be measured is carried in a dry nitrogen gas flow to an electrolytic cell which electrolyses the water vapour to hydrogen and...environments, the major factor being protection from the effects of water and water vapour in the atmosphere aided by temperature effects. The effects of...moisture on equipments, achieving and maintaining a dry interior, sealing standards, water vapour barriers, desiccation, drying-out procedures and

  6. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  7. Equipment for the measurement of non-electrical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, M.I.; Ewtuchow, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns equipment for the measurement of non-electrical parameters, which can be used in data processing and control equipment. The transducer converts non-electrical parameters into electrical signals. The process according to the invention is explained using the example of an inductive transducer, which is fed with alternating current. The measured parameter affects the mutual inductance of the transducer, so that the secondary voltage supplied by it is a function of the measured parameter. Amplitude measurement of this voltage by means of rectification and filtering has the disadvantage of long time constants, where the measuring period would amount to 6 to 10 cycles of the supply voltage. According to the invention the secondary voltage of the transducer is connected to an integrator during a half-cycle between two zeros, which charges a capacitor to a voltage proportional to the amplitude. An analogue-digital converter now produces a digital signal corresponding to the capacitor voltage, which is taken to the control equipment. This conversion occurs during a fraction of the second half-cycle, so that there is still time before the end of this half-cycle, so that there is still time before the end of this half-cycle to discharge the capacitor and to reproduce the initial conditions. In the next cycle the whole process is repeated, so that the measuring process only takes one cycle. In order to make the digital signal independent of the amplitude of the current fed in, this also flows through an identical transducer with constant mutual inductance, and affects the analogue-digital converter via a comparative circuit. (ORU) [de

  8. 30 CFR 77.516 - Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric wiring and equipment; installation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.516 Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance. In addition to the requirements of §§ 77.503 and 77.506, all wiring and...

  9. 30 CFR 18.91 - Electric equipment for which field approvals will be issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., by the owner-coal mine operator of such machines including any associated electrical equipment... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment for which field approvals... OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...

  10. Evaluation of collective protection equipment in a hemodynamic room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, Saman; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da; Real, Jessica Villa; Luz, Renata Matos da

    2014-01-01

    Interventional radiology has high occupational dose rates. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and collective protection (ECP) help to reduce the dose delivered to the individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). In order to minimize the exposure of IOE's in interventionists procedures, evaluated the attenuation of the secondary radiation produced by collective protection equipment (CPE), was used a chest non-anthropomorphic phantom of polymethylmethacrylates (PMMA), with column simulator in aluminum, with variable thicknesses and kerma rate measures the air by varying the frequency tables 15 and 30 frames / s and different exposure modes. Data were acquired initially at the height of 1.25 m, using the following combinations of the ECP: (I) unshielded, (II) with plumbum display, (III) combining skirt + display. Measured at a height of 0.5 m were acquired with and without skirt. The attenuation ranged from 83.8% to 95.4% for a thickness of 25 cm. The maximum attenuation occurred with the combination of display and skirt. There was a 5 time increase in air kerma rate to be used cine display mode, when compared to the low mode. By analyzing the frequency of the frames were obtained differences up to 3 times higher for 30 frames / s, when compared with 15 frames / s. The results show the importance of using ECP in hemodynamics services, which together with the PPE, ensure adequate protection for IOEs

  11. Study on Earthquake Response of High Voltage Electrical Equipment Coupling System with Flexible Busbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Qu, Da; Wang, Chongyang; Lv, Chunlei; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid development of technology and society, all walks of life in China are becoming more and more dependent on power systems. When earthquake occurs, the electrical equipment of substation is prone to damage because of its own structural features, top-heavy, and brittleness of main body. At the same time, due to the complex coupling of the soft electrical connection of substation electrical equipment, the negative impact can not be estimated. In this paper, the finite element model of the coupling system of the single unit of high voltage electrical equipment with the connecting soft bus is established and the seismic response is analysed. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the simple analysis for the seismic response of electrical equipment monomer and the analytical results of electrical equipment systems, and the impact on different electrical equipment is different. It lays a foundation for the future development of seismic performance analysis of extra high voltage electrical equipment.

  12. A practical field survey on equipments for physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Kubortera, H.; Kurihara, H.; Yagi, T.; Shibata, T.; Murajiri, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Presented in this paper are the results of data-gathering and evaluation tests on equipments for physical protection system, which, considering the trends in relating technologies and changing threat environments, are most likely to be used in future Japanese nuclear facilities. The following tests are carried out as part of this program. (1) Out-door Sensor Test - Bistatic-Microwave Sensor, Buried-line E-field Sensor, E-field Sensor, and Tension-wire Sensor were selected and tested in Detection-Performance Tests and Environmental (False Alarm) tests. Detection-Probability was provided as the results of Detection-Performance Tests (live-intrusion test), in which Detection-Probability was represented as a function of behavior mode of intruders (covert/overt) and the number of intruders. The Detection-Probability in these tests were fairly high, because of laboratory-test-like nature of these test. The correlation between the Detection-Probability and the number of intruders was not significant. In Environmental Test, survey was done to clarify the correlation between False-Alarm rate of the sensors mentioned above and the atmospheric phenomena such as rainfall or direction/velocity of wind. (This work is sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB), Office of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.) (2) ln-door Sensor Test - 2 thermic-ray Sensors (Passive-IR Sensors) were set up in test-chamber for Detection- Probability Test and Environmental (False-Alarm) Test. Detection-Probability higher than 97% (with reliability level of 80%) was recorded in the former test. In the latter test, the detection-sensitivity of the sensor was set to provide 2 levels, 'Standard' and 'High'. In 'Standard' sensitivity test, 8 false alarms were observed during the test, but the analysis of the situation revealed that all of them were caused by imperfect construction of the test-chamber, and no false-alarm, except for once in 'High' sensitivity

  13. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  14. Financing future exports of Canada's electrical power equipment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, K.A.J.; Saravanamuttoo, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic impact on the Canadian power sector of continued constraints on the availability of concessionary export financing is examined. An overview of the structure of the Canadian electrical power equipment industry is provided, followed by a discussion of its competitiveness and performance. Export prospects are outlined and separate reviews are presented of hydroelectric and thermal expansion. A global market of US $17 billion for hydroelectric power in the 1990s is forecast, and a market of US $300 billion for all forms of power generation in developing Asia. The export strategies of international competitive bidding, forming a consortium within an international multinational enterprise, co-financing with Japanese aid agencies, and direct negotiation are discussed. The costs and benefits of concessional financing are assessed and shown to bring net fiscal benefits. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  16. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear electric utilities have been reviewed for possible disruptive failure modes that would be of special concern in a nuclear power plant. The resulting emphasis was on the electrical faults of transformers, switchgear (circuit breakers), lightning (surge) arrestors, high-voltage cabling and buswork, control boards, and other electrical equipment that, through failure, can be the initiating event that may expand the original fault to nearby or associated equipment. Many failures of such equipment were found and documented, although the failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment. Conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the design, maintenance, and operation of the affected electrical equipment are presented

  17. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed.

  18. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed

  19. Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

    The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) - a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future

  20. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  1. Electrical equipment distributors assuming greater role as suppliers to electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of Canada's largest distributors of electrical equipment to the utility market. Summaries are presented of the views of the major respondents concerning market trends and future challenges. Distributors have emerged as a supply source to utilities over the past two decades. Before then, electric utilities did virtually all their business directly with the manufacturers and rarely with distributors. One reason for this situation was that direct dealing with manufacturers was perceived by the utilites as providing better access to technical advice. Distributors have grown significantly since then and many have their own expert technical staff and provide full support for their products. Various advantages for utilities in dealing with distributors are noted: ability to supply most needs relatively rapidly from stock, simplification of ordering, improved inventory management, and savings in brokerage and other costs associated with imported equipment

  2. Laboratory services series: an electrical outlet and corded equipment inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A research and development laboratory has thousands of electrical outlets providing power to laboratories, offices, shops, and service areas. These outlets provide power for a wide variety of portable equipment and tools that are equipped with cord and plug. Electric safety requires a periodic check of outlet grounding capability and continuing inspection and repair of corded equipment. Personnel, equipment, reports, procedures, and schedule requirements are reported

  3. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    OpenAIRE

    Guangwei Shao; Zhongjun Ji; Bing Liu

    2017-01-01

    With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field ser...

  4. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1983-07-01

    The electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear public utilities were reviewed. Those failures that could pose an additional problem to surrounding and connected equipment were defined. The literature was searched; utilities, repair shops, and large electrical equipment users were contacted for failure information. The data were reviewed in detail, and failure modes were determined. Sample cascade failures are discussed. The failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment

  5. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments

  6. A guide to qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power plants. Final report, November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, A.; Lamken, D.; Harrall, T.; Kasturi, S.; Holzman, P.; Carfagno, S.; Thompson, D.; Boyer, B.; Hanneman, H.; Rule, W.

    1983-09-01

    Equipment qualification demonstrates that nuclear power plant equipment can perform its safety function - that despite age or the adverse conditions of a design basis accident the equipment can work as needed. This report is a guide to the overall process of electrical equipment qualification. It should interest those who design such equipment, those who buy it, or test it, and even those who install and maintain it. (author)

  7. Relay protection features of frequency-adjustable electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprienko, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The features of relay protection of high-voltage electric motors in composition of the frequency-adjustable electric drive are considered in the article. The influence of frequency converters on the stability of the operation of various types of relay protection used on electric motors is noted. Variants of circuits for connecting relay protection devices are suggested. The need to develop special relay protection devices for a frequency-adjustable electric drive is substantiated.

  8. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health and safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure

  10. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  11. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menad, N.; Guignot, S.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  12. The news and innovations in radiation protection systems and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetes, M.

    2014-01-01

    ENVINET as the part of the Nuvia Group is well known for the engineering supplies and services for the nuclear power. Nevertheless, the development, manufacturing and service of the radiometric systems, including unique manufacturing of the ionizing radiation detectors, supplemented by the specific equipment such as led-free shielding material and specialized software products has dominant and firm position in the company's portfolio.ENVINET continually reflects with the large scale of instrumentation and systems on the specific needs within the field of detection and measurement of ionizing radiation. The company provides comprehensive services covering the radiation protection requirements in the energy industry, health, education, science and research. Offered systems are flexibly adaptable to various scales - 'on-the spot', national and international, different conditions - 'in-house' or terrain, and various modes - discontinuous or in-situ continuous measurements.The technique of the ENVNETs own development and production series is the result of the long-term experience in the nuclear power, and the co-operation with renowned research institutes, armed forces and first response groups. These traditionally include radioactive waste characterization instruments, numerous devices intended for terrain radiation survey and detection of the ionizing radiation, large scale of the plastic scintillators and NaI(Tl) detectors, digital analyzers, photomultipliers and preamplifiers, along with various types of lead and lead-free shielding.The automatic sample changer - NuLAB ASC100 stands for the news on the market, mirroring the great skill in the industrial automation and the experience in the radiation protection. The device represents advanced solution for high-resolution gamma spectrometry and is designed for automatic identification and quantification of radioisotopes in different types of samples.Daughter company Pico Envirotec continues

  13. Earthquake protection of essential civil and industrial equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, P.; Le Breton, F.; Thevenot, A.

    1986-01-01

    This document presents the principal reflexions concerning seismic engineering applications for equipment and the difference of the non-employment towards these structures. The notion of essential equipment is then pointed out as well as the main particularities of equipment considered as structures. Finally, this document illustrates a few pathological examples encountered after an earthquake, and presents some equipments of a nuclear power plant which to resist an increased safety seism [fr

  14. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VI. Automated response components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    The Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment presents information on currently available physical protection equipment that could be employed to safeguard special nuclear materials. The primary source of information was the responses of manufacturers and vendors to requests for literature and data. All equipment listed in the Catalog has been screened in accordance with the following general criteria, and only items meeting one or more of these criteria have been included: (1) equipment is commercially available off-the-shelf; (2) equipment is currently in use at commercial nuclear facilities licensed or to be licensed by NRC; (3) equipment is applicable for use at nuclear facilities licensed or to be licensed by NRC; (4) equipment can operate in the environmental conditions present at nuclear facilities; and (5) equipment is not designed solely or primarily for residential use. The final report describes the methodology and rationale used to create the Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment

  15. Enhancing reactor availability factor by diagnostic monitoring and data acquisition of electrical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical energy has made significant contribution to rapid growth of industrial activity in the country. Development and improvement of energy conversion devices or electrical apparatus have supported the growth. Reliability is probably the most important factor in electrical supply system, not only to give uninterrupted service but to provide an economic supply. Regular diagnostic testing of electrical equipments will make a significant contribution to the reliability of electrical supply. The purpose of diagnostic monitoring is to recognize the development of faults at an early stage, which consequently allows greater freedom to schedule the outages resulting in lower downtime and lower capitalized losses. The insulation constitutes the heart of any electrical/power equipment. The insulation in power equipment in normal condition undergoes certain changes in the physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. The change with respect to time in the presence of an influencing factor, more often a stress (electrical) is referred to as ageing. The deterioration of insulating material plays an important role in the assessing the condition of electrical equipments. The systematic diagnostic tests are also part of the maintenance program to ensure the continued serviceability of electrical equipments, by replacing or repairing the components likely to fail, as revealed by the test. Diagnostic tests are carried out on various electrical equipments for detection of incipient fault, location and judging their severity. (author)

  16. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to highlight possible future developments of importance to the electrical and optical (E&O) equipment sector, paying particular importance to ‘radical’ changes and discussing policy options and future scenarios. The electrical & optical equipment sector plays a vital role

  17. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  18. 30 CFR 56.9302 - Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against moving or runaway railroad..., and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9302 Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment. Stopblocks, derail devices, or other devices that protect against moving or runaway rail equipment shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9302 - Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against moving or runaway railroad..., Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9302 Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment. Stopblocks, derail devices, or other devices that protect against moving or runaway rail equipment shall be...

  20. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field service is designed, and the future development direction of electric field wear can be forecasted.

  1. Retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures: perspective of equipment dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, S M; Donham, K J; Leedom-Larson, K; Sanderson, W; Purschwitz, M

    2009-10-01

    This study was one of a cluster of studies that originated via requests for proposals from the NIOSH National Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative. The present study design consisted of several steps: (1) formation of an advisory group, (2) development and testing of a standard paper self-responding survey instrument, (3) sample selection of farm equipment dealers, (4) administration of the survey, (5) assessment and analysis of the survey, and (6) in-person response panel of dealers (n = 80) to review results of the questionnaire for further definition and sharpening of the recommendations from the survey. A key finding is that most dealers do not currently sell or install ROPS retrofit kits. Barriers cited by dealers included (1) actual or perceived lack of farmer demand, (2) injury liability, (3) expensive freight for ordering ROPS, (4) lack of dealer awareness of the magnitude of deaths from tractor overturns and the high life-protective factor of ROPS, and (5) difficulty and incursion of non-recoverable expenses in locating and obtaining specific ROPS. Despite not currently selling or installing ROPS, dealers responded favorably about their future potential role in ROPS promotion and sales. Dealers were willing to further promote, sell, and install ROPS if there was demand from farmers. Recommendations include establishing a ROPS "clearing house" that dealers could contact to facilitate locating and obtaining ROPS orders from customers. Additional recommendations include education and social marketing targeting farm machinery dealers as well farmers, manufacturers, and policy makers.

  2. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Qualification of electrical equipment. A United States nuclear system supplier perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    At Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor Systems Division (PWR-SD) qualification. of safety related electrical equipment can be segregated into three distinct generations: (1) the initial seismic and environmental qualification programs for electrical equipment (1969-1972); (2) the supplemental sismic and environmental qualification programs (1975-1977); and (3) the seismic and environmental qualification programs to meet IEEE-323-1974, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''(1975). The latter two programs (in a licensing framework), as they are most current, with emphasis on electrical equipment (e.g. transmitters, rack mounted equipment) as opposed to electro-mechanical equipment (valve operators, pump motors) are reviewed. (author)

  4. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.337... systems other than chemical oxygen generators, there must be a means to allow the crew to readily... fully charged. (iv) For each chemical oxygen generator, the supply system equipment must meet the...

  5. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and IandC equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/chargers, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed RandD efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  6. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Charme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and I and C equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/charges, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed R and D efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research

  7. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  8. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  9. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  10. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section...

  11. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of...

  12. Electrical Power Systems Protection and Interdependencies with ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Milis, George; Kyriakides, Elias; Hadjiantonis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter discusses the issue of protection of the electrical power systems, addressing all dimensions, from the need of protection to the identified faults and disturbances to the available protection schemes and further considerations, also looking at the challenges brought by recognizing the interdependent nature of the today’s electrical power systems.

  13. International Trade in Environmental Protection Equipment: An Assessment of Existing Data (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study estimates total U.S. imports, exports, and trade balances for environmental protection (EP) equipment between 1980-1991. While the United States is a major exporter of EP equipment, trade in EP equipment constitutes a small percent of total US trade.

  14. Staff report on the environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The current NRC safety review process for nuclear power plants includes criteria related to the qualification of certain electrical equipment. These criteria require that electrical equipment important to safety must be qualified to function in the environment that might result from various accident conditions. Although such criteria have been applied since the early days of commercial nuclear power, the details of these criteria have been changed over the years. The evolution of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment is described in Appendix A

  15. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: survey of inverter and related protection equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T

    2002-12-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme reports on a survey made on inverter and related protection equipment. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the data obtained from survey of recent inverter technology and inverter protection equipment for grid interconnected PV systems. The results are based on the surveys using a questionnaire to identify the current status of grid-interconnection inverters. This report is to serve as a reference for those interested in installing grid-connected PV systems, electric utility company personnel, manufacturers and researchers. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. Technical and financial data is reviewed and two appendices provide details on the results obtained and those institutions involved in the survey.

  16. A procedure for routine radiation protection checking of mammography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, L.G.; Lundehn, I.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure was developed for checking of mammography equipment used in screening for mammary cancer. The procedure will be handled by hospital physicists or x-ray inspectors and is intended to permit checking of x-ray equipment performance as well as evaluation of mean dose or eneray imparted to groups of patients. Measurement methods studied involve TLD, ionization chambers and a new plastic scintillator designed to measure energy imparted. After careful study of sizes and attenuation properties of breasts, a 50 mm polymethylmetacrylate phantom seemed the most appropriate. The choice of measuring equipment is reported as well as some preliminary results from field measurements. (author)

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment. 1926.1000 Section 1926.1000 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1000 Rollover protective structures...

  18. Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Heliny Carneiro Cunha; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva e; Medeiros, Marcelo; Munari, Denize Bouttelet; Ribeiro, Luana Cássia Miranda; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in a teaching hospital with 15 nursing professionals. Attempted to analyze the reasons, attitudes and beliefs of nursing staff regarding adherence to personal protective equipment. Data were collected through focus groups, analyzed by the method of interpretation of meanings, considering Rosenstock's model of health beliefs as a reference framework. Data revealed two themes: Occupational safety and Interpersonal Relationship. We identified several barriers that interfere in matters of safety and personal protective equipment, such as communication, work overload, physical structure, accessibility of protective equipment and organizational and management aspects. Adherence to personal protective equipment is determined by the context experienced in the workplace, as well as by individual values and beliefs, but the decision to use the personal protective equipment is individual.

  19. IEEE No. 323, IEEE trial-use standard: General guide for qualifying Class I electric equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the basic requirements for the qualification of Class I electric equipment. This is equipment which is essential to the safe shutdown and isolation of the reactor or whose failure or damage could result in significant release of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for demonstrating the qualifications of electrical equipment as required in the IEEE Std 279 -- Criteria for Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection Systems, and IEEE Std 308 -- Criteria for Class 1E Electric Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. The qualification methods described may be used in conjunction with the Guides for qualifying specific types of equipment, (see Foreword), for updating qualification following modifications or for qualifying equipment for which no applicable Guide exists

  20. 78 FR 37760 - Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Standardization ISO/IEC Standard 17025 and related IECEx procedures. The ExTL tests the subject equipment and...)/IEC Standard 17025 and related IECEx Operational Documents and Rules of Procedure. Some foreign flag... internationally accepted independent third-party certification system, the IEC System for Certification to...

