WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrical equipment analisis

  1. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  2. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  3. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  4. Diagnostics of Electric Equipment Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Branovitsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology and results of the investigations pertaining to study of influence of short-circuited turns on transient electrical processes in electric motor windings. Dependence of their damped speed and value of the difference signal, obtained at reciprocal subtraction of damped oscillation curves in absence and in presence of short-circuited turns, on number of turns in the tested windings. It has been determined that damped oscillation curves, immediately attributed to short-circuited turns, have peak values along temporary axis which are areas of the largest transient process sensitivity to КЗ turns.Methodology for diagnostics of single- and three-phase electric motor windings and also other electric equipment, being realized in DO-1 device, has been developed in the paper. The men­tioned device makes it possible to carry out visual comparison and quantitative analysis of damped oscillation curves in the tested windings with standard ones which are set in the device memory and their difference signals.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  6. Protecting electrical equipment against dust explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J

    1981-07-01

    The new ordinance on electrical equipment in hazardous areas and the new VDE 0165/6.80 have brought about significant changes in the field of electrical equipment in areas with a explosion hazard due inflammable dust. There are no constructional regulations yet in this field, and producers, planners, and users are uncertain about what measures to take. The article attempts to clear up a few points.

  7. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... combined with some consideration on the future human need for the energy service output from the technologies. On the above basis is suggested one set of energy services, which a family in a cold climate can enjoy from just annually consuming 250 kWh of electricity per person. This is actually sufficient......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  8. Progress on EPRI electrical equipment qualification research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of EPRI's electrical equipment qualification research program is to provide technical assistance to utilities in meeting nuclear plant safety requirements in a manner consistent with the state of the art. This paper reports progress on several research projects including: radiation effects studies, which compile data on degradation of organic materials in electrical equipment exposed to operational and accident radiation doses; the Equipment Qualification Data Bank, which is a remotely accessible computer system for disseminating qualification information on in-plant equipment, seismic data, and materials data; an aging/seismic correlation program, which is providing test data showing that, in many cases, age degradation has a negligibly small effect on the performance of electrical components under seismic excitation; a review of condition monitoring techniques, which has identified surveillance methods for measuring key performance parameters that have the potential for predicting remaining equipment life; and large-scale hydrogen burn equipment response tests, which are providing data to assess the ability of equipment to remain functional during and after hydrogen burning in postulated degraded core accidents

  9. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  10. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used in return air outby the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric... other in return air outby the last open crosscut, shall not exceed one ampere as determined from the... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.524 Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby...

  11. Research on the Reliability Testing of Electrical Automation Control Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Luo

    2014-01-01

    According to the author’s many years’ work experience, this paper first discusses the concepts of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, and then analyzes the test method of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, finally, on this basis, this article discusses how to determine the reliability test method of electrical automation control equipment. Results of this study will provide a useful reference for electrical automation control equipment reliab...

  12. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each...) All electric cooking equipment, attachments, and devices, must be of rugged construction and so...

  13. Authorisation for work with electrical equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Balle, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of training needs must be conducted by the Group Leader for every employee who could potentially be exposed to an electrical hazard. An analysis must be performed taking into account: • the voltage range (TBT, BT, HTA, HTB) • the type of work to be done (for example, work on a low-voltage line) • the type and the characteristics of the structures, installations and equipment • the type of current (alternating or direct) • the person’s ability to perform the operation

  14. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TANAKA, TINA J.; BAYNES, EDWARD E. JR.; NOWLEN, STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN, JOHN E.; GRITZO, LOUIS A.; SHADDIX, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  15. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J.

    1994-05-01

    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing

  16. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J. [comps.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing.

  17. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. [Statutory Provisions] All...

  18. Electrically nonconductive shield for electric equipment generating ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    As a radiation protection shield there is proposed a nonconductive shield fabricated from epoxides or other plastics material and containing finely dispersed radiation absorbing metal. It is to be designed in such a way that it lies in the range of a high electric gradient in the equipment, close to the radiation-producing component. As suitable metals there are mentioned tin, tungsten, and lead resp. their oxides. As an example there is used an X-ray shielding. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  19. Service Offering at Electrical Equipment Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kaňovská

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The aim of the paper is to uncover ways of managing service offering provided by electrical equipment manufactures in the Czech Republic. The segment is extremely important for Czech industry nowadays, especially because of many companies being subcontractors for the car industry and mechanical engineering. The producers of electric equipment comply with the Czech industry classification CZ-NACE 27. Methodology/methods: The questionnaire in the form of the Likert scale was prepared to gather information about customer services. The respondents were usually directors or managers, e.g. employees with high competencies of knowing customer services in this particular market. The total of 22 companies were included in the survey. Research was focused on the following industries classifications belonging to CZ-NACE 27: CZ-NACE 27, CZ-NACE 271 and CZ-NACE 273. According to Czech Statistical Office the total number of companies belonging to these 3 segments is 136. It means 16,2% companies belonging to CZ-NACE 27 participated in our research. Basic statistical methods were used to analyse the complete database. Scientific aim: The paper deals with the problem of service offering provided by today’s manufacturers. Global understanding of services that manufacturers really develop, sell, deliver and manage is still limited. Findings: Managing service offering provided by today‘s manufacturers shows that 1 Manufacturers not offer only tangible products, but also wide range of services and even information and support. 2 New products are not designed only according to company technicians, but also according to their customers. Their products and services are developed, tested and improved according to their needs. 3 Services provide complex customer care from time product selection to its end. Conclusions: Manufacturers of tangible products need to enlarge their product offering to be able to satisfy customers. Therefore

  20. THE ANALISYS OF RAILWAY MULTI MOTORS ELECTRICAL DRIVE DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khilmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of multi motors electrical traction drive dynamic analysis is denoted by its large application in electrical driving railway vehicles. In this paper an analysis is presented for two inducton motors traction drive with frequency inverter, vector control, and speed sensors of each electrical drive. The goal of this work is the analysis of two induction motors electrical drive, taking into account parametric perturbations and also a limited moment of wheel-rail adhesion, by laboratory study and simulation. Because of difference between motor’s parameters, it is necessary for parallel work to select motors with identical resistances and inductive winding. For this purpose the parametric identification method was used for each electrical drive, and also for two parallel motors. The result of identification was used in control setting.The  slippage  of  the  traction  drives  is  difficult  to  reproduce  in  laboratory;  therefore a mathematical modeling and simulation of mechanical part with a traction force restriction, specific for railway transport, were carried out. The suggested simulation is built with account of elastic deformations in kinetic chain, transforming traction force. The model permits to study a dynamic system in various circumstances.The results of laboratory investigations and simulation of dynamic regimes for two motor electrical drives are presented in this article. The results of analysis show, that a minimal difference between any parameters of two motors, parallel connected to convertor, is important for the slippage stability.

  1. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  2. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  3. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  4. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  5. Factory automation for heavy electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokutani, Takashi; Ninomiya, Iwao; Hatayama, Naokatsu; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The heightening of productivity in the factories manufacturing heavy electric equipment has been advanced so far by the rationalization of direct workings such as NC, robots and the adoption of FMS (flexible manufacturing system). However, as CAD advances, the effective utilization of these data and the expansion to future CIM (computer integrated manufacture) have become to be demanded. In the Hitachi Works of Hitachi Ltd., it was decided to advance the synthetic rationalization by adopting FA (factory automation) system. Steam turbine blades, pipings for nuclear power plants and motor coils were taken up as the objects since these are important parts, and for the purpose of the drastic heightening of QA level, the heightening of accuracy and the shortening of processes, the synchronization with field installation schedule and the creation of safe working place environment, the FA projects for these three sections were simultaneously planned. When the automation of non-mass production factories is promoted, there are the unmanned factories combining FMS lines for relatively many products and those characterized by FMC of shortening preparation time for small lot products, and this is the examples of the former. The system constitution for FA and the production management combined with it are described. The high reliability of the optical network was regarded as important. (Kako, I.)

  6. Qualification of electric equipments for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Raimondo, E.

    1983-03-01

    Description of the testing equipment, testing methods and standards of the resistance to seisms of electrical equipments (switches, pump motors, electrovalves, ...) for electronuclear power plants in France. Presentation of the French design and construction rules for electrical devices in the domestic and export nuclear market (resistance to thermodynamical and chemical stresses, to seisms, etc...) [fr

  7. Development of electric discharge equipment for small specimen sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kitagawa, Hideaki; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the on-site electric discharge sampling equipment that can effectively take samples such as small specimens from the surface portion of the plant components. Compared with the conventional sampling equipment, our sampling equipment can take samples that are thinner in depth and larger in area. In addition, the affection to the equipment can be held down to the minimum, and the thermally-affected zone of the material due to electric discharge is small, which is to be ignored. Therefore, our equipment is excellent in taking samples for various tests such as residual life evaluation.

  8. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  9. Case Based Asset Maintenance for the Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jung, Jae-Cheon; Chang, Young-Woo; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hang-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Ho; Hur, Yong; Lee, Dong-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The electric equipment maintenance strategies are changing from PM(Preventive Maintenance) or CM(Corrective Maintenance) to CBM(Condition Based Maintenance). The main benefits of CBM are reduced possibility of service failures of critical equipment and reduced costs or maintenance work. In CBM, the equipment status need to be monitored continuously and a decision should be made whether an equipment need to be repaired or replaced. For the maintenance decision making, the CBR(Case Base Reasoning) system is introduced. The CBR system receives the current equipment status and retrieves the case based historic database to determine any possible equipment failure under current conditions. In retrieving the case based historic data, the suggested DSS(Decision Support System) uses a reasoning engine with an equipment/asset ontology that describes the equipment subsumption relationships

  10. FUNDAMENTALS OF RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Engr. Anumaka; Michael Chukwukadibia

    2011-01-01

    Today, the electric power system consists of complex interconnected network which are prone to different problems that militates against the reliability of the power system. Inadequate reliability in the power system causes problems such as high failure rate of power system installations and consumer equipment, transient and intransient faults, symmetrical faults etc. This paper provides an extensive review of the powers system and equipment reliability and related failure patterns in equipment.

  11. Environmental/dynamic mechanical equipment qualification and dynamic electrical equipment qualification program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Equipment qualification research is being conducted to investigate acceptable criteria, requirements, and methodologies for the dynamic (including seismic) and environmental qualification of mechanical equipment and for the dynamic (including seismic) qualification of electrical equipment. The program is organized into three elements: (1) General Research, (2) Environmental Research, and (3) Dynamic Research. This paper presents the highlights of the results to date in these three elements of the program

  12. Problems associated with accelerated thermal aging of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential problems that may be experienced when accounting for aging mechanisms in organic polymers when utilizing accelerated thermal aging techniques for electrical equipment qualification. Included are discussions of actual experiences and problems encountered in the qualification of electrical and electronic equipment for a complete nuclear power plant. The wide variety of approaches to thermal accelerated aging by various manufacturers of diverse equipment types provides depth to the discussion. A description of how to account for aging mechanisms is also presented

  13. Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

  14. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. Activity plan for year 2002 is included [sr

  15. 30 CFR 77.501 - Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric distribution circuits and equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.501 Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on electric distribution circuits or equipment...

  16. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  17. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  18. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlicka, R.; Brestovansky, L.

    1996-01-01

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. Measurements enumarated in paragraph 1 are made on disconnected electric

  19. Market study on the Mexican market for electrical distribution equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical survey of the development of the Mexican electric power sector is presented, along with an overview of the state of the Mexican economy since the late 1980s and the present characteristics of the Mexican electricity sector. The Mexican market for electric power generation and distribution equipment is then assessed, from the perspective of Canadian suppliers and manufacturers intending to enter this market. Projected consumption of electrical generation and distribution equipment in Mexico for 1994 is estimated at US$1,035,600,000 ($719.4 million in production, $356.9 million in imports, and $40.7 million in exports). This market increased 12.3% in 1990, and since power demand in Mexico has been growing faster than growth in capacity, it is possible that investments in the electricity sector will grow at faster rates. Items which are traditionally imported include nuclear reactors and related equipment, boilers, turbines, power breakers, valves, coal and ash handling equipment, relays, automatic controls, and chemical treatment equipment. The USA has the greatest share of the import market with 35%, followed by Japan (22%), Switzerland (18%), and Germany (13%). Canadian exports have concentrated on distribution equipment and only totalled $1.7 million in 1990. Electricity is distributed to some 16.6 million users over a national interconnected system having total installed capacity of 30,513 MW in 1991. There are plans to increase capacity by 9.7 GW by 1994 and another 37.4-47.8 GW between 1995 and 2010. Projections of electricity needs by region are listed along with the new power plants targeted for investment. Market liberalization and lowering of tariffs have made the Mexican market more accessible to exporters. 8 tabs

  20. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  1. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants. Electrical equipment of the safety system. Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard applies to electrical parts of safety systems employed at nuclear power plants, including components and equipment of any interface whose failure could affect unfavourably properties of the safety system. The standard also applies to non-electrical safety-related interfaces. Furthermore, the standard describes the generic process of qualification certification procedures and methods of qualification testing and related documentation. (P.A.)

  3. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedlicka, R; Brestovansky, L [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Network effects in the operation of electrical equipment; Efectos de la red en la operacion del equipo electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia T, Arturo; Rosales S, Inocente; Garcia P, Job; Ruiz F, L. Ivan; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the nineties, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) Electrical Equipment Management (GEE) was restricted to make the diagnosis of generators, transformers, switch boards and cables, without considering the global operating conditions. With the experience acquired in different services it was verified that, inclusively when this equipment is correctly designed, it can be subjected to unfavorable operative conditions, which causes an accelerated deterioration to the degree of producing a fault. In agreement with this, the GEE settled down new line of development named Analysis of the network effect on the electrical equipment, that analyzes the behavior of the equipment originated by work abnormal causes, including the network configuration effect. [Spanish] En la decada de los noventa, la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del IIE se limitaba a realizar el diagnostico de generadores, transformadores, tableros de distribucion y cables, sin considerar las condiciones globales de operacion. Con la experiencia adquirida en diferentes servicios se comprobo que, inclusive cuando estos equipos esten correctamente disenados, pueden verse sometidos a condiciones de operacion desfavorables, lo que ocasiona un deterioro acelerado al grado de producir una falla. De acuerdo con esto, la GEE establecio una nueva linea de desarrollo de nominada Analisis del efecto de la red en los equipos electricos, que analiza el comportamiento de los equipos originado por causas anormales de trabajo, incluido el efecto de la configuracion de la red.

  5. Annual report of the group for maintenance of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, M.

    1965-01-01

    This report includes detailed description of repairs and revisions of the electrical equipment of the RA reactor which were done according to the annual plan during the periods when reactor was not operated. Unplanned repairs are part of this report as well [sr

  6. The Mexican market for electrical equipment and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.

    1994-05-01

    Most of Mexico's electric power needs are supplied by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Total installed capacity is ca 33,000 MW, of which ca 42% comes from oil-fired generation and 26% hydroelectric. Electricity consumption is expected to grow at ca 6%/y between 1993 and 2000; to meet this demand, CFE plans to build nearly 14,000 MW of additional generating capacity to cost ca $34 billion. A new law governing the electric power sector recently privatized electrical project construction and provided for private financing. Construction of all larger generation and transmission projects has been privatized, thereby deregulating and simplifying the bidding process for Canadian firms wishing to bid, subcontract, or supply equipment or materials. The most notable opportunities for Canadian firms are in transmission projects. The Mexican electrical manufacturing industry comprises ca 2,000 firms employing 150,000 people. Branch plants of global firms plus domestic companies supply over 70% of market demand. Production of equipment and materials for the electrical sector is well integrated with suppliers and customers, and manufacturers are seeking imports to replace abandoned product lines as the industry rationalizes. These, along with more sophisticated equipment not made in Mexico, provide opportunities for Canadian suppliers. The North American Free Trade Agreement gives preference to Canadians over offshore competitors, and eliminates many barriers to exports. Canada's Export Development Corporation provides financing with a line of credit for the electrical sector. Marketing in Mexico is best done through personal visits and capable local representation. A directory of Mexican electrical manufacturers who import is appended. 1 tab

  7. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  8. Environmental qualification program of electric equipment for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzitano, Grazielle F.; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the environmental qualification program for important electrical equipment (EQPEE) used for safety in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The environmental qualification program started in United States of America by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1979. In that event, some equipment installed inside the reactor containment of TMI failed due the harsh conditions that occurred after the accident. Because of this fact, the NRC issued the Regulation 50.49 'Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'. The Brazilian regulatory commission CNEN also asked Angra 1 to follow this regulation and to implement an EQPEE similar to the programs adopted by American and other NPPs around the world. Due to the importance to maintain the critical equipment operating in normal and abnormal environment conditions, the program aims to assure that this equipment remains qualified to work under the harsh conditions found inside the reactor containment. The aging of these components are also analyzed in this program that is important in the process to extend the operating life of Angra 1 for more 20 years, which is normally referred as Long Term Operation (LTO). (author)

  9. Environmental qualification program of electric equipment for Angra 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzitano, Grazielle F.; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: grazi@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: candeia@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of the environmental qualification program for important electrical equipment (EQPEE) used for safety in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The environmental qualification program started in United States of America by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1979. In that event, some equipment installed inside the reactor containment of TMI failed due the harsh conditions that occurred after the accident. Because of this fact, the NRC issued the Regulation 50.49 'Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'. The Brazilian regulatory commission CNEN also asked Angra 1 to follow this regulation and to implement an EQPEE similar to the programs adopted by American and other NPPs around the world. Due to the importance to maintain the critical equipment operating in normal and abnormal environment conditions, the program aims to assure that this equipment remains qualified to work under the harsh conditions found inside the reactor containment. The aging of these components are also analyzed in this program that is important in the process to extend the operating life of Angra 1 for more 20 years, which is normally referred as Long Term Operation (LTO). (author)

  10. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  11. 30 CFR 75.503-1 - Statement listing all electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all electric face equipment being used at each mine as of the time of filing, all such equipment being... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement listing all electric face equipment...-General § 75.503-1 Statement listing all electric face equipment. Each operator of a coal mine shall...

