WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrical powered wheelchair

  1. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  2. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  3. Driving Control for Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Regenerative Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel safety driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs based on the regenerative braking system. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the safe and secure driving performance especially on downhill roads must be further improved because electric power assisted wheelchairs have no braking devices. The proposed control system automatically switches the driving mode, from “assisting mode” to “braking mode”, based on the wheelchair's velocity and the declined angle and smoothly suppresses the wheelchair's acceleration based on variable duty ratio control in order to realize the safety driving and to improve the ride quality. Some experiments on the practical roads and subjective evaluation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  4. Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  5. Novel Straight and Circular Road Driving Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Fuzzy Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel straight and circular road driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel driving control scheme based on fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable and reliable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity of the wheelchair and the human input torque proportion of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  6. Operationality Improvement Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair by Fuzzy Algorithm Considering Posture Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu; Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel operationality improvement control for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel operationality improvement control by fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity, the posture angle of the wheelchair, the human input torque proportion and the total human torque of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  7. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  8. A Hands-Free Interface for Controlling Virtual Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Gulrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how to provide mobility to people with motor impairments with the integration of robotics and wearable computing systems. The burden of learning to control powered mobility devices should not fall entirely on the people with disabilities. Instead, the system should be able to learn the user's movements. This requires learning the degrees of freedom of user movement, and mapping these degrees of freedom onto electric-powered wheelchair (EPW controls. Such mapping cannot be static because in some cases users will eventually improve with practice. Our goal in this paper is to present a hands-free interface (HFI that can be customized to the varying needs of EPW users with appropriate mapping between the users' degrees of freedom and EPW controls. EPW users with different impairment types must learn how to operate a wheelchair with their residual body motions. EPW interfaces are often customized to fit their needs. An HFI utilizes the signals generated by the user's voluntary shoulder and elbow movements and translates them into an EPW control scheme. We examine the correlation of kinematics that occur during moderately paced repetitive elbow and shoulder movements for a range of motion. The output of upper-limb movements (shoulder and elbows was tested on six participants, and compared with an output of a precision position tracking (PPT optical system for validation. We find strong correlations between the HFI signal counts and PPT optical system during different upper-limb movements (ranged from r = 0.86 to 0.94. We also tested the HFI performance in driving the EPW in a virtual reality environment on a spinal-cord-injured (SCI patient. The results showed that the HFI was able to adapt and translate the residual mobility of the SCI patient into efficient control commands within a week's training. The results are encouraging for the development of more efficient HFIs, especially for wheelchair users.

  9. Comparison of seating, powered characteristics and functions and costs of electrically powered wheelchairs in a general population of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Michael John; Bolton, Megan Jennifer; Henderson, Graham Iain

    2017-10-26

    To profile and compare the seating and powered characteristics and functions of electrically powered wheelchairs (EPWs) in a general user population including equipment costs. Case notes of adult EPW users of a regional NHS service were reviewed retrospectively. Seating equipment complexity and type were categorized using the Edinburgh classification. Powered characteristics and functions, including control device type, were recorded. 482 cases were included; 53.9% female; mean duration EPW use 8.1 years (SD 7.4); rear wheel drive 88.0%; hand joystick 94.8%. Seating complexity: low 73.2%, medium 18.0%, high 8.7%. Most prevalent diagnoses: multiple sclerosis (MS) 25.3%, cerebral palsy (CP) 18.7%, muscular dystrophy (8.5%). Compared to CP users, MS users were significantly older at first use, less experienced, more likely to have mid-wheel drive and less complex seating. Additional costs for muscular dystrophy and spinal cord injury users were 3-4 times stroke users. This is the first large study of a general EPW user population using a seating classification. Significant differences were found between diagnostic groups; nevertheless, there was also high diversity within each group. The differences in provision and the equipment costs across diagnostic groups can be used to improve service planning. Implications for Rehabilitation At a service planning level, knowledge of a population's diagnostic group and age distribution can be used to inform decisions about the number of required EPWs and equipment costs. At a user level, purchasing decisions about powered characteristics and functions of EPWs and specialised seating equipment need to be taken on a case by case basis because of the diversity of users' needs within diagnostic groups. The additional equipment costs for SCI and MD users are several times those of stroke users and add between 60 and 70% of the cost of basic provision.

  10. The comparison respond of braking torque control between PID and SMC controller for electric powered wheelchair descending on slope condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, S. M.; Heerwan, P. M.; Izhar, I. M.

    2018-04-01

    During descending on a slope, the speed of Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) tends to changed rapidly. Normally, most EPW is provided with mechanical braking system which transfers human pulling force of the lever creating friction at the tire. However, the task is difficult for the users are elderly or paralyses. However, even for normal user with good strength, in fear condition they tend to give sudden braking which leads to tire locking up and skidding, eventually EPW unstable. These problems will cause accident and injuries to the users if speed does not properly control. In this paper, the automated braking torque control method was proposed in EPW as alternative to solve this problem and increase the mobility and stability especially during descending on slope in other to help the user of the EPW as their daily transportation. In this research, Proportional-Integral-Derivative and Sliding Mode Control controller are compared to determine the best response for torque braking control. The rapid change of speed can be controlled by the braking torque using proposed controllers based on the desired constant speed set by the control designer. Moreover, the sudden braking that caused tire to lock up and skid can be avoided. Furthermore, result from SMC shows this controller have good time respond to maintain the speed based on desired value when descending at slope condition by controlling the braking torque compared to the PID controller.

  11. Manoeuvring space for electric wheelchairs and scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, D.J.M.; de Jong, G.E.; Verkroost, S.

    1996-01-01

    To be universally accessible the built environment must be adequately adapted to the needs of the widest possible range of users and to the use of mobility aids such as walking sticks, rollator walkers, manual wheelchairs and electric scooters. Delft University of Technology regularly conducts

  12. Impact Responses and Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Electric Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The shock and vibration of electric wheelchairs undergoing road irregularities is inevitable. The road excitation causes the uneven magnetic gap of the motor, and the harmful vibration decreases the recovery rate of rehabilitation patients. To effectively suppress the shock and vibration, this paper introduces the DA (dynamic absorber to the electric wheelchair. Firstly, a vibration model of the human-wheelchair system with the DA was created. The models of the road excitation for wheelchairs going up a step and going down a step were proposed, respectively. To reasonably evaluate the impact level of the human-wheelchair system undergoing the step–road transition, evaluation indexes were given. Moreover, the created vibration model and the road–step model were validated via tests. Then, to reveal the vibration suppression performance of the DA, the impact responses and the amplitude frequency characteristics were numerically simulated and compared. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the impact responses to the tire static radius r and the characteristic parameters was carried out. The results show that the DA can effectively suppress the shock and vibration of the human-wheelchair system. Moreover, for the electric wheelchair going up a step and going down a step, there are some differences in the vibration behaviors.

  13. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes of older people's use of powered wheelchairs and risk factors for negative outcomes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional interview-study including 111 powered wheelchair users over 65 years of age. RESULTS: All participants used t...

  14. Injury due to uncontrolled acceleration of an electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D G; Washington, B V; Devlin, P M; Zook, J E; Edlich, R F

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 750,000 disabled individuals use electrical platform mobility aids (wheelchairs) for adaptive transportation. Because there are no mandatory standards for platform mobility aids and wheelchairs, these adaptive transportation aids are prone to potential design and maintenance problems. An injury caused by uncontrolled acceleration of a platform mobility aid is reported. Examination of the platform mobility aid identified a defect in its speed control regulator that has been subsequently corrected by the manufacturer.

  15. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  16. Extent to Which Caregivers Enhance the Wheelchair Skills Capacity and Confidence of Power Wheelchair Users: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R Lee; Rushton, Paula W; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Titus, Laura; Miller-Polgar, Jan; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Matheson, Kara; Parker, Kim; Sawatzky, Bonita; Labbé, Delphine; Miller, William C

    2018-01-03

    To test the hypothesis that caregivers enhance the wheelchair skills capacity and confidence of the power wheelchair users to whom they provide assistance, and to describe the nature of that assistance. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants (N=152) included caregivers (n=76) and wheelchair users (n=76). None. Version 4.3 of the Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) and the Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire (WST-Q). For each of the 30 individual skills, we recorded data about the wheelchair user alone and in combination (blended) with the caregiver. The mean total WST capacity scores ± SD for the wheelchair users alone and blended were 78.1%±9.3% and 92.4%±6.1%, respectively, with a mean difference of 14.3%±8.7% (Pskills capacity and confidence of the power wheelchair users to whom they provide assistance, and they do so in a variety of ways. These findings have significance for wheelchair skills assessment and training. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Capacitor regenerative braking system of electric wheelchair for senior citizen based on variable frequency chopper control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Seki, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel regenerative braking control system of electric wheelchairs for senior citizen. "Electric powered wheelchair", which generates the driving force by electric motors according to the human operation, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people. This study focuses on the braking control to realize the safety and smooth stopping motion using the regenerative braking control technique based on fuzzy algorithm. The ride quality improvement and energy recycling can be expected by the proposed control system with stopping distance estimation and variable frequency control on the step-up/down chopper type of capacitor regenerative circuit. Some driving experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  18. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-01-01

    research were identified. CONCLUSION: The use of powered wheelchairs is a relevant societal intervention in relation to older people with limited walking ability in order to make activity and participation possible. It is likely that a larger proportion of older people could benefit from this intervention...... not use the wheelchair for visits, and supplementary travel modes are called for. Users who could not walk at all or who could not transfer without assistance were more likely not to be able to carry out prioritized activities. Furthermore, other risk factors for negative outcomes and need for further...

  19. Design and Evaluation of the Kinect-Wheelchair Interface Controlled (KWIC) Smart Wheelchair for Pediatric Powered Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Secoli, Riccardo; Darling, Aurelia Mclaughlin; Farris, John; Furumasu, Jan; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Children with severe disabilities are sometimes unable to access powered mobility training. Thus, we developed the Kinect-Wheelchair Interface Controlled (KWIC) smart wheelchair trainer that converts a manual wheelchair into a powered wheelchair. The KWIC Trainer uses computer vision to create a virtual tether with adaptive shared-control between the wheelchair and a therapist during training. It also includes a mixed-reality video game system. We performed a year-long usability study of the KWIC Trainer at a local clinic, soliciting qualitative and quantitative feedback on the device after extended use. Eight therapists used the KWIC Trainer for over 50 hours with 8 different children. Two of the children obtained their own powered wheelchair as a result of the training. The therapists indicated the device allowed them to provide mobility training for more children than would have been possible with a demo wheelchair, and they found use of the device to be as safe as or safer than conventional training. They viewed the shared control algorithm as counter-productive because it made it difficult for the child to discern when he or she was controlling the chair. They were enthusiastic about the video game integration for increasing motivation and engagement during training. They emphasized the need for additional access methods for controlling the device. The therapists confirmed that the KWIC Trainer is a useful tool for increasing access to powered mobility training and for engaging children during training sessions. However, some improvements would enhance its applicability for routine clinical use.

  20. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention.

  1. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs - a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach Rossen, Camilla; Sørensen, Bodil; Würtz Jochumsen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  2. System for electric power generation with photovoltaic solar modules for charging the batteries of an electric wheelchair; Sistema de geracao de energia eletrica com modulos solares fotovoltaicos para o carregamento de baterias de uma cadeira de rodas eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratinguta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: pimentamesquita@gmail.com, teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy is all kind of energy produced from a natural source that not diminish because its utilization is 'renewable'. More and more renewable energy resources are used, because they offer multiple advantages such as the energy output facility in small scale and because they are entirely compatible with the environment. The renewable energy used in this project is the photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by the direct conversion of the solar energy in electric energy through the use of solar cells, that can be of several kinds, being the most common of silicon. The main advantage of photovoltaic system is the generation of clean electric energy, or either, generates energy without emitting pollutant and without destroying the environment, moreover is an inexhaustible source of energy. The main disadvantage is, nowadays, the high cost and its low efficiency, so to continue developing it is necessary establish capable mechanisms to make it possible. The search of these mechanisms of incentive becomes-itself a lot important, because the renewable energy and not conventional do not produce a financial return to the investor properly said, but brings lots of benefits to the community, the society and to the environment. This project has the purpose of create an electric energy generation system through solar photovoltaic modules to carry batteries of a motorized wheelchair. An electric wheelchair is moved by electric motors of direct current that are feed by batteries, permitting a medium autonomy of 10 km by load. The batteries are recharged by a battery supplier. This operation should be carried out daily in a space of 6 to 8 hours. According to the Demographic Census realized in 2000 carried out by the IBGE, Brazil has around 1.416.060 physical deficient, which 861.196 are men and 554.864 are women. From a request of a user of electric wheelchair the idea of this project was shown up. The user complained that he stayed a long time carrying his seat

  3. Step-Climbing Power Wheelchairs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S. Andrea; Wang, Hongwu; Ding, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Power wheelchairs capable of overcoming environmental barriers, such as uneven terrain, curbs, or stairs, have been under development for more than a decade. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the scientific and engineering literature to identify these devices, and we provide brief descriptions of the mechanism and method of operation for each. We also present data comparing their capabilities in terms of step climbing and standard wheelchair functions. Results: We found that all the devices presented allow for traversal of obstacles that cannot be accomplished with traditional power wheelchairs, but the slow speeds and small wheel diameters of some designs make them only moderately effective in the basic area of efficient transport over level ground and the size and configuration of some others limit maneuverability in tight spaces. Conclusion: We propose that safety and performance test methods more comprehensive than the International Organization for Standards (ISO) testing protocols be developed for measuring the capabilities of advanced wheelchairs with step-climbing and other environment-negotiating features to allow comparison of their clinical effectiveness. PMID:29339886

  4. Development of Android Based Powered Intelligent Wheelchair for Quadriplegic Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tathagata; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhawna, Shruthi. S.

    2017-08-01

    Several surveys give us the view that both children and adults benefit substantially from access towards independent mobility. With the inventions of technology, no individuals are satisfied with traditional manual operated machines. To accommodate population, researchers are using technology, originally developed for mobile robots to create ‘intelligent wheelchairs’. It’s a major challenge for quadriplegic persons as they really find it difficult to manipulate powered wheelchair during the activities of their daily living. As the Smartphone era has evolved with innovative android based applications, engineers are improving and trying to make such machines simple and cheap to the next level. In this paper, we present a development of android based powered intelligent wheelchair to assist the quadriplegic person by making them self sufficient in controlling the wheelchair. The wheels of the chair can be controlled by the voice or gesture movement or by touching the screen of the android app by the challenged persons. The system uses the Bluetooth communication to interface the microcontroller and the inbuilt sensors in the android Smartphone. According to the commands received from android phone, the kinematics of the wheels are controlled.

  5. Using Self-Reliance Factors to Decide How to Share Control Between Human Powered Wheelchair Drivers and Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David A

    2017-08-01

    A shared-control scheme for a powered wheelchair is presented. The wheelchair can be operated by a wheelchair driver using a joystick, or directed by a sensor system, or control can be combined between them. The wheelchair system can modify direction depending on the local environment. Sharing the control allows a disabled wheelchair driver to drive safely and efficiently. The controller automatically establishes the control gains for the sensor system and the human driver by calculating a self-reliance factor for the wheelchair driver. The sensor system can influence the motion of the wheelchair to compensate for some deficiency in a disabled driver. Practical tests validate the proposed techniques and designs.

  6. Wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Levy, Charles E; Dietrich, Frederick D; Winkler, Sandra Hubbard; Tillman, Mark D; Chow, John W

    2010-03-01

    To assess wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels using qualitative interview methods. Qualitative evaluations were conducted in a laboratory setting with a focus on users' experiences using power assist wheel in their naturalistic environments. Participants consisted of seven women and 13 men (M(age) = 42.75, SD = 14.68) that included one African American, one Hispanic, 17 whites, and one individual from Zambia. Qualitative interviews were conducted before, during, and after use of a power assist wheel. Main outcome measures included the wheelchair users' evaluations and experiences related to the use of power assist wheels. The primary evaluations included wheeling on challenging terrains, performance of novel activities, social/family aspects, fatigue, and pain. These descriptions indicated that most participants perceived positive experiences with the power assist wheels, including access to new and different activities. Secondary evaluations indicated that the unit was cumbersome and prohibitive for some participants because of difficulties with transport in and out of a vehicle and battery life. Most participants felt that power assist wheels provided more independence and social opportunities. The power assist wheel seems to offer physical and social benefits for most wheelers. Clinicians should consider users' home environment and overall life circumstances before prescribing.

  7. Torque and power outputs on different subjects during manual wheelchair propulsion under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Kim, Youngho

    2012-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users are at a high risk of pain and injuries to the upper extremities due to mechanical inefficiency of wheelchair propulsion motion. The kinetic analysis of the upper extremities during manual wheelchair propulsion in various conditions needed to be investigated. We developed and calibrated a wheelchair dynamometer for measuring kinetic parameters during propulsion. We utilized the dynamometer to investigate and compare the propulsion torque and power values of experienced and novice users under four different conditions. Experienced wheelchair users generated lower torques with more power than novice users and reacted alertly and sensitively to changing conditions. We expect that these basic methods and results may help to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion.

  8. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users : A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  9. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke; Buurke, Jaap; de Vries, W.; de Vries, W.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  10. Power Wheelchair Use in Persons With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amber Lea; Hammond, Sara; Holsten, Scott; Bravver, Elena; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at 1 and 6 months after receiving power wheelchairs to determine long-term use, comfort, and function as well as the power wheelchair's impact on daily tasks and quality of life. A 33-question survey and Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) were sent 1 month after getting a new power wheelchair; a follow-up survey was sent at 6 months. Based on satisfaction and feature use survey results, at 1 month, 81% of users found the power wheelchair overall comfort to be high, 88% found their overall mobility to be improved, and 95% found it easy to use. Their quality of life increased and pain decreased at 1 and 6 months. According to the PIADS, the power wheelchair gave users increased ability to participate and sense of competence. This study has important results for the ALS community, as it is the first to assess power wheelchair users at 1 and 6 months after power wheelchair procurement. The results demonstrate the impact the power wheelchair has on mobility, psychosocial issues, functional abilities, and quality of life for a person with ALS.

  11. Relationship between wheelchair durability and wheelchair type and years of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rosemarie; Jefferds, Alexandra; Connor, Sam; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the durability of wheelchairs according to American National Standard for Wheechairs/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) Wheelchair Standards and wheelchair type as well as year of test. A retrospective study design with a sample of 246 wheelchairs that were tested in accordance with the ANSI/RESNA standards from 1992 to 2008 including four types of wheelchairs: manual wheelchair (MWC), electrical powered wheelchair (EPW), scooters and pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair (PAPAW). Unconditional binary logic regression analysis was chosen to evaluate the relationship between test results and test year as well as wheelchair type. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center. Wheelchair durability test result (fatigue test: pass or fail) There was no significant correlation between the year when tested and equivalent cycles. A significant relation was found between test results and wheelchair type (Wald score = 10.845, degree of freedom = 3, p = 0.013) with scooters having a significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 15.629, 95% CI = 2.026-120.579). EPW also had significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 1.953, 95% CI = 1.049-3.636). No significant difference on pass ratio was found between PAPAW and MWC. No significant improvements in wheelchair test results during the time frame from 1992 to 2008 were discovered. Wheelchair standard tests should be conducted to assure minimum quality of the wheelchairs and for improving the design of wheelchairs. Although the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair durability test procedures have remained consistent, it does not appear that the introduction of new materials, designs and the availability of test data have improved wheelchair fatigue life.

  12. Keep on rolling: functional evaluation of power-assisted wheelchair use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Prototype of newly developed power-assisted wheelchair wheels were evaluated to determine their potential alleviating value on shoulder load, daily activities and participation compared to hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Five research questions were answered: 1. What is the current knowledge of

  13. Designing movement-based play with young people using powered wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerling, Kathrin M; Hicks, Kieran C; Kalyn, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    people who have special needs) and 2) three case studies (4 participants) exploring player perspectives on a set of three wheelchair-controlled casual games. Our results show that movement-based playful experiences are engaging for young people using powered wheelchairs. However, the participatory design...... in the development of accessible, empowering movement-based games, which is crucial to the wider participation of young people using powered wheelchairs in play.......Young people using powered wheelchairs have limited access to engaging leisure activities. We address this issue through a two-stage project; 1) the participatory development of a set of wheelchair-controlled, movement-based games (with 9 participants at a school that provides education for young...