  1. protective relay studies for the nigerian national electric 330 kv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... protective relay schemes of the National Electric Power Authority. Some of the basic ... Nigerian special system characteristics, schemes to correct existing protection inadequacies .... relays buried in the transformer. A reach of ...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. 75.1710-1 Section 75.1710-1 Mineral Resources...

  3. The Problems of implementation of the European Union directives for electrical and electronic equipment hazardousness

    OpenAIRE

    Vaišvila, Anicetas; Vaičikonis, Eduardas

    2006-01-01

    The problems of implementation of two new EU Directives is discussed in this article. It is so called WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and RoHS (Restriction of use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment), as well as influence of these directives to quality and environmental management systems. The RoHS directive requires a number of potentially hazardous substances (lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated byphenyls (PBB) and ...

  4. Development of digital power measuring and protecting equipment for SPRR-300 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuejie; Li Xi'an; Zhu Shilei

    2005-01-01

    A measuring and protecting equipment of reactor power based on Single-Chip Microcomputer is introduced in this paper. The composition of hardware and the major control idea about the software for the equipment are presented. Digitizing the measuring data from nuclear instruments is precondition of reactor control and protection system which would be computerizing, and it is also an application of redundancy and variety of reactor protection system in nuclear measuring instruments. At last the working state is described. (authors)

  5. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  6. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment; El och kontrollutrustning i kaernkraftverk - Problematik vid utbyte av aaldrad utrustning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-11-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  7. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  8. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment

  9. Diagnosis of electric equipment at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Truong Sinh

    1999-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a pool type of its kind in the world: Soviet-designed core and control system harmoniously integrated into the left-over infrastructure of the former American-made TRIGA MARK II reactor, which includes the reactor tank and shielding, graphite reflector, beam tubes and thermal column. The reactor is mainly used for radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production, elemental analysis using neutron activation techniques, neutron beam exploitation, silicon doping, and reactor physics experimentation. For safe operation of the reactor maintenance work has been carried out for the reactor control and instrumentation, reactor cooling, ventilation, radiomonitoring, mechanical, normal electric supply systems as well as emergency electric diesel generators and the water treatment station. Technical management of the reactor includes periodical maintenance as required by technical specifications, training, re-training and control of knowledge for reactor staff. During recent years, periodic preventive maintenance (PPM) has been carried out for the electric machines of the technological systems. (author)

  10. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08;0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, likeability 95.6% versus 77.8%. CONCLUSION: We cannot support the expectation...

  11. Vibration aging of diesel-engine mounted electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Morton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be a component which is essential to safe plant operation. Failures of auxiliary equipment directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 requires addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring devices and other engine modifications require design and installation of new equipment to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper discusses the engine vibration characteristics, and the acquisition of extensive field vibration data on the diesel engine under operating conditions. The data is then used to develop life cycle vibration qualification test profiles that can be applied with confidence in a laboratory environment to qualify engine-mounted equipment. The intent is to validate a product's ability to survive under worst case, extended service on-engine conditions. This paper describes the procedures and approaches used to achieve those goals, and provides developed profile examples and test results

  12. A probabilistic analysis of electrical equipment vulnerability to carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical problems of airborne carbon fibers falling onto electrical circuits were idealized and analyzed. The probability of making contact between randomly oriented finite length fibers and sets of parallel conductors with various spacings and lengths was developed theoretically. The probability of multiple fibers joining to bridge a single gap between conductors, or forming continuous networks is included. From these theoretical considerations, practical statistical analyses to assess the likelihood of causing electrical malfunctions was produced. The statistics obtained were confirmed by comparison with results of controlled experiments.

  13. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  14. VDE-specification for electrical equipment and apparatus in atmospheres endangered by explosive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    These specifications are valid for the setting-up, changing, putting into operation and developing of electrical equipment, as well as for the application of electrical apparatus in such systems and in regions endangered by explosive materials. (orig./LH) [de

  15. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume I. Barriers and structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  16. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VII. General purpose display components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared under MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  17. Individual protection equipments in nuclear environment: irradiation time influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.

    1994-09-01

    This study allowed to show that influence evaluation of diverse protection suits on the intervention times was undissociable of ergonomical characteristics of the tasks to be done. 15 tabs., 3 figs., 9 appendixes

  18. 1E Qualification of Electrical Equipment - Requirement for Safety Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Segarceanu, D.; Albu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the qualification methods of the safety related equipment according to the safety class 1E. There are presented the qualification principles, procedure and documents, emphasis being laid on the qualification approach by type tests. This approach assumes the equipment test under both normal and accident conditions (design basis events) simulating the operational conditions and covers the largest part of electrical equipment from a nuclear power plant.The safety related equipment is to be qualified is subjected to a sequential test that will be detailed in the paper. (author)

  19. The effects of competitive electricity supply in the UK on metering equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, A.

    1996-01-01

    Requirements for metering of competitive supply, following privatisation of the UK Electricity Industry in 1989, have driven the design of metering equipment in a way which was not foreseen at that time. Metering equipment used for implementing the competitive market so far has been designed to new uniform national specifications and has used commercially available communications systems to automatically collect data. In order to implement full competition down to the domestic level as from 1998, a new approach is thought to be necessary. The major influences on meter design, equipment now being used, are described, future equipment and communications options, are considered. (author)

  20. Guide for the evaluation of physical protection equipment. Book 2: Volumes IV--VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A guide for evaluating the performance of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared for use by U.S. NRC. Separate evaluation procedures are provided for each generic type of equipment contained in the companion document, Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment (NUREG-0274). Among the equipment parameters evaluated are sensitivity, area/volume of coverage, false/nuisance alarm rate, resistance to countermeasures, environmental requirements, installation parameters and maintenance. Four evaluation techniques are employed (inspections, analyses, demonstrations and tests); standard test equipment (both commercially available as well as developmental) to be used in the evaluation is listed. The following categories of equipment are covered: surveillance and alarm assessment components, contraband detection components, automated response components, general purpose display components, and general purpose communication components

  1. Modern methods of overlay welding for corrosion protection of power generating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.V.; Shul'man, I.E.; Potapov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for overlay welding of inner surfaces of power equipment for corrosion protection are analysed. Various methods of electroslag overlay welding by a band electrode (overlay welding by two-electrode bands by a wide band with magnetic control, by an electrode band with high melting velocity) are marked to be the most perspective for cladding of NPP vessel equipment

  2. AERB information booklet: personal protective equipment- safety footwear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main classes of safety footwear required for industrial operations in the units of Department of Atomic Energy are the following; leather safety boots and shoes, firemen's leather boots - Wellington type, electrical safety shoes, chemical safety shoes, shoes suitable for mining operations. The criteria to be adopted for selection of safety shoes for nuclear installations are given. (M.K.V.). 5 annexures, 1 appendix

  3. An application of residual current protective device at electrical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga

    2008-01-01

    In an electrical installation, a protection for overload and short circuit are always to be installed. In addition to the installation, it is necessary to be installed a protection device for residual current because both the short circuit and the overload device protection will not work for the residual current. The quantity of the residual current must be defined first at any electrical installation to define an appropriate residual current protection so that not every residual current will break the circuit down. This paper will explain a method how to install a residual protection device for 3500 VA or more at TN and TT of earthing system. (author)

  4. 29 CFR 1917.96 - Payment for protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employer at no cost to employees. (b) The employer is not required to pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty prescription safety... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  5. Clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection: Its selection according to occupational risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, to be used by workers according to the occupational risk they deal with, in order to avoid or to reduce the factors that can, directly or indirectly, affect their physical integrity. For the risks not contemplated in this norm, the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, must be done following the corresponding international standard [es

  6. A guide to radiation protection in the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by a Working Group convened by the Health and Safety Executive to provide practical guidance for all who might be involved in work with X-ray optics equipment, such as designers, manufacturers, users, maintenance workers, inspectors, radiation protection advisers and supervisors. The particular radiation protection aspects described include those in connection with enclosure design and inspection, inter locks, tube shields, shutters and cover plates, administrative controls, monitoring and repair and maintenance of equipment. (UK)

  7. Condition monitoring of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition monitoring (CM) is a subset of maintenance testing. It is a quantitative, predictive technique for assessing the effects of all types of aging (environmental, cyclic, operational, etc) on the ''health'' of the equipment. A difference between CM and maintenance testing is that the latter is neither quantitative (i.e., measures the relative condition of the component or material as opposed to merely verifying that its condition is acceptable) nor predictive (i.e., makes judgments, on the ability of the component to perform at a future time). A common example of the principle of CM can be illustrated with the automobile which has a lifetime that is small enough to observe all the periods (break in, random failure, wear out) that occur throughout aging. There are several weak link components in the car (e.g., water hoses, contacts in the distributor, generator, spark plug cables, solenoid, etc) which if they fail will cause failure of the automobile to either start or run. From the day the car is put on the road and is subjected to heat and vibration, significant aging of these components occurs. Degradation in the water hoses, for example is manifested by the elastomeric casing becoming brittle and cracking

  8. INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VARIABLES AFFECTING THE USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUNÇ DEMİRBİLEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management’s safety approach and commitment are related to occupational health and safety applications in workplaces. However, personal characteristics and attitudes on their health of employees are very influential factors on occupational health and safety applications. For examine of interaction between behaviors and the health and safety applications it is required that determine of employee’s perceptions. For this reason this paper’s purpose is to establish of safety needs, attitudes and behaviors of employees and their perceptions regarding management’s safety approach and applications. The study’s focal point is use of personal protective equipment as an indicator “safety behavior”. In empirical study, assumption variables regarding the use of personal protective equipment are safety effectively, safety need, management attitudes and protective equipment conditions. The fundamental hypothesis of this paper is use of personal protective equipment is related to individual and organizational variables. Implications of research findings are to indicate impelling the workers to safety behaviour or using the personal protective equipment by their feeling of the safety behaviour and availability of personal protective equipment.

  9. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  10. Systems for protection and automation of distribution electric networks 22 kv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the new concept of fault location in overhead and cable 22 kV distribution systems, which are operated by ZSE Distribucia, a.s.. In the past the localisation of faults was a demanding and lengthy procedure, because the electric protection indicated only the affected output feeder. The exact fault point was then localised by manipulation in the field and by test switching in the power line where the fault took place. The current development of electric facilities and sharp fall in prices give use the possibility to broadly apply the simple digital metering devices equipped with the electric protection function. Once these devices are positioned densely along the individual power lines of the network, it is possible to localise the failure position quite exactly and electricity supply can be quickly restored. (Authors)

  11. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  12. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.

    1984-06-01

    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  13. Guide for the evaluation of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volumes I--III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A guide for evaluating the performance of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared in partial fulfillment of Task 2 of MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Separate evaluation procedures are provided for each generic type of equipment contained in the companion document, Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment. Among the equipment parameters evaluated, as appropriate, are sensitivity, area/volume of coverage, false/nuisance alarm rate, resistance to countermeasures, environmental requirements, installation parameters and maintenance. Four evaluation techniques are employed (inspections, analyses, demonstrations and tests); standard test equipment (both commercially available as well as developmental) to be used in the evaluation are listed

  14. Explosion-protected electric heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, H

    1984-02-01

    Different constructions of explosion-protected heating systems are described concerning the different types of protection, the service conditions, the installation and the surveillance devices. Interpretations and regulations derived from the VDE Standards are discussed and their relation to the European Standards EN 50014 ... 50020 is considered in a survey.

  15. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  16. Electronic ground support equipment for the Cluster Electric Field and Wave Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1992-10-01

    In a collaboration between ESA and NASA, ionosphere plasma structures will be studied by four indentical space probes to be launched in 1995 from French Guiana. The Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment will be designed to measure electric field and density fluctations by means of four sensors, each deployed on a 50 meter wire boom. In order to perform comprehensive tests and calibrations of the EFW experiment, computer controlled electronic ground support equipment has been developed. This report describes the hardware of the equipment, produced and assembled at the University of Oslo. 15 figs

  17. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  18. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  20. Radiation protection type testing and licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Poulheim, K.F.; Feldheim, W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of more than 10 years experience in type testing and type licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment with respect to meeting radiation protection requirements as well as the implications for the conduct of these procedures resulting from the introduction of new radiation protection legislation in 1983 and 1984, are described. At present an updated version of the 'Regulation of 16 December 1977 concerning radiation protection type testing and licensing of sealed radiation sources and equipment emitting ionizing radiation' is being prepared. (author)

  1. The Architecture Design of Detection and Calibration System for High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Lin, Y.; Yang, Y.; Gu, Ch; Yang, F.; Zou, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    With the construction of Material Quality Inspection Center of Shandong electric power company, Electric Power Research Institute takes on more jobs on quality analysis and laboratory calibration for high-voltage electrical equipment, and informationization construction becomes urgent. In the paper we design a consolidated system, which implements the electronic management and online automation process for material sampling, test apparatus detection and field test. In the three jobs we use QR code scanning, online Word editing and electronic signature. These techniques simplify the complex process of warehouse management and testing report transferring, and largely reduce the manual procedure. The construction of the standardized detection information platform realizes the integrated management of high-voltage electrical equipment from their networking, running to periodic detection. According to system operation evaluation, the speed of transferring report is doubled, and querying data is also easier and faster.

  2. Protective equipment and the prevention of concussion - what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rodolfo R

    2011-01-01

    The complex nature of the evaluation and management of concussion lends to controversy, and the immediate and long-term implications still are being investigated. Various types of protective equipment have been used as a means to prevent concussions, and protective equipment is being used more frequently in different sports. Recent investigations have suggested that a protective, but not preventive, effect may be afforded by mouthguard use in rugby players, headgear use in soccer players, and customized mandibular orthotic use in football players. The use of faceshields has not shown a proven benefit in preventing the incidence of sport-related concussion in ice hockey or field hockey participants. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of protective equipment in the prevention of sport-related concussion.

  3. Evaluation of the use of personal protective equipment in radiodiagnostic services in Sergipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Oliveira, Celso A.; Silva, Fabio A.R.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2008-01-01

    The theme ionizing radiation is frequently associated with danger. Therefore this subject induces to think about accessories to personal protection. These accessories can contain metal heavy (as example, lead) so that we have an efficient protection. Our analysis was done with the main objective of evidence that is not enough the radiodiagnostic services have personal protective equipment to disposal to the radiology technicians have an efficient protection, because the procedures with ionizing radiation will be safe only with the use accomplish of the security procedures and of adequate use and storing of personal protective equipment. In our analysis the accessories in question were the lead rubber X-ray protection aprons and thyroid gland protectors. We have tested these accessories through of a similar methodology utilized to checking the half-value layer of the X-ray units. It was investigated also the importance given to use of these accessories by the radiology technicians. (author)

  4. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Electrical equipment service. 1997-1998; Service materiel electrique. 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-12-31

    This brochure edited by the electrical equipment service from the direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) presents some of their remarkable realizations in the domain of energy, their expertise activity in attendance on electricity producers, forwarders and distributors, their expertise activity in attendance on industrialists, and the know-how of their testing laboratories in attendance on designers and operators. (J.S.)

  6. Wavelet Based Diagnosis and Protection of Electric Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Abdesh Shafiel Kafiey; Rahman, M. Azizur

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, a short review of conventional Fourier transforms and new wavelet based faults diagnostic and protection techniques for electric motors is presented. The new hybrid wavelet packet transform (WPT) and neural network (NN) based faults diagnostic algorithm is developed and implemented for electric motors. The proposed WPT and NN

  7. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  8. Promotion of alternative-sized personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Keller, Brenna; DeLaney, Sheli C

    2017-12-01

    With more diversity in the workforce, companies are producing PPE such as hard hats, safety glasses, coveralls, foot protection, and safety harnesses for a larger range of body shapes and sizes. However, gray literature reports suggest that barriers exist to getting alternate sized PPE from the manufacturer to the workers who need it. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which alternative-sized PPE is marketed. A web-based review of seven major manufacturers of PPE was conducted to determine: (a) whether or not they offer alternative-sized products, (b) if these products are clearly labeled, and (c) if images used to display PPE are representative of a diverse workforce. Of the seven PPE manufacturers investigated, six had at least one product that was marketed as gender and/or size alternatives however, alternative sizes were more common for larger body types. Alternative-sized products rarely included size charts, and the models used to display PPE were overwhelmingly white males of average size. Despite the growing availability of alternative-sized PPE, it can be difficult to find these products, which suggests that they are rarely promoted or labeled as alternative-sized. Our study indicates that companies should expand their product lines and more aggressively market and promote these items. Guidance on how to properly fit their products would also be extremely helpful to the end-user. Manufacturers could improve the availability of alternative-sized PPE and increase their promotion of these products on their websites and in their catalogs. Individual companies and safety professionals may assist in this process by demonstrating demand for alternative-sized PPE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Qualification of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Management of ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaang, Kjell; Staahl, Gunnar

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe programs and tools for assessment of accomplished and documented qualification with respect to ageing of electrical equipment and for development of complimentary ageing management programs. In addition to description of complete programs for management of ageing, tools for validation of the status with regard to ageing of installed ('old') equipment and, where needed, for complementation of their qualification are also included. The report is restricted to safety related equipment containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials. To this category belong cables and cable joints and a number of equipment containing oils, seals (o-rings), etc. For equipment located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. The main part of this report deals with the qualification of such equipment. Some safety related equipment outside the containment can be located in areas where they are subjected to high temperature and other excessive environmental stresses during normal operation and in areas affected by an accident. Therefore, some material is given also on qualification of equipment located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. Part 1 of the report is an executive summary with a general review of the methodologies and their application. The more detailed description of the programs and underlying material, useful data, etc. is given in Part 2

  10. Attitude stabilization of a spacecraft equipped with large electrostatic protection screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D. Yu.; Tikhonov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    A satellite with a system of three electrostatic radiation protection (ERP) screens is under consideration. The screens are constructed as electrostatically charged toroidal shields with characteristic size of order equal to 100 m. The interaction of electric charge with the Earth's magnetic field (EMF) give rise to the Lorentz torque acting upon a satellite attitude motion. As the sizes of ERP system are large, we derive the Lorentz torque taking into account the complex form of ERP screens and gradient of the EMF in the screen volume. It is assumed that the satellite center of charge coincides with the satellite mass center. The EMF is modeled by the straight magnetic dipole. In the paper we investigate the usage of Lorentz torque for passive attitude stabilization for satellite in a circular equatorial orbit. Mathematical model for attitude dynamics of a satellite equipped with ERP interacting with the EMF is derived and first integral of corresponding differential equations is constructed. The straight equilibrium position of the satellite in the orbital frame is found. Sufficient conditions for stability of satellite equilibrium position are constructed with the use of the first integral. The gravity gradient torque is taken into account. The satellite equilibrium stability domain is constructed.

  11. Node localization algorithm of wireless sensor networks for large electrical equipment monitoring application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Node localization technology is an important technology for the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. An improved 3D node localization algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on a Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) node localization algorithm for large electrical equipment monito...

  12. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  13. On safety 1E qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segarceanu, D.; Geambasu, C.; Avramescu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical equipment and systems for the emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor are qualified according to safety class 1E. Methods of qualification meeting the requirements should be used, either individually or in combination include, type-test qualification, qualification by operating experience, qualification by analysis, combined qualification. These methods qualification principles, procedures and documents are discussed. (N.T.). 1 fig

  14. Traveling wire electrode increases productivity of Electrical Discharge Machining /EDM/ equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotora, J., Jr.; Smith, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    Traveling wire electrode on electrical discharge machining /EDM/ equipment reduces the time requirements for precision cutting. This device enables cutting with a minimum of lost material and without inducing stress beyond that inherent in the material. The use of wire increases accuracy and enables tighter tolerances to be maintained.