  12. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE DENGAN METODE OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS DAN FUZZY FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ash Handling System merupakan suatu bagian dari pembangkit listrik tenaga uap dengan bahan bakar batu bara yang berfungsi untuk menyalurkan limbah pembuangan sisa hasil proses pembakaran batu bara pada boiler. Sisa pembakaran terbagi menjadi fly ash dan bottom ash. Untuk sisa pembakaran fly ash akan disalurkan menuju ke Electrostatic Precipitator untuk ditangkap  dengan metode corona dan ditransfer menuju penampungan fly ash dengan cara dimampatkan bersama udara dari kompresor yang melalui pipa-pipa dan tabung transporter. Sedangkan untuk sisa pembakaran bottom ash akan disalurkan dengan alat yang disebut SSC (Submerged Scraper Conveyor. Gangguan pada SSC dapat terjadi mulai dari belt putus, masalah pada penggerak, hingga masalah pada kelistrikan dan instrumennya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai OEE, mengetahui dampak gangguan belt sobek, mengetahui penyebab terjadinya belt conveyor sobek dan melakukan estimasi hasil perbaikan dari sisi biaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE dan Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata nilai OEE pada tahun 2015 sekitar 52,05%, masih di bawah standar nilai OEE sebesar 85%. Penyebab utamanya adalah adanya gangguan belt sobek karena gesekan belt dengan support return ketika belt conveyor mengalami jogging yang berdampak pada terganggunya penyaluran abu. Modifikasi dapat menghindari kerugian perusahaan sebesar Rp. 582.548.800,00.

  13. Total qualification of class 1E electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.

    1982-09-01

    For nuclear power plant projects in France, Framatome and its partners Electricite de France (EDF) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have responded to the present qualification context by implementing a wide-ranging qualification program to acquire significant organizational and practical experience. The following sections detail Framatome's approach to the activities of an organization mandated to provide a complete spectrum of qualification services. Thorough implementation of a Class 1E electric equipment qualification program by the competent organization or qualifier entails completion of three consecutive steps: 1) program preparation, 2) program implementation, and 3) analysis of test results and conclusion. The qualifier assumes extensive responsibility for each of these steps. The following sections present test facilities used in France to conduct a total qualification program for Class 1E electric equipment

  14. Study of National Electric System equipment until 2000 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report by the German firm Lahmeyer International is about the historical development of the supply of Electric Power, description of the current system, previous studies, organization, power plants, hydroelectric plants and existing construction, transmission system, hydrological studies and water resources, operation of hydro thermal generation, medium-term demand, energy sources and generation in the medium term, list of thermal plants, evaluation of alternative equipment plans in Uruguay at a med dium term.

  15. Shaking table testing of electrical equipment in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, J.S.; Zabala, F.; Santalucia, J.; Sisterna, C.; Magrini, M.; Oldecop, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the testing facility, the methodology applied and the results obtained in the seismic qualification tests of different types of electric equipment. These tests were carried out on a shaking table that was developed and built at the Earthquake Research Institute of the National University of San Juan, Argentine. The equipment tested consist of 500 KV and 132 KV current transformers, a 500 KV voltage transformer, a 145 KV disconnecter and a relay cabinet. The acceleration response of the tested equipment was measured at several locations distributed along its height, and strains were measured at critical points by strain gauges cemented on the base of the porcelain insulator. All the information was recorded with a data acquisition system at a sampling rate of 200 times per second in each channel. The facility developed at this Institute is the largest one in operation in Argentina at present and the equipment tested is the highest, heaviest and more slender one which has been seismically qualified on a shaking table in this country. These tests have been a valuable experience in the field of structural dynamic testing applied to equipment of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  17. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-01-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  18. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  19. Equipment for the measurement of non-electrical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, M.I.; Ewtuchow, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns equipment for the measurement of non-electrical parameters, which can be used in data processing and control equipment. The transducer converts non-electrical parameters into electrical signals. The process according to the invention is explained using the example of an inductive transducer, which is fed with alternating current. The measured parameter affects the mutual inductance of the transducer, so that the secondary voltage supplied by it is a function of the measured parameter. Amplitude measurement of this voltage by means of rectification and filtering has the disadvantage of long time constants, where the measuring period would amount to 6 to 10 cycles of the supply voltage. According to the invention the secondary voltage of the transducer is connected to an integrator during a half-cycle between two zeros, which charges a capacitor to a voltage proportional to the amplitude. An analogue-digital converter now produces a digital signal corresponding to the capacitor voltage, which is taken to the control equipment. This conversion occurs during a fraction of the second half-cycle, so that there is still time before the end of this half-cycle, so that there is still time before the end of this half-cycle to discharge the capacitor and to reproduce the initial conditions. In the next cycle the whole process is repeated, so that the measuring process only takes one cycle. In order to make the digital signal independent of the amplitude of the current fed in, this also flows through an identical transducer with constant mutual inductance, and affects the analogue-digital converter via a comparative circuit. (ORU) [de

  20. 30 CFR 77.516 - Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric wiring and equipment; installation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.516 Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance. In addition to the requirements of §§ 77.503 and 77.506, all wiring and...

  1. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An automatic...

  2. 30 CFR 18.91 - Electric equipment for which field approvals will be issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., by the owner-coal mine operator of such machines including any associated electrical equipment... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment for which field approvals... OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...

  3. Study on Earthquake Response of High Voltage Electrical Equipment Coupling System with Flexible Busbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Qu, Da; Wang, Chongyang; Lv, Chunlei; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid development of technology and society, all walks of life in China are becoming more and more dependent on power systems. When earthquake occurs, the electrical equipment of substation is prone to damage because of its own structural features, top-heavy, and brittleness of main body. At the same time, due to the complex coupling of the soft electrical connection of substation electrical equipment, the negative impact can not be estimated. In this paper, the finite element model of the coupling system of the single unit of high voltage electrical equipment with the connecting soft bus is established and the seismic response is analysed. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the simple analysis for the seismic response of electrical equipment monomer and the analytical results of electrical equipment systems, and the impact on different electrical equipment is different. It lays a foundation for the future development of seismic performance analysis of extra high voltage electrical equipment.

  4. Modal analysis of electromechanical oscillations in electrical power systems; Analisis modal de oscilaciones electromecanicas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgcg@iie.org.mx

    2008-10-15

    The presence of electromechanical oscillations in any electrical power system is a typical characteristic of this kind of systems. Provided the damping associated with these oscillations lies above of a minimum specified value, the occurrence of these oscillations is not considered as a threat to the system operation. This paper focuses the attention on the application of modal analysis for assessing the dynamical behavior of a power system subjected to small disturbances for different operating conditions and transmission system topologies, as well. The reported results indicate, that modal analysis enables a straight identification of the causes that contribute negatively to the damping of the electromechanical modes. [Spanish] La presencia de oscilaciones electromecanicas en cualquier Sistema Electrico de Potencia (SEP) es una caracteristica propia de estos sistemas. Mientras el amortiguamiento asociado con este tipo de oscilaciones se encuentre dentro de los limites considerados como aceptables para la operacion continua de este tipo de sistemas, el surgimiento de estas no se considera una amenaza para la operacion segura del SEP. El presente articulo, centra su atencion en la aplicacion del analisis modal para evaluar el comportamiento dinamico de un SEP ante la ocurrencia de disturbios de magnitud pequena para diferentes topologias y condiciones de operacion. Los resultados reportados indican, que la aplicacion del analisis modal permite la identificacion directa de las causas que contribuyen en forma negativa al amortiguamiento asociado con los modos electromecanicos, asi como la ubicacion mas adecuada de controles que contribuyan a mejorar el amortiguamiento de los mismos.

  5. Financing future exports of Canada's electrical power equipment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, K.A.J.; Saravanamuttoo, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic impact on the Canadian power sector of continued constraints on the availability of concessionary export financing is examined. An overview of the structure of the Canadian electrical power equipment industry is provided, followed by a discussion of its competitiveness and performance. Export prospects are outlined and separate reviews are presented of hydroelectric and thermal expansion. A global market of US $17 billion for hydroelectric power in the 1990s is forecast, and a market of US $300 billion for all forms of power generation in developing Asia. The export strategies of international competitive bidding, forming a consortium within an international multinational enterprise, co-financing with Japanese aid agencies, and direct negotiation are discussed. The costs and benefits of concessional financing are assessed and shown to bring net fiscal benefits. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  7. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear electric utilities have been reviewed for possible disruptive failure modes that would be of special concern in a nuclear power plant. The resulting emphasis was on the electrical faults of transformers, switchgear (circuit breakers), lightning (surge) arrestors, high-voltage cabling and buswork, control boards, and other electrical equipment that, through failure, can be the initiating event that may expand the original fault to nearby or associated equipment. Many failures of such equipment were found and documented, although the failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment. Conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the design, maintenance, and operation of the affected electrical equipment are presented

  8. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  10. Electrical equipment distributors assuming greater role as suppliers to electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of Canada's largest distributors of electrical equipment to the utility market. Summaries are presented of the views of the major respondents concerning market trends and future challenges. Distributors have emerged as a supply source to utilities over the past two decades. Before then, electric utilities did virtually all their business directly with the manufacturers and rarely with distributors. One reason for this situation was that direct dealing with manufacturers was perceived by the utilites as providing better access to technical advice. Distributors have grown significantly since then and many have their own expert technical staff and provide full support for their products. Various advantages for utilities in dealing with distributors are noted: ability to supply most needs relatively rapidly from stock, simplification of ordering, improved inventory management, and savings in brokerage and other costs associated with imported equipment

  11. Laboratory services series: an electrical outlet and corded equipment inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A research and development laboratory has thousands of electrical outlets providing power to laboratories, offices, shops, and service areas. These outlets provide power for a wide variety of portable equipment and tools that are equipped with cord and plug. Electric safety requires a periodic check of outlet grounding capability and continuing inspection and repair of corded equipment. Personnel, equipment, reports, procedures, and schedule requirements are reported

  12. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    OpenAIRE

    Guangwei Shao; Zhongjun Ji; Bing Liu

    2017-01-01

    With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field ser...

  13. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1983-07-01

    The electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear public utilities were reviewed. Those failures that could pose an additional problem to surrounding and connected equipment were defined. The literature was searched; utilities, repair shops, and large electrical equipment users were contacted for failure information. The data were reviewed in detail, and failure modes were determined. Sample cascade failures are discussed. The failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment

  14. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments

  15. A guide to qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power plants. Final report, November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, A.; Lamken, D.; Harrall, T.; Kasturi, S.; Holzman, P.; Carfagno, S.; Thompson, D.; Boyer, B.; Hanneman, H.; Rule, W.

    1983-09-01

    Equipment qualification demonstrates that nuclear power plant equipment can perform its safety function - that despite age or the adverse conditions of a design basis accident the equipment can work as needed. This report is a guide to the overall process of electrical equipment qualification. It should interest those who design such equipment, those who buy it, or test it, and even those who install and maintain it. (author)

  16. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  18. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menad, N.; Guignot, S.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  19. Enhancing reactor availability factor by diagnostic monitoring and data acquisition of electrical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical energy has made significant contribution to rapid growth of industrial activity in the country. Development and improvement of energy conversion devices or electrical apparatus have supported the growth. Reliability is probably the most important factor in electrical supply system, not only to give uninterrupted service but to provide an economic supply. Regular diagnostic testing of electrical equipments will make a significant contribution to the reliability of electrical supply. The purpose of diagnostic monitoring is to recognize the development of faults at an early stage, which consequently allows greater freedom to schedule the outages resulting in lower downtime and lower capitalized losses. The insulation constitutes the heart of any electrical/power equipment. The insulation in power equipment in normal condition undergoes certain changes in the physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. The change with respect to time in the presence of an influencing factor, more often a stress (electrical) is referred to as ageing. The deterioration of insulating material plays an important role in the assessing the condition of electrical equipments. The systematic diagnostic tests are also part of the maintenance program to ensure the continued serviceability of electrical equipments, by replacing or repairing the components likely to fail, as revealed by the test. Diagnostic tests are carried out on various electrical equipments for detection of incipient fault, location and judging their severity. (author)

  20. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to highlight possible future developments of importance to the electrical and optical (E&O) equipment sector, paying particular importance to ‘radical’ changes and discussing policy options and future scenarios. The electrical & optical equipment sector plays a vital role

  1. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  2. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field service is designed, and the future development direction of electric field wear can be forecasted.

  3. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Qualification of electrical equipment. A United States nuclear system supplier perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    At Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor Systems Division (PWR-SD) qualification. of safety related electrical equipment can be segregated into three distinct generations: (1) the initial seismic and environmental qualification programs for electrical equipment (1969-1972); (2) the supplemental sismic and environmental qualification programs (1975-1977); and (3) the seismic and environmental qualification programs to meet IEEE-323-1974, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''(1975). The latter two programs (in a licensing framework), as they are most current, with emphasis on electrical equipment (e.g. transmitters, rack mounted equipment) as opposed to electro-mechanical equipment (valve operators, pump motors) are reviewed. (author)

  5. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  6. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  7. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  8. Planning of maintenance of electrical equipment in nuclear plants/laboratories [Paper No.: VB-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfactory operating performance of electrical systems ensures continuous availability of power to the various plants and machinery in nuclear plant and laboratories. For effective optimal functioning of the electrical equipment and to reduce their down time, scheduled planning of maintenance to the equipment is essential. Maintenance of power plant, nuclear or fossil, and industrial plant and research laboratories demands essential ingredients such as right type of trained and motivated technical personnel, adoption of standard procedures for maintenance, adequate safety and protection for equipment, safety procedures adopted in the installation to prevent hazards to the workers, provision of adequate stores and inventories, facilities for quick repairs and testing of equipment and effective planning of procedures for their maintenance. While breakdown maintenance allows equipment to operate before it is repaired or replaced, preventive maintenance makes use of scheduled inspection and periodical equipment overhaul and has little value for predicting future continuous performances of equipment. The engineered maintenance is most advantageous and offers maximum operating time to reduce down time of the equipment while adding predictive testing technique to aid in determining the frequency of overhaul of equipment. The important checks to be conducted and preventive maintenance programme to be scheduled are discussed in this paper. The safety and reliable functioning of the electrical equipment depend on proper optimal design, selection of equipment, their installation, subsequent maintenance and strict compliance with safety regulations. (author)

  9. Staff report on the environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The current NRC safety review process for nuclear power plants includes criteria related to the qualification of certain electrical equipment. These criteria require that electrical equipment important to safety must be qualified to function in the environment that might result from various accident conditions. Although such criteria have been applied since the early days of commercial nuclear power, the details of these criteria have been changed over the years. The evolution of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment is described in Appendix A

  10. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation; Analisis del portafolio energetico para la generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  11. 78 FR 37760 - Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Standardization ISO/IEC Standard 17025 and related IECEx procedures. The ExTL tests the subject equipment and...)/IEC Standard 17025 and related IECEx Operational Documents and Rules of Procedure. Some foreign flag... internationally accepted independent third-party certification system, the IEC System for Certification to...

  12. Regional analysis of the nuclear-electricity; Analisis regional de la nucleoelectricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parera, M. D., E-mail: dparera@cnea.gov.ar [CNEA, Gerencia de Planificacion, Coordinacion y Control, Subgerencia de Planificacion Estrategica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    In this study was realized a regional analysis of the Argentinean electric market contemplating the effects of regional cooperation, the internal and international interconnections; and the possibilities of insert of new nuclear power stations were evaluated in different regions of the country, indicating the most appropriate areas to carry out these facilities to increase the penetration of the nuclear energy in the national energy matrix. Also was studied the interconnection of the electricity and natural gas markets, due to the existent linking among both energy forms. With this purpose the program Message (Model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts) was used, promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This model carries out an economic optimization level country, obtaining the minimum cost as a result for the modeling system. The division for regions realized by the Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico (CAMMESA) was used, which divides to the country in eight regions. They were considered the characteristics and necessities of each one of them, their respective demands and offers of electric power and natural gas, as well as their existent and projected interconnections, composed by the electric lines and gas pipes. According to the results obtained through the model, the nuclear-electricity is a competitive option. (Author)

  13. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. 75.1710-1 Section 75.1710-1 Mineral Resources...

  14. The Problems of implementation of the European Union directives for electrical and electronic equipment hazardousness

    OpenAIRE

    Vaišvila, Anicetas; Vaičikonis, Eduardas

    2006-01-01

    The problems of implementation of two new EU Directives is discussed in this article. It is so called WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and RoHS (Restriction of use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment), as well as influence of these directives to quality and environmental management systems. The RoHS directive requires a number of potentially hazardous substances (lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated byphenyls (PBB) and ...

  15. THE ANALISYS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC AND ELECTRIC PARAMETERS OF A COOLING HYBRID SYSTEM. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARE R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the interdependence between photovoltaic and electric parameters of a solar thermoelectric cooler. It emphasises the importance of the solar radiation during two experiments made in the same day, in different weather conditions. Also, it is shown that while the photovoltaic power is directly dependent on the photovoltaic current intensity, the electric power varies along with the voltage. All these have great influence upon the battery – the main component responsible for the operation of the cooling hybrid system.

  16. Design and construction rules for electrical equipments of nuclear islands. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The French design and construction for electrical equipments of nuclear islands (RCC-E) deals with equipments of which the failure may have consequences on the safety of persons or appreciable effects on the availability of the power plant. This book presents the rules concerning (1) qualification procedure, (2) the design of functional units, (3) the installation (environmental conditions, protection rules), (4) the constituent elements of equipments, (5) the control and testing methods

  17. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  18. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Diagnosis of electric equipment at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Truong Sinh

    1999-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a pool type of its kind in the world: Soviet-designed core and control system harmoniously integrated into the left-over infrastructure of the former American-made TRIGA MARK II reactor, which includes the reactor tank and shielding, graphite reflector, beam tubes and thermal column. The reactor is mainly used for radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production, elemental analysis using neutron activation techniques, neutron beam exploitation, silicon doping, and reactor physics experimentation. For safe operation of the reactor maintenance work has been carried out for the reactor control and instrumentation, reactor cooling, ventilation, radiomonitoring, mechanical, normal electric supply systems as well as emergency electric diesel generators and the water treatment station. Technical management of the reactor includes periodical maintenance as required by technical specifications, training, re-training and control of knowledge for reactor staff. During recent years, periodic preventive maintenance (PPM) has been carried out for the electric machines of the technological systems. (author)

  20. Vibration aging of diesel-engine mounted electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Morton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be a component which is essential to safe plant operation. Failures of auxiliary equipment directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 requires addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring devices and other engine modifications require design and installation of new equipment to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper discusses the engine vibration characteristics, and the acquisition of extensive field vibration data on the diesel engine under operating conditions. The data is then used to develop life cycle vibration qualification test profiles that can be applied with confidence in a laboratory environment to qualify engine-mounted equipment. The intent is to validate a product's ability to survive under worst case, extended service on-engine conditions. This paper describes the procedures and approaches used to achieve those goals, and provides developed profile examples and test results

  1. A probabilistic analysis of electrical equipment vulnerability to carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical problems of airborne carbon fibers falling onto electrical circuits were idealized and analyzed. The probability of making contact between randomly oriented finite length fibers and sets of parallel conductors with various spacings and lengths was developed theoretically. The probability of multiple fibers joining to bridge a single gap between conductors, or forming continuous networks is included. From these theoretical considerations, practical statistical analyses to assess the likelihood of causing electrical malfunctions was produced. The statistics obtained were confirmed by comparison with results of controlled experiments.