  14. Assessment of Joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routhier François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered wheelchairs are essential for many individuals who have mobility impairments. Nevertheless, if operated improperly, the powered wheelchair poses dangers to both the user and to those in its vicinity. Thus, operating a powered wheelchair with some degree of proficiency is important for safety, and measuring driving skills becomes an important issue to address. The objective of this study was to explore the discriminate validity of outcome measures of driving skills based on joystick control strategies and performance recorded using a data logging system. Methods We compared joystick control strategies and performance during standardized driving tasks between a group of 10 expert and 13 novice powered wheelchair users. Driving tasks were drawn from the Wheelchair Skills Test (v. 4.1. Data from the joystick controller were collected on a data logging system. Joystick control strategies and performance outcome measures included the mean number of joystick movements, time required to complete tasks, as well as variability of joystick direction. Results In simpler tasks, the expert group's driving skills were comparable to those of the novice group. Yet, in more difficult and spatially confined tasks, the expert group required fewer joystick movements for task completion. In some cases, experts also completed tasks in approximately half the time with respect to the novice group. Conclusions The analysis of joystick control made it possible to discriminate between novice and expert powered wheelchair users in a variety of driving tasks. These results imply that in spatially confined areas, a greater powered wheelchair driving skill level is required to complete tasks efficiently. Based on these findings, it would appear that the use of joystick signal analysis constitutes an objective tool for the measurement of powered wheelchair driving skills. This tool may be useful for the clinical assessment and training of powered

  15. Rolling resistance and propulsion efficiency of manual and power-assisted wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2015-11-01

    Rolling resistance is one of the main forces resisting wheelchair propulsion and thus affecting stress exerted on the upper limbs. The present study investigates the differences in rolling resistance, propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user during power-assisted and manual propulsion. Different tire pressures (50%, 75%, 100%) and two different levels of motor assistance were tested. Drag force, energy expenditure and propulsion efficiency were measured in 10 able-bodied individuals under different experimental settings on a treadmill. Results showed that drag force levels were significantly higher in the 50%, compared to the 75% and 100% inflation conditions. In terms of wheelchair type, the manual wheelchair displayed significantly lower drag force values than the power-assisted one. The use of extra-power-assisted wheelchair appeared to be significantly superior to conventional power-assisted and manual wheelchairs concerning both propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the use of power-assisted wheelchair was more efficient and required less energy input by the user, depending on the motor assistance provided. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  17. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Embedded hardware for closing the gap between research and industry in the assistive powered wheelchair market

    OpenAIRE

    Canoz, V; Gillham, Michael; Oprea, P; Chaumont, P; Bodin, A; Laux, P; Lebigre, M; Howells, Gareth; Sirlantzis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Literature is abound with smart wheelchair platforms of various developments, yet to date there has been little technology find its way to the market place. Many trials and much research has taken place over the last few decades however the end user has benefited precious little. There exists two fundamental difficulties when developing a smart powered wheelchair assistive system, the first is need for the system to be fully compatible with all of the manufacturers, and the second is to produ...

  19. Comparison of shoulder load during power-assisted and purely hand-rim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Eising, Hilde; Schaake, Leendert; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2012-06-01

    Repetitive forces and moments are among the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion that are related to shoulder injuries. No previous research has been published about the influence of power-assisted wheelchair propulsion on these work requirements. The purpose of our study was therefore to determine the influence of power-assisted propulsion on shoulder biomechanics and muscle activation patterns. We also explored the theoretical framework for the effectiveness of power-assisted propulsion in preventing shoulder injuries by decreasing the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Nine non-wheelchair users propelled a hand-rim wheelchair on a treadmill at 0.9 m/s. Shoulder biomechanics, and muscle activation patterns, were compared between propulsion with and without power-assist. Propulsion frequency did not differ significantly between the two conditions (Wilcoxon Signed Rank test/significance level/effect size:4/.314/-.34). During power-assisted propulsion we found significantly decreased maximum shoulder flexion and internal rotation angles (1/.015/-.81 and 0/.008/-.89) and decreased peak force on the rim (0/.008/-.89). This resulted in decreased shoulder flexion, adduction and internal rotation moments (2/.021/-.77; 0/.008/-.89 and 1/.011/-.85) and decreased forces at the shoulder in the posterior, superior and lateral directions (2/.021/-.77; 2/.008/-.89 and 2/.024/-.75). Muscle activation in the pectoralis major, posterior deltoid and triceps brachii was also decreased (2/.038/-.69; 1/.015/-.81 and 1/.021/-.77). Power-assist influenced the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion by healthy subjects. It was primarily the kinetics at rim and shoulder which were influenced by power-assisted propulsion. Additional research with actual hand-rim wheelchair users is required before extrapolation to routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Powered off-road wheelchair for the transportation of tetraplegics along mountain trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Michele Gabrio; Alleva, Stefano; Beomonte Zobel, Pierluigi; Durante, Francesco; Raparelli, Terenziano

    2017-12-08

    For off-road mobility, some manual or power assisted devices were conceived to be self-driven by paraplegics while for tetraplegics non power-assisted devices were conceived. These devices require one or more conductors who are subjected to a high physical demand thus potentially creating: precarious safety condition for the user an elevated physical demand of conductors could reduce the care and the attention to give to the user; the time of the outdoor adventure experience of the user could be limited. To address these issues, an innovative user-centered power assisted off-road wheelchair for the transportation of tetraplegics along mountain trails was developed. The device, structured like a trike, is driven by two healthy conductors; the user is placed in the middle of the frame. A movable seat provides for the transfer from the standard to the off-road wheelchair. An electrical motor, powered by a battery pack, provides for the actuation. All the design and prototype aspects, the control system and experimental tests are detailed. The prototype satisfies mechanical, safety and duration requirements. No physical demand while using the device and for the transfer of the user to the device was identified. Fun and engaging tests were carried out and all the participants were involved. Implications for Rehabilitation The device has the potential to enhance the quality of life of tetraplegics in terms of new life experiences. The device revealed the real possibility of a full recreational experience, an enhanced participation and a better social integration of tetraplegics.

  1. Joystick-controlled video console game practice for developing power wheelchairs users' indoor driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei Pin; Wang, Chia Cheng; Hung, Jo Hua; Chien, Kai Chun; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ng, How-Hing; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of joystick-controlled video console games in enhancing subjects' ability to control power wheelchairs. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults without prior experience of driving power wheelchairs were recruited. Four commercially available video games were used as training programs to practice joystick control in catching falling objects, crossing a river, tracing the route while floating on a river, and navigating through a garden maze. An indoor power wheelchair driving test, including straight lines, and right and left turns, was completed before and after the video game practice, during which electromyographic signals of the upper limbs were recorded. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences in driving performance and muscle activities before and after the intervention. [Results] Following the video game intervention, participants took significantly less time to complete the course, with less lateral deviation when turning the indoor power wheelchair. However, muscle activation in the upper limbs was not significantly affected. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates the feasibility of using joystick-controlled commercial video games to train individuals in the control of indoor power wheelchairs.

  2. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  3. Intelligent power wheelchair use in long-term care: potential users' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Mortenson, Ben W; Viswanathan, Pooja; Wang, Rosalie H; Miller, William C; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives. We interviewed 10 LTC residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairment twice, once before and once after testing the IPW. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analyses. Our analyses identified three overarching themes: (1) the difference an IPW would make, (2) the potential impact of the IPW on others and (3) IPW-related concerns. Findings from this study confirm the need for and potential benefits of IPW use in LTC. Future studies will involve testing IPW improvements based on feedback and insights from this study. Implications for rehabilitation Intelligent power wheelchairs may enhance participation and improve safety and feelings of well-being for long-term care residents with cognitive impairments. Intelligent power wheelchairs could potentially have an equally positive impact on facility staff, other residents, and family and friends by decreasing workload and increasing safety.

  4. Anaerobic power output and propulsion technique in spinal cord injured subjects during wheelchair ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Kappe, Y J; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Janssen, T W; van der Woude, L H

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the level of the spinal cord injury (SCI) on anaerobic or short-term power production and propulsion technique, 23 male SCI subjects performed a 30-second sprint test on a stationary wheelchair ergometer. Kinematic parameters were studied both inter- and

  5. The potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation: perspectives of users, caregivers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Kairy, Dahlia; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard; Demers, Louise

    2015-05-01

    To explore power wheelchair users', caregivers' and clinicians' perspectives regarding the potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with power wheelchair users (n = 12), caregivers (n = 4) and clinicians (n = 12). An illustrative video was used to facilitate discussion. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified based on the experiences of the power wheelchair users, caregivers and clinicians: (1) increased social participation opportunities, (2) changing how social participation is experienced and (3) decreased risk of accidents during social participation. Findings from this study suggest that an intelligent power wheelchair would enhance social participation in a variety of important ways, thereby providing support for continued design and development of this assistive technology. An intelligent power wheelchair has the potential to: Increase social participation opportunities by overcoming challenges associated with navigating through crowds and small spaces. Change how social participation is experienced through "normalizing" social interactions and decreasing the effort required to drive a power wheelchair. Decrease the risk of accidents during social participation by reducing the need for dangerous compensatory strategies and minimizing the impact of the physical environment.

  6. Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästlund, Erik; Sponseller, Kay; Pettersson, Ola; Bared, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

  7. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  8. Understanding the Burden Experienced by Caregivers of Older Adults Who Use a Powered Wheelchair: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula W. Rushton PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe the burden of family caregivers providing powered wheelchair-related and overall assistance and test the hypotheses that caregiver burden correlates with participation, wheelchair skills capacity, anxiety, depression, and social support. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Participants included 35 family caregivers of powered wheelchair users. Caregivers were assessed using the Power Mobility Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure, Late Life Disability Instrument, Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire for caregivers, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List–12. Results: The most burdensome powered wheelchair assistance items were providing verbal hints/directions, needing to be nearby, anxiety, and fear that user may be harmed. The most burdensome overall assistance item was feeling limited in recreational/leisure activities. Caregiver burden was significantly correlated with participation limitations, anxiety, depression, and social support. Discussion: Caregivers experience burden for wheelchair-related and overall help, especially psychological burden. Such results have implications for the type of resources required to support family caregivers.

  9. Development and user validation of driving tasks for a power wheelchair simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Philippe S; Blackburn, Émilie; Reid, Denise; Routhier, François; Miller, William C

    2017-07-01

    Mobility is important for participation in daily activities and a power wheelchair (PW) can improve quality of life of individuals with mobility impairments. A virtual reality simulator may be helpful in complementing PW skills training, which is generally seen as insufficient by both clinicians and PW users. To this end, specific, ecologically valid activities, such as entering an elevator and navigating through a shopping mall crowd, have been added to the McGill wheelchair (miWe) simulator through a user-centred approach. The objective of this study was to validate the choice of simulated activities in a group of newly trained PW users. We recruited 17 new PW users, who practiced with the miWe simulator at home for two weeks. They then related their experience through the Short Feedback Questionnaire, the perceived Ease of Use Questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Participants in general greatly appreciated their experience with the simulator. During the interviews, this group made similar comments about the activities as our previous group of expert PW users had done. They also insisted on the importance of realism in the miWe activities, for their use in training. A PW simulator may be helpful if it supports the practice of activities in specific contexts (such as a bathroom or supermarket), to complement the basic skills training received in the clinic (such as driving forward, backward, turning, and avoiding obstacles). Implications for Rehabilitation New power wheelchair users appreciate practicing on a virtual reality simulator and find the experience useful when the simulated diving activities are realistic and ecologically valid. User-centred development can lead to simulated power wheelchair activities that adequately capture everyday driving challenges experienced in various environmental contexts.

  10. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  11. Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D

    2016-09-06

    Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Virtual community centre for power wheelchair training: Experience of children and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkia, Caryne; Ryan, Stephen E; Reid, Denise; Boissy, Patrick; Lemay, Martin; Routhier, François; Contardo, Resi; Woodhouse, Janet; Archambault, Phillipe S

    2017-11-02

    To: 1) characterize the overall experience in using the McGill immersive wheelchair - community centre (miWe-CC) simulator; and 2) investigate the experience of presence (i.e., sense of being in the virtual rather than in the real, physical environment) while driving a PW in the miWe-CC. A qualitative research design with structured interviews was used. Fifteen clinicians and 11 children were interviewed after driving a power wheelchair (PW) in the miWe-CC simulator. Data were analyzed using the conventional and directed content analysis approaches. Overall, participants enjoyed using the simulator and experienced a sense of presence in the virtual space. They felt a sense of being in the virtual environment, involved and focused on driving the virtual PW rather than on the surroundings of the actual room where they were. Participants reported several similarities between the virtual community centre layout and activities of the miWe-CC and the day-to-day reality of paediatric PW users. The simulator replicated participants' expectations of real-life PW use and promises to have an effect on improving the driving skills of new PW users. Implications for rehabilitation Among young users, the McGill immersive wheelchair (miWe) simulator provides an experience of presence within the virtual environment. This experience of presence is generated by a sense of being in the virtual scene, a sense of being involved, engaged, and focused on interacting within the virtual environment, and by the perception that the virtual environment is consistent with the real world. The miWe is a relevant and accessible approach, complementary to real world power wheelchair training for young users.

  13. Driving Interface Based on Tactile Sensors for Electric Wheelchairs or Trolleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Trujillo-León

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel device based on a tactile interface to replace the attendant joystick in electric wheelchairs. It can also be used in other vehicles such as shopping trolleys. Its use allows intuitive driving that requires little or no training, so its usability is high. This is achieved by a tactile sensor located on the handlebar of the chair or trolley and the processing of the information provided by it. When the user interacts with the handle of the chair or trolley, he or she exerts a pressure pattern that depends on the intention to accelerate, brake or turn to the left or right. The electronics within the device then perform the signal conditioning and processing of the information received, identifying the intention of the user on the basis of this pattern using an algorithm, and translating it into control signals for the control module of the wheelchair. These signals are equivalent to those provided by a joystick. This proposal aims to help disabled people and their attendees and prolong the personal autonomy in a context of aging populations.

  14. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  15. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  16. Perceptions of fall circumstances, injuries and recovery techniques among power wheelchair users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Laura A; Sung, JongHun; Peters, Joseph; Bartlo, Wendy D; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2018-04-01

    To understand the circumstances surrounding the worst fall experienced by power wheelchair users in the past year and to examine injuries sustained and recovery methods. A qualitative study using a semi-structured interview. Community. A self-selected volunteer sample of 19 power wheelchair users who utilize their device for at least 75% of mobility. The most common disability represented was cerebral palsy ( n = 8). The mean (SD) age of participants was 41.9 (7.6) years, who lived with their disability for a mean (SD) of 20.5 (8.62) years and used their current device for a mean (SD) of 3.9 (1.9) years. None. A semi-structured interview examined the circumstances surrounding the worst fall experienced in the past year, injuries sustained and recovery techniques used. Upon examination of the circumstances of the worst fall, four main themes emerged: (1) action-related fall contributors, (2) location of falls, (3) fall attributions and (4) time of fall. Each fall described was found to involve multiple factors. As a result of the fall, participants also reported the occurrence of physical injuries and a fear of falling. Physical injuries ranged from skin abrasion and bruises to fractures and head injuries. Participants also reported that fear of falling diminished their desire to participation in activities they enjoyed doing. Finally, most participants reported the need for physical assistance to recover from a fall. Participant descriptions provide an in-depth description of the circumstances and aftermath of falls experienced by power wheelchair users.

  17. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  18. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  19. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  20. Improvement in the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries by Means of Powered Wheelchairs Driven by Dual Power Wheels and Mobile Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study unites researchers from the fields of psychology, occupational therapy, and engineering to improve the holistic physical and psychological well-being of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI by using assistive devices (i.e., wheelchairs and mobile technology (i.e., cell phone and network. These technologies are used to bring persons with SCI through the difficult period of rehabilitation and to return them to their daily life in school or the working environment. First, a SpinoAid Application (APP is developed to motivate persons with SCI to participate in the community after their injury. Second, we integrate mobile technology with a mobility assistive device to design a smart wheelchair, which is innovated by transforming the pushrim of a manually driven wheelchair into a rim motor. After the rim motor is combined with a battery, a brake, and a controller to become a power wheel, two power wheels are installed on both sides of the wheelchair to become a powered wheelchair. Third, a SmartChair APP is developed with the main functions of reminding persons with SCI to perform exercises, recording the physical condition and the wheelchair using status, and building up a social network for information sharing to increase their exercise habit, prevent cumulative injuries or discomfort of the upper extremities, and enhance their health and quality of life.

  1. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  2. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  3. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  4. A systematic review on the pros and cons of using a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke; Snoek, G.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Buurke, Jaap; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the (dis)advantages of transition to a power-assisted wheelchair, and derive the clinical implications for its use or prescription. Data sources: Relevant articles published prior to May 2012 were identified using PubMed, Cochrane Library, REHABDATA, CIRRIE and CINAHL

  5. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  6. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  7. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Swiss electrical power association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Milestones of electrical power development in Switzerland during 1982 are quoted. An energy balance is shown for the utilisation of 864,630 terajoules of primary energy. This is related to global data on per capita power consumption. In the electricity generation section, annual load factors are given for the four nuclear stations. A brief review is made of hydro potential and monthly export/import figures for power to other countries (mostly export, especially in summer). Total electrical power output grew about 1.3% in the last year. Recent transmission line developments are noted, mostly 2x380kV, and including a link with Austria. In the financial section, consumer price indices are quoted for liquid and solid fuel, gas and electricity since 1966. Under administration, details are listed of the main and about 18 supporting Committees and working groups with special functions (e.g. tariffs, electrical vehicles). Public relations have included nuclear power press conferences, a mobile video unit, information leaflets for the media and a teaching seminar. (G.C.)

  10. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  11. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  12. New electric power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    In a trend analysis of methods of energy production and use, this paper cites forecasted significant gains in efficiency through the use of combined cycles for heat and power production, and rapidly falling costs of solar and wind power plants. A technical/economic feasibility analysis is then performed on the future use of electric vehicles in Italy. Here, the paper cites the possible benefits in terms of energy conservation and air pollution abatement. A review is made of current progress in research efforts aimed at reducing electric battery sizing, weight and recharging constraints

  13. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  14. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  15. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  16. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  17. Feature determination from powered wheelchair user joystick input characteristics for adapting driving assistance [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many powered wheelchair users find their medical condition and their ability to drive the wheelchair will change over time. In order to maintain their independent mobility, the powered chair will require adjustment over time to suit the user's needs, thus regular input from healthcare professionals is required. These limited resources can result in the user having to wait weeks for appointments, resulting in the user losing independent mobility, consequently affecting their quality of life and that of their family and carers. In order to provide an adaptive assistive driving system, a range of features need to be identified which are suitable for initial system setup and can automatically provide data for re-calibration over the long term. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information from powered wheelchair users with regard to their symptoms and how they changed over time. Another group of volunteer participants were asked to drive a test platform and complete a course which represented manoeuvring in a very confined space as quickly as possible. Two of those participants were also monitored over a longer period in their normal home daily environment. Features, thought to be suitable, were examined using pattern recognition classifiers to determine their suitability for identifying the changing user input over time. Results: The results are not designed to provide absolute insight into the individual user behaviour, as no ground truth of their ability has been determined, they do nevertheless demonstrate the utility of the measured features to provide evidence of the users’ changing ability over time whilst driving a powered wheelchair. Conclusions: Determining the driving features and adjustable elements provides the initial step towards developing an adaptable assistive technology for the user when the ground truths of the individual and their machine have been learned by a smart pattern recognition system.

  18. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  19. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  20. EEG Controlled Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Sim Kok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a brainwave controlled wheelchair. The main objective of this project is to construct a wheelchair which can be directly controlled by the brain without requires any physical feedback as controlling input from the user. The method employed in this project is the Brain-computer Interface (BCI, which enables direct communication between the brain and the electrical wheelchair. The best method for recording the brain’s activity is electroencephalogram (EEG. EEG signal is also known as brainwaves signal. The device that used for capturing the EEG signal is the Emotiv EPOC headset. This headset is able to transmit the EEG signal wirelessly via Bluetooth to the PC (personal computer. By using the PC software, the EEG signals are processed and converted into mental command. According to the mental command (e.g. forward, left... obtained, the output electrical signal is sent out to the electrical wheelchair to perform the desired movement. Thus, in this project, a computer software is developed for translating the EEG signal into mental commands and transmitting out the controlling signal wirelessly to the electrical wheelchair.