  15. Ageing of insulation and diagnosis of electrical equipment through detection of partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vergara, T.; Velasco Bernal, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ageing in electrical equipment affects mainly its insulation system. Such ageing in the insulation system is determined by its organic nature, basically constituted by three families of materials: cellulose, resin and hydrocarbon. All of these are affected by high temperatures, which tend to produce a break in the molecular chains (if the temperatures are not too high) or carbonization and gasification of the material (if they are). The radiation absorbed by the insulating materials also destroys molecular chains, causing degradation of the material. The break of the molecular chains, especially in the polymer-based materials, fragments the material, mainly in areas subjected to mechanical forces and stresses. From the electrical point of view, fissures occurring the insulating material lead to a much lower dielectric strength in certain parts of the materials, which could produce partial discharge conditions. Therefore, the growth of partial discharges in electrical equipment items is frequently the consequences of ageing, and be used to evaluate their residual life. Empresarios Agrupados has developed a system to detect partial discharges which can be used while equipment is still in operation. The measurements taken with this system are sufficiently accurate and repetitive to be used in evaluating the condition of medium-voltage electrical equipment insulation. (Author)

  16. Operation and maintenance of the RA Reactor in 1985, Part 1, Annex E - Report of the electric Equipment Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.; Stamenkovic, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  17. A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

    2012-08-01

    Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8 km h(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20 cm at 40 steps min(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing.

  18. Fire protection in nuclear power plants. Pt. 3. Fire protection for mechanical and electrotechnical equipment and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The KTA rule applies to LWRs and defines requirements to be met for fire protection of equipment and installations of the safety system, and all safety-relevant systems, and of those operating systems that under the effect of fire, may cause improper functioning of safety system components. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Atmospheric electricity. [lightning protection criteria in spacecraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric electricity must be considered in the design, transportation, and operation of aerospace vehicles. The effect of the atmosphere as an insulator and conductor of high voltage electricity, at various atmospheric pressures, must also be considered. The vehicle can be protected as follows: (1) By insuring that all metallic sections are connected by electrical bonding so that the current flow from a lightning stroke is conducted over the skin without any gaps where sparking would occur or current would be carried inside; (2) by protecting buildings and other structures on the ground with a system of lightning rods and wires over the outside to carry the lightning stroke into the ground; (3) by providing a zone of protection for launch complexes; (4) by providing protection devices in critical circuits; (5) by using systems which have no single failure mode; and (6) by appropriate shielding of units sensitive to electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I and C equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byman, Karin; Groenkvist, Stefan; Egerbo, Anders; Nilsson, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    In this survey, licensing procedures for the implementation of different kinds of components and systems in nuclear power plants have been studied in four European countries: Belgium (Finland), Germany, and Switzerland. The main focus has been to describe the general features of the licensing procedures for electrical and for instrumentation and control (IandC) equipment and systems. The regulatory framework for the operation of nuclear power plants in Belgium is based on the American regulations. The licensing procedure for each modification of significance for the safety of a plant is carried out by the authorised inspection organisation (AVN), which follows its own procedures for the review of the modification file, the commissioning, and conformity check of the installation. These procedures are very general and independent of the technical domain of the equipment or system and AVN uses the US regulations standard review plan (SRP) as a reference for technical reviews. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) is responsible for the surveillance of all nuclear activities in Belgium, but the private non-profit authorised inspection organisation (AVN) does perform inspections and other regulatory tasks delegated by FANC. Controls of electrical components and systems with regard to the general Belgian electrical regulations are performed by accredited inspection organisations. The regulatory framework for the safety of nuclear activities in Finland is domestic and detailed safety requirements are provided by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). They cover specific requirements for the licensing procedure for electrical and IandC equipment. In Finland, there are no general differences in the licensing procedure for electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical equipment and the licensing procedure is basically the same for all types of systems, structures and equipment. STUK has the responsibility for the regulatory control in Finland and may seek

  1. 24 CFR 3280.804 - Disconnecting means and branch-circuit protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-2005, National Electrical Code, concerning identification of each disconnecting means and each service... multiple receptacle shall be acceptable when connected to a 20-ampere laundry circuit. (i) When circuit... the blank space. (k) When a home is provided with installed service equipment, a single disconnecting...

  2. Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Requirements for High-Voltage Overhead Line Work at 69 KV (Nominal) or Less

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammond, Daryl

    2006-01-01

    ... after work is complete, and in those rare occasions when the authority in Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1064, Electrical Safe Practices, authorizes work on energized electrical equipment or lines.

  3. Development of 3 D Electric Field Analysis Program under Power System Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, S. H.; Lee, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Ha, T. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Recently, as the effects of electric fields on animals, human beings and sensitive equipment have been reported, the study on electric fields has become more important. Transmission lines and substation among power facilities are dominant parts related to electrical environment. Electric field analysis of transmission line has been made using image charge method or CSM since 1970`s, however electric field analysis in substation has been rarely studied due to the complexity of three dimensional evaluation of an electric field in substation. For the rather complicated and time-consuming three-dimensional electric field calculation in the vicinity of transmission lines and substations, this study proposes an effective numerical calculation method based on Charge Simulation Method(CSM). In order to represent non-uniform charge distribution on an electrode better, it is subdivided into small segments with linear charge density. Each segment with linear charge density can be easily represented by a generalized finite line type of charge whose expressions for potential and electric field were analytically derived and which was named {sup f}inite slant line charge in this study. As for the arrangement of small segments of a subdivided electrode, it has been found that unequally spaced arrangement method is superior to equally spaced one. In order to arrange segments fast and effectively, effective formulas were derived from multiple regression analysis of many simulations. The proposed method is applied to the electric field calculation around the transmission lines with significant change in direction and substation busbars. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  4. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  5. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  6. Electric personnel carrier introduced : RES Equipment Sales spearheads development of electric underground vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollinsky, N.

    2010-01-01

    RES Equipment Sales of Dryden, Ontario is leading the development of a battery-powered personnel utility vehicle for underground mining applications. Among the advantages of the battery-powered personnel carrier are quietness of the carrier and zero emissions, which eliminates particulates from diesel engines and reduces the need for ventilation. This article discussed the design and building of the vehicle. It was designed to accommodate up to 3 battery packs, depending on the frequency of use. Swapping batteries takes between 2 or 3 minutes. Spent batteries must be plugged in for 6 hours and rest for another 6 to 8 hours before being ready for service. The vehicle accommodates 2 or 3 people and travels at speeds of 6 to 8 miles per hour. This article also provided background information on RES Equipment Sales. The company remanufactures underground mining equipment, including load-haul-dump machines, jumbos, haul trucks and utility vehicles. In addition, the company sells and services new equipment, including Oldenburg Cannon jumbos, scalers and utility vehicles, as well as Canun International pneumatic rock drills and NPK rock breakers. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  7. 47 CFR 2.924 - Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Authorizations § 2.924 Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. 2.924 Section 2.924...

  8. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  9. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  10. Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavreul, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants has been studied in (Electricite de France) EDF for several years. The objective of such studies is to predict the polymers lifetime in normal and accidental conditions. The prediction of polymers behaviour in normal conditions requires accelerated tests in order to get rapidly experimental results. Experimental conditions must carefully be chosen and representative of real ageing. Accelerated ageing is usually done by applying higher temperature, (dose) or dose rate. When such experiments are done, the effects of temperature, (dose) or dose rate are first determined. In a second step, experimental results are extrapolated to real conditions. To predict lifetime of polymers, the following recommendations have to be checked: in order to assume that accelerated tests are representative of normal ageing, the observed mechanisms in experiments must be the same as those in real conditions. For accidental conditions, the same tests as those described in standards can be applied to polymers. The simulation of any accident occurring just after the installation of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants is easy to manage: only the accidental test can be carried out on the electrical equipment. To determine whether polymers in electrical equipment would have a good behaviour or not when an accident would occur after a period of several years or decades in normal conditions in a nuclear power plant, the accidental test must be done on aged materials; their physical, mechanical and electrical characteristics must be relevant to aged polymers in normal conditions. In order to detect any evolution of properties during ageing, the electrical, mechanical or chemical tests have to be proceeded on polymers samples. The characterisation tests which are applied on non-aged and aged samples depend on the nature of the polymers, their application in electrical equipment and their environment. The IEC 544

  11. Use of remote video auditing to validate Ebola level II personal protective equipment competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Peter J; Frank-Cooper, Madalyn

    2015-06-01

    Faced with an Ebola-related mandate to regularly train frontline hospital staff with the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment, a community hospital's emergency department implemented remote video auditing (RVA) to assist in the training and remediation of its nursing staff. RVA was found to be useful in assessing performance and facilitating remediation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. 56.12005 Section 56.12005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL...

  13. 30 CFR 77.403-1 - Mobile equipment; rollover protective structures (ROPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; rollover protective structures (ROPS). 77.403-1 Section 77.403-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. 57.12005 Section 57.12005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  15. 30 CFR 77.403 - Mobile equipment; falling object protective structures (FOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; falling object protective structures (FOPS). 77.403 Section 77.403 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1703 - Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continuous communication with the workers (visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio, or other suitable... characteristics of the equipment are capable of providing the proposed degree of protection under anticipated... communication failure, significant deterioration of operating conditions, or any other conditions that might...

  17. 76 FR 435 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE) Part Number 119003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE) Part Number 119003-11 Installed on... February 9, 2011. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact B/E Aerospace, Inc... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Fairback, Aerospace...

  18. Evaluation of X-Ray Protective Measurements in Intraoral Radiography Equipped Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Goodarzi Pour

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A few decades have past from using radiographic technology as an accurate paraclinical method and always protective measurements is applicated against ionizing radiation. As dentalradiography is a routine procedure in dentistry the importance of protective strategies is clear.Propose: The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the protection principles in centers which haveintraoral radiographic devices in Yazd.Material and Methods: We have considered all three aspects of practitioner, environment and patientprotection using questionnaire and visiting those centers.Results: 33/7% of dental offices ,10 clinics ,3 institution and faculty of dentistry had intraoral radiographicequipments. Stablishment of protection principles for radiographer was favorable. 7.7% of centers had x-ray room with leaded walls, 23.1% had curtain , in 69/2% of centers radiographers stood in correct position anddistance while taking radiograph. Regarding to protection of environment, beams leakage control in 23.1% dental offices, 70% of clinics, all institution and faculty of dentistry have done.Conclusion: Non of the centers used rectangular localizator, thyroid shield, film holder and just some centers used leaded apron in specific circumstances. We have concluded that patient protection constitute less consideration. Generally lack of protective consideration is related to deficient knowledge of operators. Lackof information about protection equipments causes decrease of demanding of these tools and ultimately lack of these equipments in the market.

  19. Impact Analysis of Electrical Current Characteristics in Relay Function for Electrical and Electronic Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawadi Hasim

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to study effect of electrical current on relay reaction, which has coil and switch inside the relay. An analysis on the electrical current will be conducted to determine current limitation for relay activation purpose. The result of analysis showing that current characteristic of relay and applied load will present their affect to the relay function performance. Finding from this result will bring the idea to develop a suitable design circuit for electrical and electronic protection. (author)

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  2. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  3. Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J

    2013-08-02

    We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.

  4. Multiagent based protection and control in decentralized electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Veloso, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Electric power systems are going through a major change both in their physical and control structure. A large num- ber of small and geographically dispersed power generation units (e.g., wind turbines, solar cells, plug-in electric cars) are replacing big centralized power plants. This shift has...... created interesting possibilities for application of intelligent systems such as multiagent systems for control and automation in electric power systems. This paper describes work on designing a multiagent system for protection and control of electric power distribution networks.It demonstrates how...... explicit modeling of capabilities, states, roles and role transition in agents can capture the control and automation in electric power systems. We present illustrative results from using our proposed schema in realistic simulations....

  5. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  6. Uninterruptible power supply model of independent voltage inverter of NPP electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, V.V.; Ajdaralieva, V.Eh.

    2010-01-01

    A package of main transforming units models of advanced uninterruptible power supply systems of NPP electrical equipment was developed. The package of models allows investigating the basic modes of uninterruptible power supply systems operation by computer modeling. Simulation results were presented. Recommendations on choice of parameters of power circuit elements as well as on diagnostics and adjustment of regulators of converters control systems were given [ru

  7. Annual report of the group for maintenance of electrical equipment; Godisnji izvestaj elektro grupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, M [Odelenje odrzavanja, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-12-15

    This report includes detailed description of repairs and revisions of the electrical equipment of the RA reactor which were done according to the annual plan during the periods when reactor was not operated. Unplanned repairs are part of this report as well. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis remontnih i revizionih radova na elektroopremi reaktora RA izvrsenih prema godisnjem planu u periodima kada reaktor nije radio. Vanplanski poslovi ukljucujuci popravke elektroopreme su takodje deo ovog izvestaja.

  8. Kennedy Space Center: Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan

    2010-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is NASA's spaceport, launching rockets into space and leading important human spaceflight research. This spring semester, I worked at KSC on Constellation Program electrical ground support equipment through NASA's Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP). This report includes a discussion of NASA, KSC, and my individual research project. An analysis of Penn State's preparation of me for an internship and my overall impressions of the Penn State and NASA internship experience conclude the report.

  9. Japan, the European Union, and Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment Recycling: Key Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how Japan and the EU manage the recycling of consumer appliances and PCs/cellular phones through a review of their current collection and treatment systems for WEEE (waste electronic and electrical equipment), and on the basis of its findings offers recommendations for the improvement of these systems. We hope thereby to provide information that will be helpful for the better management of WEEE in developed countries as well as in our own. On the basis of our findings, ...

  10. On reliability and maintenance modelling of ageing equipment in electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, Tommie

    2008-04-01

    Maintenance optimisation is essential to achieve cost-efficiency, availability and reliability of supply in electric power systems. The process of maintenance optimisation requires information about the costs of preventive and corrective maintenance, as well as the costs of failures borne by both electricity suppliers and customers. To calculate expected costs, information is needed about equipment reliability characteristics and the way in which maintenance affects equipment reliability. The aim of this Ph.D. work has been to develop equipment reliability models taking the effect of maintenance into account. The research has focussed on the interrelated areas of condition estimation, reliability modelling and maintenance modelling, which have been investigated in a number of case studies. In the area of condition estimation two methods to quantitatively estimate the condition of disconnector contacts have been developed, which utilise results from infrared thermography inspections and contact resistance measurements. The accuracy of these methods were investigated in two case studies. Reliability models have been developed and implemented for SF6 circuit-breakers, disconnector contacts and XLPE cables in three separate case studies. These models were formulated using both empirical and physical modelling approaches. To improve confidence in such models a Bayesian statistical method incorporating information from the equipment design process was also developed. This method was illustrated in a case study of SF6 circuit-breaker operating rods. Methods for quantifying the effect of maintenance on equipment condition and reliability have been investigated in case studies on disconnector contacts and SF6 circuit-breakers. The input required by these methods are condition measurements and historical failure and maintenance data, respectively. This research has demonstrated that the effect of maintenance on power system equipment may be quantified using available data

  11. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  12. Design and Construction of Equipment for Applying the Geophysical Prospecting Method Electric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Héctor Giraldo Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlines the procedure for the design and construction of electric equipment for geophysical prospecting through electrical tomography method. The team is of average power, ensuring exploration depths quite suitable for applications and commercial and geotechnical studies. The device is essentially a DC voltage source of 500 volts that is able to provide a maximum current of 1 amp. It also contains a small charge current source of electrical currents counteract naturally found in the subsoil and are manifested as a difference in the surface potential. A general explanation of the geophysical method in question, helps to understand the basic principles of operation of the equipment and functions to be fulfilled. After building the team, we conducted a field data acquisition, in area near the town of Gachancipa Cundinamarca. The data from this equipment are processed with specialized software. The images obtained with the software presents the distributions of subsurface resistivity can be associated with the possible structures and geology of the study area.

  13. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  14. Determination of the electrical characteristics of protective coatings and deposits on metals in media with low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, V.I.; Koroleva, E.V.; Fedorova, A.N.; Sereda, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical analysis and experimental determination of the electrical and associated protective characteristics of poorly conducting layers on metals, modeling both oxide and hydroxide deposits on the inner surfaces of the equipment as well as films of protective coatings. The analysis is performed using the linear low-frequency ac current (10 -3 -10 -6 Hz) method, which is based on the determination of the impedance Z, the admittance Y = 1/Z, the complex capacitance C = Y/j omega, where omega is the circular frequency of the alternating current, the complex dielectric constant epsilon, the tangent of the dielectric-loss angle tan δ and other quantities associated with them

  15. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric shock protection tests. 1204.4 Section 1204.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... the cable shall be between 28 and 29 feet (8.5 to 8.8 meters) above a horizontal plane through the...

  16. Report on assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant (AEA), FY2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, T.

    2012-11-01

    Electrical components with safety function used in nuclear power plants, such as cables, medium voltage motors, low voltage motors, electrical penetration of reactor containment vessel, motor operated valve, pressure transmitter, temperature detector, etc, are required to be operational under the environment of design basis event (DBE) to shut down a reactor safely and to prevent radioactive materials from being leaked to outside. Polymer materials used as parts of these equipments are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation. In addition, the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the DBE environment and a decrease in performance of the equipment may be caused. From these reason, electrical components with safety function are tested for long-term integrity in accordance with IEEE standard. However, conventional method of accelerated aging which assumes thermal and radiation aging during normal operation is said to have uncertainty in simulating the degradation given in actual operating environment. To address this issue, the project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) was carried out and 'Guide for Cable Environmental Qualification Test for Nuclear Power Plant' was developed. The need for developing an aging evaluation method for other electrical and I and C components was pointed out in the 'Strategy maps 2007', prepared by the cooperation among government, industry and academia. Under the circumstance, the project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008. In this study, parts of electrical and I and C component with safety function used in nuclear power plant whose aging needs to be considered are employed as specimens, and their aging characteristics under the thermal environment and the combined radiation and thermal environment are obtained (herein after referred to as 'critical part test

  17. Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I and C equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byman, Karin; Groenkvist, Stefan; Egerbo, Anders; Nilsson, Thomas (AaF Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    In this survey, licensing procedures for the implementation of different kinds of components and systems in nuclear power plants have been studied in four European countries: Belgium (Finland), Germany, and Switzerland. The main focus has been to describe the general features of the licensing procedures for electrical and for instrumentation and control (IandC) equipment and systems. The regulatory framework for the operation of nuclear power plants in Belgium is based on the American regulations. The licensing procedure for each modification of significance for the safety of a plant is carried out by the authorised inspection organisation (AVN), which follows its own procedures for the review of the modification file, the commissioning, and conformity check of the installation. These procedures are general and independent of the technical domain of the equipment or system and AVN uses the US regulations standard review plan (SRP) as a reference for technical reviews. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) is responsible for the surveillance of all nuclear activities in Belgium, but the private non-profit authorised inspection organisation (AVN) does perform inspections and other regulatory tasks delegated by FANC. Controls of electrical components and systems with regard to the general Belgian electrical regulations are performed by accredited inspection organisations. The regulatory framework for the safety of nuclear activities in Finland is domestic and detailed safety requirements are provided by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). They cover specific requirements for the licensing procedure for electrical and IandC equipment. In Finland, there are no general differences in the licensing procedure for electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical equipment and the licensing procedure is basically the same for all types of systems, structures and equipment. STUK has the responsibility for the regulatory control in Finland and may seek

  18. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION, AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR

  19. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. ► We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. ► We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. ► WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. ► Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the “boom” in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  1. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 3. Recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and criteria. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 3 presents recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and procedural clarification/modification. The fifth category identifies issues where adequate information does not exist to allow a recommendation to be made

  2. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 4. Use of fragility in seismic design of nuclear plant equipment. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which have covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 4 presents study of the use of fragility concepts in the design of nuclear plant equipment and compares the results of state-of-the-art proof testing with fragility testing

  3. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protection Coordination in Electrical Substation Part-2 Unit Protections (Differential and Distance Protection)

    OpenAIRE

    TÜR, Mehmet Rida; Shobole, Abdulfetah; Baysal, Mustafa; Wadi, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Power systemsmust be protected against faults to ensure quality and reliable generation,transmission and distribution of power systems. Power system protection is providedby the protection relays. This paper is the second part of the ProtectionCoordination study for the Siddik Kardesler Substation. The protection fortransmission lines, transformer, bus bars and customer feeders is provided byovercurrent protection, differential and distance protection schemes. In thispaper, issues related wit...