  2. The influence of residents' behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements. The main focus is to better understand household residents' behaviour in regards to the proper methods of handling waste electrical and electronic equipment and possible storage of the obsolete equipment that brings disturbances with collection of the waste equipment. The study explores these issues depending on size of municipality and the household residents' knowledge about legal methods of post-consumer management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Poland, where the collection rate of that type of waste is about 40% of the total mass of waste electrical and electronic equipment appearing in the market.The research was informed by various sources of information, including non-government organisations, Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and Central Statistics Office in Poland, questionnaires, and interviews with the household residents. The questionnaires were distributed to daytime and vocational students from different universities and the customers of an electronic equipment superstore. The results show that a resident's behaviour in regards to the handling of obsolete waste electrical and electronic equipment can significantly reduce the collection rate, especially when the waste is discarded improperly - mixed with municipal waste or sold in scrapyards. It is possible to identify points that are necessary to be improved to achieve a higher collection rate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  4. VDE-specification for electrical equipment and apparatus in atmospheres endangered by explosive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    These specifications are valid for the setting-up, changing, putting into operation and developing of electrical equipment, as well as for the application of electrical apparatus in such systems and in regions endangered by explosive materials. (orig./LH) [de

  5. Advances in impact resistance testing for explosion-proof electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculescu Vlad Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, construction and exploitation of electrical equipment intended to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres presents a series of difficulties. Therefore, the approach of these phases requires special attention concerning technical, financial and occupational health and safety aspects. In order for them not to generate an ignition source for the explosive atmosphere, such equipment have to be subjected to a series of type tests aiming to decrease the explosion risk in technological installations which operate in potentially explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection being a concern of researchers and authorities worldwide, testing and certification of explosion-proof electrical equipment, required for their conformity assessment, are extremely important, taking into account the unexpected explosion hazard due to potentially explosive atmospheres, risk which has to be minimized in order to ensure the occupational health and safety of workers, for preventing material losses and for decreasing the environmental pollution. Besides others, one of the type tests, which shall be applied, for explosion-proof electrical equipment is the impact resistance test, described in detail in EN 60079 which specifies the general requirements for construction, testing and marking of electrical equipment and Ex components intended for use in explosive atmospheres. This paper presents an analysis on the requirements of the impact resistance test for explosion-proof electrical equipment and on the possibilities to improve this type of test, by making use of modern computer simulation tools based on finite element analysis, techniques which are widely used nowadays in the industry and for research purposes.

  6. 1E Qualification of Electrical Equipment - Requirement for Safety Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Segarceanu, D.; Albu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the qualification methods of the safety related equipment according to the safety class 1E. There are presented the qualification principles, procedure and documents, emphasis being laid on the qualification approach by type tests. This approach assumes the equipment test under both normal and accident conditions (design basis events) simulating the operational conditions and covers the largest part of electrical equipment from a nuclear power plant.The safety related equipment is to be qualified is subjected to a sequential test that will be detailed in the paper. (author)

  7. The effects of competitive electricity supply in the UK on metering equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, A.

    1996-01-01

    Requirements for metering of competitive supply, following privatisation of the UK Electricity Industry in 1989, have driven the design of metering equipment in a way which was not foreseen at that time. Metering equipment used for implementing the competitive market so far has been designed to new uniform national specifications and has used commercially available communications systems to automatically collect data. In order to implement full competition down to the domestic level as from 1998, a new approach is thought to be necessary. The major influences on meter design, equipment now being used, are described, future equipment and communications options, are considered. (author)

  8. Mobil laboratory for the evaluation on site of the power electric equipment, second generation; Laboratorio movil para la evaluacion en sitio del equipo electrico de potencia, segunda generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo C, Jaime; Escorsa M, Oscar; Estrada G, Javier A; Iturbe F, Marlene; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    To the interior of the Generation of Electrical Equipment (GEE) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, one of the main activities is the diagnosis of the electrical equipment in service. It is well known that the power equipment represents a strong investment that requires the guarantee that it has been manufactured, installed and operated satisfactorily. The life expectancy of these devices is of thirty years, however, many of them already have surpassed that expectation. The rehabilitation or substitution of the equipment implies new investments that are needed for an evaluation of the real condition of the equipment to carry out such rehabilitation. One of the tools necessary to carry out the diagnosis, is a movable laboratory that facilitates all the necessary tools to perform a meticulous analysis that would allow, the client, to make high cost decisions. The application of the movable laboratory is advisable from the inauguration of the equipment. The electrical mechanisms are factory tested in accordance with standardized protocols; it guarantees the fulfillment of the necessary requirements for a correct operation. Nevertheless, when taking them to the assembly site, these are subjected to a series of processes and mechanical stresses that could alter the equipment conditions and its integrity. [Spanish] Al interior de la Generacion de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, una de las principales actividades es el diagnostico del equipo electrico en servicio. Es bien sabido que los equipos de potencia representan una fuerte inversion que requiere la garantia de que se ha fabricado, instalado y operado satisfactoriamente. La esperanza de vida de estos dispositivos es de treinta anos, no obstante, muchos de ellos ya han superado esa expectativa. La rehabilitacion o sustitucion de equipos, implica nuevas inversiones que precisan un conocimiento del estado real del equipo para llevarla a cabo. Una de las herramientas

  9. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  10. Condition monitoring of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition monitoring (CM) is a subset of maintenance testing. It is a quantitative, predictive technique for assessing the effects of all types of aging (environmental, cyclic, operational, etc) on the ''health'' of the equipment. A difference between CM and maintenance testing is that the latter is neither quantitative (i.e., measures the relative condition of the component or material as opposed to merely verifying that its condition is acceptable) nor predictive (i.e., makes judgments, on the ability of the component to perform at a future time). A common example of the principle of CM can be illustrated with the automobile which has a lifetime that is small enough to observe all the periods (break in, random failure, wear out) that occur throughout aging. There are several weak link components in the car (e.g., water hoses, contacts in the distributor, generator, spark plug cables, solenoid, etc) which if they fail will cause failure of the automobile to either start or run. From the day the car is put on the road and is subjected to heat and vibration, significant aging of these components occurs. Degradation in the water hoses, for example is manifested by the elastomeric casing becoming brittle and cracking

  11. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  12. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.

    1984-06-01

    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  13. Electronic ground support equipment for the Cluster Electric Field and Wave Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1992-10-01

    In a collaboration between ESA and NASA, ionosphere plasma structures will be studied by four indentical space probes to be launched in 1995 from French Guiana. The Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment will be designed to measure electric field and density fluctations by means of four sensors, each deployed on a 50 meter wire boom. In order to perform comprehensive tests and calibrations of the EFW experiment, computer controlled electronic ground support equipment has been developed. This report describes the hardware of the equipment, produced and assembled at the University of Oslo. 15 figs

  14. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  15. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New version of VDE 0118 Installation of electrical equipment in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, L

    1981-10-22

    Preparatory work for the new version of VDE 0188 is reviewed. The major modifications in parts 1 and 2 are mentioned in particular the changes in operating conditions which have been considered and the modified definitions of clean rooms, earthing, underground protective wire system, and mobile operating equipment. Part 2 discusses operating equipment such as motors, inductive voltage transformers, transformers, condensers, lines, lighting units and underground short circuit protection. Part 3 - intrinsically safe electrical equipment, auxiliary circuits, telecommunication systems - will be discussed in a sequel article in Glueckauf.

  17. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  18. The Architecture Design of Detection and Calibration System for High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Lin, Y.; Yang, Y.; Gu, Ch; Yang, F.; Zou, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    With the construction of Material Quality Inspection Center of Shandong electric power company, Electric Power Research Institute takes on more jobs on quality analysis and laboratory calibration for high-voltage electrical equipment, and informationization construction becomes urgent. In the paper we design a consolidated system, which implements the electronic management and online automation process for material sampling, test apparatus detection and field test. In the three jobs we use QR code scanning, online Word editing and electronic signature. These techniques simplify the complex process of warehouse management and testing report transferring, and largely reduce the manual procedure. The construction of the standardized detection information platform realizes the integrated management of high-voltage electrical equipment from their networking, running to periodic detection. According to system operation evaluation, the speed of transferring report is doubled, and querying data is also easier and faster.

  19. Electrical equipment service. 1997-1998; Service materiel electrique. 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-12-31

    This brochure edited by the electrical equipment service from the direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) presents some of their remarkable realizations in the domain of energy, their expertise activity in attendance on electricity producers, forwarders and distributors, their expertise activity in attendance on industrialists, and the know-how of their testing laboratories in attendance on designers and operators. (J.S.)

  20. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  1. Qualification of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Management of ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaang, Kjell; Staahl, Gunnar

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe programs and tools for assessment of accomplished and documented qualification with respect to ageing of electrical equipment and for development of complimentary ageing management programs. In addition to description of complete programs for management of ageing, tools for validation of the status with regard to ageing of installed ('old') equipment and, where needed, for complementation of their qualification are also included. The report is restricted to safety related equipment containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials. To this category belong cables and cable joints and a number of equipment containing oils, seals (o-rings), etc. For equipment located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. The main part of this report deals with the qualification of such equipment. Some safety related equipment outside the containment can be located in areas where they are subjected to high temperature and other excessive environmental stresses during normal operation and in areas affected by an accident. Therefore, some material is given also on qualification of equipment located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. Part 1 of the report is an executive summary with a general review of the methodologies and their application. The more detailed description of the programs and underlying material, useful data, etc. is given in Part 2

  2. Node localization algorithm of wireless sensor networks for large electrical equipment monitoring application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Node localization technology is an important technology for the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. An improved 3D node localization algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on a Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) node localization algorithm for large electrical equipment monito...

  3. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  4. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  5. On safety 1E qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segarceanu, D.; Geambasu, C.; Avramescu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical equipment and systems for the emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor are qualified according to safety class 1E. Methods of qualification meeting the requirements should be used, either individually or in combination include, type-test qualification, qualification by operating experience, qualification by analysis, combined qualification. These methods qualification principles, procedures and documents are discussed. (N.T.). 1 fig

  6. Traveling wire electrode increases productivity of Electrical Discharge Machining /EDM/ equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotora, J., Jr.; Smith, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    Traveling wire electrode on electrical discharge machining /EDM/ equipment reduces the time requirements for precision cutting. This device enables cutting with a minimum of lost material and without inducing stress beyond that inherent in the material. The use of wire increases accuracy and enables tighter tolerances to be maintained.

  7. Ageing of insulation and diagnosis of electrical equipment through detection of partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vergara, T.; Velasco Bernal, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ageing in electrical equipment affects mainly its insulation system. Such ageing in the insulation system is determined by its organic nature, basically constituted by three families of materials: cellulose, resin and hydrocarbon. All of these are affected by high temperatures, which tend to produce a break in the molecular chains (if the temperatures are not too high) or carbonization and gasification of the material (if they are). The radiation absorbed by the insulating materials also destroys molecular chains, causing degradation of the material. The break of the molecular chains, especially in the polymer-based materials, fragments the material, mainly in areas subjected to mechanical forces and stresses. From the electrical point of view, fissures occurring the insulating material lead to a much lower dielectric strength in certain parts of the materials, which could produce partial discharge conditions. Therefore, the growth of partial discharges in electrical equipment items is frequently the consequences of ageing, and be used to evaluate their residual life. Empresarios Agrupados has developed a system to detect partial discharges which can be used while equipment is still in operation. The measurements taken with this system are sufficiently accurate and repetitive to be used in evaluating the condition of medium-voltage electrical equipment insulation. (Author)

  8. Operation and maintenance of the RA Reactor in 1985, Part 1, Annex E - Report of the electric Equipment Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.; Stamenkovic, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  9. Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I and C equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byman, Karin; Groenkvist, Stefan; Egerbo, Anders; Nilsson, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    In this survey, licensing procedures for the implementation of different kinds of components and systems in nuclear power plants have been studied in four European countries: Belgium (Finland), Germany, and Switzerland. The main focus has been to describe the general features of the licensing procedures for electrical and for instrumentation and control (IandC) equipment and systems. The regulatory framework for the operation of nuclear power plants in Belgium is based on the American regulations. The licensing procedure for each modification of significance for the safety of a plant is carried out by the authorised inspection organisation (AVN), which follows its own procedures for the review of the modification file, the commissioning, and conformity check of the installation. These procedures are very general and independent of the technical domain of the equipment or system and AVN uses the US regulations standard review plan (SRP) as a reference for technical reviews. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) is responsible for the surveillance of all nuclear activities in Belgium, but the private non-profit authorised inspection organisation (AVN) does perform inspections and other regulatory tasks delegated by FANC. Controls of electrical components and systems with regard to the general Belgian electrical regulations are performed by accredited inspection organisations. The regulatory framework for the safety of nuclear activities in Finland is domestic and detailed safety requirements are provided by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). They cover specific requirements for the licensing procedure for electrical and IandC equipment. In Finland, there are no general differences in the licensing procedure for electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical equipment and the licensing procedure is basically the same for all types of systems, structures and equipment. STUK has the responsibility for the regulatory control in Finland and may seek

  10. Development of 3 D Electric Field Analysis Program under Power System Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, S. H.; Lee, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Ha, T. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Recently, as the effects of electric fields on animals, human beings and sensitive equipment have been reported, the study on electric fields has become more important. Transmission lines and substation among power facilities are dominant parts related to electrical environment. Electric field analysis of transmission line has been made using image charge method or CSM since 1970`s, however electric field analysis in substation has been rarely studied due to the complexity of three dimensional evaluation of an electric field in substation. For the rather complicated and time-consuming three-dimensional electric field calculation in the vicinity of transmission lines and substations, this study proposes an effective numerical calculation method based on Charge Simulation Method(CSM). In order to represent non-uniform charge distribution on an electrode better, it is subdivided into small segments with linear charge density. Each segment with linear charge density can be easily represented by a generalized finite line type of charge whose expressions for potential and electric field were analytically derived and which was named {sup f}inite slant line charge in this study. As for the arrangement of small segments of a subdivided electrode, it has been found that unequally spaced arrangement method is superior to equally spaced one. In order to arrange segments fast and effectively, effective formulas were derived from multiple regression analysis of many simulations. The proposed method is applied to the electric field calculation around the transmission lines with significant change in direction and substation busbars. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  11. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  12. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  13. Electric personnel carrier introduced : RES Equipment Sales spearheads development of electric underground vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollinsky, N.

    2010-01-01

    RES Equipment Sales of Dryden, Ontario is leading the development of a battery-powered personnel utility vehicle for underground mining applications. Among the advantages of the battery-powered personnel carrier are quietness of the carrier and zero emissions, which eliminates particulates from diesel engines and reduces the need for ventilation. This article discussed the design and building of the vehicle. It was designed to accommodate up to 3 battery packs, depending on the frequency of use. Swapping batteries takes between 2 or 3 minutes. Spent batteries must be plugged in for 6 hours and rest for another 6 to 8 hours before being ready for service. The vehicle accommodates 2 or 3 people and travels at speeds of 6 to 8 miles per hour. This article also provided background information on RES Equipment Sales. The company remanufactures underground mining equipment, including load-haul-dump machines, jumbos, haul trucks and utility vehicles. In addition, the company sells and services new equipment, including Oldenburg Cannon jumbos, scalers and utility vehicles, as well as Canun International pneumatic rock drills and NPK rock breakers. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  14. 47 CFR 2.924 - Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Authorizations § 2.924 Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. 2.924 Section 2.924...

  15. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  16. Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavreul, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants has been studied in (Electricite de France) EDF for several years. The objective of such studies is to predict the polymers lifetime in normal and accidental conditions. The prediction of polymers behaviour in normal conditions requires accelerated tests in order to get rapidly experimental results. Experimental conditions must carefully be chosen and representative of real ageing. Accelerated ageing is usually done by applying higher temperature, (dose) or dose rate. When such experiments are done, the effects of temperature, (dose) or dose rate are first determined. In a second step, experimental results are extrapolated to real conditions. To predict lifetime of polymers, the following recommendations have to be checked: in order to assume that accelerated tests are representative of normal ageing, the observed mechanisms in experiments must be the same as those in real conditions. For accidental conditions, the same tests as those described in standards can be applied to polymers. The simulation of any accident occurring just after the installation of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants is easy to manage: only the accidental test can be carried out on the electrical equipment. To determine whether polymers in electrical equipment would have a good behaviour or not when an accident would occur after a period of several years or decades in normal conditions in a nuclear power plant, the accidental test must be done on aged materials; their physical, mechanical and electrical characteristics must be relevant to aged polymers in normal conditions. In order to detect any evolution of properties during ageing, the electrical, mechanical or chemical tests have to be proceeded on polymers samples. The characterisation tests which are applied on non-aged and aged samples depend on the nature of the polymers, their application in electrical equipment and their environment. The IEC 544

  17. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  18. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  19. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  20. Uninterruptible power supply model of independent voltage inverter of NPP electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, V.V.; Ajdaralieva, V.Eh.

    2010-01-01

    A package of main transforming units models of advanced uninterruptible power supply systems of NPP electrical equipment was developed. The package of models allows investigating the basic modes of uninterruptible power supply systems operation by computer modeling. Simulation results were presented. Recommendations on choice of parameters of power circuit elements as well as on diagnostics and adjustment of regulators of converters control systems were given [ru

  1. Annual report of the group for maintenance of electrical equipment; Godisnji izvestaj elektro grupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, M [Odelenje odrzavanja, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-12-15

    This report includes detailed description of repairs and revisions of the electrical equipment of the RA reactor which were done according to the annual plan during the periods when reactor was not operated. Unplanned repairs are part of this report as well. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis remontnih i revizionih radova na elektroopremi reaktora RA izvrsenih prema godisnjem planu u periodima kada reaktor nije radio. Vanplanski poslovi ukljucujuci popravke elektroopreme su takodje deo ovog izvestaja.

  2. Kennedy Space Center: Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan

    2010-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is NASA's spaceport, launching rockets into space and leading important human spaceflight research. This spring semester, I worked at KSC on Constellation Program electrical ground support equipment through NASA's Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP). This report includes a discussion of NASA, KSC, and my individual research project. An analysis of Penn State's preparation of me for an internship and my overall impressions of the Penn State and NASA internship experience conclude the report.