  1. A proposed power assisted system of manual wheelchair based on universal design for eldery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmartini, Susy; Pryadhitama, Ilham; Herdiman, Lobes; Wahyufitriani, Cindy

    2017-11-01

    Difficulties in walking is high percentage case in the limitations mobility of the elderly. An assisted technology commonly used to help the elderly who have walking difficulty is a manual wheelchair. However, the elderly frequently experiences difficulties in operating manual wheelchair due to gradually degradation of their physical condition. Preliminary study results showed that the average grip strength of the hands of seven elderly subjects was 13.8 ± 6.96 kg and the value is relatively weak. In addition, the mean maximum speed of 7 elderly subjects when doing to round the wheelchair is 0.6 ± 0.2m / s. This value is only 56.4% compared with an average speed of 20-23-year age group (8 males), which is 1.1 ± 0.1 m / s. This shows that the elderly who have walking difficulty have low grip strength and speed in operating a wheelchair. On the other hand, manual wheelchairs suffer an inadequate technology solution to solve the problem. Therefore, an assistive technology is proposed to create mobility aid to accommodate the elderly needs. One approach used is Universal Design. This paper proposes a system of intervention in the manual wheelchair through the 7 principles of Universal Design approach. The preliminary principle has not been able to accommodate the needs of the elderly will become a reference in the proposed design of this study.

  2. Electric power: the liberalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nine months after the beginning of the deregulation of electric power markets in Europe, the first effects are being felt: fall of prices, amalgamation of electric power companies, development of new technologies and unemployment. (O.M.)

  3. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  4. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  5. Smart wheelchairs: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that both children and adults benefit substantially from access to a means of independent mobility. While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. To accommodate this population, researchers have used technologies originally developed for mobile robots to create "smart wheelchairs." Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents. This article presents a summary of the current state of the art and directions for future research.

  6. Wheelchair-related accidents: relationship with wheelchair-using behavior in active community wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yin; Jang, Yuh; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Wen-Ni; Chang, Chan-Chia; Mao, Hui-Fen; Wang, Yen-Ho

    2011-06-01

    To report the prevalence, mechanisms, self-perceived causes, consequences, and wheelchair-using behaviors associated with wheelchair-related accidents. A case-control study. Community. A sample of experienced, community-dwelling, active manual and powered wheelchair users (N=95) recruited from a hospital assistive technology service center. Not applicable. Wheelchair-using behaviors, wheelchair-related accidents over a 3-year period, and the mechanisms and consequences of the accidents. Among the 95 participants, 52 (54.7%) reported at least 1 accident and 16 (16.8%) reported 2 or more accidents during the 3 years prior to the interview. A total of 74 accidents, were categorized into tips and falls (87.8%), accidental contact (6.8%), and dangerous operations (5.4%). A logistic regression found individuals who failed to maintain their wheelchairs regularly (odds ratio [OR]=11.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-48.61) and used a wheelchair not prescribed by professionals (OR=4.31; 95% CI, 1.10-16.82) had significantly greater risks of accidents. In addition to the risk factor, lack of regular wheelchair maintenance, the Poisson regression corroborated the other risk factor, seat belts not used (incident rate ratio=2.14; 95% CI, 1.08-4.14), for wheelchair-related accidents. Wheelchair-related accidents are closely related to their wheelchair-using behaviors. Services including professional evaluation, repair, maintenance, and an educational program on proper wheelchair use may decrease the risks of wheelchair accidents. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  8. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  9. Differences in participation based on self-esteem in power and manual wheelchair users on a university campus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian M; Wong, Alex W K; Salentine, Benjamin A; Rice, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship of self-esteem and wheelchair type with participation of young adult manual and power wheelchair users with diverse physical disabilities. Cross-sectional survey study. Large University Campus. A convenience sample of college students (N = 39) with self-reported physical disabilities who are full time wheelchair users (>40 per week) and are two or more years post illness or injury. Not applicable. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem, and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to measure participation. Self-esteem correlated highly with cognitive independence (CI) (r = 0.58), mobility (r = 0.67) and social integration (SI) (r = 0.52). Use of manual wheelchair was significantly related to higher levels of CI and mobility while longer use of any wheelchair (power or manual) was significantly associated with higher levels of mobility and SI. In addition higher self-esteem independently predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI, mobility and SI, while type of wheelchair predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI (p self-esteem was found to be the strongest predictor of participation in a population of young adults with mobility limitations. Better understanding of the factors influencing participation may help to facilitate new interventions to minimize the disparities between persons with disabilities and their able bodied peers. Implication for Rehabilitation A total of 46.8% of wheelchair users report the desire for increased community participant but face significant barriers. The type of wheelchair has been identified as having a large impact on participation. This study found self-esteem to be the strongest predictor of participation, which is notable because self-esteem is a characteristic that is potentially modifiable with treatment.

  10. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  11. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  12. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of substations, from the initial concept to design, automation, operation, and physical and cyber security. Written by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Power Engineering Society (PES) Substations Committee, each section provides a tutorial and includes references for further reading and study. The authors use photographs and graphics to help the reader understand the material. Exploring the most recent technological developments regarding industry practice and standards, the book provides an extensive overview of substations th

  13. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  14. Stakeholder views addressing the development and uptake of powered wheelchair assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Michael; Pepper, Matthew; Kelly, Steve; Howells, Gareth

    2017-12-14

    The objective of this research is to identify stakeholder views with regard to the development of effective powered wheelchair assistive technologies more suited to the user and carer needs, whilst also meeting the requirements for other stakeholders, such that developers can be better guided towards producing solutions which have a better chance of getting to the market place and hence to the end user. A questionnaire was designed to collect the views of all stakeholders and circulated to a statistically representative number of them. The question rating data were then checked for correlation between groups, and within groups, to establish validity. The 74 stakeholders across the eight classes who responded had a good correlation between each other, with a cross class "Pearson's correlation" ranging between 0.7 and 0.95, and the "Fleiss's Kappa reliability of agreement" within each class ranging between 0.07 and 0.36. This research has identified that all stakeholders should be involved in the development of the technology and that some may benefit in 'role-reversal' to help understand user problems and stakeholder concerns more clearly. Cost was a significant barrier to the uptake of appropriate technology, and training of users and carers was a major issue. Furthermore, development should not increase user isolation and the impact on the user must be monitored for 'quality of life'. Technical support and training should be given to the user and their carers, and equipment must be adaptive to meet the changing needs of the user. Implications for Rehabilitation Improved acceptance and use of technology by the user and their carers. Reduced rejection of appropriate provision. Improved mobility and interaction with others. Improved quality of life for users and carers.

  15. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  16. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  17. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  18. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  19. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  20. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  1. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  2. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  3. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  4. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  5. The electric power engineering handbook electric power transformer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, James H

    2012-01-01

    Electric Power Transformer Engineering, Third Edition expounds the latest information and developments to engineers who are familiar with basic principles and applications, perhaps including a hands-on working knowledge of power transformers. Targeting all from the merely curious to seasoned professionals and acknowledged experts, its content is structured to enable readers to easily access essential material in order to appreciate the many facets of an electric power transformer.Topically structured in three parts, the book: * Illustrates for electrical engineers the relevant theories and pri

  6. The differences in self-esteem, function, and participation between adults with low cervical motor tetraplegia who use power or manual wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jennifer; Robins, Hillary; Griffiths, Yvette; Hamilton, Christina

    2011-11-01

    To explore the differences between manual and power wheelchair users in terms of self-esteem, function, and participation in persons with a similar motor level of spinal cord injury (SCI). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a single data collection. General community. Participants (N=30) were a convenience sample of adults with self-reported C6 and C7 tetraplegia caused by SCI who are 1 or more years postinjury. Eighteen were manual chair users, and 12 were power chair users. Not applicable. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III) as a measure of function, and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) as a measure of participation. There were no significant differences between manual and power chair users regarding age, time since injury, or length of initial rehabilitation stay. A significant difference was seen between wheelchair groups (F=2.677, P=.038). Multivariate analysis showed the differences to be in the SCIM III (F=11.088, P=.003) and the CHART subcategories Physical (F=7.402, P=.011), Mobility (F=12.894, P=.001), and Occupation (F=5.174, P=.031). Manual wheelchair users demonstrated better physical function, mobility, and had a higher employment rate than power wheelchair users based on the SCIM III and CHART in this sample of adults with C6 or C7 motor level tetraplegia. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Power Soccer: Experiences of Students Using Power Wheelchairs in a Collegiate Athletic Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wentz, Joel; Markle, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics provides an opportunity for improving the societal perceptions and overall quality of life of physically disabled persons. Athletic opportunities in the collegiate atmosphere allow such students to be socially, psychologically, and physically engaged. This study focused on how involvement in a Power Soccer collegiate…

  8. Smart wheelchair: integration of multiple sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, H. E.; Almuhamed, S.; Moukadem, A.; Schacher, L.; Dieterlen, A.; Adolphe, D.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a smart wheelchair by integrating multiple sensors for measuring user’s physiological signals and subsequently transmitting and monitoring the treated signals to the user, a designated person or institution. Among other sensors, force, accelerometer, and temperature sensors are successfully integrated within both the backrest and the seat cushions of the wheelchair; while a pulse sensor is integrated within the armrest. The pulse sensor is connected to an amplification circuit board that is, in turn, placed within the armrest. The force and temperature sensors are integrated into a textile cover of the cushions by means of embroidery and sewing techniques. The signal from accelerometer is transmitted through Wi-Fi connection. The electrical connections needed for power supplying of sensors are made by embroidered conductive threads.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  12. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  13. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This annual review surveys Canadian electrical power production and consumption, exports and imports, and developments in the fields of energy policy, electric space heating, and alternate energy sources. Total Canadian capacity at Dec. 31 1982 was 84 777 MW, 6 280 MW from nuclear sources. Of 1 469 MW capacity added during 1982, 680 MW were nuclear. The demand for electricity dropped to 344 083 GWh in 1982 from 346 333 GWh in 1981

  15. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  16. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  17. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  20. A Low-Cost Tele-Presence Wheelchair System

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jiajun; Xu, Bin; Pei, Mingtao; Jia, Yunde

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a tele-presence wheelchair system based on tele-presence robot, intelligent wheelchair, and touch screen technologies. The tele-presence wheelchair system consists of a commercial electric wheelchair, an add-on tele-presence interaction module, and a touchable live video image based user interface (called TIUI). The tele-presence interaction module is used to provide video-chatting for an elderly or disabled person with the family mem...

  1. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  2. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  5. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  6. Wheelchair batteries. II: Capacity, sizing, and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlarich, J J

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of lead-acid batteries for wheelchairs in terms of a new empirical equation for the capacity, application of the Palmgren-Miner Rule for sizing the battery, and the effect of depth of discharge on the life cycles is presented. A brief section about selecting an economical battery for an electric wheelchair is included.

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  8. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs

  10. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Highlights of Electric Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Reform and Development of Electric Power Management Before 1978, China's electric power industry,managed by the Central Government, was a vertically monopoly sector. Along with China's reformation of economy structure started in 1978, electric power industry has step on its road of restructuring and deregulation. Up to now administration of China's electric power industry underwent following reciprocative changes:

  12. Skylab technology electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  13. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  14. Development of a wheelchair maintenance training programme and questionnaire for clinicians and wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Bird, Emily; Oyster, Michelle; Worobey, Lynn; Lain, Michael; Bucior, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Purpose of state: The aims of this study were to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Programme (WMTP) as a tool for clinicians to teach wheelchair users (and caregivers when applicable) in a group setting to perform basic maintenance at home in the USA and to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Questionnaire (WMT-Q) to evaluate wheelchair maintenance knowledge in clinicians, manual and power wheelchair users. The WMTP and WMT-Q were developed through an iterative process. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 17), manual wheelchair (n ∞ 5), power wheelchair users (n = 4) and caregivers (n = 4) provided feedback on the training programme. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 38), manual wheelchair (n = 25), and power wheelchair users (n = 30) answered the WMT-Q throughout different phases of development. The subscores of the WMT-Q achieved a reliability that ranged between ICC(3,1) = 0.48 to ICC(3,1) = 0.89. The WMTP and WMT-Q were implemented with 15 clinicians who received in-person training in the USA using the materials developed and showed a significant increase in all except one of the WMT-Q subscores after the WMTP (p users. This training complements the World Health Organization basic wheelchair service curriculum, which only includes training of the clinicians, but does not include detailed information to train wheelchair users and caregivers. This training program offers a time efficient method for providing education to end users in a group setting that may mitigate adverse consequences resulting from wheelchair breakdown. This training program has significant potential for impact among wheelchair users in areas where access to repair services is limited.

  15. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  16. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Vegter, R.J.K.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15. m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30. s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  17. Electric Power Monthly, June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The Electric Power Monthly contains information from three data sources: the Form EIA-759, 'Monthly Power Plant Report'; the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423, 'Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants ; and the Form EIA-826, M onthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions'. The Form EIA-759 collects data from all operators of electric utility generating plants (except those having plants solely on standby), approximately 800 of the more than 3,200 electric utilities in the United States. To reduce the reporting burden for utilities, the FERC Form 423 and Form EIA-826 data are based on samples, which cover less than 100 percent of all central station generating utilities. The FERC Form 423 collects data from steam-electric power generating plants with a combined installed nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or larger (approximately 230 electric utilities). The 50-megawatt threshold was established by FERC. The Form EIA-826 collects sales and revenue data in the residential, commercial, industrial, and other sectors of the economy. Other sales data collected include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities, sales to railroads and railways, and interdepartmental sales. Respondents to the Form EIA-826 were statistically chosen and include approximately 225 privately and publicly owned electric utilities from a universe of more than 3,200 utilities. The sample selection for the Form EIA-826 is evaluated annually. Currently, the Form EIA-826 data account for approximately 83 percent

  18. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  19. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  20. Electric power distribution. Elektrische Energieverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, H; Frohne, H; Vaske, P

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter on electric power supply networks discusses transmitting media, their characteristic values, and the dimensioning of electric lines and networks; cables are given particular attention. High-voltage d.c. transmission and reactive power compensation are discussed. The next chapter describes the calculation of short-circuits and earth leakages for various neutral circuits on the basis of symmetric components. The newly introduced mesh current method for complex calculation of electric networks makes use of the potential of pocket computers. Chapter 3 discusses protective devices, i.e. earth systems and electronic protection. The next two chapters describe switch gear and power plants, including recent technical changes. The final chapter, which discusses the electric power industry, has been rewritten and extended. Methods of calculation, e.g. annual cost and cash value, are applied to transmitting media and plants. There is an extensive appendix with characteristic values of cables and overhead lines, graphical symbols, distinguishing signs of wiring diagrams, a bibliography of books, DIN standards, VDE specifications, and formulas.

  1. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Facilities Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities NREL's power electronics and electric machines thermal management experimentation facilities feature a wide range of four researchers in discussion around a piece of laboratory equipment. Power electronics researchers

  2. Electric power statistics from independence to establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This paper reports power statistics from independence to establishment pf KEPIC. It has the lists of electricity industry, electric equipment on the whole country power equipment at the independence and development of power facility, power generation about merit of power plants, demand according to types and use, power loss, charge for electric power distribution, power generation and generating cost, financial lists on income measurement and financing, meteorological phenomena and amount of rainfall electric power development, international statistics on major countries power generation and compare power rates with general price.

  3. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  4. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  5. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  6. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  7. Within-cycle characteristics of the wheelchair push in sprinting on a wheelchair ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    To investigate power output and torque production in wheelchair sprinting, six able-bodied subjects performed nine 20-s sprint tests on a stationary wheelchair ergometer (load 0-8 kg). Ergometer data were analyzed and combined with kinematic data and surface electromyography. Of all power and torque

  8. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  9. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  10. Electric power and gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These two days organized by EFE in Paris, dealt with the european market of the gas and the electrical power. The first day developed the actual situation and the tendencies. The french market deregulation, the possibility of a united market and the energy transportation sector are discussed. The second day dealt with the new commercial technologies, the convergence of Gas and Electricity and the competing in a change world, the opportunities of the NTIC (new technologies of the information and communication). (A.L.B.)

  11. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  12. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  13. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  14. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  15. Electric power globalization and reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  16. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  17. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  18. Green power: electricity's blue box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of green power is taking hold, and the speaker briefly outlined the various options available at the moment, such as low impact hydro, wind, solar, and biomass. The electrical generation mix will be affected as a result of the provision of alternate power sources of energy to the community. It is possible for members of the community to make a well-informed choice as the eco-logo is the official certification of green products and power. Wind turbine interference with bird migration represents one of the main concerns attributed to wind power along with the generation of noise. The speaker indicated that the turbines are mostly located away from migration routes and that they turn very slowly, therefore not likely to cause a noise pollution problem for the public. The higher cost associated with green power causes a problem when compared with the cost or more traditional energy generation methods. Until they become more competitive, green power alternatives only fill a niche market. Ontario Power Generation is determined to assist the community with a move toward green energy in the future, especially given its position as an industry leader. refs., figs

  19. The future of electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In this interview with a prominent expert of the electric power industry, problems of assuring electricity supply, the economics of nuclear electricity generation, the supply structure, and cogeneration are discussed. (UA) [de

  20. Power processing for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Herron, B. G.; Gant, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of achieving up to 30 per cent more spacecraft payload or 50 per cent more useful operating life by the use of electric propulsion in place of conventional cold gas or hydrazine systems in science, communications, and earth applications spacecraft is a compelling reason to consider the inclusion of electric thruster systems in new spacecraft design. The propulsion requirements of such spacecraft dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by lightweight, efficient, and reliable thruster power processing systems. This paper will present electron bombardment ion thruster requirements; review the performance characteristics of present power processing systems; discuss design philosophies and alternatives in areas such as inverter type, arc protection, and control methods; and project future performance potentials for meeting goals in the areas of power processor weight (10 kg/kW), efficiency (approaching 92 per cent), reliability (0.96 for 15,000 hr), and thermal control capability (0.3 to 5 AU).

  1. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  2. Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft. This paper discusses our development of a diagnostic capability for an electrical power...

  3. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  4. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Publications | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL and Electric Machines Publications Power Electronics and Electric Machines Publications NREL and its partners have produced many papers and presentations related to power electronics and from power electronics and electric machines research are available to the public. Photo by Pat Corkery

  5. Experience of electric power conservation in COELBA (Bahia Electric Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, A.C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power crisis of Brazilian north-east in 1987 imposes the Bahia Electric Company-COELBA to management a electric power conservation. The institutional, organizational and operational aspects are presented, including the tariff system, the market, the consumption and the relation with public. (author)

  6. Electric Power Research in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This book of contents are a study of desalination by Kim, Young Bu, a study on efficiency test for nuclear power security by Jo, Sung Je; Ann, Nam Sung; Kim, Ho Gi, augmentation of EMS and RYU by Jung, Tae Hoe; Shin, Young Chuel, research on application for electric cars by Yu, Ann Gue, practical use oft robot for nuclear industry by Woo, He Gone; Shin, Hen Beom, a study on the characteristics of coolant structure in generator by Choi, Beng Hwan; Song, Young Chel; Kim, Jong Hark, and research of penetration rate of appliances by Park, Hong Ho; Kim, Beng Cheal; Kim, Dong Hwen.

  7. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  8. Electric power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, Y.N.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of electric power in the USSR is based on the Unified Electric Power System (UEPS) whose network cover most of the habitable territory of the country. Therefore, the development of the UEPS governs the overall evolution of the electric power generation in the country. At present, eleven out of thirteen joint electric power systems, which supply electricity to most of the USSR, are operating within the UEPS. The total electric power generation in the country reached 1728 billion kWh in 1990, of which the UEPS supplied approximately 90%. About 70% of installed capacity of the UEPS is fossil-fuelled power plants, about 12 % is nuclear power plants, and about 18% is hydroelectric power plants. The system-forming grid of the UEPS is made up of transmission lines of 220, 330, 500 and 750 kV. The on-line supervisory control of the UEPS is achieved by four-level automated system of dispatch control (UEPS, joint electric power systems, regional electric power systems, electric power plants, substations,electric grid regions). The development and extension of the UEPS in the USSR ensure higher reliability and quality of electric power supply to end-users, combined with higher efficiency. The principal problem facing the UEPS are as follows: the need to ensure environmental protection and efficiency of the steam power plants; to improve the safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants. The solution to these problems will define the conditions of the UEPS development, as well as electric power systems of other countries, at least for the coming two decades. This paper characterizes the peculiarities of the UEPS development over the last 20 years, including the installed capacity structure and the system-forming electric power grid. Special attention is paid to the environmental problems related to functioning and development of the UEPS and to the means of their solution. (author)

  9. Introduction to electrical power and power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2012-01-01

    Power Generation, Distribution, and Utilization AC Power Fundamentals Common Aspects of Power Equipments AC Generator AC and DC Motors Transformer Power Cable Power Distribution Fault Current Analysis System ProtectionEconomic Use of PowerElectrochemical BatteryPower Electronics and Motor Drives Power Electronics Devices DC-DC Converters AC-DC-AC Converters Variable-Frequency Drives Quality of Power Power Converter CoolingAppendixIndex

  10. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  11. Employees Who Use Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person who uses a wheelchair, do not lean on the wheelchair unless you have permission to ... currently no specific federal requirements regarding ergonomics for office workers. However, there has been some effort to ...