  5. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The article shows WEEE plastics characterization from a recycling unit in Portugal. ► The recycling unit has low machinery, with hand sorting of plastics elements. ► Most common polymers are PS, ABS, PC/ABS, HIPS and PP. ► Most plastics found have no identification of plastic type or flame retardants. ► Ecodesign is still not practiced for EEE, with repercussions in end of life stage. - Abstract: This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

  6. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Wind Turbines Equipped with Doubly-fed Induction Generators on Distance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world. The problems of integrating wind farms are caused by changes of wind speed during a day. Moreover, the behaviors of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators differ fundamentally from synchronous generators. Therefore, more considerations are needed to analyze the performances of the distance protection relays. The protection of a wind farm with distance relay is inspected. By changing the conditions of the wind farm, the characteristics of the distance relay are studied.

  8. How to verify lightning protection efficiency for electrical systems? Testing procedures and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkl, Josef; Zahlmann, Peter [DEHN and SOEHNE, Neumarkt (Germany)], Emails: Josef.Birkl@technik.dehn.de, Peter.Zahlmann@technik.dehn.de

    2007-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of applications, installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), through which partial lightning currents flow, and highly sensitive, electronic devices to be protected closely next to each other due to the design of electric distribution systems and switchgear installations which is getting more and more compact. In these cases, the protective function of the SPDs has to be co-ordinated with the individual immunity of the equipment against energetic, conductive impulse voltages and impulse currents. In order to verify the immunity against partial lightning currents of the complete system laboratory tests on a system level are a suitable approach. The proposed test schemes for complete systems have been successfully performed on various applications. Examples will be presented. (author)

  9. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  10. Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Neves,Heliny Carneiro Cunha; Souza,Adenícia Custódia Silva e; Medeiros,Marcelo; Munari,Denize Bouttelet; Ribeiro,Luana Cássia Miranda; Tipple,Anaclara Ferreira Veiga

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in a teaching hospital with 15 nursing professionals. Attempted to analyze the reasons, attitudes and beliefs of nursing staff regarding adherence to personal protective equipment. Data were collected through focus groups, analyzed by the method of interpretation of meanings, considering Rosenstock’s model of health beliefs as a reference framework. Data revealed two themes: Occupational safety and Interpersonal Relationship. We identified several barriers that i...

  11. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  12. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  13. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vieira Claudio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. Method: exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. Results: there were 17 (34% cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0% surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%. The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761 was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. Conclusion: electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment.

  15. Fire extinguishing of electrical equipment under voltage at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Fire extinguishing on equipment that is under voltage is always hazardous. Conventional fire fighting equipment applicable to this task includes powder and gas extinguishers, which, however, have some drawbacks. Therefore, attention has been increasingly devoted to high-pressure fire extinguishing, whose assets include better heat removal as compared to a full water flow where the majority of the water runs off without any cooling effect. This article describes the testing of some types and combinations of extinguishing techniques and their interpretation based on earth-leakage current measurement and determination of a safe distance for fire extinguishing. Methodology described in CSN IEC 60-1:1994 and CSN EN 3-7:2004 was applied. To meet the criterion, none of the tests was to exhibit an earth-leakage current higher than 0.5 mA. In the accredited laboratory test room setup, 3 extinguishing equipment arrangements proved to extinguish fire on electrical equipment under voltage at a safe distance of 1 m (or 3 m). (orig.)

  16. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Effects on the equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effect of harmonics on the power system equipment and loads, with special attention given to the circumstances in ships, is discussed. Some guidelines are given for the computation of additional harmonic losses in power cables and transformers. It is also shown, that if the system is rich in harmonics, these losses must be taken into account when sizing the equipment. The effect of harmonics on electrical machines is also discussed. The influence on induction machines is usually small. However, in large synchronous machines a significant degree of harmonic losses may be expected. Especially in the high voltage system the harmonics must be taken into account when selecting the machine ratings. Also the harmonic resonances, which may arise when using reactive power compensation capacitors, are discussed. Due to the risk of harmonic resonances, the use of capacitors is not recommended in marine power systems. Also the immunity of different load devices to harmonic distortion is discussed. The equipment considered are resistive loads, discharge lamps, universal machines and electronic equipment. Finally a brief survey is given on the standards and recommendations for the maximum distortion levels allowed. (author)

  17. Harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 standards For Environmental Qualificaiton of Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog

    2009-01-01

    IEEE323 standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC6070 has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant. The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. KEPRI has a plan of comparing EQ relative standards of IEEE, IEC and RCC in 2009. In this paper, brief comparing result between IEEE323 and IEC60780 and the proper harmonization method is introduced

  18. Corrosion of chromatic conversion coatings on Aluminium Alloys in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.Sh.; Shahrabi, T.; Mozafarnia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Chromate conversion coating is applied on aluminum 6061. The optimum conditions for chromate bath composition and immersion time are also obtained for standard requirements provision such as corrosion resistance in salt spray test, electrical resistance and coating quality. The applied coatings are electrochemically tested in sea and distilled water. According to Tafel and cyclic polarization curves, the protection mechanism are evaluated in said environments. This evaluation has shown the formation of passive film layer, contains chromate and alumina on the base. The proper behavior of corrosion and electrical conductivity is probably due to this mechanism

  19. Procedure for qualification of electric equipment installed in containments for pressurized water reactors subject to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This generic norm is usable for electrical equipment installed in containment building of PWR subject to accidental conditions. She defines the qualification methods and the general rules usable for the test specifications of qualification for these materials

  20. Method of boundary testing of the electric circuits and its application for calculating electric tolerances. [electric equipment tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkina, N. P.

    1974-01-01

    Boundary testing of electric circuits includes preliminary and limiting tests. Preliminary tests permit determination of the critical parameters causing the greatest deviation of the output parameter of the system. The boundary tests offer the possibility of determining the limits of the fitness of the system with simultaneous variation of its critical parameters.

  1. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  2. Sustainable energy conversion for electricity and coproducts principles, technologies, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Provides an introduction to energy systems going on to describe various forms of energy sources Provides a comprehensive and a fundamental approach to the study of sustainable fuel conversion for the generation of electricity and for coproducing synthetic fuels and chemicals Covers the underlying principles of physics and their application to engineering including thermodynamics of combustion and power cycles, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer Details the coproduction of fuels and chemicals including key equipment used in synthesis and specific examples of coproduction in integrated

  3. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  4. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, K. V.; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  5. Digital protection in power plants. Electrical unit and line protection. Digital protection systems for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the digital protection systems for nuclear power plants. The evolution of protection devices, protection concept for power plants, concept of functional redundancy, references for digital protection, benefits for the customer well as concept fault recorder are presented. (author)

  6. Development and demonstration of atmospheric electricity hazards protection

    OpenAIRE

    Beavin , R.C.; Lippert , J.R.; La Voie , J.E.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Development Program (ADP) to develop and demonstrate effective Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Protection (AEHP) for the fighter, transport/bomber, helicopter and cruise missile classes of air vehicles is being conducted under an Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) contract with Boeing Military Airplane Company (BMAC). Other Government agencies are also supporting the ADP. The parameters characterizing the lightning threat have been defined for moderate and severe f...

  7. Protecting consumer interests in Alberta's deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains why the province of Alberta decided to deregulate its electricity sector. In the early 1990s, electricity rates were reasonable in Alberta, there was no utility debt, and electricity costs were low. In 1994 California's open access transmission system suggested that open markets would result in lower electricity rates and attract new economic activity. The government of Alberta also believed that competitive markets would set prices with no need for economic regulation. In the initial transition to competition, regulated electricity rates were offered to customers who were not ready to switch to the new competitive market. The RRO rate was set by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The rates included the forecasted cost of purchasing energy from markets, cost of system access, and retail service costs. The end of the RRO rate was scheduled for 2005 when the market was expected be well developed. This paper also describes other protection mechanisms for consumers. Alberta's new electricity policy (NEP) eliminates generator participant costs related to transmission. EUB's zonal interconnection charges are also overruled along with the EUB-approved 50/50 division of transmission costs. Under the NEP, the ISO is to build transmission in anticipation of new generation. Consumers will fund the total cost to build new transmission capacity for exports and imports. This new transmission policy is a complete change from the original government policy which allocated some transmission costs to generators. The sudden change in policy was due to pressure from oil sands producers and oil sands co-generation developers. The claimed benefit to Albertans is a 25 per cent reduction in pool price and greater system reliability. However, the author cautioned that government interference with competitive electricity markets will cripple the electric power industry in the foreseeable future because it interferes with market prices

  8. Greening public power : protecting the public interest in electricity restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.

    2002-01-01

    On April 30, 2002, the Toronto Environmental Alliance (TEA) called for a moratorium on the sale of Ontario's electricity system and called for new policies to protect the environment. The TEA is critical of the government's plan to privatise and deregulate the province's electricity system, given the experience with restructuring in the United States and Europe. The TEA argues that the plan to deregulate will promote the production of more electricity from polluting coal-fired power plants and nuclear power generating stations, increasing health risks. It was also argued that restructuring creates barriers to introducing green power from renewable resources such as wind and solar energy. The government's plan to restructure will create markets that are easily manipulated by large private power companies to increase profits and eliminate small green power providers. It was also suggested that once electric power generation is privatised, it will be subjected to the rules of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which prioritize profits over environmental protection. This report presents some environmental policies of other jurisdictions that have proven to save consumers money, provide security and jobs, while doing so in an environmentally sustainable manner. 29 refs

  9. Main unit electrical protection at Sizewell 'B' power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.; Keates, T.

    1992-01-01

    For any power station, reliable electrical protection of the main generating units (generators plus generator transformers) has important commercial implications. Spurious trips cause loss of generation and consequent loss of revenue, while failure to rapidly isolate a fault leads to unnecessary damage and again, loss of generation and revenue. While these conditions apply equally to Sizewell B there are additional factors to be taken into consideration. A spurious trip of a main generating unit may lead to a trip of the reactor with an associated challenge to the shutdown and core cooling plant. The generator transformers, besides exporting power from the generators to the 400 kV National Grid, also import power from the Grid to the 11 kV Main Electrical System, which in turn is the preferred source of supply to the Essential Electrical System. The Main Unit Protection is designed to clear generator faults leaving this off-site power route intact. Hence failure to operate correctly could affect the integrity of the Essential Electrical Supplies. (Author)

  10. Assessment of the Induced Electric Fields in a Carbon-Fiber Electrical Vehicle Equipped with a Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio De Santis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electric field induced inside two realistic anatomical models placed near or inside an electric vehicle made of carbon-fiber composite while charging its battery with a wireless power transfer (WPT system has been investigated. The WPT source consists of two parallel inductive coils operating with a power output of 7.7 kW at two different frequencies of 85 and 150 kHz. Since a misalignment between the primary and the secondary coil creates higher induced fields, a misalignment of 20 cm is also considered as the worst-case exposure condition. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP basic restrictions are exceeded by 1.3 dB and 4.8 dB for the aligned and misaligned coil positions, respectively. This exceedance is however confined only in a small area of the driver’s foot.

  11. Touch Temperature Coating for Off-the-Shelf Electrical Equipment Used on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Brady, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Off-the-shelf electrical equipment is frequently used in space-based applications to control costs. However, the reduced heat transfer in the spacecraft microgravity environment causes the equipment to operate at significantly higher temperatures than it would in terrestrial applications. This creates touch temperature issues where items particularly metallic ones become too hot for the crew to handle safely. A touch temperature coating layup has been developed that can be added to spacebased electrically powered hardware. The coating allows the crew to safely handle the hardware, but only slightly impedes the heat transfer from the component during normal operation. In the present work, the coating generic requirements are developed and a layup is described that meets these specifications. Analytical and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the coating layup to increase the allowable limits of touch temperature while only marginally degrading heat transfer to the environment. This allows the spacecraft crew to handle objects that, if not coated, would be hot enough to cause pain or skin damage.

  12. Electric equipment for Koto Refuse Incineration Plant; Tokyoto Koto seiso kojo muke denki setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation, intending to enter into refuse disposal business, delivered electric equipment to a Koto Refuse Incineration Plant, Koto Ward, Tokyo, and the facilities came into operation in October, 1998. The plant is the largest in Japan in terms of refuse processing capacity (1800t/day), and efforts are exerted to harmonize the plant with the surroundings, which involve pollution measures and a building that images a cruising yacht. The power receiving facility consists of a 66kV nominal two-circuit gas insulated switch and gas insulated transformer arranged in a space saving design. Heat from refuse incineration is fed to a steam turbine generator (yielding 50MW, the largest in Japan, with the surplus offered for sale after 15MW fed to loads in the site) and to neighboring facilities. For the suppression of fluctuations in voltage at the power receiving point, reactive power is subjected to control which is done by controlling the generator magnetic field system. An 11kV distribution system is provided to match the steam turbine generator voltage, and the voltage is stepped down to 6.6kV with the intermediary of a 23MVA gas insulated transformer. The power is fed to high voltage motors such as the one used for the induced draft fan, electric equipment in the buildings, power facilities in the plant, etc. A power monitoring board is provided in the central control room for general supervision over the power related facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  14. Heavy metals in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weihua; Bai, Jianfeng; Yao, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, JingWei

    2017-11-01

    For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium. It also demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals were increased over time. Exceptionally, the average value of the metalloid (arsenic) was 73.31 mg kg -1 in 2014, while it was 58.31 mg kg -1 in the first half of 2015, and it was 2.93 times and 2.33 times higher than that of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil in 2014 and the first half of 2015, respectively. The sequences of the contamination degree of heavy metals in 2014 and the first half of 2015 were cadmium > lead > copper > chromium > zinc and cadmium > lead > chromium > zinc > copper. From the analysis of the potential ecological risk index method, arsenic and cadmium had higher ecological risk than other heavy metals. The integrated ecological risk index of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium) and metalloid (arsenic) was 394.10 in 2014, while it was 656.16 in the first half of 2015, thus documenting a strong ecological risk.

  15. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  16. Oil leakage detection for electric power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jian-hui; Xu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Lan-tao

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method to detect the oil leakage of high voltage power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect. The method exploits the principle that the insulating oil has the fluorescent effect under the irradiation of specific ultraviolet light. The emission spectrum of insulating oil under excitation light with different wavelengths is measured and analyzed first. On this basis, a portable oil leakage detective device for high voltage power equipment is designed and developed with a selected 365 nm ultraviolet as the excitation light and the low light level camera as the fluorescence image collector. Then, the feasibility of the proposed method and device in different conditions is experimentally verified in the laboratory environment. Finally, the developed oil leakage detective device is applied to 500 kV Xiamen substation and Quanzhou substation. And the results show that the device can detect the oil leakage of high voltage electrical equipment quickly and conveniently even under the condition of a slight oil leakage especially in the low light environment.

  17. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field...

  18. Energy paradox and political intervention: A stochastic model for the case of electrical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jridi, Omar; Jridi, Maher; Barguaoui, Saoussen Aguir; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model that explains the delay of decisions to adopt profitable energy-saving investments. This problem is known as the energy paradox. The model rationalizes the profitability requirements raised by the irreversibility, the uncertainty and the decrease of costs as a result of learning by doing. In this context, the wait gives investors more visibility and more lower investment costs, which gives them an option value. The representative agent has an interest to postpone its energy saving decision until future benefits increase and equalize its required option value. Formally, we internalize these explanatory factors in a stochastic model where the updated energy saving benefits follows a geometric Brownian motion. To affirm the capacity of the model, we generate simulation results for two equipments for electrical uses. Beyond that, we extend the model to simulate the effects of energy policy instruments to promote adoption of such equipments. Simulations prove that the taxation of energy prices is likely to be more effective than the subsidy for energy-saving equipments. It is also found that the combination of these instruments amplifies the adoption of energy-saving equipments and generates very favorable economic and environmental externalities. - Highlights: •We develop a stochastic model that explains and solves the energy paradox. •Agent postpones the energy-saving investments to maximize its option value. •Option value is fueled by uncertainty, irreversibility and learning by doing. •Subsidies of these investments are less effective than energy taxation. •Mixed instrument policy solves this paradox and generates favorable externalities.

  19. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  20. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... performing job duties. The training requirements of the Standard inform workers of the safety hazards of... this method, you must submit a copy of your comments and attachments to the OSHA Docket Office, Docket... Distribution Standard (Sec. 1910.269) Training Certification (Sec. 1910.269(a)(2)(vii)) This provision requires...

  1. RCC-E: Design and construction rules for electrical equipment of PWR nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    RCC-E describes the rules for designing, building and installing electrical and I and C systems and equipment for pressurized water reactors. The code was drafted in partnership with industry, engineering firms, manufacturers, building control firms and operators, and represents a collection of best practices in accordance with IAEA requirements and IEC standards. The code's scope covers: architecture and the associated systems, materials engineering and the qualification procedure for normal and accidental environmental conditions, facility engineering and management of common cause failures (electrical and I and C) and electromagnetic interference, testing and inspecting electrical characteristics, quality assurance requirements supplementing ISO 9001 and activity monitoring. Use: RCC-E has been used to build the following power plants: France's last 12 nuclear units (1,300 MWe (8) and 1,450 MWe (4)), 2 M310 reactors in Korea (2), 44 M310 (4), CPR-1000 (28), CPR-600 (6), HPR-1000 (4) and EPR (2) reactors in service or undergoing construction in China, 1 EPR reactor in France. RCC-E is used for maintenance operations in French power plants (58 units) and Chinese M310 and CPR-1000 power plants. RCC-E has been chosen for the construction of the EPR plants in Hinkley Point, UK. Contents of the 2016 edition of the RCC-E code: Volume 1 - General requirements and quality assurance; Volume 2 - Specification of requirements; Volume 3 - I and C systems; Volume 4 - Electrical systems; Volume 5 - Materials engineering; Volume 6 - Installation of electrical and I and C systems; Volume 7 - Inspection and test methods

  2. Determining the Residual Lifetime of Qualified Electrical and I and C Equipment in Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoslavov, Biser

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper clarifies the environmental qualification and residual lifetime of installed equipment and electrical cables in operating WWER 1000 type units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP. The qualification approach is a combination of analyses and tests in consideration of some specific features of WWER equipment. As a result of the study, selected equipment is divided in 26 groups. Qualification groups include similar types of equipment with equal resistance to foreign impacts, analogous critical parts, and same methods of control and estimation of residual lifetime. Qualification protocols were made for each group. (author)

  3. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P.; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed

  4. Geophysical methods in protected environments. Electrical resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Sánchez-Aguililla, F.M.; Ramiro-Camacho, A.; Ibarra Torre, P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong interest in protecting the environment with the aim of its long term preservation. Sometimes the heritage value of these natural areas is related to their biodiversity as there are restricted ecosystems that depend directly on them. In other cases there a singular geological record might exist, essential for the understanding of certain processes affecting the planet, such as volcanic events or glacial periods. To achieve the protection and conservation of these areas it is necessary to generate knowledge about the distribution of geological materials and groundwater masses, to study the parameters that dominate the behaviour of these systems and then define those elements that require special protection or attention. In these protected environments, research methods with a minimal environmental impact should be used. Therefore, indirect methods, such as geophysical techniques, are reliable and complementary tools with a minimum environmental impact and are therefore useful for research these unique areas. The IGME has conducted several geophysical surveys in different protected environments in Spain with the aim of achieving a better understanding, and thus facilitate their preservation and exploitation in a sustainable manner. In this paper we present a review of some case studies where geophysical methods have been used. In all the cases electrical resistivity tomography has been the axis of the geophysical research and stands out due to its great effectiveness. The main objective of this communication is to divulgate and increase awareness of the important role that these geophysical methods can play in the sustainable study of these unique places. [es

  5. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  6. Localization of thermal anomalies in electrical equipment using Infrared Thermography and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib dit Leksir, Y.; Mansour, M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2018-03-01

    Analysis and processing of databases obtained from infrared thermal inspections made on electrical installations require the development of new tools to obtain more information to visual inspections. Consequently, methods based on the capture of thermal images show a great potential and are increasingly employed in this field. However, there is a need for the development of effective techniques to analyse these databases in order to extract significant information relating to the state of the infrastructures. This paper presents a technique explaining how this approach can be implemented and proposes a system that can help to detect faults in thermal images of electrical installations. The proposed method classifies and identifies the region of interest (ROI). The identification is conducted using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The aim here is to capture the faults that exist in electrical equipments during an inspection of some machines using A40 FLIR camera. After that, binarization techniques are employed to select the region of interest. Later the comparative analysis of the obtained misclassification errors using the proposed method with Fuzzy c means and Ostu, has also be addressed.