  3. Japan, the European Union, and Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment Recycling: Key Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how Japan and the EU manage the recycling of consumer appliances and PCs/cellular phones through a review of their current collection and treatment systems for WEEE (waste electronic and electrical equipment), and on the basis of its findings offers recommendations for the improvement of these systems. We hope thereby to provide information that will be helpful for the better management of WEEE in developed countries as well as in our own. On the basis of our findings, ...

  4. On reliability and maintenance modelling of ageing equipment in electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, Tommie

    2008-04-01

    Maintenance optimisation is essential to achieve cost-efficiency, availability and reliability of supply in electric power systems. The process of maintenance optimisation requires information about the costs of preventive and corrective maintenance, as well as the costs of failures borne by both electricity suppliers and customers. To calculate expected costs, information is needed about equipment reliability characteristics and the way in which maintenance affects equipment reliability. The aim of this Ph.D. work has been to develop equipment reliability models taking the effect of maintenance into account. The research has focussed on the interrelated areas of condition estimation, reliability modelling and maintenance modelling, which have been investigated in a number of case studies. In the area of condition estimation two methods to quantitatively estimate the condition of disconnector contacts have been developed, which utilise results from infrared thermography inspections and contact resistance measurements. The accuracy of these methods were investigated in two case studies. Reliability models have been developed and implemented for SF6 circuit-breakers, disconnector contacts and XLPE cables in three separate case studies. These models were formulated using both empirical and physical modelling approaches. To improve confidence in such models a Bayesian statistical method incorporating information from the equipment design process was also developed. This method was illustrated in a case study of SF6 circuit-breaker operating rods. Methods for quantifying the effect of maintenance on equipment condition and reliability have been investigated in case studies on disconnector contacts and SF6 circuit-breakers. The input required by these methods are condition measurements and historical failure and maintenance data, respectively. This research has demonstrated that the effect of maintenance on power system equipment may be quantified using available data

  5. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  6. Design and Construction of Equipment for Applying the Geophysical Prospecting Method Electric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Héctor Giraldo Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlines the procedure for the design and construction of electric equipment for geophysical prospecting through electrical tomography method. The team is of average power, ensuring exploration depths quite suitable for applications and commercial and geotechnical studies. The device is essentially a DC voltage source of 500 volts that is able to provide a maximum current of 1 amp. It also contains a small charge current source of electrical currents counteract naturally found in the subsoil and are manifested as a difference in the surface potential. A general explanation of the geophysical method in question, helps to understand the basic principles of operation of the equipment and functions to be fulfilled. After building the team, we conducted a field data acquisition, in area near the town of Gachancipa Cundinamarca. The data from this equipment are processed with specialized software. The images obtained with the software presents the distributions of subsurface resistivity can be associated with the possible structures and geology of the study area.

  7. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  8. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  9. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  10. Report on assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant (AEA), FY2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, T.

    2012-11-01

    Electrical components with safety function used in nuclear power plants, such as cables, medium voltage motors, low voltage motors, electrical penetration of reactor containment vessel, motor operated valve, pressure transmitter, temperature detector, etc, are required to be operational under the environment of design basis event (DBE) to shut down a reactor safely and to prevent radioactive materials from being leaked to outside. Polymer materials used as parts of these equipments are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation. In addition, the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the DBE environment and a decrease in performance of the equipment may be caused. From these reason, electrical components with safety function are tested for long-term integrity in accordance with IEEE standard. However, conventional method of accelerated aging which assumes thermal and radiation aging during normal operation is said to have uncertainty in simulating the degradation given in actual operating environment. To address this issue, the project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) was carried out and 'Guide for Cable Environmental Qualification Test for Nuclear Power Plant' was developed. The need for developing an aging evaluation method for other electrical and I and C components was pointed out in the 'Strategy maps 2007', prepared by the cooperation among government, industry and academia. Under the circumstance, the project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008. In this study, parts of electrical and I and C component with safety function used in nuclear power plant whose aging needs to be considered are employed as specimens, and their aging characteristics under the thermal environment and the combined radiation and thermal environment are obtained (herein after referred to as 'critical part test

  11. Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I and C equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byman, Karin; Groenkvist, Stefan; Egerbo, Anders; Nilsson, Thomas (AaF Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    In this survey, licensing procedures for the implementation of different kinds of components and systems in nuclear power plants have been studied in four European countries: Belgium (Finland), Germany, and Switzerland. The main focus has been to describe the general features of the licensing procedures for electrical and for instrumentation and control (IandC) equipment and systems. The regulatory framework for the operation of nuclear power plants in Belgium is based on the American regulations. The licensing procedure for each modification of significance for the safety of a plant is carried out by the authorised inspection organisation (AVN), which follows its own procedures for the review of the modification file, the commissioning, and conformity check of the installation. These procedures are general and independent of the technical domain of the equipment or system and AVN uses the US regulations standard review plan (SRP) as a reference for technical reviews. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) is responsible for the surveillance of all nuclear activities in Belgium, but the private non-profit authorised inspection organisation (AVN) does perform inspections and other regulatory tasks delegated by FANC. Controls of electrical components and systems with regard to the general Belgian electrical regulations are performed by accredited inspection organisations. The regulatory framework for the safety of nuclear activities in Finland is domestic and detailed safety requirements are provided by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). They cover specific requirements for the licensing procedure for electrical and IandC equipment. In Finland, there are no general differences in the licensing procedure for electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical equipment and the licensing procedure is basically the same for all types of systems, structures and equipment. STUK has the responsibility for the regulatory control in Finland and may seek

  12. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  13. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. ► We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. ► We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. ► WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. ► Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the “boom” in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  14. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 3. Recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and criteria. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 3 presents recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and procedural clarification/modification. The fifth category identifies issues where adequate information does not exist to allow a recommendation to be made

  15. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 4. Use of fragility in seismic design of nuclear plant equipment. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which have covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 4 presents study of the use of fragility concepts in the design of nuclear plant equipment and compares the results of state-of-the-art proof testing with fragility testing

  16. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Electrical Characteristics of Protective Equipment - a Prerequisite for Ensuring Safety and Health of Workers at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Beiu, C.; Antonov, A.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.

    2017-06-01

    The protecting electrical equipment in use are subject to various factors generated by the use, maintenance, storage and working environment, which may change the characteristics of protection against electric shock. The study presents the results of research on the behaviour over time of protective characteristics of insulating covers of material of work equipment in use, in order to determine the type and periodicity of safety tests. There were tested and evaluated safety equipment with plastic and insulating rubber covers used in operations of verifying functionality, safety and maintenance of machinery used in manufacturing industries and specific services from electric, energy and food sector.

  18. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The article shows WEEE plastics characterization from a recycling unit in Portugal. ► The recycling unit has low machinery, with hand sorting of plastics elements. ► Most common polymers are PS, ABS, PC/ABS, HIPS and PP. ► Most plastics found have no identification of plastic type or flame retardants. ► Ecodesign is still not practiced for EEE, with repercussions in end of life stage. - Abstract: This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

  19. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analisi matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Il presente testo intende essere di supporto ad un secondo insegnamento di Analisi Matematica in quei corsi di studio (quali ad esempio Ingegneria, Informatica, Fisica) in cui lo strumento matematico parte significativa della formazione dell'allievo. I concetti e i metodi fondamentali del calcolo differenziale ed integrale in più variabili, le serie di funzioni e le equazioni differenziali ordinarie sono presentati con l'obiettivo primario di addestrare lo studente ad un loro uso operativo, ma critico. L'impostazione didattica dell'opera ricalca quella usata nel testo parallelo di Analisi Matematica I. La modalità di presentazione degli argomenti ne permette un uso flessibile e modulare. Lo stile adottato privilegia la chiarezza e la linearità dell'esposizione. Il testo organizzato su due livelli di lettura. Uno, più essenziale, permette allo studente di cogliere i concetti indispensabili della materia, di familiarizzarsi con le relative tecniche di calcolo e di trovare le giustificazioni dei principali r...

  1. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  2. Fire extinguishing of electrical equipment under voltage at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Fire extinguishing on equipment that is under voltage is always hazardous. Conventional fire fighting equipment applicable to this task includes powder and gas extinguishers, which, however, have some drawbacks. Therefore, attention has been increasingly devoted to high-pressure fire extinguishing, whose assets include better heat removal as compared to a full water flow where the majority of the water runs off without any cooling effect. This article describes the testing of some types and combinations of extinguishing techniques and their interpretation based on earth-leakage current measurement and determination of a safe distance for fire extinguishing. Methodology described in CSN IEC 60-1:1994 and CSN EN 3-7:2004 was applied. To meet the criterion, none of the tests was to exhibit an earth-leakage current higher than 0.5 mA. In the accredited laboratory test room setup, 3 extinguishing equipment arrangements proved to extinguish fire on electrical equipment under voltage at a safe distance of 1 m (or 3 m). (orig.)

  3. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Effects on the equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effect of harmonics on the power system equipment and loads, with special attention given to the circumstances in ships, is discussed. Some guidelines are given for the computation of additional harmonic losses in power cables and transformers. It is also shown, that if the system is rich in harmonics, these losses must be taken into account when sizing the equipment. The effect of harmonics on electrical machines is also discussed. The influence on induction machines is usually small. However, in large synchronous machines a significant degree of harmonic losses may be expected. Especially in the high voltage system the harmonics must be taken into account when selecting the machine ratings. Also the harmonic resonances, which may arise when using reactive power compensation capacitors, are discussed. Due to the risk of harmonic resonances, the use of capacitors is not recommended in marine power systems. Also the immunity of different load devices to harmonic distortion is discussed. The equipment considered are resistive loads, discharge lamps, universal machines and electronic equipment. Finally a brief survey is given on the standards and recommendations for the maximum distortion levels allowed. (author)

  4. Harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 standards For Environmental Qualificaiton of Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog

    2009-01-01

    IEEE323 standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC6070 has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant. The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. KEPRI has a plan of comparing EQ relative standards of IEEE, IEC and RCC in 2009. In this paper, brief comparing result between IEEE323 and IEC60780 and the proper harmonization method is introduced

  5. Procedure for qualification of electric equipment installed in containments for pressurized water reactors subject to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This generic norm is usable for electrical equipment installed in containment building of PWR subject to accidental conditions. She defines the qualification methods and the general rules usable for the test specifications of qualification for these materials

  6. Method of boundary testing of the electric circuits and its application for calculating electric tolerances. [electric equipment tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkina, N. P.

    1974-01-01

    Boundary testing of electric circuits includes preliminary and limiting tests. Preliminary tests permit determination of the critical parameters causing the greatest deviation of the output parameter of the system. The boundary tests offer the possibility of determining the limits of the fitness of the system with simultaneous variation of its critical parameters.

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  8. Sustainable energy conversion for electricity and coproducts principles, technologies, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Provides an introduction to energy systems going on to describe various forms of energy sources Provides a comprehensive and a fundamental approach to the study of sustainable fuel conversion for the generation of electricity and for coproducing synthetic fuels and chemicals Covers the underlying principles of physics and their application to engineering including thermodynamics of combustion and power cycles, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer Details the coproduction of fuels and chemicals including key equipment used in synthesis and specific examples of coproduction in integrated

  9. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  10. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, K. V.; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  11. Touch Temperature Coating for Off-the-Shelf Electrical Equipment Used on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Brady, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Off-the-shelf electrical equipment is frequently used in space-based applications to control costs. However, the reduced heat transfer in the spacecraft microgravity environment causes the equipment to operate at significantly higher temperatures than it would in terrestrial applications. This creates touch temperature issues where items particularly metallic ones become too hot for the crew to handle safely. A touch temperature coating layup has been developed that can be added to spacebased electrically powered hardware. The coating allows the crew to safely handle the hardware, but only slightly impedes the heat transfer from the component during normal operation. In the present work, the coating generic requirements are developed and a layup is described that meets these specifications. Analytical and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the coating layup to increase the allowable limits of touch temperature while only marginally degrading heat transfer to the environment. This allows the spacecraft crew to handle objects that, if not coated, would be hot enough to cause pain or skin damage.

  12. Electric equipment for Koto Refuse Incineration Plant; Tokyoto Koto seiso kojo muke denki setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation, intending to enter into refuse disposal business, delivered electric equipment to a Koto Refuse Incineration Plant, Koto Ward, Tokyo, and the facilities came into operation in October, 1998. The plant is the largest in Japan in terms of refuse processing capacity (1800t/day), and efforts are exerted to harmonize the plant with the surroundings, which involve pollution measures and a building that images a cruising yacht. The power receiving facility consists of a 66kV nominal two-circuit gas insulated switch and gas insulated transformer arranged in a space saving design. Heat from refuse incineration is fed to a steam turbine generator (yielding 50MW, the largest in Japan, with the surplus offered for sale after 15MW fed to loads in the site) and to neighboring facilities. For the suppression of fluctuations in voltage at the power receiving point, reactive power is subjected to control which is done by controlling the generator magnetic field system. An 11kV distribution system is provided to match the steam turbine generator voltage, and the voltage is stepped down to 6.6kV with the intermediary of a 23MVA gas insulated transformer. The power is fed to high voltage motors such as the one used for the induced draft fan, electric equipment in the buildings, power facilities in the plant, etc. A power monitoring board is provided in the central control room for general supervision over the power related facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  14. Heavy metals in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weihua; Bai, Jianfeng; Yao, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, JingWei

    2017-11-01

    For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium. It also demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals were increased over time. Exceptionally, the average value of the metalloid (arsenic) was 73.31 mg kg -1 in 2014, while it was 58.31 mg kg -1 in the first half of 2015, and it was 2.93 times and 2.33 times higher than that of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil in 2014 and the first half of 2015, respectively. The sequences of the contamination degree of heavy metals in 2014 and the first half of 2015 were cadmium > lead > copper > chromium > zinc and cadmium > lead > chromium > zinc > copper. From the analysis of the potential ecological risk index method, arsenic and cadmium had higher ecological risk than other heavy metals. The integrated ecological risk index of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium) and metalloid (arsenic) was 394.10 in 2014, while it was 656.16 in the first half of 2015, thus documenting a strong ecological risk.

  15. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  16. Oil leakage detection for electric power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jian-hui; Xu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Lan-tao

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method to detect the oil leakage of high voltage power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect. The method exploits the principle that the insulating oil has the fluorescent effect under the irradiation of specific ultraviolet light. The emission spectrum of insulating oil under excitation light with different wavelengths is measured and analyzed first. On this basis, a portable oil leakage detective device for high voltage power equipment is designed and developed with a selected 365 nm ultraviolet as the excitation light and the low light level camera as the fluorescence image collector. Then, the feasibility of the proposed method and device in different conditions is experimentally verified in the laboratory environment. Finally, the developed oil leakage detective device is applied to 500 kV Xiamen substation and Quanzhou substation. And the results show that the device can detect the oil leakage of high voltage electrical equipment quickly and conveniently even under the condition of a slight oil leakage especially in the low light environment.

  17. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field...

  18. Energy paradox and political intervention: A stochastic model for the case of electrical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jridi, Omar; Jridi, Maher; Barguaoui, Saoussen Aguir; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model that explains the delay of decisions to adopt profitable energy-saving investments. This problem is known as the energy paradox. The model rationalizes the profitability requirements raised by the irreversibility, the uncertainty and the decrease of costs as a result of learning by doing. In this context, the wait gives investors more visibility and more lower investment costs, which gives them an option value. The representative agent has an interest to postpone its energy saving decision until future benefits increase and equalize its required option value. Formally, we internalize these explanatory factors in a stochastic model where the updated energy saving benefits follows a geometric Brownian motion. To affirm the capacity of the model, we generate simulation results for two equipments for electrical uses. Beyond that, we extend the model to simulate the effects of energy policy instruments to promote adoption of such equipments. Simulations prove that the taxation of energy prices is likely to be more effective than the subsidy for energy-saving equipments. It is also found that the combination of these instruments amplifies the adoption of energy-saving equipments and generates very favorable economic and environmental externalities. - Highlights: •We develop a stochastic model that explains and solves the energy paradox. •Agent postpones the energy-saving investments to maximize its option value. •Option value is fueled by uncertainty, irreversibility and learning by doing. •Subsidies of these investments are less effective than energy taxation. •Mixed instrument policy solves this paradox and generates favorable externalities.

  19. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  20. RCC-E: Design and construction rules for electrical equipment of PWR nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    RCC-E describes the rules for designing, building and installing electrical and I and C systems and equipment for pressurized water reactors. The code was drafted in partnership with industry, engineering firms, manufacturers, building control firms and operators, and represents a collection of best practices in accordance with IAEA requirements and IEC standards. The code's scope covers: architecture and the associated systems, materials engineering and the qualification procedure for normal and accidental environmental conditions, facility engineering and management of common cause failures (electrical and I and C) and electromagnetic interference, testing and inspecting electrical characteristics, quality assurance requirements supplementing ISO 9001 and activity monitoring. Use: RCC-E has been used to build the following power plants: France's last 12 nuclear units (1,300 MWe (8) and 1,450 MWe (4)), 2 M310 reactors in Korea (2), 44 M310 (4), CPR-1000 (28), CPR-600 (6), HPR-1000 (4) and EPR (2) reactors in service or undergoing construction in China, 1 EPR reactor in France. RCC-E is used for maintenance operations in French power plants (58 units) and Chinese M310 and CPR-1000 power plants. RCC-E has been chosen for the construction of the EPR plants in Hinkley Point, UK. Contents of the 2016 edition of the RCC-E code: Volume 1 - General requirements and quality assurance; Volume 2 - Specification of requirements; Volume 3 - I and C systems; Volume 4 - Electrical systems; Volume 5 - Materials engineering; Volume 6 - Installation of electrical and I and C systems; Volume 7 - Inspection and test methods

  1. Determining the Residual Lifetime of Qualified Electrical and I and C Equipment in Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoslavov, Biser

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper clarifies the environmental qualification and residual lifetime of installed equipment and electrical cables in operating WWER 1000 type units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP. The qualification approach is a combination of analyses and tests in consideration of some specific features of WWER equipment. As a result of the study, selected equipment is divided in 26 groups. Qualification groups include similar types of equipment with equal resistance to foreign impacts, analogous critical parts, and same methods of control and estimation of residual lifetime. Qualification protocols were made for each group. (author)

  2. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P.; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed

  3. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  4. Localization of thermal anomalies in electrical equipment using Infrared Thermography and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib dit Leksir, Y.; Mansour, M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2018-03-01

    Analysis and processing of databases obtained from infrared thermal inspections made on electrical installations require the development of new tools to obtain more information to visual inspections. Consequently, methods based on the capture of thermal images show a great potential and are increasingly employed in this field. However, there is a need for the development of effective techniques to analyse these databases in order to extract significant information relating to the state of the infrastructures. This paper presents a technique explaining how this approach can be implemented and proposes a system that can help to detect faults in thermal images of electrical installations. The proposed method classifies and identifies the region of interest (ROI). The identification is conducted using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The aim here is to capture the faults that exist in electrical equipments during an inspection of some machines using A40 FLIR camera. After that, binarization techniques are employed to select the region of interest. Later the comparative analysis of the obtained misclassification errors using the proposed method with Fuzzy c means and Ostu, has also be addressed.