  12. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...

  13. Development of an alternative to mechanical shaft encoders for a “smart” wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen M; Schultz, Dana L; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    One device that is receiving a considerable amount of attention in the biomedical community is the “smart” wheelchair. “Smart” wheelchairs provide those who are unable to control the traditional joystick of a powered wheelchair with an alternative option. With minimal user input, these wheelchairs are able to autonomously navigate around a person’s environment, providing them with a higher level of mobility. The limited competition and extreme complexity of these wheelchairs propels their price outside of the affordable range for the average household. An alternative, cheaper system that could be attached to a typical powered wheelchair would be beneficial to the community.

  14. Wheelchairs propulsion analysis: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Sagawa Júnior

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze aspects related with wheelchair propulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to delineate this review the search for information was carried out within electronics databases, using the following descriptors: "wheelchair propulsion", "wheelchair biomechanics" e "wheelchair users". Full papers published in English and French were included in the study. RESULTS: The wheelchair propulsion is a complex movement that requires the execution of repeated bi manual forces applications during a short time period. In this movement high levels of force must be produced due to the bad mechanical performance of the wheelchair. Could be characterized that wheelchair users are not satisfied with their wheelchair, the places are not adapted to their presence and lack of specific criteria for the adjustment of this equipment. The main points to look at are the seat height in relation to elbow flexion (100-120 degrees with his hand in the propulsion rim and tire pressure. The semicircular mode of technique propulsion seems to be more appropriate; in this pattern the wheelchair user returns his hand under the rim after propulsion. Efforts in wheelchairs are high and the incidence of injuries in wheelchair users is high. CONCLUSION: One can conclude that in spite of researchers’ efforts there are still many divergences between topics and methods of evaluation, what makes difficult to apply the experimental results to the wheelchairs users’ daily life.

  15. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  16. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview

  17. Compact portable electric power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  19. Electric power system applications of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Structure of a Generic Electric Power System  Power System Models  Power System Control Power System Security Assessment  Power System Optimization as a Function of Time  Review of Optimization Techniques Applicable to Power Systems Electric Power System Models  Complex Power Concepts Three-Phase Systems Per Unit Representation  Synchronous Machine Modeling Reactive Capability Limits Prime Movers and Governing Systems  Automatic Gain Control Transmission Subsystems  Y-Bus Incorporating the Transformer Effect  Load Models  Available Transfer Capability  Illustrative Examples  Power

  20. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  1. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  2. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  3. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  4. Electric power: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetzer, H.

    1994-01-01

    When, at the turn of the century, public electric power supply facilities were created and in 1908, the electric power stations of the Swiss canton of Zurich (EKZ) were built, only a third of the communities in the Zurich area could boast about being the consumers of this new energy. But what did the first electrically powered devices and machines look like? This, and more, is presented in the ''electric power house'' in Burenwisen Glattfelden in the canton of Zurich. Besides a Kaplan turbine and a sample of the most interesting devices from the past and the present, the focus of the exhibition is on the presentation of the new and old sources of light. The EKZ are pleased to be able to present their ''electric power house'' to the public, providing a broad range of information on energy-related questions and the development of electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  5. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornick, R.; Zeppieri, J.; Rudden, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  6. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  7. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  8. Electric power annual 1995. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding U.S. electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy. In the private sector, the majority of the users of the Electric Power Annual are researchers and analysts and, ultimately, individuals with policy- and decisionmaking responsibilities in electric utility companies. Financial and investment institutions, economic development organizations interested in new power plant construction, special interest groups, lobbyists, electric power associations, and the news media will find data in the Electric Power Annual useful. In the public sector, users include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals with regulatory, policy, and program responsibilities for Federal, State, and local governments. The Congress and other legislative bodies may also be interested in general trends related to electricity at State and national levels. Much of the data in these reports can be used in analytic studies to evaluate new legislation. Public service commissions and other special government groups share an interest in State-level statistics. These groups can also compare the statistics for their States with those of other jurisdictions

  9. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  10. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  11. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  12. Improving Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, Thom T.J.; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. DESIGN: Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to

  13. Maximizing electrical power supply using FACTS devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Karsten; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Modern society critically depends on the services electric power provides. Power systems rely on a network of power lines and transformers to deliver power from sources of power (generators) to the consumers (loads). However, when power lines fail (for example, through lightning or natural disasters) or when the system is heavily used, the network is often unable to fulfill all of the demand for power. While systems are vulnerable to these failures, increasingly, sophisticated control devices...

  14. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  15. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  16. Power exchange game in the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyykko, S.; Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Lassila, J.; Honkapuro, S.; Tahvanainen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Since it is not economically reasonable to build parallel electricity networks, in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, electricity distribution is protected by monopoly. However, electricity production and selling have been opened up to competition by connecting the transmission networks of these countries together, and it is possible to produce electricity where it is cheapest. A common electricity power market, called Nord Pool, has been created where electricity can be bought, sold or used as an exchange product. In order to help students understand the operation of electricity markets and the use of different electricity exchange products, the Department of Electrical Engineering at Lappeenranta University developed a scheme in which the theory can be used in practice. In the scheme, students are given the responsibility to manage the electricity markets of power companies in order analyze, plan and make decisions, which are skills required on the open power markets. The paper provided an introduction to the electricity markets in Nordic countries and discussed Nord Pool and its products. Information about education at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Lappeenranta University of Technology was also presented. The paper also provided details of the power exchange scheme on the electricity markets. 6 refs., 17 figs

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  18. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  19. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  20. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  1. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  2. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  3. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  4. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  5. Electric power supply in China. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Heng

    1987-01-01

    Professor Chen, visiting professor at the RWTH Aachen, gave several lectures dealing with his country, the electric power supply in China and with special research activities of Chinese scientists. This article is based on two of his lectures, and will be published in two parts, the first of which provides a brief description of China, an overview on electric power supply, and a brief description of the large power plants and large electrical subsystems. The second part will deal with operation planning, extension planning as well as with research and development in the field of electric energy supply. (orig.) [de

  6. Common issues concerning electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    EDF and GDF, the French government owned electric power and gas utilities have jointly decided to improve their employment and employee situation with the hiring of 11000 to 15000 young people for a 3-year period and the reduction of the working hours. A european disagreement is to be judged concerning electric power and gas import and export monopolies in several european countries

  7. Distributed control of deregulated electrical power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable operation of electrical power networks is that supply and demand are balanced at all time, as efficient ways for storing large amounts of electrical energy are scarce. Balancing is challenging, however, due to the power system's dimensions and complexity, the low

  8. Th european market of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  9. Microelectronics in power electronics and electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    From October, 1214, 1982 at Darmstadt (FRG) a meeting took place on ''Microelectronics in power electronics and Electrical Drives''. This volume contains the papers of the 65 lectures, held at the symposium. For each of the 10 papers dealing with problems on electric-powered vehicles a separate subject analysis has been carried out.

  10. Electric Power Research in 1988 No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This book deals with eight fields of electric power, which are study on the high level of confidence of electronic control system with micro computers in a field of generator, study on the emergency scenarios of radiation in nuclear power plant in a field of nuclear energy, research for improvement of record and calculation of SCADA system in a field of supply of electric power, study on the utilization and survey of domestic Bio-mass in a field of energy, and study on the digital communications net for electric power in a field of communication.

  11. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  12. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  13. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  14. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  15. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  16. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  19. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  20. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  1. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  2. Electrical Power Budget for FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Aull, S.; Bozzini, D.; Brunner, O.; Burnet, J.-P.; Butterworth, A.; Calaga, R.; Jensen, E.; Mertens, V.; Milanese, A.; Nonis, M.; Oide, K.; Schwerg, N.; Tavian, L.; Wenninger, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Rinolfi, L; Blondel, A.; Koratzinos, M.; Gorgi Zadeh, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a first rough estimate for the electrical power consumption of the FCC-ee lepton collider. This electrical power is dominated by the RF system, which provides the motivation for the ongoing R&D on highly efficient RF power sources. Other contributions come from the warm arc magnets, the cryogenics systems, cooling, ventilation, general services, the particle-physics detectors, and the injector complex.

  3. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  4. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  5. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles....... The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle...

  6. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  7. Electric power. Enron establishes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The US Enron group and the Italian Enel group have decided to create a joint-venture for the production of electric power in Italy. Their activities will be based on the transformation of existing classical thermal power plants into natural gas fueled combined cycle power plants. The total capacity of the converted power plants will be of 5000 MW. Enron should invest about 3 billions of US Dollars in this project and will be in a privileged position when the Italian electric power market will be open to competition in 1999. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. An options model for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Kanchan; Ramesh, V.C.

    1997-01-01

    The international electric utility industry is undergoing a radical transformation from an essentially regulated and monopolistic industry to an industry made uncertain with impending deregulation and the advent of competitive forces. This paper investigates the development of an options market for bulk power trading in a market setup while considering power system planning and operational constraints and/or requirements. In so doing it considers the different market based financial derivative instruments while can be used to trade electrical power in bulk and examines how established tools such as Optimal Power Flow (OPF) may be applied in helping to develop a price for bulk power transactions under a market based setup. (Author)

  9. Important wheelchair skills for new manual wheelchair users: health care professional and wheelchair user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri A; Engsberg, Jack R; Gray, David B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify wheelchair skills currently being taught to new manual wheelchair users, identify areas of importance for manual wheelchair skills' training during initial rehabilitation, identify similarities and differences between the perspectives of health care professionals and manual wheelchair users and use the ICF to organize themes related to rehabilitation and learning how to use a manual wheelchair. Focus groups were conducted with health care professionals and experienced manual wheelchair users. ICF codes were used to identify focus group themes. The Activities and Participation codes were more frequently used than Structure, Function and Environment codes. Wheelchair skills identified as important for new manual wheelchair users included propulsion techniques, transfers in an out of the wheelchair, providing maintenance to the wheelchair and navigating barriers such as curbs, ramps and rough terrain. Health care professionals and manual wheelchair users identified the need to incorporate the environment (home and community) into the wheelchair training program. Identifying essential components for training the proper propulsion mechanics and wheelchair skills in new manual wheelchair users is an important step in preventing future health and participation restrictions. Implications for Rehabilitation Wheelchair skills are being addressed frequently during rehabilitation at the activity-dependent level. Propulsion techniques, transfers in an out of the wheelchair, providing maintenance to the wheelchair and navigating barriers such as curbs, ramps and rough terrain are important skills to address during wheelchair training. Environment factors (in the home and community) are important to incorporate into wheelchair training to maximize safe and multiple-environmental-setting uses of manual wheelchairs. The ICF has application to understanding manual wheelchair rehabilitation for wheelchair users and therapists for improving

  10. Optimal control applications in electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, G S; Soliman, S A

    1987-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of optimal control have been made over the past few decades. These advances have been well documented in numerous fine publications, and have motivated a number of innovations in electric power system engineering, but they have not yet been collected in book form. Our purpose in writing this book is to provide a description of some of the applications of optimal control techniques to practical power system problems. The book is designed for advanced undergraduate courses in electric power systems, as well as graduate courses in electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and industrial engineering. It is also intended as a self-study aid for practicing personnel involved in the planning and operation of electric power systems for utilities, manufacturers, and consulting and government regulatory agencies. The book consists of seven chapters. It begins with an introductory chapter that briefly reviews the history of optimal control and its power system applications and also p...

  11. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  12. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  13. Nuclear power's effects on electric rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.S.; Lancaster, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Government and the electric utility industry are re-evaluating nuclear power's contribution to the total U.S. energy supplies. This article addresses how the recently increased nuclear plant construction and operation costs are translated into the prices that consumers pay for electricity. The electric rates that consumers pay must reflect the costs of producing electricity, as well as the costs of transmission, distribution, metering, and billing. The use of nuclear power for electric production is anticipated to grow rapidly so as to meet a larger portion of our country's electricity needs through the end of the century; so nuclear power costs are expected to be an even larger portion of the total electricity price. There are certain rate-making issues that are actively being discussed in public forums and before state and Federal regulatory bodies. These issues are not unique to nuclear power, but take on added significance when nuclear power is used by utilities to produce electricity because of the technology required and because of the type, timing, and magnitude of the costs involved. These are: (1) inclusion of construction work in progress in the rate base; (2) fuel adjustment clauses and treatment of nuclear fuel cycle costs; (3) treatment of certain taxes under the rate-making method called normalization or deferral accounting (sometimes referred to as ''phantom taxes''); and (4) rate treatment for particular nuclear expense items reflecting costs of delays, plant cancellations, and operational slowdowns

  14. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  15. Innovation in electric power technologies in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohfusa, Takahiro; Hayasaka, Eiji; Ino, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the title by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Tohoku Electric Power and other nine enterprises in Japan. The outline is as follows. Tokyo Electric Power Company stated pipe thinning by the hot water based two-phase flow testing device, development of technologies for corrosion protection of nuclear reactor using titanium oxide, evaluation of fatigue damage by EBSD, and study of duty on the nuclear power plant. Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) stated the mechanism of decrease in exposure dose of the primary coolant system by zinc infusion, outline of Air Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic Analysis System (AVIDAS) and the grand packing system, development of SAPLS, the automatic search program of fuel position for design of PWR related core, development of compact containment water reactor (CCR) and FBR cycle system, investigation of the chain destruction of active fault under consideration of dynamic interaction of active faults and decommissioning of Tokai Nuclear Power Plant. Electric Power Development Company reported construction of the Oma Nuclear Power Plant, a future nuclear plant in Oma, Aomori. The reactor will be capable of using 100% MOX fuel core (MOX-ABWR). The operation will start November 2014. (S.Y.)

  16. Effect of passive limb activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation on wheelchair driving in patients with unilateral spatial neglect: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Yoshihiro

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Passive limb activation by FES improved wheelchair driving and cognitive performance for patients with USN. It can be used with instruction from occupational therapists to enhance the performance on ADL.

  17. An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already

  18. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  19. MODEL OF CHANNEL AIRBORN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Demchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to math modeling of channel of alternate current airborne electrical power-supply system. Considered to modeling of synchronous generator that runs on three-phase static load.

  20. Exomars 2016 Mission Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciancetta Ezio

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the Exomars 2016 Electrical Power System (EPS design, providing a description of the major design drivers and resulting configuration, with a view to highlight aspects that could be considered for future designs.

  1. The future of fission-electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morowski, J.V.

    1983-06-01

    Future worldwide electricity supply needs dictate the necessity of maintaining a sound capability for electricity and electric power generating facilities, including nuclear, as viable export commodities. A survey of fission-power plant types and the status of worldwide nuclear electric power illustrates the primary emphasis on LWR's and HWR's as two leading types in the export market. This survey examines the factors affecting the market prospects for the next five to fifteen years and provides a discussion on some possible improvements to current market circumstances. A comparative description is provided for some of the types of LWR and CANDU characteristics such as quantities, schedules, constructability factors, and equipment and system. Important factors in the selection process for future nuclear power plants are discussed. Some factors included are seismic design requirements; plant design description and possible site layout; plant protection, control and instrumentation; thermal cycle design and arrangement; and special construction and rigging requirements

  2. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  3. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  4. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mude, Kishore Naik

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems transfer electric energy from a source to a load without any wired connection. WPTs are attractive for many industrial applications because of their advantages compared to the wired counterpart, such as no exposed wires, ease of charging, and fearless transmission of power in adverse environmental conditions. Adoption of WPTs to charge the on-board batteries of an electric vehicle (EV) has got attention from some companies, and efforts are being made for ...

  5. Switching conditions in the electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukushi, M.; Hirasawa, K.; Kurosawa, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a circuit breaker must be capable of making, carrying, and interrupting the current under both normal and abnormal conditions, especially in the case of a short-circuit fault. Before installing a circuit breaker, it is necessary to estimate the maximum short-circuit current that can occur in the electric power system and then select a circuit breaker that can interrupt and make the estimated current. Many types of short-circuit faults occur in electric power systems

  6. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  7. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  8. The BPX electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttar, D.; Bronnev, G.; Fromm, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which when operating at a toroidal field of 8.1 tesla and a plasma current of 10.6 megamps, requires peak power of 1235 megawatts and total pulse energy of over 21 gigajoules. These requirements are twice and over four times the corresponding figures for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), respectively. The design of the BPX power system has evolved, along with the tokamak, over a period of several years and has included studies of several alternative approaches. The reapplication of the existing TFTR power and energy facilities has been basic to all approaches. Among the new sources of pulse power and energy that have been considered are: direct utility grid pulsing, new flywheel units, and lead-acid storage batteries. The toroidal field power requirements are the greatest of the BPX subsystems and, fortunately, are sufficiently free of dynamics to allow the consideration of all approaches. Additional design challenges were presented by the multiplicity of plasma control scenarios incorporated in the BPX physics planning and the power response demanded of the plasma position control system

  9. Visuo-locomotor control in persons with spinal cord injury in a manual or power wheelchair for direction change and obstacle circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Caroline; Routhier, François; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2017-09-01

    Many individuals, such as persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), rely on wheeled locomotion involving manual (MWC) or power (PWC) wheelchairs to navigate their environments. Yet, visuo-locomotor control underlying WC navigation in experienced users is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the visuo-locomotor control between MWC and PWC in individuals with SCI while changing direction and circumventing an obstacle. Participants with SCI using a MWC (n = 12, 38.5 ± 10.7 years) or a PWC (n = 10, 47.8 ± 8.6 years) were asked to maneuver their chair straight ahead, while changing direction 45° to the right, and while circumventing an obstacle to the right, all at self-selected speeds. Speed, minimal clearance, point of deviation, temporal body and WC coordination, relative timing of segment rotations and visual behavior were analyzed. There was no main effect of group for speed, clearance and point of deviation. During direction change, the head always led body and wheelchair reorientation while an "en bloc" strategy was used for circumventing obstacle for both groups. In straight-ahead locomotion, participants predominantly fixed their gaze on the end target. During direction change and obstacle circumvention, participants fixated more on the future path and the obstacle for both WC modes. Overall, specific gaze behavior depended on environmental demands. While MWC and PWC users adopt similar navigational strategies and visuo-locomotor coordination while changing direction and circumventing obstacle, there were some differences in the amount of head rotation that could be related to a counter-movement used more by PWC users.

  10. Electrical power system integrated thermal/electrical system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper adds thermal properties to previously developed electrical Saber templates and incorporates these templates into a functional Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) simulation. These combined electrical and thermal templates enable the complete and realistic simulation of a vehicle EPS on-orbit. Applications include on-orbit energy balance determinations for system load changes, initial array and battery EPS sizing for new EPS development, and array and battery technology trade studies. This effort proves the versatility of the Saber simulation program in handling varied and complex simulations accurately and in a reasonable amount of computer time. 9 refs

  11. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  12. General conditions for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    If it is uncertain whether future power bills will be paid fully, it is admissible to take an action claiming a declaration which states that the electricity rate payment boycotter has no right to non-payment nor a right to withhold payment towards the electricity supply utility, and that the electricity supply utility has the right to stop energy supply because of reduced electricity rate payments effected and/or announced, and to denounce the contract without observing any term of notice. If the electricity buyer reduces a power bill to be paid without any legal grounds, the electricity supply utility has the right to stop power supplies and to denounce the power supply contract without observing any term of notice. The freedom of thought and the freedom of opinion must not be expressed by reducing power bills to be paid. Basic rights discontinue to be effective as soon as a contract or law is broken. A weighing of protected interests is not effected if the exercise of a basic law is unlawful. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  14. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  15. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  16. Appraisal and financing of electric power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper starts with the origin, nature and functions of the World Bank Group, reviews the past lending, describes the criteria used by the Bank in its power project appraisals, discusses the Bank's views on nuclear power, and concludes with a look at the probable future sources of financing of electrical expansion in the less developed countries. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of history construction of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. The chart of electricity generation in WWER 440/V-213 nuclear power plant is described. Operation and safety improvements at Mochovce NPP as well as environment protection are presented. Basic data of Mochovce NPP are included

  18. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  19. Values in the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    A basic conclusion established by the seven essays presented is that nowhere within the complex decision-making process of the electric power industry is there any provision for systematically considering the curtailment of consumption as a serious alternative to continued expansion of power production. Six recommendations are summarized for concrete steps toward remedying this deficiency as a result of examining the essays. Continued expansion of power generation could result in desirable consequences of economic growth, jobs, ready transportation, and many consumer conveniences; undesirable consequences are: increasing air and water pollution, further depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased dependence on foreign sources of energy. The papers are: A Cybernetic Analysis of Certain Energy Consumption Patterns, by Kenneth Sayre; Social and Environmental Value in Power Plant Licensing: A Study in the Regulation of Nuclear Power by Vaughn McKim; Legal and Economic Aspects of the Electric Utility's ''Mandate to Serve'', by Charles Murdock; Economies of Scale in the Electric Power Industry, by Kenneth Jameson; Dynamics of Growth in the U.S. Electric Power Industry, by Ellen Maher; Utilitarianism and Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Essay on the Relevance of Moral Philosophy to Bureaucratic Theory, by Alasdair MacIntyre; and An Ethical Analysis of Power Company Decision-Making, by Kenneth Goodpaster and Kenneth Sayre. (MCW)

  20. Corrosion control in electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrett, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that corrosion of components in power plants costs the US electric power utility industry billions of dollars each year. Through the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) research and development, several approaches have been developed to reduce these huge costs. They include improved materials selection procedures, coatings, cathodic protection, inhibitors, removal of aggressive species from the environment, and on-line corrosion monitoring. In addition, as part of an on-going technology transfer effort, EPRI is developing databases and expert systems that will help utilities obtain corrosion information and guide them in materials selection and failure analysis

  1. Electric power: liberalization in half-measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1996-01-01

    The European directive about the electric power liberalization concerns only big consumers. These manufacturers have privileged relations with E.D.F. for long years with a very attractive price for the kilowatt hour. The change should not be very important, only more transparency in accounts and change in tariffs of power transmission: for example, a small electric power producer will be authorized to contest the buying price that E.D.F. imposes to him to transport the energy he produces. (N.C.)