  7. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  8. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  9. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Pediatric craniomaxillofacial injuries after road traffic crashes: characteristics of injuries and protective equipment use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Siti Salmiah Mohd; Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated. Retrospective records of children treated in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, after road traffic crashes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were reviewed, and, after that, telephone interviews were made. Seventy-one children were included in this study. Fifty-two (73.6%) were involved in a motorcycle injury and 19 (23.4%) in a car crash. Their mean age was 6.02 years; SD, 3.46 (range between 0 to 13 years old). More male children were observed (52.1%) compared with females (47.9%). Thirty-nine point four percent of the children sustained CMF injuries, 33.8% body injuries, and 23.9% had both CMF and other body parts injuries. The highest injury severity score was 26, whereas the lowest was 0. Many children did not use protective equipment during traveling, 44.2% of children among motorcycle pillion riders, and 78.9% among car passengers. The association between helmet use and CMF injuries was shown to be statistically significant (P belt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  13. Efficiency of protective dermal equipment against silver nanoparticles with water aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junsu; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Younghun; Yi, Jongheop

    2011-01-01

    Protective dermal equipment (PDE) should be provided for protecting against the penetration of nanomaterials into the skin in the workplace. It is important that workers utilize appropriate PDE with characteristics to accomplish this. During the liquid-phase process, nanomaterials are released with water aerosol, which can easily affect the health of workers. The efficiency of PDE in protecting workers against silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aerosolized with water aerosol was evaluated. The rate of penetration of AgNPs with water aerosol through cleanroom wear was faster than that for a lab coat. This can be attributed to differences in the filling rate of water, as the result of differences in capillary force. Therefore, humidity appears to be a major factor in the rate of penetration of nanomaterials in the presence of water aerosol. Although no penetration was observed when disposable protective gloves were observed, the presence of AgNPs on the surface of gloves was clearly found. Based on these findings, recommendations for the safe use of PDE can now be made.

  14. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  15. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  16. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  17. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  18. EIRP Characterization of Electrically Large Wireless Equipment with Integrated Signal Generator in a Compact Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Soo Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a measurement technique to characterize the equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP of electrically large wireless equipment in a compact environment. A modified phase-measurement method was proposed and, thus, the separation of the signal generator and radiating element was not required during the measurement. A Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was used for the fast measurement time in a compact anechoic chamber. An experimental verification of the method was carried out in a compact anechoic chamber, where the source-detector separation was approximately 1/5 of the far-field distance. The measured magnitude and phase pattern exhibited only a small error. The EIRP obtained using a Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was compared with a reference value, and the error was within 0.5 dB.

  19. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  1. Main refurbishment activities on electronic and electrical equipment for the FRG-1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, K.H.; Krull, W.

    1997-01-01

    As GKSS intends to operate the research reactor FRG-1 safely and reliably for many years to come, the plant is constantly refurbished and upgraded both in the interests of safety and operational reasons. The following electronic and electrical systems have been replaced or improved since 1990: Information and signalling systems; Emergency power plant (permit applied for); External and internal lightning protection system; Reactor protection system (in part); Safety lighting; Alarm and staff locating system; Control room telephone system; Closed-circuit television system; Beam tube controls; Storage plant for radioactive liquid waste; Ambient dose rate measuring system; Meteorological measuring system; Control and measuring system for the primary cooling circuit; Control rod drives; Control rod control system; Soft start for the secondary pumps; Control and switching devices for the emergency power plant; Trailing cable installation for the reactor bridge; Main-voltage distribution systems/cable routes. (author). 13 figs, 1 tab

  2. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  4. Laws and ordinances on electric arc protection. Electric arc protection of electric plants; Gesetze und Verordnungen zur Stoerlichtbogensicherheit. Stoerlichtbogensicherheit von elektrischen Betriebsstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernards, Stefan; Buenger, Stefan; Grote, Martin [Fritz Driescher KG - Spezialfabrik fuer Elektrizitaetswerksbedarf GmbH und Co., Wegberg (Germany); Boettcher, Lutz-Michael [Ingenieurbuero Boettcher-Consult, Schulzendorf (Germany); Weck, Karl-Heinz [Forschungsgemeinschaft fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft (FGH e.V.), Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-02-28

    With the publication of the new standards IEC 62271-200/VDE 0671 part 200-2003: AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV, and IEC 62271-202/VDE 0671 part 202-2007: High voltage/low voltage prefabricated substations and their revision, the fundamentals of arc protection qualification of plants and stations were redefined with a view to personnel protection. In the case of new transformer stations, the application of these standards is state of the art. The publications and the application of the new standards for staff protection, plant protection and object protection via electric arc qualification has raised questions concerning the safety of older plants and stations, modernization, reconstruction, enhancement, maintenance, and the re-use of used stations and plants.

  5. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  6. Use of individual protection equipment and collective in case of accident during the transport of radioactive product - class 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastura, Valeria da F. e S.; Carvalho, Natanael Bruno de

    2013-01-01

    The personal protective equipment (PPE) are devices used by professionals against potential radiological hazards that may threaten the health or safety in the event of an accident or incident during the transport of radioactive material. The collective protection equipment (CPE) devices are used in place of the accident in order to protect people and the environment from risks such as safety signs, among others. This work will be part of the new edition of the NBR 9735 - Set of equipment for emergencies in land transport of dangerous goods - edited by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards ABNT - National Standardization Forum which CNEN participates in the Study Committee - CB16 namely, dangerous, accounting for Class 7 radioactive materials. The Standard 9735 establishes the minimum set of equipment for emergencies in Inland transport of dangerous goods, consisting of protective equipment to be used by the driver and staff involved (if any) in the transport operations of transport units, equipment for signaling, isolation of the area of occurrence (fault, accident and/or emergency). Thus, we will present a set of individual and collective equipment that must accompany the carriage of Class 7 products to meet the radiological accident situations and also establish a training base for the driver as the use of them. (author)

  7. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given

  8. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  9. Protective equipment of radiological protection and the worker wear; Equipamento de protecao radiologica e o desgaste do trabalhador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia, Flor Rita de; Huhn, Andrea, E-mail: flor@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lima, Gelbcke Francine, E-mail: fgelbcke@ccs.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (PEN/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Enfermagem

    2013-11-01

    This qualitative research with workers of seven hemodynamic service of Santa Catarina, Brazil aimed to analyze the use of radiological protection equipment (RPE), as well as wear to the health of workers who use these causes. The study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010, totaling approximately 30 hours of observations. Results showed resistance to the use of RPE and also showed wear to workers' health, mainly due to the weight and discomfort they cause, as may weigh 7-9 pounds, depending on the model used. Evidenced also the absence of workers due herniated disc, back pain, and other musculo skeletal problems. These complaints, in addition to being related to the use of these protective gear also related with the time that workers remain standing for long periods on certain procedures, such as angioplasty. Given these results, the research recommended the use of these devices with materials, that are already being produced, making lighter aprons, thus avoiding fatigue and back pain and also provide greater comfort by reducing workers' resistance to its use and its adverse consequences.

  10. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  11. Advances in the simulation of personal protective equipment for the mitigation of exposure to radioactive particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeterink, M.J.; Kelly, D.G.; Dickson, E.F.G; Corcoran, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulates represent a significant potential hazard to first responders in nuclear related incidents. Personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular radio-opaque fabrics, can be used to reduce wearer exposure to the emitted radiation, but do not offer complete protection. The objective of this project is to create a realistic dosimetric model of the human arm, protected by a sleeve, which can eventually be developed into a tool to assess the full-body dose imparted to the wearer in the event of radiological particulate exposure. A two-fold approach will be employed whereby: (1) a particulate transport model will be used to determine the regional radioactive particulate concentrations; and (2) these concentration data will then be incorporated into a dosimetric model that will use the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code to determine the dose imparted to the tissue. Benchmarking experiments will be carried out to validate the results generated by the computer models. Such experimentation will be conducted for both the particulate transport and dosimetric models. Model advancement aims to consider whole body dose and will be invaluable in the development of future radiation exposure policies and procedures. (author)

  12. Equipment performance and radiation protection status in X-ray fluoroscopy units in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N. A.; Nayl, A. I.; Suliman, I. I.

    2012-01-01

    The number of fluoroscopy and fluoroscopically guided procedures has been substantially growing in developing countries at the same time advanced and sophisticated equipment are used in some hospitals. However, radiation protection requirements are not necessarily well adopted. In this study nine fluoroscopy X-ray units in Sudan were examined for compliance with international standards. The tests included: beam quality, entrance surface air kerma, image quality and radiation field measurements. Staff radiation protection tools such as lead aprons and eye glasses were also visually examined to find out whether international recommendations were fulfilled and to determine the level of staff awareness. The measured peak tube voltage deviation exceeded the recommended tolerance level in 30 % of the measurements. The results of patient doses measurements exceeded the recommended reference dose levels in 43 % of the measurements; however image quality and radiation field generally fulfilled the requirements for most units. The study revealed that a considerable number of fluoroscopy units were not performing according to the international standards and highlights the need of optimisation of radiation protection. (authors)

  13. Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2016-08-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) from infection by highly virulent pathogens via exposure to body fluids and respiratory droplets. Given the recent outbreaks of contagious infectious diseases worldwide, including Ebola virus and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, there is urgent need for further research to determine optimal PPE use in high-risk settings. This review intends to provide a general understanding of PPE and to provide guidelines for appropriate use based on current evidence. Although previous studies have focused on the efficacy of PPE in preventing transmission of pathogens, recent studies have examined the dangers to HCWs during removal of PPE when risk of contamination is highest. Access to adequate PPE supplies is crucial to preventing transmission of pathogens, especially in resource-limited settings. Adherence to appropriate PPE use is a challenge due to inadequate education on its usage, technical difficulties, and tolerability of PPE in the workplace. Future projects aim at ameliorating this situation, including redesigning PPE which is crucial to improving the safety of HCWs. PPE remains the most important strategy for protecting HCW from potentially fatal pathogens. Further research into optimal PPE design and use to improve the safety of HCWs is urgently needed.

  14. Radiation protection and the safe use of X-ray equipment: Laws, regulations and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrus Herbst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, South Africa’s regulatory framework for electromagnetic medical devices has come under considerable pressure. In this article the legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure are scrutinized, by looking at how the legislature has given form to protective measures against ionizing radiation. Although the Hazardous Substances Act provides for effective protection against radiation, poor administration led to insufficient staffing levels, uncertainty about Regulations and licensing conditions and therefore undermines a sound radiation protection infrastructure. The legal basis of enforcing licensing conditions through a website without proper consultation with interested and affected parties is questionable and ineffective in controlling radiation levels. Effective and legal radiation control is possible by activating the National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products provided for in Regulation R326 published in 1979, but never implemented. The possible impact of annual quality assurance tests currently enforced through licensing conditions on the radiation dose of the population is not cost effective as new training and accreditation structures had to be created. The fact that generally more than 80% of overexposures are caused by human error is a clear indication that training of the daily users of X-ray equipment should be emphasized and not the training and accreditation of the technicians responsible for a single quality assurance test per year. Constructive engagement with the professional bodies involved in the medical use of X-rays through a National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products may be a cost effective solution for lowering radiation dose to the population.

  15. Personal Protective Equipment Supply Chain: Lessons Learned from Recent Public Health Emergency Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita; D'Alessandro, Maryann M; Ireland, Karen J; Burel, W Greg; Wencil, Elaine B; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency. Additionally, a significant proportion of the supply chain is produced off-shore and might not be available to the US market during an emergency because of export restrictions or nationalization of manufacturing facilities. Efforts to increase supplies during previous public health emergencies have been challenging. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic, the commercial supply chain of pharmaceutical and healthcare products quickly became critical response components. This article reviews lessons learned from these responses from a PPE supply chain and systems perspective and examines ways to improve PPE readiness for future responses.

  16. Application of resettable elements for electrical protection of solar batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonkoshkur A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The manifestation and formation of various defects in the process of exploitation in real photovoltaic cells and their compounds as well as their work in the regime of changing non-uniform illumination lead to the so-called series and parallel inconsistencies (differences of electrical characteristics between separate cells and their groups. This results in local overheating and intensifying of degradation processes. In some cases temporary disconnection (isolation of the corresponding elements of the solar batteries is more appropriate in order to increase their service life. In this work additional devices for insulation of overheating cells (and/or components of solar batteries such as «PolySwith» resettable fuses are proposed to be used as a perspective solution of such problems. These structures are polymer composites with nanosized carbon fillers. Electrical resistance of such a fuse increases abruptly by several orders of magnitude when certain threshold temperature is reached, and when the temperature decreases the fuse returns to its initial high-conductivity state. This study investigates the possibilities of using the specified type of fuses for electrical insulation of «overheated» photovoltaic cells. Particular attention is paid to the research of the effect of fuses on the working of the solar batteries in the operating temperature range and their functional applicability in emergency situations associated with overheating. The studies were carried out using a model structure of several series of parallel connected photovoltaic cells and specified fuses. Attention is paid to the influence of such factors as the ambient temperature and the drift of the fuses resistance in the conducting state in the process their multiple switching. It has been established that such protection elements do not influence the work of solar batteries in operating temperature range and are functionally applicable for the electrical isolation of local

  17. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  18. Meeting the latest qualification requirements for Class 1E protection system equipment: a practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daigle, R.P.; Breen, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations were significantly revised in 1974 and 1975. These new requirements reflect the desire of the industry to provide improved methods of determining the qualification of this vital equipment. The revised standards do, in fact, meet these industry goals in a generally acceptable manner. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is presently requiring utilities to comply with these revised standards and regulatory guides in order to obtain the necessary permits. Manufacturers are developing and implementing programs to comply with the new requirements. One of the more difficult new requirements of qualification is aging to achieve advanced life condition. The objectives and methods described for aging are difficult for much of the equipment within the Protection System. The use of thermal and vibrational techniques to simulate aging is valid for some components (i.e., capacitors, transistors, cable and/or motor insulation) but may be neither valid nor practical for many items (e.g., complete instrument systems, etc.). A seemingly obvious approach, although rarely followed, in regarding new or revised standards is to refrain from making any type of commitment until the standards are thoroughly understood. Often too hasty a decision is made by a utility (concerned about licensing) or a manufacturer (concerned about being competitive) to commit to new requirements. Consequently, the broad range of interpretations that usually develops for a given set of requirements may result in difficult relations between organizations. This paper deals with solutions for qualification in a practical sense, with emphasis on the aging issue and does not elaborate on seismic qualification

  19. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  20. Choice of volatile component of fluoroplastics containing varnishes for the equipment of radiation protection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigorina, I.I.; Egorov, B.N.; Timofeeva, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of choosing the volatile part (v.p.) for varnishes on the basis of different flourocopolymers are considered. Ketones, esters, freons, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons have been used as solvents. The volatile component has been estimated by the quality of the varnish film obtained (transparency, bubbles), viscosity of the varnishes, completeness of solvent volatility, porosity degree. Besides, analyzed are such factors as kinetics of solvent evaporation, working life time of varnishes, and the degree of their inflammability. Optimum solvents and their mixtures have been found for different grades of fluorolones. The possibility of producing fluorolone lackuers with a reduced degree of inflammability and of incombustible fluorolone varnishes is shown. Fluorolone varnishes find ever increasing application for radiation-protective coating of the equipment

  1. Experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for personal protection equipment - effect of used 3D printing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Václav; Votrubec, Radek; Šafka, Jiří; Kracík, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the research is experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for a personal protection equipment. The aim of the fan is to drive the contaminated air containing harmful or irritating particles through the filters and then into the mask of workers, such as a fireman, a labourer or a lab worker. The fan is measured on the test stand, the characteristics and performances are evaluated, i.e. the dependencies of the working pressure on the flow rate. The characteristics are measured for three constant speed settings. The characteristics of the wheels produced by the different 3D printing technology are compared. It is found that the production technology has only a minimal effect, the performance of the wheels is more influenced by the position of the impeller on the motor shaft and hence by the mutual position of the impeller and the diffuser.