  5. ANALISIS PERFORMA SISTEM PENDINGIN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN UNTUK KABIN MOBIL CITY CAR MENGGUNAKAN MODUL TERMO ELECTRIC COOLER TERHADAP KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramah lingkungan menjadi isu yang gencar dalam penelitian. Cloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC yang digunakan dalam AC konvensional akan menguap ke udara bebas  berdampak kerusakan lapisan ozon. Ditinjau secara micro dalam penggunaan sitem pendingin dapat diterapkan pada pendingin kabin mobil. System pendingin mobil konfensional menimbulkan 2 kerugian yaitu lebih boros bahan bakar karena couple pulley compressor AC membebani putaran mesin dan penggunaan CFC yang tidak ramah lingkungan.   System pendingin ramah lingkunagan dan mampu menghemat bahan bakar mesin tersebut dapat kita temukan pada modul thermoelectric.  terobosan baru sistem pendingin tersebut menggunakan modul pendingin Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC yang memanfaatkan sisi dingin pada Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC dengan memanfaatkan seaback effect .  Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC ketika dialiri tegangan DC (arus searah pada kedua jalur kabel penghubungnya maka salah satu sisi akan menjadi panas, sementara sisi satunya akan menjadi dingin. Salahsatu cara yang dapat ditempuh untuk memaksimalkan proses pendinginan, maka sisi panas Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC harus diturunkan temperaturenya serendah mungkin mungkin dengan menggunakan alat penukar kalor heat sink serta dibantu kipas(fan. semakin lama proses pendinginan, maka semakin optimal suhu ruangan yang didinginkan. Dari data Hasil pengujian dapat diketahui perangkat pendingin tersebut mampu bekerja dengan rate penurunan temperature memadai. Selanjutnya dapat dapat diaplikasikan sebagai alat pendingin ruangan yang efektif, efisien dan ramah lingkungan.    Kata kunci:  Kabin mobil, Air Conditioner (AC konvensional, Cloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC, Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC, komponen sistem pendingin.

  6. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  8. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  9. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  10. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  11. EIRP Characterization of Electrically Large Wireless Equipment with Integrated Signal Generator in a Compact Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Soo Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a measurement technique to characterize the equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP of electrically large wireless equipment in a compact environment. A modified phase-measurement method was proposed and, thus, the separation of the signal generator and radiating element was not required during the measurement. A Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was used for the fast measurement time in a compact anechoic chamber. An experimental verification of the method was carried out in a compact anechoic chamber, where the source-detector separation was approximately 1/5 of the far-field distance. The measured magnitude and phase pattern exhibited only a small error. The EIRP obtained using a Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was compared with a reference value, and the error was within 0.5 dB.

  12. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  13. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  14. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  16. Analysis for making a regulatory decision to equipment of industrial gammagraphy in Argentin; Analisis para la toma de decision regulatoria sobre equipos de gammagrafia industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.; Vidal, Dora N.; Alonso, Maria T., E-mail: mermacora@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: dvidal@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: malonso@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial gammagraphy is a practice widely used as a nondestructive testing technique in Argentina. Experience worldwide has shown the need for an improvement in the intrinsic safety of the equipment used in this lab. In response to this reason, the board of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has considered a proposal to withdraw service movement and much of the equipment inventory scan belonging to industrial facilities nationwide. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of the analysis performed to support the above proposal. The main elements of evaluation can be summarized as follows: I) the teams that do not conform to international recommendations regarding compliance with key safety requirements of international standards such as ISO 3999:2004 (E) {sup R}adiation protection - Industrial Apparatus for gamma radiography - Specifications for performance, design and tests {sup ;} II) the decision by some manufacturers to discontinue production of certain models of equipment and the provision of spare parts, and III) the validity of certificates bulk type B (U) for transport. In conclusion, it highlights the importance of a regulatory decision supplementary to the Standard AR 7.9.1 concerning the operation of scan equipment industry, based on current international recommendations and Argentina's commitment to good practice and safety culture which can lead to a positive impact on radiation safety in this art.

  17. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given

  18. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  19. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment; El och kontrollutrustning i kaernkraftverk - Problematik vid utbyte av aaldrad utrustning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-11-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  20. Situation analysis of physical independence of the equipment and safety circuits of Almaraz NPP regarding R.G. 1.75 rev.3 (2005); Analisis de la situacion de la independencia fisica de los equipos y circuitos electricos de seguridad de C. N. Almaraz respecto a la R. G. 1.75 rev 3 (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seijas Portela, S.

    2010-07-01

    Situation analysis of physical independence of the electrical equipment and circuits CN safety Almaraz about R.G. 1.75 rev. 3. (2005) The aim of this paper is to present the work done in the analysis of the physical separation of redundant safety electrical equipment (emergency diesel generators, medium voltage, electrical cabinets, etc.) and physical separation of circuits and electrical conduits.

  1. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  2. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1988-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  3. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1990-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  4. Report of the electric Equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1987-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  5. Report of the electric equipment Service - Annex E; Prilog E - Izvestaj o radu sluzbe elektro-opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanovic, V; Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1983-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  6. On the evolution of the regulatory guidance for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Ching Hang; Chen, Pei-Ying

    2009-01-01

    All electric and active mechanical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants must be seismically qualified by testing, analysis, or combined analysis and testing. The general requirements for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment in nuclear power plants are delineated in Appendix S, 'Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to Title 10, Part 50, 'Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,' of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50), item 52.47(20) of 10 CFR 52.47, 'Contents of Applications; Technical Information,' and Appendix A, 'Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to 10 CFR Part 100, 'Reactor Site Criteria.' The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.100, 'Seismic Qualification of Electric and Mechanical for Nuclear Power Plants' in 1988, which endorsed, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 344-1987 'IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations,' for use in seismic qualification of both electric and mechanical equipment. In 2008, the staff at the NRC drafted Revision 3 of RG 1.100 to endorse, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, the IEEE Std 344-2004 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) QME-1-2007 'Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants.' IEEE Std 344-2004 was an update of Std 344-1987 and ASME QME-1-2007 was an update of QME-1-2002. The major changes in IEEE Std 344-2004 and ASME QME-1-2007 include the update and expansion of criteria and procedures describing the use of experience data as a method for seismic qualification of Class 1E electric equipment (including I and C components) as well as active mechanical equipment. In this paper, the staff will compare the draft Revision 3 to

  7. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  8. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 77.506-1 Section 77.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. Devices providing either short circuit protection or protection against overload shall conform to the...

  9. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 75.518-1 Section 75.518-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. A device to provide either short circuit protection or...

  10. Specific properties of the electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system; Specificnosti elektricne opreme u primarnom djelu nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiljanic, D [Rade Koncar Institut, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-07-01

    The paper presents description of reactor coolant pump motor in the primary coolant loop. The motor is treated as a representative of all electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system that has to meet all the requirements concerning reliability, minimum maintenance, radiation, seismic etc. (author)

  11. Analisis Statistika dengan SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustari, Kahar

    2012-01-01

    Buku ini membahas tentang berbagai model analisis statistika yang dapat digunakan dalam berbagai bidang penelitian. Pembahasan buku ini dilengkapi pula dengan penerapan analisis statistika yang menggunakan program SPSS versi 20 sehingga memudahkan pembaca untuk menerapkannya. Oleh karena itu, buku ini penting dibaca oleh mahasiswa atau peneliti yang melakukan pengolahan data penelitian.

  12. VDE-specification for electrical equipment and apparatus in atmospheres endangered by explosive material. Draft. VDE-Bestimmung fuer elektrische Anlagen und deren Betriebsmittel in explosivgefaehrdeten Bereichen. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    These specifications are valid for the setting-up, changing, putting into operation and developing of electrical equipment, as well as for the application of electrical apparatus in such systems and in regions endangered by explosive materials.

  13. Experimental and analytical studies on multiple tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of porcelain electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen; Dai, Junwu; Zhou, Huimeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2017-10-01

    Porcelain electrical equipment (PEE), such as current transformers, is critical to power supply systems, but its seismic performance during past earthquakes has not been satisfactory. This paper studies the seismic performance of two typical types of PEE and proposes a damping method for PEE based on multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD). An MTMD damping device involving three mass units, named a triple tuned mass damper (TTMD), is designed and manufactured. Through shake table tests and finite element analysis, the dynamic characteristics of the PEE are studied and the effectiveness of the MTMD damping method is verified. The adverse influence of MTMD redundant mass to damping efficiency is studied and relevant equations are derived. MTMD robustness is verified through adjusting TTMD control frequencies. The damping effectiveness of TTMD, when the peak ground acceleration far exceeds the design value, is studied. Both shake table tests and finite element analysis indicate that MTMD is effective and robust in attenuating PEE seismic responses. TTMD remains effective when the PGA far exceeds the design value and when control deviations are considered.

  14. Software for improving the quality of project management, a case study: international manufacture of electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preradović, D. M.; Mićić, Lj S.; Barz, C.

    2017-05-01

    Production conditions in today’s world require software support at every stage of production and development of new products, for quality assurance and compliance with ISO standards. In addition to ISO standards such as usual metrics of quality, companies today are focused on other optional standards, such as CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integrated) or prescribing they own standards. However, while there is intensive progress being made in the PM (project management), there is still a significant number of projects, at the global level, that are failures. These have failed to achieve their goals, within budget or timeframe. This paper focuses on checking the role of software tools through the rate of success in projects implemented in the case of internationally manufactured electrical equipment. The results of this research show the level of contribution of the project management software used to manage and develop new products to improve PM processes and PM functions, and how selection of the software tools affects the quality of PM processes and successfully completed projects.

  15. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Ragazzi, Marco; Istrate, Irina Aura; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. ► Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. ► Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the “interest” in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  16. Highlighting the harmonic regime generated by electric locomotives equipped with DC motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Cunţan, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements made using the C.A. 8334 power quality analyzer on an electric locomotive equipped with DC motors. We carried out determinations of the current-voltage regime using a locomotive motor. The harmonic regime of the other motors being identical to the analysed one, we could easily deduce the effects caused by the entire locomotive. The data measured with the analyzer were firstly transferred into a computer system using the Qualistar software, followed by data processing in Excel, enabling therefore a graphical representation of the characteristic parameters of power quality. Based on the acquired data, we determined the power factor, as well as the active, reactive and apparent power. The measurements revealed high values of the current harmonics, fact that required some measures to be taken for reducing the values of these harmonics. For this, we ran a simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC software, by introducing LC filters in tune with the harmonic frequencies. The result was a significant reduction in the harmonic regime, either in the harmonics values or the power factor and reactive power.

  17. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  18. Development of new materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment: Characterization and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Freitas, P E; Almeida, L D; Rosmaninho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application. In this work, WEEE was thermally modified to generate materials that were extensively characterized. Raman spectrum for WEEE after thermal treatment showed two carbon associated bands. SEM images showed a metal nanoparticles distribution over a polymeric and ceramic support. After characterization, WEEE materials were applied in ethanol steam reforming reaction. The system obtained at higher temperature (800°C) exhibited the best activity, since it leads to high conversions (85%), hydrogen yield (30%) and H 2 /CO ratio (3,6) at 750°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Study and development of equipment supervision technique system and its management software for nuclear electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liying; Zou Pingguo; Zhu Chenghu; Lu Haoliang; Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The equipment supervision technique system, which standardized the behavior of supervision organizations in planning and implementing of equipment supervision, is built up based on equipment supervision technique documents, such as Quality Supervision Classifications, Special Supervision Plans and Supervision Guides. Furthermore, based on the research, the equipment supervision management information system is developed by Object Oriented Programming, which consists of supervision information, supervision technique, supervision implementation, quality statistics and analysis module. (authors)

  2. State-of-the-art assessment of requirements for attachments of WiFi equipments to electric utility facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities are receiving a growing number of requests to attach WiFi equipment to their systems. However, many utilities are not prepared to meet these requests because they have not had enough time to formally review and comment on the particular issues associated with Wi-Fi attachments. Although electric utilities are required to allow the attachments, there is no uniform standard to govern those attachments. This paper discussed the state-of-the-art philosophies and requirements of electric utilities who have allowed WiFi equipment on their systems. The advantages and limitations of each philosophy or practice were also discussed. The requirements for codes and standards in the United States and Canada for high voltage construction were also evaluated.

  3. Household recycling behaviour and attitudes towards the disposal of small electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Lauren; Obara, Louise [ESRC Centre for BRASS, Cardiff University, 54 Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is recognised as the fastest growing waste stream in the European Union (EU), with estimates of up to 20kg per person per annum. A wide variety of WEEE is discarded by consumers, often in different ways depending on size with small items (e.g. toasters) being easier to dispose of than larger ones (e.g. washing machines). Currently, small WEEE is not treated as a priority waste stream in the UK as in order to meet targets under the WEEE Directive (CEC, 2003c) it makes more sense to focus on larger items for which collection, reuse and recycling systems already exist, but small items need to be tackled for a number of reasons, including the long term strategic development of infrastructure. In light of this, the paper will assess consumer attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE, and identify key problems raised by the implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to these small product groups. The findings from a large scale postal questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews conducted in Cardiff, Wales will be used, and key literature and research carried out to date on the disposal of WEEE, and household attitudes to waste and recycling will be assessed. It will also look at how the implementation of the WEEE Directive 'fits in' with the current transition in the UK towards more sustainable waste management practices at the household level, and then explore the most effective ways of engaging householders in the recycling of small WEEE. Key recommendations will then be outlined concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to consumer involvement and small product types.

  4. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products

  5. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  7. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  8. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and IandC equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/chargers, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed RandD efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  9. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Charme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and I and C equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/charges, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed R and D efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research

  10. Web Application for Annual Reporting of Waste Collection and Managment of Electrical and Electronic Equipments(RAEE)

    OpenAIRE

    Semira Catapang, Jazzey

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto trata de gestionar un tipo de residuos llamado RAEE (Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos y Electrónicos). El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar solución a la nueva legislación de la UE sobre la trazabilidad de la recogida y documentación de los RAEE a través de una aplicación web. This project is about a type of waste called RAEE(Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste). The main objective of this project is to give solution to the new EU legislation on traceability and...

  11. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  12. Manual on quality assurance for installation and commissioning of instrumentation, control and electrical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present Manual on Quality Assurance (QA) for Installation and Commissioning of Instrumentation, Control and Electrical (ICE) Equipment of Nuclear Power Plants contains supporting material and illustrative examples for implementing basic requirements of the quality assurance programme in procurement, receiving, installation and commissioning of this equipment. The Manual on Quality Assurance for Installation and Commissioning of ICE Equipment is designed to supplement and be consistent with the Guidebook as well as with the IAEA Code and Safety Guides on Quality Assurance. It is intended for the use of managerial staff and QA personnel of nuclear power plant owners or the organizations respectively responsible for the legal, technical, administrative and financial aspects of a nuclear power plant. The information provided in the Manual will also be useful to the inspection staff of the regulatory organization in the planning and performance of regulatory inspections at nuclear power plants

  13. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  15. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  16. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  17. Recommended practices and guidelines for procurement of magnetic-fusion-energy electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The followng three chapters are included: (1) administrative guidelines, (2) technical practices, and (3) check list. The first two chapters contain detailed information which is to be used as a reference by specification writers in preparing specifications. Chapter 3 is intended to provide a uniform specification format for specification writers, and is further intended to satisfy equipment manufactures' complaints that different specification formats are used to describe essentially identical equipment

  18. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  20. Application of owner technical management in hydraulic machinery and electrical equipment investment target control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, H

    2012-01-01

    Using technical means in investment target control is an effective method to improve investment benefit of a construction project. Take the practice of construction and management in hydropower station as an example, the investment and management need of the owner is put forward through the investment target decision-making process of electromechanical equipment. Owner technical management in the specific application measures and effects of investment target control was discussed in the paper, and the revelation in investment target control application of owner technical management was also summarized. The paper is aimed to provide a useful reference for the investment target control work in the construction of electromechanical equipment.

  1. Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Obara, Kenjiro; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yousuke; Yagi, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuhisa; Sato, Masaru.

    1997-12-01

    Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has been conducted. Since the in-vessel remote maintenance equipment is operated under the condition of 10 6 R/h gamma ray dose rate, the electric connector has to be radiation hard for an accumulation dose of 10 10 R. In addition, the simple attachment/removal mechanism is essential for remote operation. For this, the alumina (Al203) ceramics and a ball bearing were adopted to electric insulator and plug (male) of connector, respectively. The handling tests on attachment/removal of the connector were conducted by using master slave manipulator and general purpose robot with handling tool, and as a result, the validity of the attachment/removal mechanism was verified. In the gamma ray irradiation tests, which are under way, no degradation in break down voltage (1000V 1min.) up to 10 10 R was confirmed. However insulation resistance and contact resistance between contact pin and contact socket were deteriorated in proportion to the accumulation dose. Increase of contact resistance is considered due to an erosion of contact pin. (author)

  2. Electricity Breakdown Management for Sarawak Energy: Use of Condition-Based Equipment for Detection of Defective Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Managing electricity breakdown is vital since an outage causes economic losses for customers and the utility companies. However, electricity breakdown is unavoidable due to some internal or external factors beyond our control. Electricity breakdown on overhead lines tend occur more frequently because it is prone to external disturbances such as animal, overgrown vegetation and defective pole top accessories. In Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), majority of the network are composed of overhead lines and hence, is more prone to failure. Conventional method of equipment inspection and fault finding are not effective to quickly identify the root cause of failure. SEB has engaged the use of corona discharge camera as condition-based monitoring equipment to carry out condition based inspection on the line in order to diagnose the condition of the lines prior to failure. Experimental testing has been carried out to determine the correlation between the corona discharge count and the level of defect on line insulator. The result shall be tabulated and will be used as reference for future scanning and diagnostic on any defect on the lines.