  2. Fundamentals of electric power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umans, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective

  3. The electric power engineering handbook power system stability and control

    CERN Document Server

    Grisby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    With contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, Power System Stability and Control, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) updates coverage of recent developments and rapid technological growth in essential aspects of power systems. Edited by L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Miroslav Begovic, Prabha Kundur, and Bruce Wollenberg, this reference presents substantially new and revised content. Topics covered include: * Power System Protection * Power System Dynamics and Stability *

  4. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  5. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world's growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs

  6. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world`s growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs.

  7. Nuclear power in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Economic deregulation in the power sector raises new challenges for the prospects of nuclear power. A key issue is to assess whether nuclear power can be competitive in a de-regulated electricity market. Other important considerations include safety, nuclear liability and insurance, the nuclear power infrastructure, and health and environmental protection. This study, conducted by a group of experts from twelve OECD Member countries and three international organisations, provides a review and analysis of these issues, as related to both existing and future nuclear power plants. It will be of particular interest to energy analysts, as well as to policy makers in the nuclear and government sectors. (author)

  8. Methods of formation of efficiency indexes of electric power sources integration in regional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, L.I.; Myzin, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    A methodic approach to the grounding of the integration process efficiency within the Unified electric power system is given together with the selection of a rational areal structure and concentration of power-generating source capacities. Formation of an economic functional according to alternative scenavies including the cost components taking account of the regional interests is considered. A method for estimation and distribution of the effect from electric power production integration in the power systems under new economic conditions is proposed

  9. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  10. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nike Shanku

    2010-01-01

    Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many m...

  11. A centennial book of Korea electric power corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book gives description of KEPC with power and life such as lighting, electric power, electric heat and communication, introduction of electric civilization, establishment and manage of Hansung electric company on opening of electric train, regulation of the train, opening of lamp business, construction of Yongsan generator, the Japanese invasion with trouble of supplying electricity, control over power business and development of water power generation, division of Korea and Korea war on damage out of Korea war and rebuild, development and growth on establishment of Korea electric power, establishment of Korea electric power by private and water power development project, stability and development, and challenge for future.

  12. Fourteenth electric power survey of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Fourteenth Electric Power Supply Committee was set up by the Government of India in February 1989 to review the demand projections for electric power, in detail, keeping in view the Eight Plan proposals and to project the perspective demand for (electric) power upto the year 2009-10. Partial End-use method was adopted for forecasting the power demands over a short term period. For estimating the power requirements on a long-term basis, the trend in overall requirements in a state system formed the basis of projections. The long term forecast covering the period 1995-96 to 2009-10 was made by extrapolating the overall requirement of electricity for various states and Union Territories with 1994-95 as the base year. The data were collected from various State Electricity Boards, Public utilities, concerned departments of State Governments and various Ministries and Departments of the Government of India and were computerised. The data base was used to develop a number of scenarios and to make projections. (M.G.B.)

  13. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  14. Economy of electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, G.; Delfanti, M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the impact of H V and Ehv transmission costs on the final value of the kWh supplied, with reference both to transmission systems of the European type and to long distance point-to-point transmission links. The analysis is extended to A C transmission by underground cables and to Hvdc submarine and aerial links. In the European power system, the impact of transmission costs results to be usually modest, but it may become important in the case of network congestions [it

  15. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  16. How many people would benefit from a smart wheelchair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Cooper, Rory A

    2008-01-01

    Independent mobility is important, but some wheelchair users find operating existing manual or powered wheelchairs difficult or impossible. Challenges to safe, independent wheelchair use can result from various overlapping physical, perceptual, or cognitive symptoms of diagnoses such as spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accident, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Persons with different symptom combinations can benefit from different types of assistance from a smart wheelchair and different wheelchair form factors. The sizes of these user populations have been estimated based on published estimates of the number of individuals with each of several diseases who (1) also need a wheeled mobility device and (2) have specific symptoms that could interfere with mobility device use.

  17. Power quality in power systems and electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable

  18. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  19. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  20. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  1. Nuclear power within liberalised electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Competition between various methods of generating electricity in liberalised markets means that all power plants must be cost-effective. The price of electricity from nuclear power includes all waste disposal and decommissioning costs, unlike other electricity generating technologies. Most existing nuclear power plants are likely to prosper under electricity liberalization. Many will receive operating life extensions and be able to compete in the electricity market for many years to come. Investment costs are particularly heavy for nuclear plants. Capital expenditure appraisal methodologies mean that such plants suffer financial disadvantages in times of high interest rates. Low and stable fuel costs are the prime advantage of nuclear plants against other sources of generating electricity. There will be significant demand for new generating capacity, both incremental and replacement, in the next 20 years. Under present conditions, where there is access to a stable and cheap supply of piped gas, nuclear and coal plants find it difficult to compete against gas-fired plants. The nuclear industry is addressing the need for new reactor designs, offering significant capital and operating cost reductions from the previous generation of reactors. This development and the need for carbon abatement on a worldwide basis offers nuclear plants a further economic advantage against alternative technologies. (author)

  2. Hedging electricity price volatility using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is an important asset to reduce the volatility of electricity prices. • Unpredictability of fossil fuels and carbon prices makes power prices very volatile. • The dynamics of fossil fuels and carbon prices is described by Brownian motions. • LCOE values, volatilities and correlations are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations. • Optimal portfolios of generating technologies are get using a mean–variance approach. - Abstract: The analysis presented in this paper aims to put in some evidence the role of nuclear power as hedging asset against the volatility of electricity prices. The unpredictability of natural gas and coal market prices as well as the uncertainty in environmental policies may affect power generating costs, thus enhancing volatility in electricity market prices. The nuclear option, allowing to generate electricity without carbon emissions, offers the possibility to reduce the volatility of electricity prices through optimal diversification of power generating technologies. This paper provides a methodological scheme to plan well diversified “portfolios” of generating capacity that minimize the electricity price risk induced by random movements of fossil fuels market prices and by unpredictable fluctuations of carbon credits prices. The analysis is developed within a stochastic environment in which the dynamics of fuel prices as well as the dynamics of carbon credits prices is assumed to evolve in time according to well defined Brownian processes. Starting from market data and using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate generating cost values, the hedging argument is developed by selecting optimal portfolio of power generating technologies using a mean–variance approach

  3. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  4. Electric power annual 1998. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this report, Electric Power Annual 1998 Volume 1 (EPAVI), is to provide a comprehensive overview of the electric power industry during the most recent year for which data have been collected, with an emphasis on the major changes that occurred. In response to the changes of 1998, this report has been expanded in scope. It begins with a general review of the year and incorporates new data on nonutility capacity and generation, transmission information, futures prices from the Commodity futures Trading commission, and wholesale spot market prices from the pennsylvania-new Jersey-Maryland Independent System Operator and the California Power Exchange. Electric utility statistics at the Census division and State levels on generation, fuel consumption, stocks, delivered cost of fossil fuels, sales to ultimate customers, average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold, and revenues from those retail sales can be found in Appendix A. The EPAVI is intended for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public.

  5. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel; Usatorre, Karine de

    2007-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  6. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  7. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    Barsebaeck 1 was closed on 30 November 1999. Barsebaeck's output of approximately 4 TWh per year will primarily be replaced by imports from coal-fired plants in Denmark and Germany. During the year, the closure of Swedish fossil-fired condensing power stations continued. With that, over 3,000 MW of peak-load power has been shut down during recent years. Consequently, situations entailing shortages of power can arise. On the deregulated electricity market, it is only the system operators that have a satisfactory overview of the overall electricity balance. The Swedish Power Association has thus lobbied the government as regards the need to elucidate Svenska Kraftnaet's responsibility. In a governmental decision from December, Svenska Kraftnaet was given the task of, among other things, monitoring the available capacity during peak loads and developing market instruments that can contribute to safeguarding the availability of power during peak loads. Svenska Kraftnaet has acquired gas turbines with a combined output power of 400 MW from Vattenfall. In order to cover the remaining requirement for rapid disruption reserves, Svenska Kraftnaet also has agreements with several power producers regarding a further 800 MW of gas turbine capacity. One further possibility lies in agreements with industry regarding the disconnection of consumption during times of peak loading. On 1 January 2000, the nuclear power tax was increased by SEK 0.005 per kWh to SEK 0.027 per kWh. This means that the nuclear power companies pay approximately SEK 1,800 MSEK per year in fiscal taxation on their nuclear power generation. The tax on electrical energy, paid by the consumer, was raised by SEK 0.011 to SEK 0.162 per kWh. The tax on diesel fuel was increased at the same time by SEK 0.25 per litre. In addition, a special network fee of SEK 0.002 per kWh came into existence in order to finance small-scale electricity generation, following removal of the obligation-to-receive system. The Swedish

  8. Reactor power control method upon accidents of electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to continue the operation of a BWR type reactor by avoiding the scram while suppressing the reactor power, just after the external disturbance such as earth-trouble in power-transmission network. Method: Steep power drop of an electrical generator is to be detected not only by a current-type power-load-unbalance relay but also with a power-type power-load-unbalance-relay. If steep power-drop was detected by the latter relay, a previously selected control rod is rapidly inserted into the reactor. In this way, in the case where there is a possibility of the reactor scram, the scram can be avoided by suppressing the reactor power, thus the reactor operation can be continued. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Electrical connections: Iran's power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Attention is drawn to business opportunities in Iran, a middle-eastern country that is still in the process of rebuilding its power generating capacity in the wake of its eight-year-long war with Iraq. In reviewing opportunities to tap into this market , the article lists a number of factors that must be considered before rushing to follow the current. One of these factors is the U.S. trade embargo against Iran. Under this embargo Canada does not allow the re-export of goods of U.S. origin from Canada to Iran. The complex character of doing business in Iran by foreign companies must also be considered. Nevertheless,, those who are well prepared to face the restrictions and are willing to take the time to learn about the 'Iranian way' may receive considerable help from the Export Development Corporation, including financing and insurance on a case-by-case basis. The Canadian government's program for export market development also offers direct financial assistance to Canadian exporters in an effort to reduce the risk of entering a foreign market. The Canadian Embassy in Tehran can also provide useful advice and assistance. There is also http://exportsource.gc.ca., Team Canada Inc.'s on-line resource that may be consulted for export information

  10. Optimal electricity market for wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about electricity market operation when looking from the wind power producers' point of view. The focus in on market time horizons: how many hours there is between the closing and delivering the bids. The case is for the Nordic countries, the Nordpool electricity market and the Danish wind power production. Real data from year 2001 was used to study the benefits of a more flexible market to wind power producer. As a result of reduced regulating market costs from better hourly predictions to the market, wind power producer would gain up to 8% more if the time between market bids and delivery was shortened from the day ahead Elspot market (hourly bids by noon for 12-36 h ahead). An after sales market where surplus or deficit production could be traded 2 h before delivery could benefit the producer almost as much, gaining 7%

  11. Slovak electric power systems 1920 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the picture of more than 110-year old history of the building and maintenance of power stations in Slovakia. The beginnings were the same as elsewhere in the world. Small, local sources of electrical energy had been built for own needs and it had lasted for decades, until people realized that electricity could be produced for the whole communities and towns and that there was a possibility of the supply of the electricity for public. The purposeful electrification although started in this country only after the World War I, after the Law No. 438/1918 had been issued. While the period till the World War I has the character of endless experiments of utilizing electrical industry, transport, agriculture and households, the period after World War I is explicitly focused on building of unified electrification system for production, transport and distribution of electrical energy. Instead of course, the experts are trained for the first time at professional technical schools and after the year 1943 also at the School of Technology in Bratislava, the predecessor of the University of technology and at the other professional schools. Time is ready. The demand for electrical energy is growing together with the power of generators and voltage level of distribution lines. Besides the energy supply, also power plants, production and supply of heat started to be prosperous, especially in the regions where conditions for such activities had been provided. The changes in the 'power station family' are also registered in the legislative documents, which better present and explain the new historical circumstances. The lives of power station employees were deeply affected by many political and war event in the period of the World War II. In spite of this fact, they could manage their tasks also in these extraordinary conditions. The short part is about the social security of employees. The conclusion contains also basic conceptions envisaged for

  12. Electric power plants and networks. Elektrische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happoldt, H [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Centralen; Oeding, D [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Zentralbereich Forschung und Entwicklung

    1978-01-01

    This book is itended for enginers working in the planning, construction and operation of plants to generate and distribute electric power; it is also a valuable aid for students of power engineering. This new edition places more emphasis on the presentation and calculation of three-phase current networks with the aid of symmetric components. The equations used for calculation are adapted to VDE regulations as far as possible.

  13. Power generation investment in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most IEA countries are liberalizing their electricity markets, shifting the responsibility for financing new investment in power generation to private investors. No longer able to automatically pass on costs to consumers, and with future prices of electricity uncertain, investors face a much riskier environment for investment in electricity infrastructure. This report looks at how investors have responded to the need to internalize investment risk in power generation. While capital and total costs remain the parameters shaping investment choices, the value of technologies which can be installed quickly and operated flexibly is increasingly appreciated. Investors are also managing risk by greater use of contracting, by acquiring retail businesses, and through mergers with natural gas suppliers. While liberalization was supposed to limit government intervention in the electricity market, volatile electricity prices have put pressure on governments to intervene and limit such prices. This study looks at several cases of volatile prices in IEA countries' electricity markets, and finds that while market prices can be a sufficient incentive for new investment in peak capacity, government intervention into the market to limit prices may undermine such investment

  14. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical power system must have a power source and a separate emergency power source, so that failure of one...

  15. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  16. A norse electric power ''a la carte''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Big consumers, the norse countries opened the electric power market to offer to the enterprises and the individual consumers many suppliers and also different energy sources choice. It seems that this offer is not always followed by a tariffs decrease. (A.L.B.)

  17. Advanced LVDC Electrical Power Architectures and Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Current trends indicate that worldwide electricity distribution networks are experiencing a transformation towards direct-current (DC) at both generation and consumption level. This tendency is powered by the outburst of various electronic loads and, at the same time, with the struggle to meet...

  18. Survey of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Brandner, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Areas investigated include: (1) load analysis; (2) power distribution, conversion techniques and generation; (3) design criteria and performance capabilities of hydraulic and pneumatic systems; (4) system control and protection methods; (5) component and heat transfer systems cooling; and (6) electrical system reliability.

  19. Administrative decentralization in electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this report are discussed: the new technologies impact in the electric power sector and possible scenarios and greenhouse gases containment in post-Kyoto target, the possible sinergies at urban-territorial scale, the balance of energy environmental policies, simplifications of procedures in authorization and control activities [it

  20. Chaos in power: Pakistan's electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a severe electricity crisis due to a persistent and widening gap between demand and available system generating capacity. The worsening of power shortages has become a major political issue, reflecting the hardships for individuals and businesses. It threatens to undermine the credibility and legitimacy of government and to further stress the social fabric of the country. The power crisis did not emerge suddenly. It is the direct result of imprudent and reckless energy policies over the last three decades. These policies have impeded the development of cheap and abundant domestic energy sources. They have also resulted in very inefficient fuel-mix choices, compromising energy and economic security. Pakistan's energy bankruptcy is ultimately due to massive institutional and governance failure. This paper analyzes the problems confronting Pakistan's electricity sector and identifies the key elements of a potential policy response to address the country's severe power crisis. - Highlights: ► We analyze the structure, conduct, and performance of Pakistan's electricity sector. ► The causes and economic impacts of Pakistan's electricity shortages are analyzed. ► We identify the potential policy response to the power crisis

  1. 78 FR 13097 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0038] Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic... Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-1025287, ``Seismic Evaluation Guidance: Screening, Prioritization... guidance and clarification of an acceptable approach to assist nuclear power reactor licensees when...

  2. Restructured electric power systems analysis of electricity markets with equilibrium models

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market deregulation is driving the power energy production from a monopolistic structure into a competitive market environment. The development of electricity markets has necessitated the need to analyze market behavior and power. Restructured Electric Power Systems reviews the latest developments in electricity market equilibrium models and discusses the application of such models in the practical analysis and assessment of electricity markets.

  3. Market power and storage in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaar, Jostein

    2004-05-01

    Market power in liberalised electricity markets dominated by hydropower is analyzed in four chapters. The existing literature on competition in hydropower markets is briefly presented and examined. Chapter 1 discusses the effects of market power in the context of acquisitions in a situation where transmission capacity is constrained. Chapter 2 and 3 elaborate on the issue of competition and market power when water inflow is uncertain, and finally Chapter 4 focuses on the supply function equilibrium model in the context of a hydropower market

  4. Electric-power economy of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrochotov, V.I.; Wolfberg, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey on a) development and present capacity of electricity-supply companies in Japan, b) the structural shift in the capacity of power plants which took place from 1966 until 1974, arranged according to thermal, nuclear and hydraulic power stations, c) the structural shift in the use of fossile fuels, also from 1966 until 1974, d) the major thermal and nuclear power stations and pump storage plants under construction and in operation, e) interconnected operation. The survey ends with the development study of the Japanese Government being outlined. (GG/LN) [de

  5. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  6. Electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chinese Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    The data charaterizing the status and prospects of development of electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chenese Republic are given. The Tainwan electric power consumptions are covered by operation of 56 large electric power plants (nuclear, thermal, hydroelectric ones). The marginal majority (58.1%) of the registered power is generated at thermal power plants. Electric power generation in 1991 amounted to 89639 million kWxh. At that 33878 million kWxh or about 37.9% were produced at NPPs

  7. Strategies for growth of hydro electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khera, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    Hydro power on account of its several inherent advantages has a key role to play in the development of long term energy strategies based on diversified and balance use of natural national resources. Our country is fortunate to be endowed with large hydro-electric potential. It is estimated that the hydro potential while fully developed may yield to an installed capacity of 1,50,000 MW. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine and analyse the status and trend of hydro power development, need for accelerated development of hydro power, myths about hydro electric projects, principal causes responsible for scaling down of hydro share in the total installed capacity and strategies which could restore optimum hydro thermal mix. (author)

  8. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  9. Power quality in electric distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    the power quality of the electric system is defined by the constant values of the voltage and frequency, the good value of the power factor close to unity, and balanced three phase voltages and currents. capacitors are widely installed in distribution systems for reactive power compensation to achieve power and energy loss reduction, voltage regulation and system capacity release. the extent of these benefits depends greatly on low the capacitors are placed on the system . the problem of how to place capacitors on the system such that these benefits are achieved and / or maximized against the cost associated with the capacitor placement is termed the general capacitor placement problem.the presented mathematical model has been developed to determine the size, number, and location of fixed capacitor banks that will maximize the saving derived from reduction in peak power and energy loss, and that will minimize the capital and installation costs of capacitors

  10. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  11. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  12. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    Barsebaeck 1 was closed on 30 November 1999. Barsebaeck's output of approximately 4 TWh per year will primarily be replaced by imports from coal-fired plants in Denmark and Germany. During the year, the closure of Swedish fossil-fired condensing power stations continued. With that, over 3,000 MW of peak-load power has been shut down during recent years. Consequently, situations entailing shortages of power can arise. On the deregulated electricity market, it is only the system operators that have a satisfactory overview of the overall electricity balance. The Swedish Power Association has thus lobbied the government as regards the need to elucidate Svenska Kraftnaet's responsibility. In a governmental decision from December, Svenska Kraftnaet was given the task of, among other things, monitoring the available capacity during peak loads and developing market instruments that can contribute to safeguarding the availability of power during peak loads. Svenska Kraftnaet has acquired gas turbines with a combined output power of 400 MW from Vattenfall. In order to cover the remaining requirement for rapid disruption reserves, Svenska Kraftnaet also has agreements with several power producers regarding a further 800 MW of gas turbine capacity. One further possibility lies in agreements with industry regarding the disconnection of consumption during times of peak loading. On 1 January 2000, the nuclear power tax was increased by SEK 0.005 per kWh to SEK 0.027 per kWh. This means that the nuclear power companies pay approximately SEK 1,800 MSEK per year in fiscal taxation on their nuclear power generation. The tax on electrical energy, paid by the consumer, was raised by SEK 0.011 to SEK 0.162 per kWh. The tax on diesel fuel was increased at the same time by SEK 0.25 per litre. In addition, a special network fee of SEK 0.002 per kWh came into existence in order to finance small-scale electricity generation, following removal of the obligation-to-receive system

  13. MSFC Skylab electrical power systems mission evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of the Skylab electrical power system are discussed. The electrical systems for the airlock module of the orbital workshop and the Apollo telescope mount are described. Skylab is considered an integral laboratory, however, both cluster and module hardware distinct sections are included. Significant concept and requirement evolution, testing, and modifications resulting from tests are briefly summarized to aid in understanding the launch configuration description and the procedures and performance discussed for in-orbit operation. Specific problems encountered during Skylab orbital missions are analyzed.