  2. Overview of the use and radiological protection of body scanner equipment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.A.P.; Nascimento, C.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    After security incidents in recent years, there is a growing need for security at airports, ports and prisons. In the fight against terrorism, smuggling and illegal entry of material, X-rays are used for non-invasive inspection of people. Traditionally, surveillance has been done exclusively on people by metal detection techniques or by intimate search. But in today's globalized world, and given concern for international security, governments are considering introducing a new series of technologies at airports and prisons, which reveal what an individual can carry under their clothes when traveling or entering visitation in prisons. Body inspection equipment, also called body scanners or 'body scanner', which can detect metallic and non-metallic objects hidden in a person's body, such as weapons, drugs, precious stones, cell phones, etc. This work shows the types of body inspection equipment, the radiation doses involved, and the radiation protection aspects that are critical to maintaining the safety of all users

  3. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-08-01

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  4. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1988-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  5. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1990-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  6. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1987-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  7. Report of the electric equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V; Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1983-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  8. On the evolution of the regulatory guidance for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Ching Hang; Chen, Pei-Ying

    2009-01-01

    All electric and active mechanical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants must be seismically qualified by testing, analysis, or combined analysis and testing. The general requirements for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment in nuclear power plants are delineated in Appendix S, 'Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to Title 10, Part 50, 'Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,' of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50), item 52.47(20) of 10 CFR 52.47, 'Contents of Applications; Technical Information,' and Appendix A, 'Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to 10 CFR Part 100, 'Reactor Site Criteria.' The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.100, 'Seismic Qualification of Electric and Mechanical for Nuclear Power Plants' in 1988, which endorsed, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 344-1987 'IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations,' for use in seismic qualification of both electric and mechanical equipment. In 2008, the staff at the NRC drafted Revision 3 of RG 1.100 to endorse, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, the IEEE Std 344-2004 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) QME-1-2007 'Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants.' IEEE Std 344-2004 was an update of Std 344-1987 and ASME QME-1-2007 was an update of QME-1-2002. The major changes in IEEE Std 344-2004 and ASME QME-1-2007 include the update and expansion of criteria and procedures describing the use of experience data as a method for seismic qualification of Class 1E electric equipment (including I and C components) as well as active mechanical equipment. In this paper, the staff will compare the draft Revision 3 to

  9. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  10. Impact of protection settings of the distributed generation frequency under 1MW in the national electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar Chavarria, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    A literature review is conducted to understand the distributed generation, the reason for the introduction into modern power systems and other distributed generation technologies based on renewable energies that have been installed around the country. The frequency protections of distributed generation equipment under 1MW are studied according to international standards like IEEE-1547 and specifications of equipment manufacturers. The influence of the recommended international standards settings are investigated for systems of distributed generation, the performance in frequency that have presented under some frequency perturbation, as well as the influence that can have on the national and regional electrical system, with different amounts of technologies included in the national system. The recommended settings are evaluated through simulations in PSSE program in the context of the behavior of the frequency in the national electric system [es

  11. Reliability data of fire protection equipment and features in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Riekert, T.; Sehrbrock, W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to perform probabilistic fire safety analyses, a comprehensive data base is needed including physical characteristics of fire compartments and their inventory, fire occurrence frequencies, technical reliability data for all fire-related equipment, human actions and human error probabilities, etc. In order to provide updated and realistic reliability data, the operational behaviour of different fire protection features in two German nuclear power plants was analysed in the framework of the study presented here. The analyses are based on the examination of reported results of the regular inspection and maintenance programs for nuclear power plants. Besides a plant specific assessment of the reliability data a generic assessment for an application as input data for fault tree analyses in the framework of probabilistic risk studies for other German plants was carried out. The analyses of failures and unavailabilities gave the impression that most of them are single failures without relevance for the plant safety. The data gained from NPPs were compared to reliability data of the German insurance companies for the same protection features installed in non-nuclear installations and to older nuclear specific reliability data. This comparison showed up a higher reliability. (orig.) [de

  12. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  13. Specific properties of the electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system; Specificnosti elektricne opreme u primarnom djelu nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiljanic, D [Rade Koncar Institut, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-07-01

    The paper presents description of reactor coolant pump motor in the primary coolant loop. The motor is treated as a representative of all electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system that has to meet all the requirements concerning reliability, minimum maintenance, radiation, seismic etc. (author)

  14. [The study on behaviour of protective equipment utilization of workers exposed to benzene and factors based on Planned Behavior Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C D; Zhang, W M; Fu, Y K; Ma, H Y

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate and predict the behavioral intention and mode of the protective equipment utilization selection of the workers who used Benzene, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to establish the behavioral model to enhance the theoretical foundation for long-term intervention. Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the 707 workers, and all the behaviors of using protective equipment were investigated. Evaluate the relationships between each variable and obtain the influence affects by structural equation model. Results: The investigation showed that 38.47% of the total workers (272 cases) used whole body protection, 13.58% used partially, and 16.69% didn't use any body protection. There were significant difference between the varying degrees in the four dimensions (behavioral attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention) (Pbehavior control was the most important influencing factor, subjective norm, positive attitude, negative attitude were the other three respects in sequence. The path co-efficient were 0.600、0.215、0.141 and 0.046 respectively. Conclusion: The study show that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the behavioral intention and behavior of protective equipment utilization. Therefore, combining the subjective initiative of individuals with the supervision of enterprises, In order to effectively enhance the protective equipment utilization of benzene workers.

  15. VDE-specification for electrical equipment and apparatus in atmospheres endangered by explosive material. Draft. VDE-Bestimmung fuer elektrische Anlagen und deren Betriebsmittel in explosivgefaehrdeten Bereichen. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    These specifications are valid for the setting-up, changing, putting into operation and developing of electrical equipment, as well as for the application of electrical apparatus in such systems and in regions endangered by explosive materials.

  16. Software for improving the quality of project management, a case study: international manufacture of electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preradović, D. M.; Mićić, Lj S.; Barz, C.

    2017-05-01

    Production conditions in today’s world require software support at every stage of production and development of new products, for quality assurance and compliance with ISO standards. In addition to ISO standards such as usual metrics of quality, companies today are focused on other optional standards, such as CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integrated) or prescribing they own standards. However, while there is intensive progress being made in the PM (project management), there is still a significant number of projects, at the global level, that are failures. These have failed to achieve their goals, within budget or timeframe. This paper focuses on checking the role of software tools through the rate of success in projects implemented in the case of internationally manufactured electrical equipment. The results of this research show the level of contribution of the project management software used to manage and develop new products to improve PM processes and PM functions, and how selection of the software tools affects the quality of PM processes and successfully completed projects.

  17. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Ragazzi, Marco; Istrate, Irina Aura; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. ► Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. ► Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the “interest” in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  18. Highlighting the harmonic regime generated by electric locomotives equipped with DC motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Cunţan, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements made using the C.A. 8334 power quality analyzer on an electric locomotive equipped with DC motors. We carried out determinations of the current-voltage regime using a locomotive motor. The harmonic regime of the other motors being identical to the analysed one, we could easily deduce the effects caused by the entire locomotive. The data measured with the analyzer were firstly transferred into a computer system using the Qualistar software, followed by data processing in Excel, enabling therefore a graphical representation of the characteristic parameters of power quality. Based on the acquired data, we determined the power factor, as well as the active, reactive and apparent power. The measurements revealed high values of the current harmonics, fact that required some measures to be taken for reducing the values of these harmonics. For this, we ran a simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC software, by introducing LC filters in tune with the harmonic frequencies. The result was a significant reduction in the harmonic regime, either in the harmonics values or the power factor and reactive power.

  19. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  20. Development of new materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment: Characterization and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Freitas, P E; Almeida, L D; Rosmaninho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application. In this work, WEEE was thermally modified to generate materials that were extensively characterized. Raman spectrum for WEEE after thermal treatment showed two carbon associated bands. SEM images showed a metal nanoparticles distribution over a polymeric and ceramic support. After characterization, WEEE materials were applied in ethanol steam reforming reaction. The system obtained at higher temperature (800°C) exhibited the best activity, since it leads to high conversions (85%), hydrogen yield (30%) and H 2 /CO ratio (3,6) at 750°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Study and development of equipment supervision technique system and its management software for nuclear electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liying; Zou Pingguo; Zhu Chenghu; Lu Haoliang; Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The equipment supervision technique system, which standardized the behavior of supervision organizations in planning and implementing of equipment supervision, is built up based on equipment supervision technique documents, such as Quality Supervision Classifications, Special Supervision Plans and Supervision Guides. Furthermore, based on the research, the equipment supervision management information system is developed by Object Oriented Programming, which consists of supervision information, supervision technique, supervision implementation, quality statistics and analysis module. (authors)

  3. State-of-the-art assessment of requirements for attachments of WiFi equipments to electric utility facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities are receiving a growing number of requests to attach WiFi equipment to their systems. However, many utilities are not prepared to meet these requests because they have not had enough time to formally review and comment on the particular issues associated with Wi-Fi attachments. Although electric utilities are required to allow the attachments, there is no uniform standard to govern those attachments. This paper discussed the state-of-the-art philosophies and requirements of electric utilities who have allowed WiFi equipment on their systems. The advantages and limitations of each philosophy or practice were also discussed. The requirements for codes and standards in the United States and Canada for high voltage construction were also evaluated.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Caroline Vieira; Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Solci, Maria Cristina; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2017-03-02

    analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. there were 17 (34%) cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0%) surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%). The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761) was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment. analizar las concentraciones de hidrocarburos policíclicos aromáticos provenientes del humo del electrocauterio en salas quirúrgicas y el uso de equipamientos de protección individual por parte del equipo intraoperatorio, cuando expuestos a los hidrocarburos. investigación de campo, exploratoria y transversal realizada en un centro quirúrgico. En la muestra, compuesta por 50 cirugías abdominales con uso de electrocauterio, los gases fueron recolectados con una bomba de succión de vacío. Se aplicó un formulario para identificar el uso de los equipamientos de protección. Se realizó la lectura de los gases por medio de cromatografía. Los datos fueron analizados con la estadística descriptiva y el test de

  5. Household recycling behaviour and attitudes towards the disposal of small electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Lauren; Obara, Louise [ESRC Centre for BRASS, Cardiff University, 54 Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is recognised as the fastest growing waste stream in the European Union (EU), with estimates of up to 20kg per person per annum. A wide variety of WEEE is discarded by consumers, often in different ways depending on size with small items (e.g. toasters) being easier to dispose of than larger ones (e.g. washing machines). Currently, small WEEE is not treated as a priority waste stream in the UK as in order to meet targets under the WEEE Directive (CEC, 2003c) it makes more sense to focus on larger items for which collection, reuse and recycling systems already exist, but small items need to be tackled for a number of reasons, including the long term strategic development of infrastructure. In light of this, the paper will assess consumer attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE, and identify key problems raised by the implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to these small product groups. The findings from a large scale postal questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews conducted in Cardiff, Wales will be used, and key literature and research carried out to date on the disposal of WEEE, and household attitudes to waste and recycling will be assessed. It will also look at how the implementation of the WEEE Directive 'fits in' with the current transition in the UK towards more sustainable waste management practices at the household level, and then explore the most effective ways of engaging householders in the recycling of small WEEE. Key recommendations will then be outlined concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to consumer involvement and small product types.

  6. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products

  7. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  9. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  10. Factors associated with personal protection equipment use and hand hygiene among hemodialysis staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Gayle; Weber, David J; Miller, William C; Wurtzel, Heather; Alter, Miriam J

    2006-04-01

    Because exposure to blood by health care workers is frequent during hemodialysis, gloves are required for all contact with patients and their equipment, followed by hand hygiene. In this study, we investigated factors associated with performing these practices as recommended. Staff members from a sample of 45 US hemodialysis facilities were surveyed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors independently associated with reporting increased compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices during patient care were identified with multivariate modeling. Of 605 eligible staff members, 420 (69%) responded: registered nurses, 41%; dialysis technicians, 51%; and licensed practical nurses, 8%. Only 35% reported that dialysis patients were at risk for bloodborne virus infections, and only 36% reported always following recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices. Independent factors associated with more frequent compliance were being a technician (versus a registered nurse) and reporting always doing what was needed to protect themselves from infection. Compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices by hemodialysis staff was low. The rationale for infection control practices specific to the hemodialysis setting was poorly understood by all staff. Infection control training should be tailored to this setting and should address misconceptions.

  11. Is protective equipment useful in preventing concussion? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B W; Hamilton, G M; Meeuwisse, W H; McCrory, P; Dvorak, J

    2009-05-01

    To determine if there is evidence that equipment use reduces sport concussion risk and/or severity. 12 electronic databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify relevant articles. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select studies for review. Data extracted included design, study population, exposure/outcome measures and results. The quality of evidence was assessed based on epidemiologic criteria regarding internal and external validity (ie, strength of design, sample size/power calculation, selection bias, misclassification bias, control of potential confounding and effect modification). In total, 51 studies were selected for review. A comparison between studies was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of concussion, mouthguard/helmet/headgear/face shield types, measurements used to assess exposure and outcomes, and variety of sports assessed. The majority of studies were observational, with 23 analytical epidemiologic designs related to the subject area. Selection bias was a concern in the reviewed studies, as was the lack of measurement and control for potentially confounding variables. There is evidence that helmet use reduces head injury risk in skiing, snowboarding and bicycling, but the effect on concussion risk is inconclusive. No strong evidence exists for the use of mouthguards or face shields to reduce concussion risk. Evidence is provided to suggest that full facial protection in ice hockey may reduce concussion severity, as measured by time loss from competition.

  12. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  14. Ionizing secondary radiation generated by analog radiological and digital coronary cine angiographic equipment. Influence of external protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez N, Alfredo; Farias Ch, Eric; Silva J, Ana Maria; Leyton L, Fernando; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ugalde P, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston; Cumsille G, Angel

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a know hazard of radiological procedures. Aim: to compare the emission of secondary ionizing radiation from two coronary angiographic equipments, one with digital and the other with analog image generation. To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiological protection devices. Material and methods: environmental and fluoroscopy generated radiation in the cephalic region of the patient was measured during diagnostic coronary angiographies. Ionizing radiation generated in anterior left oblique protection (ALO) and anterior right oblique protection (ARO) were measured with and without leaded protections. In 19 patients (group 1), a digital equipment was used and in 21 (group 2), an analog equipment. Results: header radiation for group 1 and 2 was 1194±337 and 364±222 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During fluoroscopy and with leaded protection generated radiation for groups 1 and 2 was 612±947 and 70±61μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). For ALO projection, generated for groups 1 and 2 was 105±47 and 71±192 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During filming the radiation for ALO projection for groups 1 and 2 was 7252±9569 and 1671±2038 μGray/h respectively (p=0.03). Out of the protection zone, registered radiation during fluoroscopy for groups 1 and 2 was 2800±1741 and 1318±954 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001); during filming, the figures were 15500±5840 and 18961±10599 μGray/h respectively (NS). Conclusions: digital radiological equipment has a lower level of ionizing radiation emission than the analog equipment

  15. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was

  16. The impact of faulty response of overload protection systems on the reliability of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, J.; Schnuerer, G.

    1988-01-01

    Protection equipment of the engineered safety system which is to prevent the triggering of actions via signals from the reactor protection system is to be made so reliable that it has no impact on the non-availability of the supplied systems. Design and functional mode of the various overload protection equipment and the relevant switching device and combinations are explained together with the requirements such as choice, design, and adjustment of the protection equipment, followed by a survey of possible causes of faulty response of overload protection device and of the means and measures available for improvement. The now presented version of September 1987 of the 'overload protection report deals basically with all main topics of the Juli 1985 version, but has been updated and extended by material taking into account practice-oriented data on the new developments in convoy power plant design. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Ageing Management for Electrical and I and C Equipment in the Light of Germany's Nuclear Phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foellner, Lutz; Hienstorfer, Wolfgang; Weich, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The political decision in Germany to shut-down operation of several Nuclear Power Reactors (NPP's) and to completely terminate the use of Nuclear Power in Germany by 2022 has extensive consequences in matters of the Aging Management. Physical conditions and presumed accident conditions are different for NPP's in power operation and for NPP's in shut-down operation and different aging effects have to be considered. Nevertheless aging management is still required considering the expected extensive time for shut-down operation in order to guarantee the safety functions and the use of qualified components with a sufficient and approved state. All current Aging Management requirements have to be fulfilled in the future as well without any restriction to ensure functionality, reliability and availability. However, it is expected that business management reasons will not allow realizing greater modifications or projects, e.g. exchange of analogue I and C technologies such as Limitations or Reactor Protection System with digital equipment. In the area of I and C which is characterized by many similar I and C-modules a change of strategy begins to emerge: the repair of discontinued modules within the plant under the owner's responsibility and the redesign of modules. Previously, we had reported on the establishment of a systematic Aging Management approach in order to identify aging processes and effects. Since two years the Aging management system has been installed in the NPPs and now we contribute our experience related to the practical handling, the performance and the results of these systems in German NPP's. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures must be fire-resistant. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and electrical cable must be self... this part, or other approved equivalent methods. The average burn length must not exceed 3 inches (76...

  19. Protection of control and monitoring equipment from electromagnetic noise in the 67 MJ, 50 kV capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galakhov, I V; Gasheev, A S; Grusin, I A; Gudov, S N; Kuz` michev, Yu P; Murugov, V M; Osin, V A; Pankratov, V I; Pegoev, I N [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A discharge of the 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank used as a pulsed power system for flashlamp pumping of ISKRA-5`s high-power iodine laser, involves control and diagnostic equipment being subjected to significant electromagnetic fields and electrical interference that will further develop through conductive circuits. The paper describes and validates design approaches to the grounding system, signal carriage and decoupling circuits that would result in lower interference both for the capacitor bank`s control and diagnostics systems. A summary is also given of the ten-years` practice in operating the control and diagnostics equipment during the facility experiments. (author). 1 tab., 3 refs.

  20. Web Application for Annual Reporting of Waste Collection and Managment of Electrical and Electronic Equipments(RAEE)

    OpenAIRE

    Semira Catapang, Jazzey

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto trata de gestionar un tipo de residuos llamado RAEE (Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos y Electrónicos). El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar solución a la nueva legislación de la UE sobre la trazabilidad de la recogida y documentación de los RAEE a través de una aplicación web. This project is about a type of waste called RAEE(Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste). The main objective of this project is to give solution to the new EU legislation on traceability and...

  1. Protective Relay Studies for the Nigerian National Electric 330 KV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental reasons for requiring these specific protective relaying features are also reviewed. Other protective relaying schemes that can accomplish the same basic protection objectives are presented. Based on the Nigerian special system characteristics, schemes to correct existing protection inadequacies are ...

  2. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  3. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10 8 V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW ® platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  4. Manual on quality assurance for installation and commissioning of instrumentation, control and electrical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present Manual on Quality Assurance (QA) for Installation and Commissioning of Instrumentation, Control and Electrical (ICE) Equipment of Nuclear Power Plants contains supporting material and illustrative examples for implementing basic requirements of the quality assurance programme in procurement, receiving, installation and commissioning of this equipment. The Manual on Quality Assurance for Installation and Commissioning of ICE Equipment is designed to supplement and be consistent with the Guidebook as well as with the IAEA Code and Safety Guides on Quality Assurance. It is intended for the use of managerial staff and QA personnel of nuclear power plant owners or the organizations respectively responsible for the legal, technical, administrative and financial aspects of a nuclear power plant. The information provided in the Manual will also be useful to the inspection staff of the regulatory organization in the planning and performance of regulatory inspections at nuclear power plants

  5. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  6. [Investigation of occupational hazards of ultraviolet radiation and protective measures for workers in electric welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Gong, Man-man; Wang, Jiao; He, Li-hua; Wang, Sheng; Du, Wei-wei; Zhang, Long-lian; Lin, Sen; Dong, Xue-mei; Wang, Ru-gang

    2012-06-18

    To investigate and analyze the occupational hazards of ultraviolet radiation, protective measures and related factors for typical symptoms among workers in electric welding, and to provide basic information for revision of the occupational standards of UV. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used in this investigation. A total of 828 workers from four vehicle manufacturers in Beijing and Guangdong Province were selected. Corresponding analyses were conducted with SPSS 16.0 statistic software. The top three injuries of faces and hands were burning tingling (48.7% & 41.3%), itch of skin (39% & 34.9%) and pigmentation (31.9% & 24.5%).The major injuries of eyes were ophthalmodynia (61.5%) , photophobia and tearing (61.4%), and blurred vision (50.2%). The incidences of facial and hands burning tingling, hands flushing, hands macula and papula were significantly different between the welders and auxiliary workers (Pwelding masks (87.2%), gloves (84.3%) and glasses (65.9%). Except for UV cut cream, the usages of other protective equipments in the auxiliary workers were significantly lower than those in the welders (Pwelding, using argon arc welding and CO(2) gas shielded arc welding, not wearing welding masks, and not using UV cut cream was significantly associated with the increased risk of face burning tingling, and the ORs were 3.894 (6 h to 8 h), 2.665 (4 h to 6 h), 2.052, 1.765, 1.759, 1.833, respectively; working years might be a protective factor, and the OR was 0.440, respectively. The study suggested that the UV radiation produced during welding operations not only caused harm to welders, but also to the auxiliary workers. Protection should be strengthened,for example, wearing welding masks, glasses, etc. Meanwhile automatic welding machines should be adopted by the factories to reduce the exposure time for workers.