  3. Assessment of the Induced Electric Fields in a Carbon-Fiber Electrical Vehicle Equipped with a Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio De Santis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electric field induced inside two realistic anatomical models placed near or inside an electric vehicle made of carbon-fiber composite while charging its battery with a wireless power transfer (WPT system has been investigated. The WPT source consists of two parallel inductive coils operating with a power output of 7.7 kW at two different frequencies of 85 and 150 kHz. Since a misalignment between the primary and the secondary coil creates higher induced fields, a misalignment of 20 cm is also considered as the worst-case exposure condition. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP basic restrictions are exceeded by 1.3 dB and 4.8 dB for the aligned and misaligned coil positions, respectively. This exceedance is however confined only in a small area of the driver’s foot.

  4. Engineering and Design: Reliability Analysis of Navigation Lock and Dam Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beranek, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    This engineer technical letter (ETL) provides guidance for assessing the reliability of mechanical and electrical systems of navigation locks and dams and for establishing an engineering basis for major rehabilitation investment decisions...

  5. METHODICS, SOFTWARE AND LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FOR AN INNOVATIVE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of innovative electrical engineering discipline «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems» in order to improve the training of specialists of electrical engineering specialty. Methodology. The proposed project concerns the educational reforms that promote the intensification of the educational process. Results. The structure of interactive educational and training complex, which is a computer learning tool in the form of software and methodical support, as well as data and knowledge bases and consists of functionally related multimedia learning systems, interactive learning, automated control of the learning process. Originality. To offer online training and research facilities, guidelines for laboratory and computational and graphic works. Practical value. Increase the knowledge of students of educational material related to the discipline of innovation «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems».

  6. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... power is able to be delivered to the wireless sensor through the designed MR-WPS, and therefore the theoretical analysis and design is verified....

  7. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  8. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  9. IEEE No. 323, IEEE trial-use standard: General guide for qualifying Class I electric equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the basic requirements for the qualification of Class I electric equipment. This is equipment which is essential to the safe shutdown and isolation of the reactor or whose failure or damage could result in significant release of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for demonstrating the qualifications of electrical equipment as required in the IEEE Std 279 -- Criteria for Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection Systems, and IEEE Std 308 -- Criteria for Class 1E Electric Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. The qualification methods described may be used in conjunction with the Guides for qualifying specific types of equipment, (see Foreword), for updating qualification following modifications or for qualifying equipment for which no applicable Guide exists

  10. 77 FR 71607 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) Electrical Equipment Certification Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0839] Mobile Offshore Drilling... hazardous areas on foreign-flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) that have never operated, but... International Maritime Organization (IMO) Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  11. RA Reactor operation and maintenance (I-IX), Part III, Task 3.08/04-02 Refurbishment of the electrical equipment; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA (I-IX), III Deo, Zadatak 3.08/04-02 Remont elektro opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Nikolic, M; Poznanovic, B; Rajic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    This volume contains detailed action plan for repair of electrical equipment of the RA reactor, the list of electrical equipment parts which were either repaired or exchanged for improvement of their performance. Detailed work describing the repair and maintenance work done of the listed equipment is part of this report. Equipment related to dosimetry and control systems are included as well.

  12. Aspects of the design of the automated system for code generation of electrical items of technological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the aspects of designing an automated system for generating codes for electrical elements of process equipment using CASE-means. We propose our own technology of iterative development of such systems. The proposed methodology uses the tool to develop the ERwin Data Modeler databases of Computer Associates and the author's tool for the automatic generation of ERwin Class Builder code. The implemented design tool is a superstructure over the ERwin Data Modeler from Computer Associates, which extends its functionality. ERwin Data Modeler works with logical and physical data models and allows you to generate a description of the database and ddl-scripts.

  13. Explosion-proof electric actuators and explosion protection of non-electrical equipment; Explosionsgeschuetzte elektrische Stellantriebe und Explosionsschutz von nichtelektrischen Betriebsmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Werner Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    From July 2003 onwards manufacturers may only introduce explosion-proof equipment which conforms to the new EU Directive 94/9/EC, better known as the ATEX Directive, to the market. Contrary to the field of electrical explosion protection, which has for quite some time been subject to clear and binding requirements, uncertainty still prevails in the field of non-electrical explosion protection today, shortly before the end of the deadline. (orig.) [German] Ab Juli 2003 duerfen von den Herstellern nur noch explosionsgeschuetzte Geraete in den Umlauf gebracht werden, die der EU-Richtlinie 94/9/EG, besser bekannt als ATEX Richtlinie, entsprechen. Waehrend im Bereich des elektrischen Explosionsschutzes seit geraumer Zeit klare und verbindliche Vorgaben existieren, herrscht im Bereich des nichtelektrischen Explosionsschutzes bis heute, kurz vor dem Stichtag, noch viel Verunsicherung. (orig.)

  14. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment

  15. The problem of ensuring the seismic stability of atomic electric power plant equipment and ways of solving it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovskii; Filippov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    By seismic stability the authors mean the ability of the equipment and buildings to retain certain properties when subjected to seismic loads: leakproofness, strength, the absence of any residual changes of shape, which interfere with normal operation, ability to be repaired, nuclear and radiation safety. The latter requirement is the main thing which differentiates atomic electric power plants from other constructions, including other power-generation plants. Whereas, for example, an accident in the event of an earthquake in a thermal electric power plant can be regarded as a local accident, and the measures to ensure seismic stability are determined by economic factors and safety requirements for the operating staff, to ensure the seismic stability of an AES it is essential to take account in the first instance of the possibility of dangerous radiation effects both in the AES and in the vast area around it

  16. PAT portable appliance testing : in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 requires any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required. This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam. It is also an ideal revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff and caretakers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.

  17. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    setback 0 Sequenced start-up 0 Duty cycling 0 Holiday scheduling %~. Load shedding 0 Chiller control Optimized start-stop e Boiler control Cf Enthalpy...efficiency fac- and a local 80 column serial printer. tors, building loss factors, occupancy temperature setpoint and history. The optimized start and/or...capilt, water temperature, number of chillers optimal sarut-up of heating and cool- running and the percent operating lev . ing equipment can be

  18. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchini, F.; Mummolo, G.; Mossa, G.; Digiesi, S.; Boenzi, F.; Verriello, R.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF). The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed. Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  19. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, F.; Mummolo, G.; Mossa, G.; Digiesi, S.; Boenzi, F.; Verriello, R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF). The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed. Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  20. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Facchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF. The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed.   Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  1. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  2. Corrosion of chromatic conversion coatings on Aluminium Alloys in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.Sh.; Shahrabi, T.; Mozafarnia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Chromate conversion coating is applied on aluminum 6061. The optimum conditions for chromate bath composition and immersion time are also obtained for standard requirements provision such as corrosion resistance in salt spray test, electrical resistance and coating quality. The applied coatings are electrochemically tested in sea and distilled water. According to Tafel and cyclic polarization curves, the protection mechanism are evaluated in said environments. This evaluation has shown the formation of passive film layer, contains chromate and alumina on the base. The proper behavior of corrosion and electrical conductivity is probably due to this mechanism

  3. Study of the national electricity system equipment until the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This work is about a study by UTE and German consultants. It is to ensure the supply of electricity in times of unfavorable hydrogeological conditions. In this case is necessary to install new thermic units or import energy from neighboring countries

  4. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I ampersand C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility

  5. Signalling information from embedded sensors to promote lifetime extension in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, S; Fitzpatrick, C

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this paper proposes how life cycle data attained from embedded sensors in electronic systems can be used to potentially enhance their environmental efficiency. Signalling is a means whereby sensor information can be utilised to enhance consumer perception of the value of used equipment and therefore promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with electronic system manufacture. A case study of a Personal Computer (PC) is presented together with potential signals that can ultimately serve to stimulate secondary market activity for this system

  6. Signalling information from embedded sensors to promote lifetime extension in electrical and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2007-07-01

    The work presented in this paper proposes how life cycle data attained from embedded sensors in electronic systems can be used to potentially enhance their environmental efficiency. Signalling is a means whereby sensor information can be utilised to enhance consumer perception of the value of used equipment and therefore promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with electronic system manufacture. A case study of a Personal Computer (PC) is presented together with potential signals that can ultimately serve to stimulate secondary market activity for this system.

  7. Use of the virtual instrument technology in complex diagnostics of marine electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivlev M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the most informative methods of diagnostics of mechanisms with electric drive has been given; their realization in a measuring complex on the basis of the virtual device has been considered. The comparative analysis of vibration methods for the analysis of current spectra and the thermal method of nondestructive testing has been carried out. It has been stated that methods of vibration diagnostics are more sensitive to defects in the mechanical part of the electric drive (determination of defects in bearing assemblies, misalignment of shafts, imbalance of rotating parts. Analysis of the current spectrum at the early stage has shown the defects of rotor windings, static and dynamic rotor eccentricity. The temperature of the bearing assemblies and the stator (the thermal control method indicates the defects in lubrication and cooling systems. The set of methods of nondestructive control allows increase the completeness and reliability of diagnosis of the mechanism with electric drive. The optimal solution to realize into one measuring instrument all methods of diagnostics is to use the technology of virtual instruments. The list of components for the measuring part of the complex and the functional scheme of the program for processing the results have been given. Spectra of vibration of defective mechanisms have been obtained with the help of the measuring complex based on the virtual instrument. Some recommendations have been given on the introduction of the virtual appliance in the State register of measuring instruments.

  8. Based on the traffic system tools magneto electric equipment design and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In transportation, the road is rough, the engine operation, the instability of the transmission system, and large vibration of the vibration system is to collect the vibration energy, and transformed into stable electricity, provide extra energy for transportation. Experiment device of the system is composed of three parts: simulate vibration test rig, vibration generating device, rectifier voltage regulator circuit. Vibration table is to simulate vehicle vibration in the road, cars, for example, through the check information that cars drive in ordinary road driving axle of some vibration data, thus to calculate all parameters of the vibration table. Vibration generating device is placed on the simulation vibration table, it can convert vibration energy into cars can use electricity. Rectifier voltage regulator circuit is generated by power generation device with a range of random variation of amplitude of electric energy through the rectifier voltage into a stable power output, for car use. The final design and making the vibration system, obtained by the method of experiment proved that the vibration of system feasible.

  9. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  10. The French market of electrical equipment and installation. Control over energy consumption, environmental law and new markets to be conquered draw perspectives for the sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at identifying the size and dynamics of the French industry of electrical equipment and installation, at comparing financial performance of equipment manufacturers and of installation major companies, at analysing strategies developed by operators to take benefit of growth opportunities in the field of energy efficiency, at identifying new markets to be conquered, and at anticipating capitalistic evolutions. Fifteen companies are presented and analysed within this perspective: ABB, Alstom, Areva, ETDE, General Electric, GDF Suez, the Energy pole of Eiffage, Legrand, Nexans, Rexel, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Sonepar, Spie, and Vinci Energies

  11. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  12. Study on Communication Methods for Electric Power High-voltage Equipment Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of high-voltage equipment in substations is beneficial for early detection of faults. The use of wireless sensor networks to build monitoring system is an effective way, but the data collection is a difficult task. The author introduces a real-time monitoring system based on ZIGBEE and mobile communication technology. The system includes multiple monitoring points and terminal platforms. Each monitoring point consists of a number of sensor nodes to form a ZIGBEE network, detecting relevant parameters, coordinator node data collected one by one, known as linear transmission, and finally to the monitoring platform through the mobile communication network. This paper presents a fusion algorithm for monitoring cell data acquisition to reduce the amount of data uploaded to the base station. In addition, multi-hop routing algorithm based on opportunistic routing is proposed to balance network energy and improve network transmission rate and efficiency.

  13. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  14. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment

  15. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  16. Main refurbishment activities on electronic and electrical equipment for the FRG-1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, K.H.; Krull, W.

    1997-01-01

    As GKSS intends to operate the research reactor FRG-1 safely and reliably for many years to come, the plant is constantly refurbished and upgraded both in the interests of safety and operational reasons. The following electronic and electrical systems have been replaced or improved since 1990: Information and signalling systems; Emergency power plant (permit applied for); External and internal lightning protection system; Reactor protection system (in part); Safety lighting; Alarm and staff locating system; Control room telephone system; Closed-circuit television system; Beam tube controls; Storage plant for radioactive liquid waste; Ambient dose rate measuring system; Meteorological measuring system; Control and measuring system for the primary cooling circuit; Control rod drives; Control rod control system; Soft start for the secondary pumps; Control and switching devices for the emergency power plant; Trailing cable installation for the reactor bridge; Main-voltage distribution systems/cable routes. (author). 13 figs, 1 tab

  17. Seismic test qualification of electrical equipment - testing methods in use to EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabries, R.

    1981-01-01

    At the beginning, for the 900 MW Power Plant level, the testing method in application used the single axis test by sine beat of 10 cycles according to the specifications of the guide IEEE 344-71. When the french guide UTEC 20-420 came into force we have had to define another testing method (EDF standard: HN20 E52) which utilize the single-axis test either by a sine beat of 5-cycles or by a synthetized time history. We present here the mains criterions allowing to justify: -The single-axis test. The single frequency wave (when the Initial Response Spectrum (IRS) present a narrow band). The use of one sine beat of 5-cycles or one synthetized time history. The need of taking into account the high stress level. This oligocyclic stress fatigue explains why one beat of 5-cycles may be as severe as one time history of 20 seconds (with the same level of strong response spectrum). Then, we conclude that the durating of the testing wave applied to the equipment shall be considered as a relative parameter only. The weight of the SSE tests by respect to the OBE tests. The precautions to take in order to: generate and check accurately the synthetized time history, choice the test frequencies when the sine beat is used. (orig./HP)

  18. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  19. Performance Evaluation of an Active Solar Dryer Equipped with an Auxilliary Electrical Heater and Heat Recovery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourghasemi Ranjbar, M.; Alavi Naeini, N.; Mortezapour, H.

    2016-01-01

    Drying is a very sophisticated process which consumes a large amount of energy. Solar energy can be used as an alternative or supplementary energy source to fossil fuels. Solar dryers are common ways for saving fossil fuel consumption during agricultural products drying. In this study, the performance of an active solar dryer equipped with an energy recovery system was investigated at three levels of drying air temperature. The results showed that the energy recovery system was able to increase inlet air temperature by 16.8, 18.5 and 18.9 ° C at drying temperatures of 55, 65 and 75 ℃, respectively. Meanwhile 47.8, 42.9 and 40.9 percents of the dryer exhaust air energy were recovered respectively at these conditions which subsequently led to a reduction of 30.7, 19.2 and 14.7 percents in electrical heater energy consumption.

  20. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  2. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  3. Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit boards of various end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment for beneficiation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu Priya; Hait, Subrata

    2018-05-01

    Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit board (PCB) of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is obligatory for prospective profitable beneficiation. In this study, beneficiation oriented comprehensive characterization of two brands of PCBs each of 16 end-of-life EEE was conducted in terms of their physicochemical characteristics with special emphasis on the content of 16 general elements, 2 precious metals and 15 rare earth elements (REEs). General elements and their highest weight percent composition found in different PCBs of the EEEs were Cu (23% in laptop), Al (6% in computer), Pb (15% in DVD player) and Ba (7% in TV). The high abundant of precious metals such as Au (316 g/ton) and Ag (636 g/ton) in mobile phone and laptop, respectively coupled with rapid obsolescence age makes waste PCBs of information technology and telecommunication equipment the most potent resource reservoir. Additionally, most of the waste PCBs were observed to contain REEs in considerable quantity with Sc up to 31 g/ton and Ce up to 13 g/ton being the major constituents. Comprehensive characterization of waste PCBs therefore will systematically help towards better understanding of e-waste recycling processes for beneficiation purpose and sustainable resource circulation and conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ageing Management for Electrical and I and C Equipment in the Light of Germany's Nuclear Phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foellner, Lutz; Hienstorfer, Wolfgang; Weich, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The political decision in Germany to shut-down operation of several Nuclear Power Reactors (NPP's) and to completely terminate the use of Nuclear Power in Germany by 2022 has extensive consequences in matters of the Aging Management. Physical conditions and presumed accident conditions are different for NPP's in power operation and for NPP's in shut-down operation and different aging effects have to be considered. Nevertheless aging management is still required considering the expected extensive time for shut-down operation in order to guarantee the safety functions and the use of qualified components with a sufficient and approved state. All current Aging Management requirements have to be fulfilled in the future as well without any restriction to ensure functionality, reliability and availability. However, it is expected that business management reasons will not allow realizing greater modifications or projects, e.g. exchange of analogue I and C technologies such as Limitations or Reactor Protection System with digital equipment. In the area of I and C which is characterized by many similar I and C-modules a change of strategy begins to emerge: the repair of discontinued modules within the plant under the owner's responsibility and the redesign of modules. Previously, we had reported on the establishment of a systematic Aging Management approach in order to identify aging processes and effects. Since two years the Aging management system has been installed in the NPPs and now we contribute our experience related to the practical handling, the performance and the results of these systems in German NPP's. (author)

  5. Dynamic analysis of electric equipment for nuclear power stations under seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, K.E.; Bodisco, U. von; Winkler, K.

    1977-01-01

    The response spectrum method, generally accepted as the most practical method for linear seismic analysis of power station components, is here applied in conjunction with the finite element method to electric components. The fully dynamic analysis based on the superposition of the natural modes as carried out for an electronics cabinet and for transmitter supports is outlined and selected results are presented. Several different methods are in use for the superposition of the contributions of the different modes. Here addition of absolute values, the square-root of the sum of squares, and a mixed method taking account of closely spaced modes is applied. For different structures, the degree of conservativity is thus demonstrated, the largest difference in the stresses computed by the different methods being approximately 30%. For structures whose natural frequencies are in the spectrum range with zero period response, a simplified response analysis using static loads is often carried out. This is demonstrated for the electronics cabinet and transmitter mountings, and the results are compared with the fully dynamic analyses. It is seen that this 'pseudo-dynamic' analysis yields useful approximations for the distributions of stresses. Practical details of the structural models as well as results are presented for several switchgear and electronics cabinets

  6. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  7. Fundamental characteristics of new electric power storage equipment celled `ECS`; Atarashii denryoku chozo sochi `ECS` no kisoteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Yamagishi, M.