  14. Limitation of Electrical Power in January

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During maintenance work on CERN's 400 kV main electrical supply in Prevessin, the laboratory will be connected to the 130 kV Suisse network in Meyrin from 4 to 22 January. Due to the on-going LHC activities during this period, the power demand will be very close to the technical limitations of this source. The effort of every one to reduce the consumption of electrical energy during this period is vital to avoid powercuts caused by exceeding the maximum capacity of the system. Mario Batz TS/CV Gerard Cumer TS/EL

  15. Limitation of Electrical Power in January

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During maintenance work on CERN's 400 kV main electrical supply in Prevessin, the laboratory will be connected to the 130 kV Suisse network in Meyrin from 4 to 22 January. Due to the on-going LHC activities during this period, the power demand will be very close to the technical limitations of this source. The effort of every one to reduce the consumption of electrical energy during this period is vital to avoid powercuts caused by exceeding the maximum capacity of the system. Mario Batz TS/CV Gerard Cumer TS/EL

  16. Electric power economy: comparative study of electric power consumption in many methods of outfloor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hideo; Tsitiya, Milton Tomoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the electric power consumption of a water elevatory station in order to verify which method is the most suitable in energy economy through the outflow variation in function of the demand

  17. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  18. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  19. Electric power and environment in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanilla, J.

    1997-01-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  20. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  1. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Is any wheelchair better than no wheelchair? A Zimbabwean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within a rights-based paradigm, wheelchairs are essential in the promotion of user autonomy, dignity, freedom, inclusion and participation. Objectives: This paper aimed to describe a group of Zimbabwean wheelchair users’ satisfaction with wheelchairs, wheelchair services and wheelchair function. Method: A mixed method, descriptive study was done. Quantitative data was collected from 94 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who accessed wheelchair services at 16 clinics in five Zimbabwean provinces between October 2013 and February 2014, using the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through two focus group discussions (22 participants and two case studies with participants purposively sampled from those who participated in the quantitative phase. Results: More than 60% of participants were dissatisfied with the following wheelchair features: durability (78.6%, weight (75.6%, ease of adjustment (69.1%, effectiveness (69.0%, safety (66.7%, reliability (66.7%, and meeting user needs (60.6%. Similarly, more than 66% of participants were dissatisfied with various services aspects: professional services (69.0%, follow-up (67.0%, and service delivery (68.3%. Although 60% of participants agreed that the wheelchair contributed to specific functions, more than 50% of participants indicated that the features of the wheelchair did not allow in- (53.2% and outdoor (52.7% mobility. Conclusion: Findings indicate high levels of dissatisfaction with wheelchair features and services, as well as mobility. It is recommended that policy and minimum service standards which incorporate evidence and good practice guidelines for wheelchair services and management of wheelchair donations are developed for Zimbabwe.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Electric power, emissions and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Energy use in the developing world has been growing rapidly over recent decades, both absolutely and relative to the growth in industrialized countries albeit from a very low base. In the next century, developing country commercial energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular, is expected to continue to rise with striking rapidity because of population growth, income growth and substitution of modern commercial fuels for traditional biomass fuels. Because the power sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors, it raises significant domestic environmental issues, while the sector's role in global warming scenarios has made it a key feature of international environmental policy. This paper focuses on the relationships between economic development, electric power and polluting emissions. 10 refs

  6. Markets and pricing for interruptible electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.; Varaiya, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a market for interruptible, or callable, forward contracts for electric power, in which the consumer grants the power supplier the right to interrupt a given unit of load in return for a price discount. The callable forward contracts are traded continuously until the time of use. This allows recourse for those customers with uncertain demand, while risk-averse consumers can minimize their price risk by purchasing early. Callable forward contracts are simple in form, and can be directly incorporated into the utility's economic dispatch procedure

  7. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  8. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  9. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  10. Electric power. The boom of continuous supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing needs in electric supply that exist in computer industry and Internet or more classical industry and tertiary sector have boosted the non-interruptible power supply market and decentralized generation groups. One can imagine the development of mini networks exploited by new types operators, progressive renunciation of the diesel engine for the profit of gas turbine and soon fuel cell and new opportunities for the cogeneration. (N.C.)

  11. The electric power consumer facing the liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, P.; Gaulion, R.; Lapeyre, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the liberalization of the electric power market, many questions appear: what are the measures taken to warrant the service quality, the supply continuity and the investments level? This inquiry aims to analyze the information on these questions. It shows the necessity of an equilibrium relation between the consumers an the suppliers, optimizing the distribution of the activities between the public and the private. (A.L.B.)

  12. Renewable and efficient electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Gilbert M

    2013-01-01

    A solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems-in a completely updated, new edition The second edition of Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems provides a solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems. For each topic, essential theoretical background is introduced, practical engineering considerations associated with designing systems and predicting their performance are provided, and methods for evaluating the economics of these systems are presented. While the book focuses on

  13. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  14. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1997-01-01

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW)

  15. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  16. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  18. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  19. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. [Statutory Provisions] All...

  20. The place of the large electric power consumers in the electric power liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Risto; Chogelja, Goran

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the basic rules of the EC Directive 96/92 of the EU are given. The implementation of the Directive into the Macedonian legislation is analysed. Also, the Directive's influence on the both large electric power consumers and the Macedonian Power System itself is presented

  1. An Omnidirectional Stereo Vision-Based Smart Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Satoh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To support safe self-movement of the disabled and the aged, we developed an electric wheelchair that realizes the functions of detecting both the potential hazards in a moving environment and the postures and gestures of a user by equipping an electric wheelchair with the stereo omnidirectional system (SOS, which is capable of acquiring omnidirectional color image sequences and range data simultaneously in real time. The first half of this paper introduces the SOS and the basic technology behind it. To use the multicamera system SOS on an electric wheelchair, we developed an image synthesizing method of high speed and high quality and the method of recovering SOS attitude changes by using attitude sensors is also introduced. This method allows the SOS to be used without being affected by the mounting attitude of the SOS. The second half of this paper introduces the prototype electric wheelchair actually manufactured and experiments conducted using the prototype. The usability of the electric wheelchair is also discussed.

  2. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  3. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  4. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jechoutek, K.G.; Lamech, Ranjit

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  5. Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Molzahn, Daniel K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-10-17

    The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.

  6. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  7. Meeting the Pacific Rim's changing electric power needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the presentations made at the 1994 Asian Electric Conference. The topics discussed in detail include a successfully implemented strategy for building power projects, a review of the reforms taking place as Australia moves toward a competitive national electricity market by July 1995, the reorganizing of Japan's electric power market, and the electricity reform program in Pakistan

  8. Economics of generating electricity from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, H.O.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews and compares experiences and projected future construction and electricity generation costs for nuclear and fossil fired power plants. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitive position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budgets, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors is identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climate impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard, mitigation of emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power (au)

  9. Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline; Zeanah, Hugh; Anderson, Audie; Patrick, Clint; Brady, Mike; Ford, Donnie

    1988-11-01

    Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (A DEPT) is an expert system that integrates knowledge from three different suppliers to offer an advanced fault-detection system. It is designed for two modes of operation: real time fault isolation and simulated modeling. Real time fault isolation of components is accomplished on a power system breadboard through the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES II) interface with a rule system developed in-house. Faults are quickly detected and displayed and the rules and chain of reasoning optionally provided on a laser printer. This system consists of a simulated space station power module using direct-current power supplies for solar arrays on three power buses. For tests of the system's ablilty to locate faults inserted via switches, loads are configured by an INTEL microcomputer and the Symbolics artificial intelligence development system. As these loads are resistive in nature, Ohm's Law is used as the basis for rules by which faults are located. The three-bus system can correct faults automatically where there is a surplus of power available on any of the three buses. Techniques developed and used can be applied readily to other control systems requiring rapid intelligent decisions. Simulated modeling, used for theoretical studies, is implemented using a modified version of Kennedy Space Center's KATE (Knowledge-Based Automatic Test Equipment), FIES II windowing, and an ADEPT knowledge base.

  10. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive power management is different in the deregulated electricity market of various countries. In this paper, a novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and reliable operation of deregulated electricity market. Various issues of reactive power management in the deregulated electricity ...

  11. Advance of technological innovations of electric power in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayumi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Masanori; Takebe, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Twelve companies in Japan reported on the technological innovations in 2012. The Japan Atomic Power Company mainly studied five projects; (1) control of wall thinning of the secondary system in PWR by injection of molybdic acid, (2) application of pipe test method using electromagnetic acoustic resonance to existing equipment, (3) developed high performance Co-60 crud removal resin for Tsuruga Power Station Unit 2, (4) improvement of technology for safety of core in FBR, and (5) improvement of technology for coolant of FBR by dispersing nano-particles in liquid sodium metal. Tokyo Electric Power Company developed mainly three projects; (1) the support for the mental health care activities by industry protection staff at the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant, (2) laboratory test method using non-radioactive cesium for performance of decontamination reagent, and (3) decontamination effects estimation code (DeConEP). Hokuriku Electric Power Company reported the operations management measures in accordance with the safety enhancement measures to Shika nuclear power station. Other nine reports are published by Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Okinawa Electric Power Company Inc. and J-Power. (S.Y.)

  12. Impact Study on Power Factor of Electrical Load in Power Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Ahmad Asraf, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Low Power Factor of electrical loads cause high current is drawn from power supply. The impact of this circumstance is influenced by impedance of electrical load. Therefore, the key consideration of this study is how impedance of electrical loads influence power factor of electrical loads, and then power distribution as the whole. This study is important to evaluate the right action to mitigate low power factor effectively for electrical energy efficiency purpose. (author)

  13. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  14. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  15. PROVIDING QUALITY OF ELECTRIC POWER IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM IN PARALLEL OPERATION WITH WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Rolik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of providing electric power quality in the electric power systems (EPS that are equipped with sufficiently long air or cable transmission lines is under consideration. This problem proved to be of particular relevance to the EPS in which a source of electrical energy is the generator of wind turbines since the wind itself is an instable primary energy source. Determination of the degree of automation of voltage regulation in the EPS is reduced to the choice of methods and means of regulation of power quality parameters. The concept of a voltage loss and the causes of the latter are explained by the simplest power system that is presented by a single-line diagram. It is suggested to regulate voltage by means of changing parameters of the network with the use of the method of reducing loss of line voltage by reducing its reactance. The latter is achieved by longitudinal capacitive compensation of the inductive reactance of the line. The effect is illustrated by vector diagrams of currents and voltages in the equivalent circuits of transmission lines with and without the use of longitudinal capacitive compensation. The analysis of adduced formulas demonstrated that the use of this method of regulation is useful only in the systems of power supply with a relatively low power factor (cosφ < 0.7 to 0.9. This power factor is typical for the situation of inclusion the wind turbine with asynchronous generator in the network since the speed of wind is instable. The voltage regulation fulfilled with the aid of the proposed method will make it possible to provide the required quality of the consumers’ busbars voltage in this situation. In is turn, it will make possible to create the necessary conditions for the economical transmission of electric power with the lowest outlay of reactive power and the lowest outlay of active power losses.

  16. Development of the Mexican electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 Mexico had a population of 68 million, mostly concentrated in a few cities with many other areas being practically unpopulated. The country is semi-industrialized, and in order to achieve better standards of living, economic growth will have to continue at about 7.5 percent or more, particularly if the population continues to increase at 2.9 percent per year. The total installed electrical capacity at the end of 1980 was 14 600 MW; the per capita consumption of electricity was 910 KWh. The present government has as a goal an 8 percent annual growth rate in gross domestic product until 1995, resulting in forecast of a 12.5 percent growth rate in the electric sector to about 410 TWh per year. Hydroelectric power could be used to produce 80 TWh a year by 2000 if capacity were quadrupled. The use of coal for the production of electricity is beginning, and it is planned to generate 40 TWh a year from this source by 2000. Geothermal power should yield 20 TWh by then. A goal has been set of 20 000 MW of installed nuclear capacity by the end of the century; this would produce about 130 TWh, leaving some 280 TWh to be generated by oil or gas. The planned nuclear program must include the development of a strong Mexican nuclear industry, so that in 20 years 80 percent of the nuclear plant components could be locally produced. Ultimately it is hoped that Mexico will have the capability of installing, with its own resources, five or six large nuclear plants per year

  17. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  18. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  19. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  20. High prices on electric power now again?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power market has yielded low prices for the consumers throughout the 1990s. Consumption has now increased considerably, but little new production has been added. This results in high prices in dry years, but to understand this one must understand price formation in the Nordic spot market. The high prices are a powerful signal to the consumers to reduce consumption, but they are also a signal to the producers to seize any opportunity to increase production. However, the construction of new dams etc. stirs up the environmentalists. Ordinary consumers may protect themselves against high prices by signing fixed-price contracts. For those who can tolerate price fluctuations, spot prices are a better alternative than the standard contract with variable price

  1. Auction game in electric power market place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.; Sheble, G.

    1996-01-01

    The power industry in the US is presently an evolving changing business environment. While planning to meet future peak demand is still a concern, the efficient utilization of existing generation and transmission resources is fast becoming a primary interest. This interest suggests a move from cost-based market operations to price based market operations. Auction market structure is one of the various ways to perform price based operation. Such a market place would be very new and challenging to all players of the electric power industry. This paper describes an overview of the new business environment. The paper presents a detailed description of the auction game. The trading objectives in the bidding game are defined. The framework of auction process is described by defining the rules to play the game. Finally, strategies for market players are discussed

  2. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  3. Nuclear-electric power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized

  4. Assessment and financing of electric power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscote, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the appraisal of a project is to examine the economic need which a project is designed to meet, to judge whether the project is likely to meet this need in an efficient way, and to conclude what conditions should be attached to eventual Bank financing. Bank involvement continues throughout the life of the project helping to ensure that each project is carried out at the least possible cost and that it makes the expected contribution to the country's development. This paper gives an idea about the origin, nature and functions of the World Bank Group, describes the criteria used by the Bank in its power project appraisals, discusses the Bank's views on nuclear power, and concludes with a review of past lending and probable future sources of financing of electrical expansion in the less developed countries. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Electric power system basics for the nonelectrical professional

    CERN Document Server

    Blume, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Steven W. Blume’s bestseller provides a comprehensive treatment of power technology for the non-electrical engineer working in the electric power industry. This book aims to give non-electrical professionals a fundamental understanding of large interconnected electrical power systems, better known as the “Power Grid”, with regard to terminology, electrical concepts, design considerations, construction practices, industry standards, control room operations for both normal and emergency conditions, maintenance, consumption, telecommunications and safety. The text begins with an overview of the terminology and basic electrical concepts commonly used in the industry then it examines the generation, transmission and distribution of power. Other topics discussed include energy management, conservation of electrical energy, consumption characteristics and regulatory aspects to help readers understand modern electric power systems.

  6. Power Electronics and Electric Machines | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power Electronics and Electric Machines NREL's power electronics and electric machines research helping boost the performance of power electronics components and systems, while driving down size, weight technical barriers to EDV commercialization. EDVs rely heavily on power electronics to distribute the proper

  7. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made...

  8. Critical success factors for BOT electric power projects in China: Thermal power versus wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zuo, Jian; Zillante, George [School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Wang, Xin-Wei [Shandong Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Haiyang, Shandong 265118 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chinese electric power industry has adopted Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) approach in a number of projects to alleviate the pressure of sole state-owned investment. The Chinese government has taken enormous efforts to create an environment to facilitate the application of BOT approach in electric power projects. Moreover, the growing attention on the sustainability issues puts the traditional major source of electricity - thermal power project under more strict scrutiny. As a result, various renewable energy projects, particularly the wind power projects have involved private sector funds. Both thermal power and wind power projects via BOT approach have met with a varying degree of success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the factors contributing towards the success of both types of BOT power projects. Using an extensive literature survey, this paper identifies 31 success factors under 5 categories for Chinese BOT electric power projects. This is followed by a questionnaire survey to exam relative significance of these factors. The results reveal the different levels of significance of success factors for BOT thermal power projects versus wind power projects. Finally, survey results were analyzed to explore the underlying construction and distributions among the identified success factors. This study provides a valuable reference for all involved parties that are interested in developing BOT electric power projects in China. (author)

  9. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  10. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  12. Nuclear power in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Electric was formed in the public sector to operate only nuclear power plant, and the Company has been foremost in developing the UK's capability for PWR design and construction. It is now obliged to compete on equal terms with privately-owned generators, and we have made it clear that we would invest in further nuclear plant only if the terms were commercially attractive to the company. The competitive environment in which we now operate has led us to recognise that the priority for the Company in the Nuclear Review is to seek the commercial flexibility which accompanies privatisation. Accordingly, our evidence to the Government in the Nuclear Review has shown that the problems of confidence which surrounded nuclear power in 1989 have been substantially resolved. The improved accounting costs and low avoidable costs of the existing stations make the commercial case for their continued operation. The completion of Szewell B has not only given us a gist class new, profitable power plant, but given confidence in the costs and performance of any follow-on PWRs. In the longer term, a greater recognition of the external environmental costs of fossil-fuel generation may swing the market in favour of nuclar power construction. (orig.) [de

  13. REACTIVE POWER DEVICES IN SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative characteristic of different concepts and expressions for determination of reactive power in the circuits with non-sinusoidal electric values has been given. For the first Ukrainian electric locomotives of DE1 type with the system of DC electric traction, the values of reactive power after Budeany, Fryze, and also the differential, integral and generalized reactive powers have been determined. Some measures on reducing its consumption by the DC electric rolling stock have been suggested.

  14. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  15. Electricity market competition and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, C.; Paffenbarger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries' governments are promoting competitive electricity markets. In particular, there is a move away from administrative price-setting by government institutions to market price-setting through the introduction of competition. Today this is often focused on competition in generation. However, competition among final electricity suppliers and distributors to provide effective consumer choice is a further step that governments are likely to pursue as experience with market reform grows. This competitive environment will undoubtedly impact upon the nuclear generation industry. Competition will provide an opportunity to reinvigorate nuclear power; it will improve the transparency of energy policy-making and the policy framework for nuclear power; it will spur innovation in existing plants and help prospects for new plant build; and provide a strong impetus for cost reduction and innovation. This paper discusses these issues in detail. It looks at the potential benefits and challenges to the nuclear generation industry arising from an increasingly competitive market. (author)

  16. Development on power distribution technologies of four electric power companies in Japan. The Kansai Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Since dependency upon electric power has been rising yearly with the development of industry and the progress of information-oriented society, various kinds of technical development are needed to supply electricity. Furthermore, amenity of people's living has been highly intended, and life style has varied. Consequently, customers' needs for energy including related services have varied remarkably, and each customer has selected energy more subjectively from the wide range of viewpoint such as reliability, handiness, cleanliness, safety, and economic efficiency. In such situation, the power distribution section of Kansai Electric Power settled four themes for major technical development and has been promoting them. Four themes are as follows; to develop a total automation system for power distribution, to promote 20kV/400V-class power distribution, to develop techniques to form facilities harmonizing with local amenity, and to make business management efficient with the advanced NC system. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Electric power economy in industry and commerce II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamede Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    The acts of electric power economy in Brazil are studied, including the improvement of load factor, maintain a high power-factor and use of monthly consumption method and medium powers method. (author)

  18. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Analytical methods of cable performance in EHV AC electrical power are discussed in this comprehensive reference. Descriptions of energization, power quality, cable safety constraints and more, guide readers in cable planning and power network operations.