  7. Code of Practice for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation Emitted from X-ray Analysis Equipment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate working rules, safety features and monitoring requirements for general X-ray analysis units or equipment are laid down in this Code which is intended for users of such equipment. The Code advises that establishments draw up their own working procedures based on appropriate legislation and on the recommendations contained in this Code. The Code also describes the requirements for X-ray analysis equipment necessary to ensure safety. (NEA) [fr

  8. Network effects in the operation of electrical equipment; Efectos de la red en la operacion del equipo electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia T, Arturo; Rosales S, Inocente; Garcia P, Job; Ruiz F, L. Ivan; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the nineties, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) Electrical Equipment Management (GEE) was restricted to make the diagnosis of generators, transformers, switch boards and cables, without considering the global operating conditions. With the experience acquired in different services it was verified that, inclusively when this equipment is correctly designed, it can be subjected to unfavorable operative conditions, which causes an accelerated deterioration to the degree of producing a fault. In agreement with this, the GEE settled down new line of development named Analysis of the network effect on the electrical equipment, that analyzes the behavior of the equipment originated by work abnormal causes, including the network configuration effect. [Spanish] En la decada de los noventa, la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del IIE se limitaba a realizar el diagnostico de generadores, transformadores, tableros de distribucion y cables, sin considerar las condiciones globales de operacion. Con la experiencia adquirida en diferentes servicios se comprobo que, inclusive cuando estos equipos esten correctamente disenados, pueden verse sometidos a condiciones de operacion desfavorables, lo que ocasiona un deterioro acelerado al grado de producir una falla. De acuerdo con esto, la GEE establecio una nueva linea de desarrollo de nominada Analisis del efecto de la red en los equipos electricos, que analiza el comportamiento de los equipos originado por causas anormales de trabajo, incluido el efecto de la configuracion de la red.

  9. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  10. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Building Construction Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Izudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 270 million workplace accidents occur annually. In Uganda, Kampala district has the highest workplace injury and fatality rates. However, information on personal protective equipment (PPE—hand gloves, hardhats, overalls, safety boots, earplugs, safety harness with lanyard, and face shields—utilization among building construction workers remains scarce. We assessed PPE utilization and determinants among building construction workers in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 385 respondents. Data collected by structured questionnaire was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed in STATA at 5% significance level. Independent determinants of PPE use were established by a stepwise backward logistic regression analysis. Results. 305 (79.2% respondents were males, 290 (75.3% were 18–30 years, 285 (74.0% completed secondary education, and 197 (51.2% were temporary employees. 60 (15.6% respondents used PPE. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.64; 95% CI: 1.55–28.46; P=0.011, temporary (AOR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27; P<0.001 and casual (AOR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.001–0.071; P<0.001 employment, and previous knowledge of safety measures (AOR = 100.72; 95% CI: 26.00–390.16; P<0.001 were associated with PPE use. Conclusion. PPE use was low in Kampala, Uganda. Building construction companies should implement measures of the Uganda Occupational Health and Safety Act.

  11. Use of protective equipment by adolescents in inline skating, skateboarding, and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroncke, Erica L; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Young, Craig C

    2008-01-01

    Determine the frequency of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in adolescent inline skaters, skateboarders, and snowboarders; explore factors influencing PPE use; identify factors that would influence use; and examine the association of high-risk behaviors and PPE use. Cross-sectional survey. Central/southeast Wisconsin. Participants 13-18 years-old. None. Independent variables = age, gender, sport. None. Dependent variables = PPE use, factors influencing use, and frequency of other high-risk behaviors. The mean age of 333 participiants was 14.9 years. Adolescents wore considerably less PPE than recommended. Inline skaters wore the most; snowboarders the least. The most common reasons adolescents wore PPE were parents, peers, and rule/requirement. Younger adolescents cited parents more often than older adolescents as a factor for PPE use. Discomfort and lack of perceived need were the most common reasons for nonuse. Sustaining/witnessing an accident was the most common reason that would convince adolescents to wear PPE. Almost half of adolescents reported nothing would convince them to wear PPE. Younger adolescents wore more PPE than older adolescents. An association was seen between PPE use in all sports and bicycle helmets. An inverse relationship was found for tobacco and helmet use among skaters, as well as alcohol and helmet use in skateboarders. Adolescents underuse PPE. PPE reinforcement by parents/peers, encouraging bike helmets, manufacturing more comfortable gear, educating adolescents, and instituting PPE requirements in public areas may increase compliance. This could lead to decreased injuries. Physicians should discuss PPE with their patients/families. There may be an association between PPE use in extreme sports and decreased high-risk health behaviors.

  12. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  13. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  14. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  15. Recommended practices and guidelines for procurement of magnetic-fusion-energy electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The followng three chapters are included: (1) administrative guidelines, (2) technical practices, and (3) check list. The first two chapters contain detailed information which is to be used as a reference by specification writers in preparing specifications. Chapter 3 is intended to provide a uniform specification format for specification writers, and is further intended to satisfy equipment manufactures' complaints that different specification formats are used to describe essentially identical equipment

  16. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I to... - Non-mandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... velocities, masses, projectile shape, radiation intensities, with the capabilities of the available... selecting head protection, knowledge of potential electrical hazards is important. Class A helmets, in... required, the duration, frequency, and degree of exposure of the hazard, and the physical stresses that...

  19. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  20. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  1. Personal Protective Equipment Guide for Military Medical Treatment Facility Personnel Handling Casualties From Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. Not all infected patients develop VHFs. 3. There must be...strict adherence to hand hygiene (Ref. 100): Health care workers should clean their hands prior to donning personal protective equipment for patient...good example of a nonstochastic effect of radiation (Ref. 103). Nosocomial infection Infection acquired in the hospital. Nucleocapsid In a

  2. Emergency systems and protection equipment of modular steam generators for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.

    The requirements are discussed for accident protection of modular steam generators for fast reactors. Accident protection is assessed for a modular through-flow steam generator and for a natural circulation modular steam generator. Benefits and constraints are shown and possible improvements are outlined for accident protection of liquid sodium fired modular steam generators. (Kr)

  3. Test equipment used for radiation protection type testing of aerosol filters at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (SAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    Following a description of the overall design of test equipment developed in the SAAS for radiation protection type testing of aerosol filters, the most important physical and technical details concerning the preparation and measurement of test aerosols as well as the sampling procedure upstream and downstream of the filter to the tested, are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, experiences gained during several years with different devices for mixing and diluting the aerosols are reported. (author)

  4. Application of owner technical management in hydraulic machinery and electrical equipment investment target control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, H

    2012-01-01

    Using technical means in investment target control is an effective method to improve investment benefit of a construction project. Take the practice of construction and management in hydropower station as an example, the investment and management need of the owner is put forward through the investment target decision-making process of electromechanical equipment. Owner technical management in the specific application measures and effects of investment target control was discussed in the paper, and the revelation in investment target control application of owner technical management was also summarized. The paper is aimed to provide a useful reference for the investment target control work in the construction of electromechanical equipment.

  5. Maintenance of influenza virus infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroko; Wada, Koji; Kajioka, Jitsuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Nakano, Ryuichi; Hirose, Tatsuko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    The maintenance of infectivity of influenza viruses on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing is an important factor in terms of controlling viral cross-infection in the environment and preventing contact infection. The aim of this study was to determine if laboratory-grown influenza A (H1N1) virus maintained infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings. Influenza A virus (0.5 mL) was deposited on the surface of a rubber glove, an N95 particulate respirator, a surgical mask made of non-woven fabric, a gown made of Dupont Tyvek, a coated wooden desk, and stainless steel. Each sample was left for 1, 8, and 24 h, and hemagglutination (HA) and 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL were measured. The HA titer of this influenza A virus did not decrease in any of the materials tested even after 24 h. The infectivity of influenza A virus measured by TCID(50) was maintained for 8 h on the surface of all materials, with the exception of the rubber glove for which virus infectivity was maintained for 24 h. Our results indicate that the replacement/renewal of personal protective equipment and clothing by healthcare professionals in cases of exposure to secretions and droplets containing viruses spread by patients is an appropriate procedure to prevent cross-infection.

  6. Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Obara, Kenjiro; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yousuke; Yagi, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuhisa; Sato, Masaru.

    1997-12-01

    Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has been conducted. Since the in-vessel remote maintenance equipment is operated under the condition of 10 6 R/h gamma ray dose rate, the electric connector has to be radiation hard for an accumulation dose of 10 10 R. In addition, the simple attachment/removal mechanism is essential for remote operation. For this, the alumina (Al203) ceramics and a ball bearing were adopted to electric insulator and plug (male) of connector, respectively. The handling tests on attachment/removal of the connector were conducted by using master slave manipulator and general purpose robot with handling tool, and as a result, the validity of the attachment/removal mechanism was verified. In the gamma ray irradiation tests, which are under way, no degradation in break down voltage (1000V 1min.) up to 10 10 R was confirmed. However insulation resistance and contact resistance between contact pin and contact socket were deteriorated in proportion to the accumulation dose. Increase of contact resistance is considered due to an erosion of contact pin. (author)

  7. Electricity Breakdown Management for Sarawak Energy: Use of Condition-Based Equipment for Detection of Defective Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Managing electricity breakdown is vital since an outage causes economic losses for customers and the utility companies. However, electricity breakdown is unavoidable due to some internal or external factors beyond our control. Electricity breakdown on overhead lines tend occur more frequently because it is prone to external disturbances such as animal, overgrown vegetation and defective pole top accessories. In Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), majority of the network are composed of overhead lines and hence, is more prone to failure. Conventional method of equipment inspection and fault finding are not effective to quickly identify the root cause of failure. SEB has engaged the use of corona discharge camera as condition-based monitoring equipment to carry out condition based inspection on the line in order to diagnose the condition of the lines prior to failure. Experimental testing has been carried out to determine the correlation between the corona discharge count and the level of defect on line insulator. The result shall be tabulated and will be used as reference for future scanning and diagnostic on any defect on the lines.

  8. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume II. Intrusion detection components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    This volume covers acoustic components, microwave/radar components, electro-optic barriers, electric field components, orientation components, ferrous metal detection components, proximity detection components, vibration detection components, seismic components, pressure-sensitive components, pressure mats, continuity components, electrical/magnetic switches, fire detection components, and mechanical contact switches

  9. EMP protection procedure for electrical/electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the protection engineer to follow in assessing a system with respect to its susceptibility to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and in determining whether the system requires protection. If the system is determined to be vulnerable to EMP, the procedure also indicates how to decide upon the most suitable protection scheme. The discussion centers on two flow charts, which illustrate the step-by-step procedure which utilizes the necessary ingredients of EMP protection engineering discussed in a previous paper. The description of the protection procedure is divided into two parts: the first dealing with issues on the macroscopic or large-scale system level, while the second is concerned with operations on the subsystem level or lower

  10. Engineering and Design: Reliability Analysis of Navigation Lock and Dam Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beranek, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    This engineer technical letter (ETL) provides guidance for assessing the reliability of mechanical and electrical systems of navigation locks and dams and for establishing an engineering basis for major rehabilitation investment decisions...

  11. METHODICS, SOFTWARE AND LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FOR AN INNOVATIVE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of innovative electrical engineering discipline «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems» in order to improve the training of specialists of electrical engineering specialty. Methodology. The proposed project concerns the educational reforms that promote the intensification of the educational process. Results. The structure of interactive educational and training complex, which is a computer learning tool in the form of software and methodical support, as well as data and knowledge bases and consists of functionally related multimedia learning systems, interactive learning, automated control of the learning process. Originality. To offer online training and research facilities, guidelines for laboratory and computational and graphic works. Practical value. Increase the knowledge of students of educational material related to the discipline of innovation «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems».

  12. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... power is able to be delivered to the wireless sensor through the designed MR-WPS, and therefore the theoretical analysis and design is verified....

  13. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  14. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  15. 77 FR 71607 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) Electrical Equipment Certification Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0839] Mobile Offshore Drilling... hazardous areas on foreign-flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) that have never operated, but... International Maritime Organization (IMO) Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1910 - Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; electrical system design and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... overcurrent device. One protective device will be acceptable when two motors of the same rating operate... must have adequate mechanical protection to prevent damage to the cable that might result in short... with ventilation openings to prevent the accumulation of flammable or toxic gases or vapors within the...

  17. RA Reactor operation and maintenance (I-IX), Part III, Task 3.08/04-02 Refurbishment of the electrical equipment; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA (I-IX), III Deo, Zadatak 3.08/04-02 Remont elektro opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Nikolic, M; Poznanovic, B; Rajic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    This volume contains detailed action plan for repair of electrical equipment of the RA reactor, the list of electrical equipment parts which were either repaired or exchanged for improvement of their performance. Detailed work describing the repair and maintenance work done of the listed equipment is part of this report. Equipment related to dosimetry and control systems are included as well.

  18. Protection coordination of the Kennedy Space Center electric distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A computer technique is described for visualizing the coordination and protection of any existing system of devices and settings by plotting the tripping characteristics of the involved devices on a common basis. The program determines the optimum settings of a given set of protective devices and configuration in the sense of the best expected coordinated operation of these devices. Subroutines are given for simulating time versus current characteristics of the different relays, circuit breakers, and fuses in the system; coordination index computation; protection checks; plotting; and coordination optimation.

  19. Aspects of the design of the automated system for code generation of electrical items of technological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the aspects of designing an automated system for generating codes for electrical elements of process equipment using CASE-means. We propose our own technology of iterative development of such systems. The proposed methodology uses the tool to develop the ERwin Data Modeler databases of Computer Associates and the author's tool for the automatic generation of ERwin Class Builder code. The implemented design tool is a superstructure over the ERwin Data Modeler from Computer Associates, which extends its functionality. ERwin Data Modeler works with logical and physical data models and allows you to generate a description of the database and ddl-scripts.

  20. Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury...

  1. The problem of ensuring the seismic stability of atomic electric power plant equipment and ways of solving it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovskii; Filippov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    By seismic stability the authors mean the ability of the equipment and buildings to retain certain properties when subjected to seismic loads: leakproofness, strength, the absence of any residual changes of shape, which interfere with normal operation, ability to be repaired, nuclear and radiation safety. The latter requirement is the main thing which differentiates atomic electric power plants from other constructions, including other power-generation plants. Whereas, for example, an accident in the event of an earthquake in a thermal electric power plant can be regarded as a local accident, and the measures to ensure seismic stability are determined by economic factors and safety requirements for the operating staff, to ensure the seismic stability of an AES it is essential to take account in the first instance of the possibility of dangerous radiation effects both in the AES and in the vast area around it

  2. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08; 0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, like-ability 95.6% versus 77.8%. Conclusion: We cannot support...

  3. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Process for Managing Equipment Intended for Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, Rashid; Nosov, Andrei; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Dabbs, Richard D.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1996, the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) located in the town of Novouralsk, Russia, (previously known as Sverdlovsk-44) and the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) have been cooperating under the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Because UEIP is involved in the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), and there are highly enriched nuclear materials on its territory, the main goal of the MPC and A cooperation is to upgrade those systems that ensure secure storage, processing and transportation of nuclear materials at the plant. UEIP has completed key upgrades (equipment procurement and installation) aimed at improving MPC and A systems through significant investments made by both the U.S. DOE and UEIP. These joint cooperative efforts resulted in bringing MPC and A systems into compliance with current regulations, which led to nuclear material (NM) theft risk reduction and prevention from other unlawful actions with respect to them. Upon the U.S. MPC and A project team's suggestion, UEIP has developed an equipment inventory control process to track all the property provided through the MPC and A Program. The UEIP process and system for managing equipment provides many benefits including: greater ease and efficiency in determining the quantities, location, maintenance and repair schedule for equipment; greater assurance that MPC and A equipment is in continued satisfactory operation; and improved control in the development of a site sustainability program. While emphasizing UEIP's equipment inventory control processes, this paper will present process requirements and a methodology that may have practical and helpful applications at other sites.

  4. PAT portable appliance testing : in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 requires any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required. This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam. It is also an ideal revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff and caretakers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.

  5. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    setback 0 Sequenced start-up 0 Duty cycling 0 Holiday scheduling %~. Load shedding 0 Chiller control Optimized start-stop e Boiler control Cf Enthalpy...efficiency fac- and a local 80 column serial printer. tors, building loss factors, occupancy temperature setpoint and history. The optimized start and/or...capilt, water temperature, number of chillers optimal sarut-up of heating and cool- running and the percent operating lev . ing equipment can be

  6. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchini, F.; Mummolo, G.; Mossa, G.; Digiesi, S.; Boenzi, F.; Verriello, R.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF). The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed. Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  7. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, F.; Mummolo, G.; Mossa, G.; Digiesi, S.; Boenzi, F.; Verriello, R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF). The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed. Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  8. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Facchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF. The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed.   Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  9. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  10. Increasing the Usage of Personal Protective Equipments in Constructing Subway Stations: An Application of Social Marketing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Although the relationship between the use of personal protective equipment and the reduction of workplace injuries is well-known the use of these devices during operation by the staff is not so desirable. This study was based on a model of social marketing interventions to increase the use of safety devices and personal protection on the subway-station staff. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was based on the results of a formative research consisted of a qualitative (exploring employees’ views through focus group discussions and a quantitative study (measuring attitudes and behaviors by questionnaire and checklist. Based on the formative research findings, a free package includes a helmet with a label containing the message, an anti-cut safety gloves, a dust mask, and an educational pamphlet were delivered to intervention group. After four weeks, the check list of observational behaviors in two constructing stations was completed and the results were compared with before intervention. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, t-test and logistic regression. Results: Three common behaviors were observed among staff not using caps, masks and gloves. The odds ratio for helmet and mask usage in the intervention group was more than other groups. After the intervention, the use of safety helmets and masks significantly increased (p < 0.05. The odds ratio for the use of helmets and masks after intervention in the intervention group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The experimental basis of the safety devices and personal protection needs and demands of the audience, material and immaterial costs of the equipment, supplies, and promoting their use in the right place, can encourage the staff to continuously use the safety devices at workplace. Key Words: Workplace, Injuries, Personal Protective Equipment, Social Marketing

  11. Concepts of skin protection: Considerations for the evaluation and terminology of the performance of skin protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Aitken, R.J.; Oppl, R.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a common language for better understanding processes involved in dermal exposure and skin protection. A conceptual model has been developed that systematically describes the transport of agent mass from sources, eventually resulting in "loading" of the skin surface or the skin

  12. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  13. Study of the national electricity system equipment until the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This work is about a study by UTE and German consultants. It is to ensure the supply of electricity in times of unfavorable hydrogeological conditions. In this case is necessary to install new thermic units or import energy from neighboring countries

  14. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I ampersand C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility

  15. Signalling information from embedded sensors to promote lifetime extension in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, S; Fitzpatrick, C

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this paper proposes how life cycle data attained from embedded sensors in electronic systems can be used to potentially enhance their environmental efficiency. Signalling is a means whereby sensor information can be utilised to enhance consumer perception of the value of used equipment and therefore promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with electronic system manufacture. A case study of a Personal Computer (PC) is presented together with potential signals that can ultimately serve to stimulate secondary market activity for this system

  16. Signalling information from embedded sensors to promote lifetime extension in electrical and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2007-07-01

    The work presented in this paper proposes how life cycle data attained from embedded sensors in electronic systems can be used to potentially enhance their environmental efficiency. Signalling is a means whereby sensor information can be utilised to enhance consumer perception of the value of used equipment and therefore promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with electronic system manufacture. A case study of a Personal Computer (PC) is presented together with potential signals that can ultimately serve to stimulate secondary market activity for this system.

  17. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation protection in medical equipment therapy and diagnosis in (RICK) and (MC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.I.

    2006-04-01

    In the present research work we are trying to study the status of the radiation protection applications around some medical facilities in Khartoum. The rules and principles of radiation protection in Radiation and Isotope Center (Khartoum), and at Medical Corporation (MC) were investigated. It is found that the rules are applied in accordance with international recommendations. Results of the investigations, measurements and some concluding remarks to improve the situation are reported.(Author)

  19. Use of the virtual instrument technology in complex diagnostics of marine electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivlev M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the most informative methods of diagnostics of mechanisms with electric drive has been given; their realization in a measuring complex on the basis of the virtual device has been considered. The comparative analysis of vibration methods for the analysis of current spectra and the thermal method of nondestructive testing has been carried out. It has been stated that methods of vibration diagnostics are more sensitive to defects in the mechanical part of the electric drive (determination of defects in bearing assemblies, misalignment of shafts, imbalance of rotating parts. Analysis of the current spectrum at the early stage has shown the defects of rotor windings, static and dynamic rotor eccentricity. The temperature of the bearing assemblies and the stator (the thermal control method indicates the defects in lubrication and cooling systems. The set of methods of nondestructive control allows increase the completeness and reliability of diagnosis of the mechanism with electric drive. The optimal solution to realize into one measuring instrument all methods of diagnostics is to use the technology of virtual instruments. The list of components for the measuring part of the complex and the functional scheme of the program for processing the results have been given. Spectra of vibration of defective mechanisms have been obtained with the help of the measuring complex based on the virtual instrument. Some recommendations have been given on the introduction of the virtual appliance in the State register of measuring instruments.