    1997-01-30

    This paper introduces new electric power storage equipment called an energy capacitor system. A special electrically double-layered capacitor with its energy density raised in sacrifice of internal resistance has the current so adjusted that loss will not increase by using a switching converter (consisting of a charger and a current pump). The capacitor is charged and discharged at high efficiency. Upper limits of the charge voltage for each capacitor are connected with parallel monitor circuits so that maximum charge voltage of each capacitor will be aligned at one level, wherein charge and discharge are performed with that voltage used as the starting point. A drawback in a capacitor is lower energy density than in a secondary battery. Therefore, high voltage withstanding organic electrolyte was used, and electrode activated carbon was given discussions starting from its raw material structures. The efforts resulted in obtaining as high energy density as 43 Wh/kg (about 20 times as much as in conventional materials, and comparable to lead-acid batteries). In order to minimize heat generation due to the increased internal resistance, a switching converter was used to suppress charge/discharge currents to the minimum required levels. Although the capacitor still has insufficient voltage withstanding power and short life, the energy density is increasing beyond the initial estimation. The next problem to be solved is reduction in production cost for its industrialization. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(< 102 g m-3). Elemental gold was successfully obtained on 0.5-1 mm gr particles in an electrochemical reactor incorporating a cation- permeable membrane and operated in bath recycle mode. Depletion to concentration < 5 × 10-3 mol m-3 (< 1 g m-3) appeared to be mass transport controlled at an applied potential of +0.20 V (SCE), specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) of ca. 800-1300 kWh h (tonne Au)-1 for cell voltages (U) of 2.0-3.0 V, and fractional current efficiencies of ca. 0.95. However, atomic absorption and UV spectrophotometry established that as the ([{{AuCl}}4-+[{{AuCl}}2-]) concentration decayed, the [{{AuCl}}4-]:[{{AuCl}}2-] molar ratio changed. A multi-step mechanism for reduction of {{AuCl}}4- ions explained this behavior in terms of changing overpotentials for {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- reduction as total dissolved gold concentration decreased. In addition, SEM images confirmed that adherent and coherent Au deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  9. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  10. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 33: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND PROTECTION FROM ACTION OF POWERFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF RADIOELECTRONIC, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of basic scientific and technical achievements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and protection from destabilizing and striking action of powerful electromagnetic interference (PEMI of natural and artificial origin of radioelectronic, electrical engineering and electric power equipment. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in a sphere EMC and such areas of knowledge’s as radioelectronics, electrical engineering and electric power engineering. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted modern positions problems EMC and protection of equipment from action on them PEMI. It is shown that PEMI can result in failures in-process and death of examined equipment. Annual harm in the industrially developed countries of the world from the striking affecting of PEMI modern equipment with integral microcircuits and semiconductor devices can make ten of milliards of USD. The basic methods of protection of equipment are resulted from PEMI and protective devices (PD, intended for the increase of effectiveness of modern equipment to the action of external PEMI. Principles of work of the resulted PD and their basic technical descriptions are described. Originality. On the basis of materials of scientific monographs, journal publications, normative documents and internet-reports systematization of basic PD, in-use presently in an area EMC and protection of different equipment from the hazard agency of external PEMI is executed. Practical value. Popularization of scientific and technical knowledge’s in an area EMC and protection of modern equipment from a dangerous action on them PEMI. Formulation of important for society scientific and technical problems and tasks, arising up in an area EMC and providing of the reliable functioning of modern equipment in power electromagnetic interference.

  11. Report of the Service for maintenance of electric equipment Service - Annex 3; Prilog 3 - Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje elektro opreme reaktora RA u 1975. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-01-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  12. Electricity law for the Paraguay Republic: an analysis of the proposed regimen; Ley de electricidad para la Republica del Paraguay: un analisis del regimen propuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo Filho, Carlos M.; Brasa Soto, Ruben E. [Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu, Asuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    In September 2000 the Energy Ministry concluded the elaboration of the electricity law for the Paraguayan electrical system, which should be exposed for its corresponding analysis, approval and promulgation. In this direction, this present work makes a detailed analysis of that, having as premise the following main points: aspects of its elaboration; proposed structure; opening of the Paraguayan electrical market; external interferences; businesses opportunities; protection to the consumers; protection to the investors and other relevant themes. Finally, the work is concluded presenting some suggestions and recommendations.

  13. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  14. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  15. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  16. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  17. Analysis of the participation of nuclear energy in electricity planning in Mexico; Analisis de la participacion de la energia nuclear en la planeacion electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, U. A.; Martin del C, C., E-mail: uahh_123@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    In recent years there has been an effort in Mexico and the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GGE) and at the same time supply the increase in energy consumption worldwide. In this context, the electricity sector in Mexico is fundamental in the fulfillment of GGE reduction commitments and goals by contributing more than 20% of these. Nuclear energy must have a fundamental role in the expansion of the National Electric System, since it allows generating large amounts of electricity for long periods of time without emissions of polluting gases. With this background, was determined to investigate the main characteristics that nuclear technology must have in order to be considered as a real solution in guaranteeing the supply of electricity in a continuous, safe and economic manner with the least amount of GGE possible. However, combined cycle power plants are the main option to cover these needs in accordance with the current national policy, so in this work an extensive technical, economic and safety comparison between the combined cycle and nuclear technologies was carried out. In order to know the technology that should have a greater participation in the planning of the National Electric System in the coming decades. Thus, five price scenarios were elaborated for natural gas and liquefied natural gas imports, in order to know the cost that would generate to continue with the current policy of use of combined cycle power plants as a base for electricity generation and if that cost justified in the first instance the increase of nuclear capacity in the country. The results showed that is necessary to change the main source of power generation in Mexico in order to have a reliable, safe, economical and clean electrical system. (Author)

  18. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  19. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  20. Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DecaBDE) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan: Stock, Emission, and Substitution Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Zhou, Liang; Kojima, Naoya; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2017-11-21

    DecaBDE has been widely used as flame retardant in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). It has recently been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention. The time series flow, stock, and emission of DecaBDE in EEE in Japan were quantified. On this basis, a risk/risk trade-off analysis of substituting DecaBDE with triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) that is one possible phosphorus-based alternative was conducted. The stock of DecaBDE reached a maximum of ∼42 000 t in 1995. Even though the demand flow was negligible in 2030, the stock was modeled to be still ∼470 t. The outflow of DecaBDE, from the use phase to the disposal phase, peaked at ∼4500 t/yr. in 2001. The DecaBDE emission to atmosphere was mainly derived from the production phase before 1990. The use phase became the largest contributor to the total emission from 1995 to 2000. Whereas the disposal phase dominated the total emission from 2000 onward. In the substitution analysis, a trade-off between human and ecological health effect was revealed in case of replacing DecaBDE with TPhP. This study attempted to give an overall picture of DecaBDE application at national level providing insights into relevant environmental policy making.

  1. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  2. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  3. Recycling-Oriented Product Characterization for Electric and Electronic Equipment as a Tool to Enable Recycling of Critical Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Chancerel, Perrine; Ueberschaar, Maximilian

    To establish a knowledge base for new recycling processes of critical elements, recycling-orientated product characterization for Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) can be used as a tool. This paper focuses on necessary data and procedures for a successful characterization and provides information about existing scientific work. The usage of this tool is illustrated for two application: Hard Disk Drives (HDD) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels. In the first case it could be shown that Neodymium and other Rare Earth Elements are concentrated in magnets (25% by weight) and contribute largely to the end demand of Neodymium. Nevertheless, recycling is limited by the difficult liberation and competing other target metals contained in HDD. In the second case it could be shown that also for this application the usage of Indium is concentrated in LCDs, but unlike in magnets the concentration is lower (200 ppm). The design of LCDs with two glued glass layers and the Indium-Tin-Oxide layer in between make the Indium inaccessible for hydro-metallurgical recovery, the glass content puts energetic limitations on pyro-metallurgical processes. For the future technical development of recycling infrastructure we need an in depth understanding of product design and recycling relevant parameters for product characterization focusing on new target metals. This product-centered approach allows also re-think traditional "design for recycling" approaches.

  4. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  5. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of finger-equipped electrode (FEE)-triggered electrical stimulation improving chronic stroke patients with severe hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inobe, Jun-ichi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Electric stimulation (ES) has been recognized as an effective method to improve motor function to paralysed patients with stroke. It is important for ES to synchronize with voluntary movement. To enhance this co-ordination, the finger-equipped electrode (FEE) was developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FEE in improving motor function of upper extremities (UEs) in patients with chronic stroke. The study participants included four patients with chronic stroke who received FEE electronic stimulation (FEE-ES) plus passive and active training and three control patients who underwent training without FEE-ES. The patients were treated five times weekly for 4 weeks. UE motor function was evaluated before and after treatment using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Brunnstrom recovery staging. The mean age of patients in each group was 60-years and there was a mean of 49 months since the onset of symptoms. All patients had severe UE weakness. The patients receiving FEE-ES had greater improvement in UE function than control patients (total, proximal and distal FMA, p FEE-ES may be an effective treatment for patients with chronic stroke.

  7. An efficient and fast analytical procedure for the bromine determination in waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Cannio, M; Mafredini, T; Pozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used, in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy, for a fast determination of bromine concentration and then of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) compounds in waste electrical and electronic equipments. Different samples from different recycling industries were characterized to evaluate the sorting performances of treatment companies. This investigation must be considered of prime research interest since the impact of BFRs on the environment and their potential risk on human health is an actual concern. Indeed, the new European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS 2011/65/EU) demands that plastics with BFRs concentration above 0.1%, being potential health hazards, are identified and eliminated from the recycling process. Our results show the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with XRF analysis, as effective tools for the rapid detection of BFRs in plastic materials. In particular, the use of these two techniques in combination can be considered as a promising method suitable for quality control applications in the recycling industry.

  8. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-08-01

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  10. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, L.; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  11. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, L., E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  12. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  13. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  14. Decision analysis in the expansion planning of the Mexican Electrical System; Analisis de decision en la planificacion de la expansion del Sistema Electrico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupiol, S.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Ortega C, R. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: stoupiol@yahoo.fr

    2007-07-01

    In the last years, the planning of the National Interconnected System has been guided mainly to technologies of combined cycle, contributing to the establishment of a generation system little diversified and clerk of the readiness and volatility of the prices of natural gas. On the other hand, the electric system continues expanding without to consider the emissions of gases coming from the electric generation and the significant participation of the renewable and nuclear technologies in the production of electricity like decisive parameters for the long term planning, for what the developed plans are economically attractive but they don't contribute to the respect of the environment, to the sustainable development, neither to the diversification. With base to the above-mentioned intended in this work to develop viable outlines for the long term expansion of the National Interconnected System (period 2005-2024), appealing to the pattern of uni nodal planning that uses the Federal Commission of Electricity at the moment (CFE) that is to say the pattern WASP given by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This way, you fixed as objective to propose two expansion alternatives to the reference plan developed by the CFE in 2005 for the period 2005-2024, with the purpose of not only looking for the good plan of these three plans in terms of the total cost of generation, but also in terms of the risk associated to the price of natural gas, the emissions of dioxide of sulfur and nitrogen oxides generated by the plants of the system and the diversity of the generation park. To compare the three developed plans, you applies an analysis of decision of multiple approaches based on the approach of Savage. Finally, starting from this analysis, he/she intended to determine if the plan of minimum cost represents the long term better option or if it suits but to expand the system being based on a plan that represents the best commitment cost-risk-emission-diversity. (Author)

  15. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling

  16. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  17. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, P A; Hischier, R; Eugster, M

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analisis Sektor/Sub Sektor Unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafur Gafur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to analyze the leading sectors in Bungo. The method used is Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, specialization index, Growth Ratio Model (MRP. Based on analysis of LQ and DLQ, there are only two basis sectors at present and in the future, namely the construction sector and trade, hotels and restaurants. Based on the analysis of Specialization Index, in Bungo Regency has a concentration of the economy in the agricultural sector and the manufacturing sector. Based on MRP analysis also showed that prominent sector growth at the level of Bungo and Jambi Province, namely electricity, gas and water supply; the building sector; and trade, hotels and restaurants. Keywords : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, Specialization Index, Growth Ratio Model   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sektor unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan (MRP. Berdasarkan analisis LQ dan DLQ,  hanya ada 2 sektor yang menjadi sektor basis pada saat ini dan pada masa yang akan datang yaitu sektor bangunan dan sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Berdasarkan analisis Indeks Spesialisasi, di Kabupaten Bungo telah terjadi konsentrasi ekonomi pada sektor pertanian dan sektor industri pengolahan. Berdasarkan analisis MRP juga dapat diketahui bahwa sektor yang menonjol pertumbuhannya pada tingkat Kabupaten Bungo dan Provinsi Jambi yaitu sektor listrik, gas dan air bersih; sektor bangunan; serta sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Kata Kunci : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan

  20. Adjustment of electrical equipment in the Akal-J oil platform of PEP for the implementation of the dehydration and desalting system of crude; Adecuacion de equipo electrico en la plataforma Akal-J de PEP para la implementacion del sistema de deshidratacion y desalado de crudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesca Amador, Victor Hugo; Rosales Sedano, Inocente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Coutino Gonzalez, Marina [PEMEX, Region Marina Noreste (Mexico)

    2010-10-09

    The Integral Asset Cantarell (AIC), of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), developed a project to carry out the dehydration and desalting process of Maya (DDCM) crude of 300 MBD (thousands of daily barrels) of the Process Center (PC) of Akal-J through two integral systems of DDCM, with a capacity of 150 MBD each. The Process Center of Akal-J is conformed by eight marine platforms and the selected ones, by space availability to install these systems, were Akal-J2 and Akal-J3. In this paper the electrical analyses realized to determine the feasibility of the provision of energy to the required electrical equipment is presented, to implement the dehydration and desalting process of 300 MBD of Mayan crude, as well as the recommendations for a reliable and safe operation of the electrical system of the PC Akal-J. [Spanish] El Activo Integral Cantarell (AIC), de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), desarrollo un proyecto para efectuar el proceso de deshidratacion y desalado de crudo Maya (DDCM) de 300 MBD (miles de barriles diarios) de el Centro de Proceso (CP) Akal-J a traves de dos sistemas integrales de DDCM, con una capacidad de 150 MBD cada uno. El Centro de Proceso Akal-J se encuentra conformado por ocho plataformas marinas y las seleccionadas, por disponibilidad de espacio para instalar dichos sistemas, fueron Akal-J2 y Akal-J3. En este trabajo se presentan los analisis electricos realizados para determinar la factibilidad del suministro de energia a los equipos electricos requeridos, para implementar el proceso de deshidratacion y desalado de 300 MBD de crudo Maya, asi como las recomendaciones para una operacion confiable y segura del sistema electrico del CP Akal-J.

  1. Long-term security of electrical and control engineering equipment in nuclear power stations to withstand a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and control engineering equipment, which has to function even after many years of operation in the event of a fault in a saturated steam atmosphere of 160 C maximum, is essential in nuclear power stations in order to control a loss of coolant accident. The nuclear power station operators have, for this purpose, developed verification strategies for groups of components, by means of which it is ensured that the electrical and control engineering components are capable of dealing with a loss of coolant accident even at the end of their planned operating life. (orig.) [de

  2. Electrical System Design Application on Japanese BWR Plants in the Light of the Fukushima Accident and Hitachi Experience of the Solid State Power Equipment in Japanese BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi accident (Loss of all AC and DC power sources and the distribution panels), several design enhancements have been incorporated or are under consideration to Japanese BWRs. Especially, there are several important enhancements in the area of the electrical system design. In this paper, the design enhancements related to the following systems will be introduced. Supplemental AC power supply system Enhancement on DC Battery system In addition, this paper will show our practice of the solid state equipment in Japanese BWRs which have some special specifications, considering the special condition in the NPP's auxiliary electrical power system. (author)

  3. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  4. Utilization of low- and high-voltage electric equipment at heights exceeding 1000 m above sea level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present-day state of high- and low-voltage equipment utilization at heights exceeding 1000 m above sea level is considered with allowance for the technical requirements applicable to the equipment, as provided for in the GOST (All-Union State Standards), and for the results of scientific research studies. 12 refs.

  5. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): A follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeger, P.A.; Hischier, R.; Eugster, M.

    2011-01-01

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15 years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. - Research Highlights: → Comprehensive MFA

  6. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  7. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  8. Analysis of the problems of induced draft fans in a carbo-electric power station; Analisis de la problematica de ventiladores de tiro inducido de una central carboelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Sanchez, Valentin de Jesus; Vital Flores, Francisco [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The induced draft fans of the 350 MW units of a Thermo-electric power plant presented problems consisting of the failure of the capacity of gases extraction, together with the presence of cracks in the blades; this condition was observed since the stage of putting into service. Consequently, losses have been originated in the availability in two units, as well as, losses due to the manufacture of new impellers, which also originated that, in some cases, that the measures of the impellers, locally manufactured, differed from the originals, resulting in differences in the unit's efficiency. [Spanish] Los ventiladores tiro inducido de las unidades de 350 MW de una Central Termoelectrica presentaban una problematica consistente en la falla de capacidad de extraccion de gases, aunado a la presencia de fracturas en las aspas de los impulsores, esta condicion se observo desde la etapa de puesta en servicio. En consecuencia se han ocasionado perdidas de disponibilidad en dos unidades, asi como tambien, perdidas debido a la fabricacion de nuevos impulsores, lo que tambien origino que, en algunos casos, las medidas de los impulsores, fabricados localmente, diferian de los originales, dando como resultado diferencias en la eficiencia de las unidades.

  9. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification; Analisis del metodo de extension y reduccion de vida calificada utilizado en equipo con calificacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M.L. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)].e -mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  10. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki [Department of Management, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Department of Industrial and Information Management, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-09-15

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  11. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  12. ANALISIS PENYEBAB BANJIR KALI JUANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Marhendi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kali Juana yang berada di Kabupaten Pati dan Kudus serta sebagian kecil di Kabupaten Grobogan dan Blora, merupakan kawasan banjir. Kejadian banjir di Kali Juana, sudah menjadi rutinitas setiap musim hujan.Dari Januari sampai bulan Mei 2016tercatat terjadi 11 kejadian banjir dibeberapa wilayah, seperti Kecamatan Kaliwungu, Undaan dan Mejobo (Kab. Kudus serta Pati, Margorejo dan Juwana (Kab. Pati. Kali Juana merupakan bifurkasi Kali Serang pada Pintu Wilalung, yang berfungsi sebagai pintu pengatur banjir (dibangun pada zaman Belanda tahun 1918, melalui Kali Babalan menuju ke Kali Juana. Tulisan inidimaksudkan untuk menganalisis penyebab kejadian banjir di Kali Juana. Analisis dilakukan dengan melakukan kajani dan analisis hujan serta mekanisme aliran. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kondisi Kali Juana dari pertemuan Kali Logung di pintu Wilalung sampai hilir telah mengalami pendangkalan akibat kemiringan dasar atau topografi yang landai, dan mengakibatkan mudah terjadi sedimentasi sehingga mengurangi kapasitas pengaliran. Hal ini menyebabkan luapan banjir sering menggenangi wilayah Kabupaten Kudus dan Pati.