  19. Progress of innovation of electrical power technology in FY2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayumi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The following is the description of technical innovations at 12 companies including Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Electric Power Company, and Japan Atomic Power Company. Tokyo Electric Power Company presented (1) the developments of a wet-type air decontaminating apparatus for inside/outside of power plant, (2) a robot to be used for field investigation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, (3) a visualization technology using laser for detection, and (4) removal of debris at the power plant. Chubu Electric Power Company presented application of a flap gate to the opening on exterior wall of building as a countermeasure against tsunami at the Hamaoka nuclear power plant. Hokuriku Electric Power Company presented a nuclear reactor operation training simulator for full-scope operation training for the Shika nuclear power station. Chugoku Electric Power Company presented their efforts in implementing a predictive monitoring system at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Shikoku Electric Power Company presented the installation of a weir with a flap gate to the interior of seawater pit as a countermeasure against tsunami. Japan Atomic Power Company presented an impact assessment method of fallout during transportation of materials caused by nuclear reactor accident, design and development of a square-type shielding container for radioactive wastes, a strength test on concrete materials for the safety design of Tsuruga Power Station Units 3 and 4, decommissioning of nuclear power plant, and research and development of the fast breeder reactor. (S.Y.)

  20. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  1. Nuclear reactors for space electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1978-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Lifetimes of 7 to 10 yr at full power, at converter operating temperatures of 1275 to 1675 0 K, are being studied. The systems are being designed such that no single-failure modes exist that will cause a complete loss of power. In fact, to meet the long lifetimes, highly redundant design features are being emphasized. Questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. ''Fail-safe'' means to prevent exposure of the population to radioactive material, meeting the environmental guidelines established by the U.S. Government have been and continue to be a necessary requirement for any space reactor program. The major safety feature to prevent prelaunch and launch radioactive material hazards is not operating the reactor before achieving the prescribed orbit. Design features in the reactor ensure that accidental criticality cannot occur. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit, where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. Orbits below 400 to 500 nautical miles are the ones where a safety issue is involved in case of satellite malfunction. The potential missions, the question of why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations will be discussed

  2. Economic market design and planning for electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mili, Lamine

    2010-01-01

    Discover cutting-edge developments in electric power systems. Stemming from cutting-edge research and education activities in the field of electric power systems, this book brings together the knowledge of a panel of experts in economics, the social sciences, and electric power systems. In ten concise and comprehensible chapters, the book provides unprecedented coverage of the operation, control, planning, and design of electric power systems. It also discusses:. A framework for interdisciplinary research and education;. Modeling electricity markets;. Alternative economic criteria and proactiv.

  3. National campaign - 100 collectivities connected to the green electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since july 2004, the local collectivities, the little and medium enterprises and the craft workers can choose their electric power supplier. This offer can be a chance for the renewable energy. The association ''eco maires'' with the help of the WWF began a campaign to obtain the involvement of 100 collectivities interested by the green electric power. The project is presented. The authors presents also the new European Network on the green electric power, Eugene (European Green Electricity Network), which aims to harmonize criteria on the green electric power and to deliver certificates of quality. (A.L.B.)

  4. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  5. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  6. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to Earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant

  7. Electric power industry restructuring and ROE: The case of Korea Electric Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Gu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Korea's electric power industry was previously run by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in a natural monopoly-type structure. As economy of scale was waning in influence and management effectiveness began to increase in importance, KEPCO was divided into six subsidiaries and faced competition beginning in April 2001. This study evaluates the restructuring process for Korea's power industry and analyzes the financial outcomes based on return on equity (ROE). The results show that the ROE ratio increased. In the analysis period (1993-2004), the financial ratio showed a better performance than that before restructuring. However, productivity ratios such as productivity of capital (or gross value added to total assets) and gross value added to property, plant, and equipment decreased compared to the situation before restructuring. It is believed that the results were due to the increased financial leverage of KEPCO. For this reason, KEPCO should make further efforts to manage its debt in a systematic way

  8. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems

  9. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  10. Advance in technologies of electric power in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kenichi; Maekawa, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Ten electric power companies and two related companies reported their advance in technologies. The technologies of nuclear power plants were stated by ten companies, which consisted of introduction of new main control board to Tomari-3 in Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., reduction methods of exposure dose of Higashidori-1 in Tohoku Electric Power, hot water based two-phase flow testing device for pipe thinning test by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Guideline for prevention of piping damage caused by combustion of mixture gases in BWR (the second edition) published by Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society, setting up distributor in the low-pressure turbine of Shika-2 in Hokuriku Electric Power Company, development of rapid estimation method of release radioactivity and application of high density neutron source to nuclear transmutation of nuclear fuel cycle and introduction of new core monitor system by The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., upgrade of investigation of the effects of hot waste water and development of detector for dropout parts of cooling system in reactor by Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., change of transformer in Sendai-1 by Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., and reactor core design for Oma ABWR by J-Power. The Japan Atomic Power Company reported four articles such as development of technologies for established nuclear power plants, promotion of Tsuruga-3 and Tsuruga-4, application of clearance system in Japan and development of future reactors. (S.Y.)

  11. Electric power monthly, July 1997 with data for April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. 57 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. 63 tabs.

  13. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  14. Strategic Sustainable Electric Power Energy for Ethiopia:- Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mengesha

    Present trend in electrical engineering education; ... (EERS) USA plans to reduce its electric energy ... at the distribution center, step-down to low voltage. (400 V .... Ethiopian market and in use [13]. .... involved in the teaching EEPCo students.

  15. Quasi-static analysis of muscle forces in the shoulder mechanism during wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Frans C T; Veeger, H. E J

    During wheelchair propulsion the largest net joint moments and net joint powers are generated around the shoulder. The analysis of the contribution of arm- and shoulder muscles to the joint moments could explain the low efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. Basically, it is assumed that a large

  16. Covering of the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    In this article it is sought to deepen more in the topic of the covering of the electric power service, especially in the related with the mechanisms that could facilitate their amplification. In the new market outline, in the one that the participation of the agents is encouraged in all the activities of the chain of services in which the state is not direct lender of the same one, it is confused the form like a covering will be achieved that is of agreement with the goals that intend in the national plan of development and in the sub sectorial plans. Although the rules of the market one comes consolidating, the process of linking of the private capital, especially in the distribution activity, it evidences the importance of to settle down and to define responsibilities and explicit mechanisms in the topic of expansion of the covering. A first interpretation of the ruled indicates the obligation of the state of extending the covering to 100% and of assuming the projects that don't undertake the matters. This would be the reading from the traditional mentality. However, the regulation of you public services of electricity don't demand a total covering, but rather it covers to the users that have the capacity to assume, with their own resources, the efficient costs of benefit. The service will also be lent to residential users that don't have payment capacity, when there are contribution resources or fiscal resources for subsidiary

  17. Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

  18. 78 FR 29159 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0038] Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic... U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an endorsement letter of Electric Power Research... Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Enclosure 1 to the 50.54(f) letter requests licensees...

  19. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  20. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered

  1. Topical problems of the German electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Worm, N [Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Brohmeyer, M [Schleswig-Holsteinische Stromversorgungs A.G., Rendsburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Anwendungstechnik und Beratung; Deuster, G [Energieversorgung Oberhausen A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Heitzer, H; Holzer, J [Bayernwerk A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Deparade, K [Verband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Marnet, C [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Oberlack, H W [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Segatz, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-A.G. (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    On the occasion of the general meeting of the VDE high-ranking personalities of the German Power Supply Industry were interviewed on current affairs. The following subjects were discussed: (1) problems involved in energy policy; (2) energy problems due to newly formed regions; (3) utilization of electric power in agriculture; (4) development prospects of district heating; (5) problems of power generation far from coal districts; (6) rationalization in the commercial sector; (7) opportunities and limits of industrial combined heat and power generation; (8) environmental protection and electric power supply; (9) possible utilization of imported coal; and (10). assuring the primary energy basis for electric power supply.

  2. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  3. Progress of technological innovation on electric power in FY2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Yutaka; Sasagawa, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews the technological development in FY2014 at Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Electric Power Company, Hokuriku Electric Power Company, Shikoku Electric Power Company, and Electric Power Development Company. In this overview, further breakdown was made for the following departments of each company: nuclear power generation, thermal power generation, hydraulic power generation, power transmission, power distribution, transformation, research and development and technological development, and information and communication. In addition, this paper outlines the achievement of technological development at Japan Atomic Power Company, such as the technological development related to the existing power station, development of new technology, and the development of future reactor. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has developed an investigative system using a high altitude survey robot and a movable monitoring system. Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station examined the feasibility of state diagnostic technique based on multi-point analysis, and studied stress corrosion cracking at the newly established Nuclear Safety Research Laboratory. Shika Nuclear Power Station (Unit 1) applied a pipe stress improvement process by means of high frequency induction heating as a stress corrosion cracking countermeasure. Ikata Nuclear Power Station newly adopted high degree cross-linking cation resin, and high cracking strength anion resin as the primary resins. Oma Nuclear Power Station worked on the all reactor core utilization technology of MOX fuel. (A.O.)

  4. Electric power distribution: in the direction of a competitive market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.R.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of electric power sector deregulation, occurred in several countries, frequently followed of privatization, which the aim is activate the competition and, consequently, the efficiency between the companies of the electric power sector. The competition in the supply market of electric power, by the Great Britain, France, Spain and United States are shown as an example of this energy policy. (C.G.C.)

  5. Electric power markets in Europe 1993; Elmarknaderna i Europa 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, K; Lublin, Z; Olofsdotter, A; Petsala, B; Wuolikainen, T

    1993-12-01

    The development of power markets in Europe is described. Special attention is devoted to the development in France, Germany, Denmark, Finland and Norway. The planned deregulation of the Swedish electric power market will promote an increased trade with electricity across the border. The possibilities and consequences of this trade is elucidated. Also given is a compilation of electric power prices for different groups of consumers, and the differences among European countries. 7 figs, 26 tabs

  6. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandewijck, Yves C; Verellen, Joeri; Tweedy, Sean

    2011-07-01

    In most Paralympic wheelchair sports, active trunk range of movement is assessed by observing shoulder girdle excursion during active trunk movements and is a key determinant of an athlete's class. However, to date research evaluating the impact of reduced trunk range of movement on wheelchair sports performance has not been conducted. In the present study, 15 non-disabled male participants performed two 20-s sprints on a wheelchair ergometer in each of three seating positions. Positions were typical of those used to enhance sitting stability in wheelchair sport and each impacted available trunk range of movement differently: condition-90 (seated with thighs horizontal; unrestricted range of movement) condition-45 (seated with thighs in 45°), and condition-0 (seated with hips maximally flexed; minimum range of movement). In condition-90, the trunk only actively contributed to the first push; for the remainder of the sprint, the trunk was held almost isometrically at 48.2° to the horizontal (range 42.1-56.4°). Similar patterns were observed for both condition-45 and condition-0. Compared with condition-90, participants in condition-0 had reduced capacity to accelerate of statistical (P sports performance, including strapping, seating position, and impairments of trunk muscle power and coordination.

  7. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  9. Competitiveness of nuclear power in Japanese liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The liberalization of Japanese electricity market expanded to customers of over 50 kV on April 1, 2005 and more than 60% of the market has been already open. The discussion about the assistance measures of nuclear power generation in Japanese liberalization of electricity market has come to grow warmer gradually. The opinions on the competitiveness of nuclear power are inconsistency among the supporters of nuclear power. Some says that nuclear power is the most competitive, others says nuclear power require some sort of financial or political assistance in the deregulation of electricity market. In this study, based on financial statements of each Japanese electric power company, the constitution of generation cost of nuclear power is illustrated and various financial and economic characteristics, including ''merit of scale'' and the impact of new nuclear power plant construction on the finance of electric power company, are discussed. In addition, the economic features of nuclear power generation are compared with those of thermal power generation through the analysis of financial statements. Finally, support policies for nuclear power required in deregulation of electric utilities are examined in terms of fairness of competition and security of electricity supply

  10. Outline of electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As to the electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988, 15 designated electric power enterprises made the notification to the Minister of International Trade and Industry in March, 1988. This outline of the facility plan summarized the plans of 66 enterprises in total, including the plans of municipally operated, joint thermal power and other enterprises in addition to the above 15. In order to ensure the stable supply of electric power, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry considers that it is indispensable to purposefully develop electric power sources and the facilities for distribution along this facility plan. The forecast for fiscal year 1997 is : total electric power demand 778.2 billion kWh, maximum power demand 151.21 million kW, and yearly load factor 56.9 %. This is equivalent to the yearly growth of 2.4 %. In fiscal year 1988, it is planned to present 29 plants of 2760 MW to the Power Source Development Coordination Council. The breakdown is : hydroelectricity 140 MW, thermal power 2010 MW, and nuclear power 610 MW. The Ministry guides electric power enterprises so as to realize the diversification of electric power sources. Also the increase of transmission and transformation facilities, the plan of equipment investment and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Development on power distribution technologies of four electric power companies in Japan. The Tokyo Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Electric power companies have been needed to cope with various needs in accordance with the progress of highly information-oriented society, the improvement of industrial technology, and the advancement and diversification of the living environment. In such situation, the power distribution section of Tokyo Electric Power has promoted technical development, setting up following priority items to put into operation: to reduce power failure caused by works and accidents, to improve reliability in supply, to reduce costs of construction and all over business management, to serve customers to answer various needs, to develop new technology and new methods based on the medium- and long-term prospect, and so forth. Several examples of recent technical development are introduced here. They are as follows; compact equipment and materials for electric poles to match the circumstances of cities and to simplify the construction method for power distribution, a 750kVA large high-voltage power-generation truck to make provision against an emergency such as a disaster by a typhoon, a compact transformer used on the ground, a high-voltage automatic cabinet, and a detector to find the failure of indoor power distribution works in resistances in a short time. 8 figs.

  12. Model Design on Emergency Power Supply of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the mobile storage characteristic of electric vehicles, an emergency power supply model about the electric vehicles is presented through analyzing its storage characteristic. The model can ensure important consumer loss minimization during power failure or emergency and can make electric vehicles cost minimization about running, scheduling, and vindicating. In view of the random dispersion feature in one area, an emergency power supply scheme using the electric vehicles is designed based on the K-means algorithm. The purpose is to improve the electric vehicles initiative gathering ability and reduce the electric vehicles gathering time. The study can reduce the number of other emergency power supply equipment and improve the urban electricity reliability.

  13. Electric power annual 1994. Volume 2, Operational and financial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-28

    This year, the annual is published in two volumes. Volume I focused on US electric utilities and contained final 1994 data on net generation, fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost. This Volume II presents annual 1994 summary statistics for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are preliminary data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on form EIA-861) and for electric utility financial statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, and demand- side management. Final 1994 data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity and gross generation, as well as supply and disposition information, are also provided in Volume II. Technical notes and a glossary are included.

  14. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  15. M1114 -- Golden HMMWV Power: Electrical Systems Used in Theater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aboona, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    .... Chart 2 presents 2 tables. One table shows power draws for 12 M1114 electrical systems under steady state and surge on the Golden's 200A alternator, which can provide between 110-180 Amps of usable power...

  16. New record in import of electric power in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the mild weather in the year 2000 the electric power consumption in Finland increased by nearly 2%. The electric power consumption would be twice as high if the temperatures would have been the same as usually. Hydroelectric power generation in Norway, Sweden and Finland in 2000 was about 40 TWh higher than in 1999. The retained import of electric power in the year 2000 reached a new record, being 11.9 TWh, corresponding to 15% of the annual power consumption in Finland. The GNP in Finland increased in 2000 by 5.7%, and the estimate for 2001 is 4.5%. Total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 79.1 TWh, which is 1.7% higher than in 1999. About 60% of the increase were covered by import of electric power and 40 % by increasing own power generation. The share of CHP production was 31% of the total power consumption, the share of nuclear power being 27%, the share of hydroelectric power 18% and that of coal and other common condensing power about 8%. The share of retained electric power import was 15%. The Finnish hydroelectric power plants generated 14.4 TWh electric power, which is nearly 15% more than in 1999. Due to the increased production of hydroelectric power and power import the production of coal and other condensing power decreased nearly 9%. The wind power generation increased rapidly being, however, only about 0.1% of the electric power consumption. Industrial power consumption was about 55% of the total, the share of households and agriculture being nearly 24%, and those of services and public sector over 17%. Power transmission and delivery losses were less than 4%. The electric power consumption of households decreased by nearly 2% due to the worm end of the year. The share of other consumers increased by nearly 3%. About 13 000 households acquired electric heating, so the number of electrically heated houses in Finland is 593 000 households. The industrial electric power consumption increased in 2000 by 2.7% up to 43.2 TWh. The share of

  17. Concerning the debate on electric-powered-vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporckmann, B.

    1994-01-01

    The fact that electric-powered vehicles do not emit pollutants locally is obvious and must be considered as the main motive for their use. The global air pollution situation can only be of secondary importance because within the foreseeable future emissions linked to the use of electric-powered vehicles will remain within the variation width of power generation emissions that is not to be influenced. All the same, it is indispensable to consider the global situation. The author compares electric-powered vehicles with conventional ones by referring to the power generation of all federal German states. (orig.) [de

  18. Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

  19. Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    A conference on Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry was held in Boston on September 8--11, 1991 to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The conference was attended by more than 150 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering consulting organizations, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. The meeting included a keynote address, 70 papers, and 18 expert system demonstrations. Sessions covered expert systems in power system planning operations, fossil power plant applications, nuclear power plant applications, and intelligent user interfaces. The presentations showed how expert systems can provide immediate benefits to the electric power industry in many applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  20. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  1. Multiagent based protection and control in decentralized electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Veloso, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Electric power systems are going through a major change both in their physical and control structure. A large num- ber of small and geographically dispersed power generation units (e.g., wind turbines, solar cells, plug-in electric cars) are replacing big centralized power plants. This shift has...... created interesting possibilities for application of intelligent systems such as multiagent systems for control and automation in electric power systems. This paper describes work on designing a multiagent system for protection and control of electric power distribution networks.It demonstrates how...... explicit modeling of capabilities, states, roles and role transition in agents can capture the control and automation in electric power systems. We present illustrative results from using our proposed schema in realistic simulations....

  2. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1 accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2 robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination

  3. Apollo Lunar Module Electrical Power System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe LM Electrical System original specifications; b) Describe the decision to change from fuel cells to batteries and other changes; c) Describe the Electrical system; and d) Describe the Apollo 13 failure from the LM perspective.

  4. Nuclear Power's Role in Generating Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falk, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the commercial viability of advanced nuclear technology as a means of meeting future demand for electricity by comparing the costs of producing electricity from different sources...

  5. Individual differences and their impact on the safety and the efficiency of human-wheelchair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipp, Meike

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which individual differences in fine motor abilities affect indoor safety and efficiency of human-wheelchair systems was examined. To reduce the currently large number of indoor wheelchair accidents, assistance systems with a high level of automation were developed. It was proposed to adapt the wheelchair's level of automation to the user's ability to steer the device to avoid drawbacks of highly automated wheelchairs. The state of the art, however, lacks an empirical identification of those abilities. A study with 23 participants is described. The participants drove through various sections of a course with a powered wheelchair. Repeatedly measured criteria were safety (numbers of collisions) and efficiency (times required for reaching goals). As covariates, the participants' fine motor abilities were assessed. A random coefficient modeling approach was conducted to analyze the data,which were available on two levels as course sections were nested within participants.The participants' aiming, precision, and armhand speed contributed significantly to both criteria: Participants with lower fine motor abilities had more collisions and required more time for reaching goals. Adapting the wheelchair's level of automation to these fine motor abilities can improve indoor safety and efficiency. In addition, the results highlight the need to further examine the impact of individual differences on the design of automation features for powered wheelchairs as well as other applications of automation. The results facilitate the improvement of current wheelchair technology.