  20. Based on the traffic system tools magneto electric equipment design and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In transportation, the road is rough, the engine operation, the instability of the transmission system, and large vibration of the vibration system is to collect the vibration energy, and transformed into stable electricity, provide extra energy for transportation. Experiment device of the system is composed of three parts: simulate vibration test rig, vibration generating device, rectifier voltage regulator circuit. Vibration table is to simulate vehicle vibration in the road, cars, for example, through the check information that cars drive in ordinary road driving axle of some vibration data, thus to calculate all parameters of the vibration table. Vibration generating device is placed on the simulation vibration table, it can convert vibration energy into cars can use electricity. Rectifier voltage regulator circuit is generated by power generation device with a range of random variation of amplitude of electric energy through the rectifier voltage into a stable power output, for car use. The final design and making the vibration system, obtained by the method of experiment proved that the vibration of system feasible.

  1. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  2. The French market of electrical equipment and installation. Control over energy consumption, environmental law and new markets to be conquered draw perspectives for the sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at identifying the size and dynamics of the French industry of electrical equipment and installation, at comparing financial performance of equipment manufacturers and of installation major companies, at analysing strategies developed by operators to take benefit of growth opportunities in the field of energy efficiency, at identifying new markets to be conquered, and at anticipating capitalistic evolutions. Fifteen companies are presented and analysed within this perspective: ABB, Alstom, Areva, ETDE, General Electric, GDF Suez, the Energy pole of Eiffage, Legrand, Nexans, Rexel, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Sonepar, Spie, and Vinci Energies

  3. Royal Order of 22 April 1974 on Establishment of Fees in Implementation of Regulations on Protection at Work, Protection against Hazardous Equipment and Ionizing Radiations and amending the General Regulations on Protection at Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 3 December 1969 empowering the King to establish fees in application of regulations on protection at work, dangerous equipment and ionizing radiations. In particular, it sets fees for the licensing procedure for establishment classified according to the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963. (NEA) [fr

  4. Architecture, design and protection of electrical distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrel, J.P. [Schneider electric Industries SA (France)

    2000-07-01

    Architectures related to AII Electric Ship (AES) require high level of propulsion power. Merchant ships and obviously warships require a low vulnerability, a high reliability and availability, a simple maintainability as well as an ordinary ode of operation. These constraints converge to an optimum single line diagram. We will focus on the mode of operation of the network, its constraints, the facilities to use a ring distribution for the ship service distribution system, the earthing of HV network as well as future developments. (author)

  5. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Atmospheric radioactive iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for the monitoring of radioactive iodine (such as I-131 or I-125) in air in the environment of nuclear installations during normal operation, during design basis events, and in emergency situations. The monitoring involves continuous sample trapping and, where adequate, automatic start of sampling. The document deals with radioactive iodine monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of changes in the air circuit. (P.A.)

  6. Study on Communication Methods for Electric Power High-voltage Equipment Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of high-voltage equipment in substations is beneficial for early detection of faults. The use of wireless sensor networks to build monitoring system is an effective way, but the data collection is a difficult task. The author introduces a real-time monitoring system based on ZIGBEE and mobile communication technology. The system includes multiple monitoring points and terminal platforms. Each monitoring point consists of a number of sensor nodes to form a ZIGBEE network, detecting relevant parameters, coordinator node data collected one by one, known as linear transmission, and finally to the monitoring platform through the mobile communication network. This paper presents a fusion algorithm for monitoring cell data acquisition to reduce the amount of data uploaded to the base station. In addition, multi-hop routing algorithm based on opportunistic routing is proposed to balance network energy and improve network transmission rate and efficiency.

  7. Feasibility of Isolating Vulnerable Equipment of the Electric Power System from Sources of EMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    is reclosed after the fault is cleared, the reclosure will probably be successful since no permanent conducting path for current exists. However...successive EMP-induced faults may cause reclosing circuit breakers and reclosers to lock out. 2. Lock out of reclosers and reclosing circuit breakers...Most distribution lines are protected by some sort of device that recloses the line after a fault is cleared. All such devices have a common

  8. Management of risk factors in the selection and use of PPE [personal protective equipment] on hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemplin, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial hygiene managers working in the hazardous waste area face daily decisions concerning appropriate levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hazards expected on various waste site projects. Typical hazards include exposures to toxic dust, chemical vapors, toxic gases, splashes of corrosive or toxic substances, radioactive materials and high noise levels. Managers who are experienced in this area recognize that each item of PPE can represent potential hazards in its own right. For example, full-face respirators typically restrict peripheral vision and can impede proper communications. In high ambient temperature conditions, coated protective suits can represent significant heat stress concerns, etc. Accordingly, this paper reviews health and safety management decision-making in this regard

  9. Gender Differences in NATO Anthropometry and the Implication for Protective Equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fullenkamp, Adam M.; Robinette, Kathleen; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the body proportions of men and women from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project, completed in 2002, and discusses proportions that have implications for protective apparel. CAESAR was an attempt to characterize the body size and shape

  10. Balancing speech intelligibility versus sound exposure in selection of personal hearing protection equipment for Chinook aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech

  11. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  12. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Amadu, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power systems in most countries in the region. Ghana, which isthe focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two....... The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implicationsof changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor...

  13. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  14. Radiation protection in dentistry. Recommended safety procedures for the use of dental x-ray equipment. Safety code 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has prepared a series of documents on safety codes to set out requirements for the safe use of radiation-emitting equipment. This Safety Code has been prepared to provide specific guidance to the dentist, dental hygienist, dental assistant and other support personnel concerned with safety procedures and equipment performance. Dental radiography is one of the most valuable tools used in modern dental health care. It makes possible the diagnosis of physical conditions that would otherwise be difficult to identify. The use of dental radiological procedures must be carefully managed, because x-radiation has the potential for damaging healthy cells and tissues. Although no known occurrence of cancer or genetic damage has been observed from radiation doses delivered in modern dentistry, and until more evidence is available, one should practice radiation hygiene with the same care as would be dictated if a hazard were known to exist. The aim of radiation protection in dentistry is to obtain the desired clinical information with minimal radiation exposure to patients, dental personnel and the public. 15 tabs

  15. Radiation protection in dentistry. Recommended safety procedures for the use of dental x-ray equipment. Safety code 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has prepared a series of documents on safety codes to set out requirements for the safe use of radiation-emitting equipment. This Safety Code has been prepared to provide specific guidance to the dentist, dental hygienist, dental assistant and other support personnel concerned with safety procedures and equipment performance. Dental radiography is one of the most valuable tools used in modern dental health care. It makes possible the diagnosis of physical conditions that would otherwise be difficult to identify. The use of dental radiological procedures must be carefully managed, because x-radiation has the potential for damaging healthy cells and tissues. Although no known occurrence of cancer or genetic damage has been observed from radiation doses delivered in modern dentistry, and until more evidence is available, one should practice radiation hygiene with the same care as would be dictated if a hazard were known to exist. The aim of radiation protection in dentistry is to obtain the desired clinical information with minimal radiation exposure to patients, dental personnel and the public. 15 tabs.

  16. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment

  17. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  18. Field tests for assessing electrical protection performance regarding electromechanical protection relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Esteves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes designing and using a series of field tests (such as pick-up test and operating characteristics aimed at ascertaining the correct operation of relays’ electromechanical protection. The characteristic elements involved in adjusting electromechanical protection relays are presented.

  19. Influence of reliability of the relay protection to the whole reliability of electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovski, Ljupcho I.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the reliability of the elements of relay protection up today analyses of the reliability on electric power systems, very rare has been taken into consideration, in other words, in these analyses it is assumed that the reliability of the protection has value one. In this work an attempt is that through modelling of individual types of protection of the elements of high-voltage systems to make calculation to the influence of the reliability of the relay protection on the total reliability of the high-voltage systems.(Author)

  20. Seismic test qualification of electrical equipment - testing methods in use to EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabries, R.

    1981-01-01

    At the beginning, for the 900 MW Power Plant level, the testing method in application used the single axis test by sine beat of 10 cycles according to the specifications of the guide IEEE 344-71. When the french guide UTEC 20-420 came into force we have had to define another testing method (EDF standard: HN20 E52) which utilize the single-axis test either by a sine beat of 5-cycles or by a synthetized time history. We present here the mains criterions allowing to justify: -The single-axis test. The single frequency wave (when the Initial Response Spectrum (IRS) present a narrow band). The use of one sine beat of 5-cycles or one synthetized time history. The need of taking into account the high stress level. This oligocyclic stress fatigue explains why one beat of 5-cycles may be as severe as one time history of 20 seconds (with the same level of strong response spectrum). Then, we conclude that the durating of the testing wave applied to the equipment shall be considered as a relative parameter only. The weight of the SSE tests by respect to the OBE tests. The precautions to take in order to: generate and check accurately the synthetized time history, choice the test frequencies when the sine beat is used. (orig./HP)

  1. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  2. Performance Evaluation of an Active Solar Dryer Equipped with an Auxilliary Electrical Heater and Heat Recovery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourghasemi Ranjbar, M.; Alavi Naeini, N.; Mortezapour, H.

    2016-01-01

    Drying is a very sophisticated process which consumes a large amount of energy. Solar energy can be used as an alternative or supplementary energy source to fossil fuels. Solar dryers are common ways for saving fossil fuel consumption during agricultural products drying. In this study, the performance of an active solar dryer equipped with an energy recovery system was investigated at three levels of drying air temperature. The results showed that the energy recovery system was able to increase inlet air temperature by 16.8, 18.5 and 18.9 ° C at drying temperatures of 55, 65 and 75 ℃, respectively. Meanwhile 47.8, 42.9 and 40.9 percents of the dryer exhaust air energy were recovered respectively at these conditions which subsequently led to a reduction of 30.7, 19.2 and 14.7 percents in electrical heater energy consumption.

  3. Personal Protective Equipment In Animal Research - Back To The Basics (A review paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Multilayere d spunbonded -meltblown- spunbonded (SMS) fabric High tensile strength, soft, comfortable, and breathable; low-linting and resistant to...The Association of the Nonwoven and Engineered Fabrics Industry, Cary, NC Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and...Code of Federal Regulations FDA – Food and Drug Administration NFPA - National Fire Protection Association NIOSH - National Institute of

  4. Methodology of ionizing radiation measurement, from x-ray equipment, for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Katia C.S.; Borges, Jose C.

    1996-01-01

    Most of X-rays beam used for diagnostic, are short exposure time (milliseconds). Exception are those used in fluoroscopy. measuring instruments (area monitors with ionizing chambers or Geiger tubes) used in hospitals and clinics, in general, have characteristic answer time not adequate to X-rays beams length in time. Our objective was to analyse instruments available commercially, to prepare a measuring methodology for direct and secondary beams, in order to evaluate protection barriers for beams used in diagnostic radiology installations. (author)

  5. Nanotechnology based surface treatments for corrosion protection and deposit control of power plant equipment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Nanotechnology can provide possibilities for obtaining new valuable information regarding performance and corrosion protection in power plants. In general the desired performance of the contact surfaces is an easy-to-release effect. This is in order to prolong the time interval between cleaning periods or make the cleaning procedures easier and less expensive. Corrosion protection is also desired in order to extend the life time of various parts in the power plants and thus optimize the energy output and overall efficiency of the plant. Functional sol-gel coating based on nanotechnology is tested in a variety of conditions. Applications of functional sol-gel coatings were performed in the condenser and on seven air preheaters at Fynsvaerket, Odense, with corrosion protection as the main issue. Coatings with easy-to-clean effects were tested in the Flue Gas Desulphurization plant at Nordjyllandsvaerket, Aalborg, with the aim of reducing gipsum deposit. Thermo stabilized coatings were tested on tube bundles between in the passage from the 1st to 2end pass and on the wall between 1st and 2end pass at Amagervaerket, Copenhagen, and in the boiler at Haderslev CHP plant. The objective of this test were reducing deposits and increasing corrosion protection. The tested coatings were commercial available coatings and coatings developed in this project. Visual inspections have been performed of all applications except at Nordjyllandsvaerket. Corrosion assessment has been done at DTU - Mechanical Engineering. The results range from no difference between coated and uncoated areas to some improvements. At Amagervaerket the visual assessment showed in general a positive effect with a sol-gel hybrid system and a commercial system regarding removal of deposits. The visual assessment of the air preheaters at Fynsvaerket indicates reduced deposits on a sol-gel nanocomposite coated air preheater compared to an uncoated air preheater. (Author)

  6. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  7. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  9. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  11. Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit boards of various end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment for beneficiation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu Priya; Hait, Subrata

    2018-05-01

    Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit board (PCB) of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is obligatory for prospective profitable beneficiation. In this study, beneficiation oriented comprehensive characterization of two brands of PCBs each of 16 end-of-life EEE was conducted in terms of their physicochemical characteristics with special emphasis on the content of 16 general elements, 2 precious metals and 15 rare earth elements (REEs). General elements and their highest weight percent composition found in different PCBs of the EEEs were Cu (23% in laptop), Al (6% in computer), Pb (15% in DVD player) and Ba (7% in TV). The high abundant of precious metals such as Au (316 g/ton) and Ag (636 g/ton) in mobile phone and laptop, respectively coupled with rapid obsolescence age makes waste PCBs of information technology and telecommunication equipment the most potent resource reservoir. Additionally, most of the waste PCBs were observed to contain REEs in considerable quantity with Sc up to 31 g/ton and Ce up to 13 g/ton being the major constituents. Comprehensive characterization of waste PCBs therefore will systematically help towards better understanding of e-waste recycling processes for beneficiation purpose and sustainable resource circulation and conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Exposure Resulting From Hood Protective Equipment Used in Joint Arthroplasty Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suhani; Fine, Janelle M; Lim, Michael J; Copp, Steven N; Rosen, Adam S; West, John B; Prisk, G Kim

    2017-08-01

    To protect both the surgeon and patient during procedures, hooded protection shields are used during joint arthroplasty procedures. Headache, malaise, and dizziness, consistent with increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exposure, have been anecdotally reported by surgeons using hoods. We hypothesized that increased CO 2 concentrations were causing reported symptoms. Six healthy subjects (4 men) donned hooded protection, fan at the highest setting. Arm cycle ergometry at workloads of 12 and 25 watts (W) simulated workloads encountered during arthroplasty. Inspired O 2 and CO 2 concentrations at the nares were continuously measured at rest, 12 W, and 25 W. At each activity level, the fan was deactivated and the times for CO 2 to reach 0.5% and 1.0% were measured. At rest, inspired CO 2 was 0.14% ± 0.04%. Exercise had significant effect on CO 2 compared with rest (0.26% ± 0.08% at 12 W, P = .04; 0.31% ± 0.05% at 25 W, P = .003). Inspired CO 2 concentration increased rapidly with fan deactivation, with the time for CO 2 to increase to 0.5% and 1.0% after fan deactivation being rapid but variable (0.5%, 12 ± 9 seconds; 1%, 26 ± 15 seconds). Time for CO 2 to return below 0.5% after fan reactivation was 20 ± 37 seconds. During simulated joint arthroplasty, CO 2 remained within Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards with the fan at the highest setting. With fan deactivation, CO 2 concentration rapidly exceeds OSHA standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic analysis of electric equipment for nuclear power stations under seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, K.E.; Bodisco, U. von; Winkler, K.

    1977-01-01

    The response spectrum method, generally accepted as the most practical method for linear seismic analysis of power station components, is here applied in conjunction with the finite element method to electric components. The fully dynamic analysis based on the superposition of the natural modes as carried out for an electronics cabinet and for transmitter supports is outlined and selected results are presented. Several different methods are in use for the superposition of the contributions of the different modes. Here addition of absolute values, the square-root of the sum of squares, and a mixed method taking account of closely spaced modes is applied. For different structures, the degree of conservativity is thus demonstrated, the largest difference in the stresses computed by the different methods being approximately 30%. For structures whose natural frequencies are in the spectrum range with zero period response, a simplified response analysis using static loads is often carried out. This is demonstrated for the electronics cabinet and transmitter mountings, and the results are compared with the fully dynamic analyses. It is seen that this 'pseudo-dynamic' analysis yields useful approximations for the distributions of stresses. Practical details of the structural models as well as results are presented for several switchgear and electronics cabinets

  15. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  16. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  17. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  18. Fundamental characteristics of new electric power storage equipment celled `ECS`; Atarashii denryoku chozo sochi `ECS` no kisoteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Yamagishi, M.

    1997-01-30

    This paper introduces new electric power storage equipment called an energy capacitor system. A special electrically double-layered capacitor with its energy density raised in sacrifice of internal resistance has the current so adjusted that loss will not increase by using a switching converter (consisting of a charger and a current pump). The capacitor is charged and discharged at high efficiency. Upper limits of the charge voltage for each capacitor are connected with parallel monitor circuits so that maximum charge voltage of each capacitor will be aligned at one level, wherein charge and discharge are performed with that voltage used as the starting point. A drawback in a capacitor is lower energy density than in a secondary battery. Therefore, high voltage withstanding organic electrolyte was used, and electrode activated carbon was given discussions starting from its raw material structures. The efforts resulted in obtaining as high energy density as 43 Wh/kg (about 20 times as much as in conventional materials, and comparable to lead-acid batteries). In order to minimize heat generation due to the increased internal resistance, a switching converter was used to suppress charge/discharge currents to the minimum required levels. Although the capacitor still has insufficient voltage withstanding power and short life, the energy density is increasing beyond the initial estimation. The next problem to be solved is reduction in production cost for its industrialization. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(< 102 g m-3). Elemental gold was successfully obtained on 0.5-1 mm gr particles in an electrochemical reactor incorporating a cation- permeable membrane and operated in bath recycle mode. Depletion to concentration < 5 × 10-3 mol m-3 (< 1 g m-3) appeared to be mass transport controlled at an applied potential of +0.20 V (SCE), specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) of ca. 800-1300 kWh h (tonne Au)-1 for cell voltages (U) of 2.0-3.0 V, and fractional current efficiencies of ca. 0.95. However, atomic absorption and UV spectrophotometry established that as the ([{{AuCl}}4-+[{{AuCl}}2-]) concentration decayed, the [{{AuCl}}4-]:[{{AuCl}}2-] molar ratio changed. A multi-step mechanism for reduction of {{AuCl}}4- ions explained this behavior in terms of changing overpotentials for {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- reduction as total dissolved gold concentration decreased. In addition, SEM images confirmed that adherent and coherent Au deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of healthcare workers regarding the use of respiratory protection equipment at Iran hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, Marzieh; Jahangiri, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh

    2018-01-01

    Using appropriate respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is very important to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) against respiratory hazards. The aim of this study was to identify the level of knowledge, perceptions and practices of HCWs on using RPE. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 284 employees of educational hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study's instrument was a self-made questionnaire that comprised four components: demographic inquiries and questions designed to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practice of HCWs regarding RPE. Collected data were analysed using SPSS software version 21. Average scores of knowledge, perceptions and practice of HCWs on using RPE were 66.50% ± 11.93%, 80.32% ± 10.05% and 70.12% ± 20.51%, respectively. A significant association was observed between knowledge and age, job experience, history of using respirator, marital status and risk of respiratory hazards in the workplace and perceptions with age and education and practice with education. Studied HCWs had positive perceptions and moderate level of knowledge and practice about the use of RPE. Full implementation of respiratory protection program in the hospitals would be helpful to improve the knowledge, perceptions and practices of HCWs regarding RPE.