  6. Diversity modelling for electrical power system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharip, R M; Abu Zarim, M A U A

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers diversity of generation and demand profiles against the different future energy scenarios and evaluates these on a technical basis. Compared to previous studies, this research applied a forecasting concept based on possible growth rates from publically electrical distribution scenarios concerning the UK. These scenarios were created by different bodies considering aspects such as environment, policy, regulation, economic and technical. In line with these scenarios, forecasting is on a long term timescale (up to every ten years from 2020 until 2050) in order to create a possible output of generation mix and demand profiles to be used as an appropriate boundary condition for the network simulation. The network considered is a segment of rural LV populated with a mixture of different housing types. The profiles for the 'future' energy and demand have been successfully modelled by applying a forecasting method. The network results under these profiles shows for the cases studied that even though the value of the power produced from each Micro-generation is often in line with the demand requirements of an individual dwelling there will be no problems arising from high penetration of Micro-generation and demand side management for each dwellings considered. The results obtained highlight the technical issues/changes for energy delivery and management to rural customers under the future energy scenarios

  7. Diversity modelling for electrical power system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharip, R. M.; Abu Zarim, M. A. U. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers diversity of generation and demand profiles against the different future energy scenarios and evaluates these on a technical basis. Compared to previous studies, this research applied a forecasting concept based on possible growth rates from publically electrical distribution scenarios concerning the UK. These scenarios were created by different bodies considering aspects such as environment, policy, regulation, economic and technical. In line with these scenarios, forecasting is on a long term timescale (up to every ten years from 2020 until 2050) in order to create a possible output of generation mix and demand profiles to be used as an appropriate boundary condition for the network simulation. The network considered is a segment of rural LV populated with a mixture of different housing types. The profiles for the 'future' energy and demand have been successfully modelled by applying a forecasting method. The network results under these profiles shows for the cases studied that even though the value of the power produced from each Micro-generation is often in line with the demand requirements of an individual dwelling there will be no problems arising from high penetration of Micro-generation and demand side management for each dwellings considered. The results obtained highlight the technical issues/changes for energy delivery and management to rural customers under the future energy scenarios.

  8. French electric power balance sheet 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Pierron, Helene

    2008-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2007: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, progresses in the implementation of market mechanisms, durable rise of RTE's investment, and RTE's commitment in sustainable development

  9. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  10. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  11. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  12. Financing the electric power utilities, especially the nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-04-01

    Electric power demands in Japan have shown a remarkable growth at an annual rate of 12% since 1965. Nine electric power companies have invested large amounts of money so far, amounting to over 1 trillion yen every year since 1972. A survey of the electric power supply system and an estimation of the electric power demands in 1980 and in 1985 are given. It is expected that the main portion of electric power in the future will gradually be generated by nuclear plants. Financial features of the electrical power utilities, the credit risk of the electric power utilities, and the raising of funds by electric power utilities are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary (1) to expand the capital market, (2) to enable the electric power companies to issue a sufficient amount of bonds, (3) to make the Government financing institutions, such as the Japan Development Bank, provide the electric power companies with larger funds on a long-term and low-interest rate basis, and (4) even to take such drastic steps as subsidizing interest on private loans to the electric power companies. (B.P.)

  13. Evaluation of Electric Power Procurement Strategies by Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yuichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    In deregulated electricity markets, the role of a distribution company is to purchase electricity from the wholesale electricity market at randomly fluctuating prices and to provide it to its customers at a given fixed price. Therefore the company has to take risk stemming from the uncertainties of electricity prices and/or demand fluctuation instead of the customers. The way to avoid the risk is to make a bilateral contact with generating companies or install its own power generation facility. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electric power procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing a mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming and additionally considering the characteristics of the start-up cost of electric power generation facility to evaluate strategies of combination of the bilateral contract and power auto-generation with its own facility for procuring electric power in deregulated electricity market. In the beginning we proposed two approaches to solve the stochastic dynamic programming, and they are a Monte Carlo simulation method and a finite difference method to derive the solution of a partial differential equation of the total procurement cost of electric power. Finally we discussed the influences of the price uncertainty on optimal strategies of power procurement.

  14. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bennion, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waye, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  15. Computer program analyzes and monitors electrical power systems (POSIMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements to monitor and/or simulate electric power distribution, power balance, and charge budget are discussed. Computer program to analyze power system and generate set of characteristic power system data is described. Application to status indicators to denote different exclusive conditions is presented.

  16. Risk management of power supply in open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinta-Runsala, E.; Kiviniemi, J.

    1999-12-01

    The open electricity market has increased the need of risk management in electric utilities. In this publication the concepts of risk assessment and measures mostly concentrating on market risks for power supply companies are reported. An essential past of the risk management includes the electricity derivates and trade

  17. Fundamentals of electric power engineering engineering from electromagnetics to power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ceraolo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    At the basis of many sectors of engineering, electrical engineering deals with electricity phenomena involved in the transfer of energy and power. Professionals requiring a refresher course in this interdisciplinary branch need look no further than Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering, which imparts tools and trade tricks to remembering basic concepts and grasping new developments. Even established engineers must supplement their careers with an invigorated knowledge base, and this comprehensive resource helps non-electrical engineers amass power system information quickly.

  18. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  19. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  20. Electric Power Supply Chain Management Addressing Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector...

  1. The Brazilian electric power market: historic and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Afonso, C.A. de; Azevedo, J.B.L. de

    1992-01-01

    A historical analysis of electric power market evolution in Brazil and in their regions during 1950 to 1990, is described, showing the forecasting for the next ten years. Some considerations about population, energy conservation and industrial consumers are also presented, including statistical data of the electrical power market. (C.G.C.)

  2. Optimal contracts for wind power producers in electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.; Giani, A.; Rajagopal, R.; Varagnolo, D.; Khargonekar, P.; Poolla, K.; Varaiya, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on optimal contracts for an independent wind power producer in conventional electricity markets. Starting with a simple model of the uncertainty in the production of power from a wind turbine farm and a model for the electric

  3. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs

  4. Electrical Power Systems Protection and Interdependencies with ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Milis, George; Kyriakides, Elias; Hadjiantonis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter discusses the issue of protection of the electrical power systems, addressing all dimensions, from the need of protection to the identified faults and disturbances to the available protection schemes and further considerations, also looking at the challenges brought by recognizing the interdependent nature of the today’s electrical power systems.

  5. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2000-01-01

    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid...

  6. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Energy managment strategies for vehicular electric power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M.W.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Jager, de A.G.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the near future, a significant increase in electric power consumption in vehicles is expected. To limit the associated increase in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, smart strategies for the generation, storage/retrieval, distribution, and consumption of electric power will be used. Inspired

  8. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - November 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in November 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  9. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in July 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  10. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in September 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  11. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. EVALUATING DEGREE OF ACTIVE POWER LOSSES REDUCTION IN THE ELECTRIC POWER LINES WITH REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers evaluation procedure for the degree of active power losses reduction in the power transmission lines under 1 kV and 6–10 kV of the systems of electric power supply of industrial enterprises with compensating installations mounted at the side of the customer. The capacitor installations conform to the applied voltage level and factor in dielectric losses in the capacitors. The voltage at the compensating device terminal changes from 0.95 to 1.05 of the capacitors nominal voltage. The study did not account for reactive power losses in the line, nor did it for its charge capacity, conditioned by relative shortness of the cable lines generally operating in the mains of industrial enterprises. For this reason, the quantities of reactive power being consumed and generated by the transmission line are negligible and do not significantly affect the reactive power flux. The researchers obtain functional relations that allow estimating the degree of power loss reduction in the transmission line factoring in its explicit initial data. They perform mathematical analysis of the obtained functional relations and study the function by means of derivatives. The function extremum points are found as well as the intervals of its increment and decrement. A graphical research of the obtained functional relation is performed. It is ascertained that reduction of the active power losses is contingent on the line and the capacitor-installation engineering factors, the electrical energy consumer reactive load value as well as the voltage applied to the capacitor installation. The functional relations presented in the article can be employed in scoping calculation necessary for decision making on the reactive power compensation in systems of the industrial facilities electric power supply. Their account will allow a more accurate estimate of technical and economic effect of the capacitor bank installation in the electrical mains under 1 kV and 6

  13. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery. (TK) [de

  14. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  15. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  16. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  17. British and Italian electric power systems: Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolli, A.

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the new electricity system in England, Wales and Scotland, after the 1989 Electricity Act, and the Italian electricity system (as modified by the January, 9, 1991, Law No. 9 and by the December 5, 1991, Decree No. 386 made law (No. 35) on January, 29, 1992). The study focuses on legal aspects and socio-economic factors influencing planning and organizing by the national electric power industries in their efforts to maintain supply and demand equilibrium

  18. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities. 57 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  1. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  2. Fitting of power generated by nuclear power plants into the Hungarian electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Gyula; Potecz, Bela

    1984-01-01

    The moderate increase of electrical energy demands (3% at present) can only be met by the parallel application of fossil and nuclear power plants and by electric power import via the transmission lines of the CMEA countries. The changes in the electrical energy and fuel demands and the development of the available capacities during the last 35 years are reviewed. The major purpose of Hungarian power economy is to save hydrocarbon fuels by taking advantages of power import opportunities by operating nuclear power plants at maximum capacity and the coal fired power stations at high capacity. The basic principles, the algorithm applied to optimize the load distribution of the electrical power system are discussed in detail with special attention to the role of nuclear power. The planned availability of nuclear power plants and the amount of electricity generated by nuclear plants should also be optimized. (V.N.)

  3. Innovations in techniques of electric power in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohfusa, Takahiro; Endo, Yukio; Ino, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Tohoku Electric Power and other nine companies reported the results of innovations in techniques of electric power in 2008, Japan. J-Power started construction of the Ohma Nuclear Power Plant (power generating capacity: 1,383 MW, ABWR) in Ohma Town, Aomori prefecture, Japan, in May 2008. TEPCO developed the low vibration control valve and carried out the model experiments using air as fluid and the simulation by computational fluid dynamics. Mach number distribution (ε L =0.068) at the valve showed change of the supersonic jet flow as time advanced and a periodic pressure change on the valve and valve seat. Japan Atomic Power Company reported development of techniques for the established nuclear power station such as control of pipe thinning of the secondary system of PWR by insertion of oxygen at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 2, risk evaluation, the effects of increase of generating power on aging deterioration, and development of heat protective clothing. Researched are a power generation plant of small-and-medium-size reactors which took in reforming technology using the location to a narrow site, funds by stakeholders and the idea of future 'fast breeder reactor system', sodium-cooled loop type reactor, which uses TRU as fuel. The accumulator tank of new type safety system for Tsuruga Power Station Unit 3 and 4 is designed and tested. Decommissioning process of Tokai Power Plant and recycling of shielding materials, blocks and concrete powder are stated. (S.Y.)

  4. Wireless (Power Transfer Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  5. Major trends in the development of electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikov, I A

    1965-01-01

    The comparison is made between the USA and the USSR electrical systems and their growth. The author states that USSR is about 35 years behind in the construction of power transmission lines of 22 kV and above. Various graphs of economic developments are presented. It is stated that the work in the near future should be concentrated on 750 kV network and on combining the USSR electric power distribution into a single power system.

  6. A hybrid electrical power system for aircraft application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Chin, C. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Possible improvements to present aircraft electrical power systems for use in future advanced types of aircraft have been investigated. The conventional power system is examined, the characteristics of electric loads are reviewed, and various methods of power generation and distribution are appraised. It is shown that a hybrid system, with variable-frequency generation and high-voltage dc distribution, could overcome some of the limitations of the conventional system.

  7. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  8. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  9. Comparing handrim biomechanics for treadmill and overground wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Turner, Jeffrey T.; Guo, Liyun; Richter, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare handrim biomechanics recorded during overground propulsion to those recorded during propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Methods Twenty-eight manual wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs, at a self-selected speed, on a low-pile carpet and on a wheelchair accessible treadmill. Handrim biomechanics were recorded with an OptiPush instrumented wheelchair wheel. Results Across the two conditions, all handrim biomechanics were found to be similar and highly correlated (r > 0.85). Contact angle, peak force, average force, and peak axle moment differed by 1.6% or less across the two conditions. While not significant, power output and cadence tended to be slightly higher for the treadmill condition (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively), due to limitations in adjusting the treadmill grade. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, a motor-driven treadmill can serve as a valid surrogate for overground studies of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:21042332

  10. Influence of wind power, plug-in electric vehicles, and heat storages on power system investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Due to rising fuel costs, the substantial price for CO2 emissions and decreasing wind power costs, wind power might become the least expensive source of power for an increasing number of power systems. This poses the questions of how wind power might change optimal investments in other forms...... of power production and what kind of means could be used to increase power system flexibility in order to incorporate the variable power production from wind power in a cost-effective manner. We have analysed possible effects using an investment model that combines heat and power production and simulates...... electric vehicles. The model runs in an hourly time scale in order to accommodate the impact of variable power production from wind power. Electric vehicles store electricity for later use and can thus serve to increase the flexibility of the power system. Flexibility can also be upgraded by using heat...

  11. Electric Power Monthly, September 1995: With data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  13. Summary of the electric power supply program for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Minoru

    1981-01-01

    The plans of electric power supply for fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982) by the power companies were formulated and submitted to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Along with the current up trend of economic activities, the demands of electric power will be on the increase. A summer peak of power consumption may rise all the more due to the increase in room-cooling units. On the other hand, the problem of petroleum is unsettled. Under the situation, the principal considerations behind the formulation of the plans are the effective utilization of other energy resources than oil and the suppression of oil-burning power generation, the economical usage of all power generation facilities and stabilized demand and supply, and the promotion of wide-area operation. The situation in fiscal 1981, power demands, power source facilities demand and supply balance, and the interchange of power among power companies are described. (J.P.N.)

  14. Power Consumption Analysis of Electrical Installations at Healthcare Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Guillen-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for power consumption estimation considering harmonic and interharmonic content and then it is compared to the power consumption estimation commonly done by commercial equipment based on the fundamental frequency, and how they can underestimate the power consumption considering power quality disturbances (PQD. For this purpose, data of electrical activity at the electrical distribution boards in a healthcare facility is acquired for a long time period with proprietary equipment. An analysis in the acquired current and voltage signals is done, in order to compare the power consumption centered in the fundamental frequency with the generalized definition of power consumption. The results obtained from the comparison in the power consumption estimation show differences between 4% and 10% of underestimated power consumption. Thus, it is demonstrated that the presence of harmonic and interharmonic content provokes a significant underestimation of power consumption using only the power consumption centered at the fundamental frequency.

  15. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  16. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc. may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coefficient in principal component usually corresponds to the fault. Therefore, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on principal components analysis technology, we have extracted successfully the distinct features of fault component. Of course, because of the complexity of different types of faults in electric power system, there still exists enormous problems need a close and intensive study.

  17. FUNDAMENTALS OF RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Engr. Anumaka; Michael Chukwukadibia

    2011-01-01

    Today, the electric power system consists of complex interconnected network which are prone to different problems that militates against the reliability of the power system. Inadequate reliability in the power system causes problems such as high failure rate of power system installations and consumer equipment, transient and intransient faults, symmetrical faults etc. This paper provides an extensive review of the powers system and equipment reliability and related failure patterns in equipment.

  18. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L H; Morthorst, P E; Skytte, K [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  19. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  20. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-84-000] Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest... 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e and Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  1. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  2. The role of nuclear power in the global electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1992-01-01

    Basic conclusions and recommendations developed in the process of preparing and conducting the symposium discussed are presented. All methods of electric power production, their prospects and effects on man and environment were discussed during the symposium. This paper is devoted mainly to nuclear power engineering only, its prospects and possible role in general electric power generation

  3. Electric power monthly, January 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Electric power monthly, October 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-11

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, September 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-12

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  6. MVA power flow and loss analysis for electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Chen, G.Z.

    2001-01-01

    MVA power-flow and loss analysis is the basis for allocating the fixed costs and power losses under electricity-market deregulation. It is pointed out that the decomposition allocation of active and reactive power losses is not reasonable. The theory of active and reactive loss allocation and branch-power-flow decomposition has been proposed. Various contributory factors have been deduced. These contributory factors include the contribution factors of the active and reactive generation power, load-power-to-branch flows, the contribution factors of active and reactive generation power to active and reactive load power, the contribution factors of active and reactive load power to generation power, and the contribution factors of active and reactive load power and active and reactive generation power to line power losses. The detailed calculation results are presented and analysed, demonstrating that the theory presented provides a good charging algorithm for all the market participants. (Author)

  7. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  8. Oxygen uptake during peak graded exercise and single-stage fatigue tests of wheelchair propulsion in manual wheelchair users and the able-bodied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, R E; Rodgers, M M; Gardner, E R; Russell, P J

    1999-10-01

    To determine if a single-stage, submaximal fatigue test on a wheelchair ergometer would result in higher than expected energy expenditure. An experimental survey design contrasting physiologic responses during peak graded exercise tests and fatigue tests. A rehabilitation science laboratory that included a prototypical wheelchair ergometer, open-circuit spirometry system, and heart rate monitor. Nine able-bodied non-wheelchair users (the NWC group: 6 men and 3 women, mean +/- SD age 30 +/- 7yrs) and 15 manual wheelchair users (the WC group: 12 men and 3 women, age 40 +/- 9yrs, time in wheelchair 16 +/- 9yrs). No subject had any disease, medication regimen, or upper body neurologic, orthopedic, or other condition that would limit wheelchair exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) for graded exercise testing and during fatigue testing, using a power output corresponding to 75% peak aerobic capacity on graded exercise test. In the WC group, VO2 at 6 minutes of fatigue testing was not significantly different from peak VO2. In the NWC group, VO2 was similar to the expected level throughout fatigue testing. Energy expenditure was higher than expected in the WC group but not in the NWC group. Fatigue testing may provide a useful evaluation of cardiorespiratory status in manual wheelchair users.

  9. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  10. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  11. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  12. Regulation of Electric Power Generation while Improving TTP Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking integrated power system of theRepublicofBelarusas an example the paper considers a possibility of heat accumulator use for TPP operation in accordance with the schedule of electric power consumption while maintaining daily supply of heat energy from turbine power takes-off and without involvement of peak-loader boilers used for covering energy loads.

  13. Outline of electric power installation plan for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masami

    1981-01-01

    The electric power installation plan for fiscal 1981 was submitted by power companies to the Minister of International Trade and Industry at the end of March. In 1990, the total demand of electric power will be 907.9 billion kWh, and the yearly rate of growth will be about 5%. The peak demand of electric power continues to be acute, and is expected to be 175.74 million kW. In order to supply power so as to always balance the demand, the reserve power of 8 to 10% of the maximum demand is required. According to the submitted plan, the power sources determined already are not sufficient, therefore it was planned to present 61 plants of 11.94 million kW in 1981 and 64 plants of 19.61 million kW in 1982 to the Power Source Development Coordination Council. If the power source development progresses as planned, the adequate rate to reserve is maintained up to 1990, and the stable supply of electric power seems to be secured. However when some delay occurs in the plan, serious obstacle to the demand and supply may arise. This plan fundamentally follows the policy to deversify power sources toward the target of substitute energy supply for petroleum. The power transmission facilities are also strengthened and expanded. The investment plan for fiscal 1981 is shown. (Kako, I.)

  14. Integration of wind power in the liberalized Dutch electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ummels, B.C.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.; Paap, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Wind power is becoming a large-scale electricity generation technology in a number of European countries, including the Netherlands.Owing to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production, large-scale wind power can be foreseen to have large consequences for balancing generation and

  15. The decision making of an electric power producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, F.

    2002-01-01

    How can choose an electric power producer when he has to decide an investment of a supplementary power plant? Which were the criteria to choose a small or a medium power reactor? In this framework, the economical profitability, the technical feasibility and the associated risks are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  17. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven

  18. powering nigeria through renewable electricity investments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    and reliable information, which consumers, investors and the government can rely upon. ..... and Participation in a Private Sector Driven Electricity Industry in Nigeria: Recent .... Furthermore, renewable energy technologies are still very new to.

  19. Potentiality Prediction of Electric Power Replacement Based on Power Market Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Jingyi; Zhao, Le; Liu, Chang; Li, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The application of electric power replacement plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. To exploit the potentiality of regional electric power replacement, the regional GDP (gross domestic product) and energy consumption are taken as potentiality evaluation indicators. The principal component factors are extracted with PCA (principal component analysis), and the integral potentiality analysis is made to the potentiality of electric power replacement in the national various regions; a region is taken as a research object, and the potentiality of electric power replacement is defined and quantified. The analytical model for the potentiality of multi-scenario electric power replacement is developed, and prediction is made to the energy consumption with the grey prediction model. The relevant theoretical research is utilized to realize prediction analysis on the potentiality amount of multi-scenario electric power replacement.

  20. Electric-powered cars in Austria - status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propper, B.

    1993-01-01

    The number of electric-powered vehicles in Austria is estimated to be 300 at the most. In this article, the reasons for such a low number is being looked at. Austria is ideally located with respect to producing electricity, as two thirds of it are produced by water-power. However, there are only three direct ways of state funding in order to reduce the cost. In the framework of a field test, the use of electric-powered vehicles for community-use is being successfully carried out in Vienna. (orig.) [de