  13. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuer,; Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. • Over 4.8–5.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. • We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. • Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. • Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.8–5.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 2010–2030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping

  14. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Muller, Edson I. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, 96900-010 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k—low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g{sup −1} for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g{sup −1} for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO{sub 3} and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb

  15. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habuer,, E-mail: habuer@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. • Over 4.8–5.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. • We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. • Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. • Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.8–5.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 2010–2030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping

  16. An economic-mathematical model for optimization of the electrical equipment maintenance parameters of the Bobov Dol mine power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishov, S.

    1990-01-01

    The model proposed helps to ground the quantitative evaluation of the maintenance parameters of the electrical equipment of the coal mine. In the process of simulation an assumption is made that no additional capital investments are needed - only the existing situation of the electric supply system is considered and the effect of the measures taken to increase its reliability. The model takes into account the annual operating expenses, the downtime costs, the power not supplied to the user due to breakdowns, the average total outage duration; the breakdowns intensity, the average time for serviceability restoration. The model is based on the statistical data from the equipment operation for a period of 3 years, as well as on the economical standards acting in this mine. The outage expenses calculations of two units of the Bobov Dol mine are presented as an illustrative example of the model testing. The model is realized as a software product written on PL-1. It can also simulate the effect of the personnel number as well as the annual reserves of spare parts of various equipment's makes. 2 tabs, 6 refs

  17. Program plan for environmental qualification of mechanical and dynamic (including seismic) qualification of mechanical and electrical equipment program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1986-06-01

    The equipment qualification program described in this plan is intended to provide the technical basis for resolving uncertainties in existing equipment qualification standards. In addition, research results are contributing to the resolution of safety issues GI-23, GI-87, USI-A44, titled, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' ''Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation,'' and ''Station Blackout,'' respectively. Also, research effort is being directed at providing information on the behavior of containment isolation valves under severe accident environments. Although the results of the latter research will not contribute to resolving uncertainties in qualification standards, it has proven cost effective to obtain this information under this program

  18. The main features of electrical stimulation of biological tissues by implant electrodes: study from engineering perspective and equipment development to produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Bagnasco, D.; Alvarez Alonso, J.; Suarez Antola, R.

    2004-08-01

    The main features of electrical stimulation of biological tissues by implant electrodes are studied.These electrodes are applied in neural prostheses and cardiac pacing.Threshold phenomena are stressed and some aspects related with implant electrode design are discussed. A fairly through theoretical research about the optimal pulse shape for electrical stimulation of biological tissues is done.The excitation functional is introduced as a criterium to identify threshold pulses of electric current. We obtain the optimal pulse shapes that minimize the energy dissipated in tissues, or the energy taken by the load seen by the pulse generator, amongst other criteria.We show how these pulse shapes can be determined from experimentally measured strength-duration (S-D) curves using rectangular pulses of current. The development of a prototype of a new equipment is described.The equipment may be used to measure S-D curves and with this information it is able to syntetize the abovementioned optimal pulse shapes. The top-down design process is presented, involving both hardware and software.The construction and assembling of the prototype, as well as the implementation of software are described.Some testing and measures with the prototype, including test with biological tissues are described and assessed

  19. ANALISIS LITERASI EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garlans Sina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of Economic Literacy. The aim of this research is as an effort to increase economic literacy for individuals and households who want to achieve prosperity. Therefore, the obligation of improving the economic literacy needs to be done in a well-planned manner and come from the strong intention to learn in order to improve the economic literacy. It could have an effect on the assets accumulation, a better debt management, as a protection, as well as to increase savings and managing spending intelligently.   Keyword: economic literacy, asset, debt, protection, saving, spending   Abstrak: Analisis Literasi Ekonomi. Tulisan ini bertujuan sebagai upaya meningkatkan literasi ekonomi bagi individu maupun rumah tangga yang menginginkan mencapai kesejahteraan. Oleh karena itu, kewajiban meningkatkan literasi ekonomi perlu dilakukan secara terencana dan diawali dari niat untuk belajar meningkatkan literasi ekonomi karena dapat berefek pada akumulasi aset, pengelolaan utang yang tepat, proteksi, meningkatkan tabungan dan cerdas mengelola pengeluaran.   Kata kunci: literasi ekonomi, aset, utang, proteksi, menabung, pengeluaran

  20. Exploration and Application of Standardization Management of Electrical Equipment Maintenance in Chemical Enterprises%化工企业电气设备检修标准化管理探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶者青

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the current large-scale chemical enterprise electrical equipment maintenance problems,and the company electrical equipment maintenance standardization of the practice of the introduction and summary.%探讨目前大型化工企业电气设备检修存在问题,并对该公司电气设备检修标准化的实践,进行了介绍与总结。

  1. A study on developpement of guideline on writing technical document for electrical medical devices: Dental x-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Youl; Kim, Jae Ryang; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chang Won [Division of Medical Device Research, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Mnistry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Due to recent population aging, the number of check-up for senior citizens has increased steadily. According to this trend, the market size of dental X-ray equipment and the number of approval and review for these devices have simultaneously increased. The technical document of medical device is required for approval and review for medical device, and medical device companies needs to have work comprehension and expertise, as the document needs to include the overall contents such as performances, test criteria, etc.. Yet, since most of domestic manufacturers or importers of medical devices are small businesses, it is difficult for them to recruit professional manpower for approval of medical devices, and submission of inaccurate technical documents has increased. These problems lead to delay of the approval process and to difficulties in quick entering into the market. Especially, the Ministry of Food and Drug safety (MFDS) standards of a dental extra-oral X-ray equipment, a dental intra-oral X-ray equipment, an arm-type computed tomography, and a portable X-ray system have been recently enacted or not. this guideline of dental X-ray equipment adjusting revised standards was developed to help relative companies and reviewers. For this study, first, the methods to write technical document have been reviewed with revised international and domestic regulations and system. Second, the domestic and foreign market status of each item has been surveyed and analyzed. Third, the contents of technical documents already approved by MFDS have been analyzed to select the correct example, test items, criteria, and methods. Finally, the guideline has been developed based on international and domestic regulation, through close review of a consultative body composed of academic, industrial, research institute and government experts.

  2. A study on developpement of guideline on writing technical document for electrical medical devices: Dental x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Youl; Kim, Jae Ryang; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chang Won

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent population aging, the number of check-up for senior citizens has increased steadily. According to this trend, the market size of dental X-ray equipment and the number of approval and review for these devices have simultaneously increased. The technical document of medical device is required for approval and review for medical device, and medical device companies needs to have work comprehension and expertise, as the document needs to include the overall contents such as performances, test criteria, etc.. Yet, since most of domestic manufacturers or importers of medical devices are small businesses, it is difficult for them to recruit professional manpower for approval of medical devices, and submission of inaccurate technical documents has increased. These problems lead to delay of the approval process and to difficulties in quick entering into the market. Especially, the Ministry of Food and Drug safety (MFDS) standards of a dental extra-oral X-ray equipment, a dental intra-oral X-ray equipment, an arm-type computed tomography, and a portable X-ray system have been recently enacted or not. this guideline of dental X-ray equipment adjusting revised standards was developed to help relative companies and reviewers. For this study, first, the methods to write technical document have been reviewed with revised international and domestic regulations and system. Second, the domestic and foreign market status of each item has been surveyed and analyzed. Third, the contents of technical documents already approved by MFDS have been analyzed to select the correct example, test items, criteria, and methods. Finally, the guideline has been developed based on international and domestic regulation, through close review of a consultative body composed of academic, industrial, research institute and government experts

  3. PENERAPAN ANALISIS SWOC DALAM RENCANA STRATEGIS PENDIDIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianto -

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisis SWOC merupakan salah satu langkah yang bisa diambil dalam membuat sebuah rencana strategis pendidikan. Analisis ini dilakukan untuk melihat secara mendalam situasi internal dan eksternal organisasi. Situasi internal yang dilihat adalah kekuatan (Strenghts dan kelemahan (Weaknesses organisasi pendidikan. Situasi eksternal berupa peluang (Opportinities dan tantangan (Challenges. Untuk membuat sebuah rencana strategis yang baik dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis setiap kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan tantangan. Teknik kartu salju (snow card bisa digunakan dalam melakukan analisis SWOC. Hasil analisis tersebut nantinya akan melahirkan kombinasi strategi kekuatan-peluang, kekuatan-tantangan, kelemahan-peluang dan kelemahan-tantangan.

  4. ASPECTS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF MOBILE TEAM INTERVENTIONS ON ELECTRICAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT TOWARDS DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinel POPESCU

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at presenting how to coordinate intervention teams in the event of failure regimes in electric power distribution installations to domestic and industrial low voltage consumers. The work was theoretically and practically supported by an application implemented within the Faculty of Engineering and coordinated by the author.

  5. Failure analysis to the weights of balance of a 350 MW turbo-generator; Analisis de falla a los pesos de balanceo de un turbogenerador de 350 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital Flores, Francisco; Gamero Arroyo, Jose Manuel [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The selection of materials and the quality control in the supply of the components, as well as the involved operative variables in the process of work to which an equipment, device or a system of a power station of electrical generation are subjected, impact in the same in their useful life in a decisive way. In this document it is presented an analysis of a failure occurred in a 350 MW turbo-generator by the loosening of the balance weights, in which it is mentioned the flaws occurred by this cause and a metallographic analysis that indicates the main fault for the happening. [Spanish] La seleccion de material y el control de calidad en los suministros de los componentes, asi como las variables operativas involucradas en el proceso de trabajo al cual es sometido un equipo, dispositivo o un sistema de una central de generacion electrica, impactan en los mismos de manera decisiva en su vida util. En este documento se presenta un analisis de falla ocurrido en un turbogenerador de 350 MW, por el desprendimiento de los pesos de balanceo, el cual se menciona de los desperfectos ocurridos por esta causa y un analisis metalografico que indica la falla principal por lo ocurrido.

  6. Internet of things and Big Data as potential solutions to the problems in waste electrical and electronic equipment management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Ma, Buqing; Guo, Jianfeng; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a vital part in solid waste management, there are still some difficult issues require attentionss. This paper investigates the potential of applying Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data as the solutions to the WEEE management problems. The massive data generated during the production, consumption and disposal of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) fits the characteristics of Big Data. Through using the state-of-the-art communication technologies, the IoT derives the WEEE "Big Data" from the life cycle of EEE, and the Big Data technologies process the WEEE "Big Data" for supporting decision making in WEEE management. The framework of implementing the IoT and the Big Data technologies is proposed, with its multiple layers are illustrated. Case studies with the potential application scenarios of the framework are presented and discussed. As an unprecedented exploration, the combined application of the IoT and the Big Data technologies in WEEE management brings a series of opportunities as well as new challenges. This study provides insights and visions for stakeholders in solving the WEEE management problems under the context of IoT and Big Data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seismic and dynamic qualification of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants: development of a method to generate generic floor-response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.; Costantino, C.; Subudhi, M.; Reich, M.

    1983-09-01

    Generic floor response spectra were developed for use in the qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants. The characteristics of 1000 floor response spectra were studied to determine the generic spectra. The procedure developed uses as much or as little information that currently exists at the plant relating to the question of equipment qualification. The general approach was to study the effects on the dynamic characteristics of each of the elements in the chain of events that goes between the loads and the responses. This includes the loads, the soils and the structures. A free-field earthquake response spectra was used to generate horizontal earthquake time histories. The excitation was applied through the soil and into the various structures to produce responses in equipment. An entire range of soil conditions was used with each structure. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. The natural frequencies of the structures were varied to obtain maximum response conditions. The actual properties were first used to locate the natural frequencies. The stiffness properties were than varied, with the same mass, to extend the range of the fundamental base structure natural frequency. The intention was to have the coupled structural material frequencies in the vicinity of the peak amplitude frequency content of the excitation spectrum. Particular attention was therefore given to the frequency band between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. A horizontal generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels

  8. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  9. Analisis Semiotik Sajak Bulang Cahaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali makna tanda yang terdapat dalam sajak Bulang Cahaya karya Rida K Liamsi. Untuk menggali makna itu, pendekatan analisis semiotik Roland Barthes digunakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sajak ini berisi tanda-tanda bersumber dari kosa kata Melayu lama. Sajak ini juga berisi simbol-simbol yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan orang Melayu. Penggunaan kata-kata Melayu lama dan simbol Melayu memperkuat setting Melayu dalam sajak ini. Analisis makna menunjukkan bahwa seseorang merasakan kedukaan sangat mendalam ketika cintanya harus berakhir, tetapi ia terus merasakan kerinduan dengan kekasihnya yang telah pergi. Mitos cinta yang terdapat dalam pusinya adalah orang tahu bahwa putus cinta itu menyakitkan tetapi orang tetap saja jatuh cinta.

  10. Analisis Industri Ritel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview the analisys of retail industry in Indonesia.Retail industry in Indonesia grow rapidly. Industrial presence of modern retailbasically exploits public shopping pattern especially middle-weight and to which donot want to mill around in traditional market. Analysis Five Forces is used toanalysis retail industry. Analysis five force is bargaining power of buyers,bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, threat of new substituteproducts, and rivalry a...

  11. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osa Omar Sharif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti positioning restoran cepat saji McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, California Fried Chicken, A&W, dan Texas Chicken. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Bandung dengan mengambil sebanyak 400 responden. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis multidimensional scaling, analisis memberikan gambaran positioning dari restoran cepat saji yang ditampilkan dalam perceptual map. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki layanan paling baik adalah McD dan yang memiliki layanan paling buruk adalah CFC. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki rasa makanan paling enak adalah McD dan yang memiliki rasa makanan tidak enak adalah CFC. KFC dinilai paling ideal karena selalu berhasil menduduki peringkat satu dan dua jika dilihat dari sudut pandang restoran cepat saji yang lain. Pesaing terdekat McD adalah KFC. McD mendapatkan ranking pertama dari segi atribut layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan. Dengan posisi seperti ini McD seharusnya tetap menjaga kualitas layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan agar konsumen tetap memilih untuk datang ke McD. KFC sebaiknya tetap menjaga suasana yang membuat konsumen nyaman akan suasana di dalam atau diluar restoran

  12. National standards and code compliance for electrical equipment and instruments installed in hazardous locations for the cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    The cone penetrometer is designed to measure the material properties of waste tank contents at the Hanford Site. The penetrometer system consists of a skid-mounted assembly, a penetrometer assembly (composed of a guide tube and a push rod), an active neutron moisture measurement probe, decontamination unit, and a support trailer containing a diesel-engine-driven hydraulic pump and a generator. The skid-mounted assembly is about 8 feet wide by 23 feet long and 15 feet high. Its nominal weight is about 40,000 pounds with the provisions to add up to 54,500 pounds of additional ballast. This document describes the cone penetrometer electrical instruments and how it complies with national standards

  13. Thermal degradation characteristics and products obtained after pyrolysis of specific polymers found in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia C.Vouvoudi; Aristea T.Rousi; Dimitris S.Achilias

    2017-01-01

    Modern societies strongly support the recycling practices over simple waste accumulation due to environmental harm caused.In the framework of sustainable recycling of plastics from WEEE,pyrolysis is proposed here as a means of obtaining secondary value-added products.The aim of this study was to investigate the thermal degradation and the products obtained after pyrolysis of specific polymers found in the plastic part of WEEE,using thermogravimetric analysis and a pyrolizer equipped with a GC/MS.Polymers studied include ABS,HIPS,PC and a blend having a composition similar to that appearing in WEEE.It was found that,PC shows greater heat endurance compared to the other polymers,whereas ABS depolymerizes in three-steps.The existence of several polymers in the blend results in synergistic effects which decrease the onset and final temperature of degradation.Moreover,the fragmentation occurred in the pyrolyzer,at certain temperatures,resulted in a great variety of compounds,depending on the polymer type,such as monomers,aromatic products,phenolic compounds and hydrocarbons.The main conclusion from this investigation is that pyrolysis could be an effective method for the sustainable recycling of the plastic part of WEEE resulting in a mixture of chemicals with varying composition but being excellent to be used as fuel retrieved from secondary recycling sources.

  14. Comparative study of operation of condensing and traditional boilers equipped with the ORC module for electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikielewicz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Condensing technology applied to boilers is to make full use of thermal energy contained in the fuel. That means that additionaly the heat from condensation of exhaust gases can be used for the purposes of heating the domestic hot water and to cover the demand for central heating. The study analyzed the operation of the “traditional” boiler equipped with the ORC module as the similar arrangement but with the condensing boiler. In the case of a conventional boiler there is noted a greater fuel consumption and the greater power generated than in the case of the unit with the condensing boiler. Postulated is the indicator in the form of a ratio of turbine power to the mass flow rate of fuel, which in turn gives a higher value for the condensing boiler, thus demonstrating that the operation of condensing boiler ORC module will be more economical. Perspective domestic micro CHP with ORC should be installed in boilers with recovery of heat from condensation from the exhaust gases.

  15. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  16. Requirements to be taken into account in the design, qualification startup and operation of electrical equipment for safety-related electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to provide the rules to be respected in order that safety-related electrical systems can perform its function under plausible operating conditions

  17. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  18. Waste electrical and electronic Equipment (E-Wastes) management in Ghana: environmental impacts at Agbogbloshie, Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukure, Sampson Atiemo

    2016-07-01

    Ghana has relatively large volumes of e-wastes but inefficient recycling methods adopted by the informal sector causes both environmental contamination and potential loss of scarce metals. The control of pollution and management of e-wastes are twin challenges confronted by Ghana. The main objective of the study is to assess the extent to which the current methods employed in e-waste management in Ghana promote sound environmental management. Interviews and field observations were used to collect and collate data from key stakeholders on sustainable e-wastes management in Ghana. Soil samples were collected and analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results of the field survey revealed that there were three main method of getting e-waste into the yard; house-to-house collection, business-to-business collection and e-waste from dump sites. Majority of the scrap dealers (72%) have not received any form of training in the handling of the hazardous fractions hence do not use any personal protection equipment (PPE). There is poor awareness on the association between disease symptoms and e-waste activity however, 46% of the workers associated symptoms such as headaches, fever, stomach ache and vomiting to e-wastes activities. The challenges of the scrap dealers identified include; rampant arrests and beatings of collectors, fluctuating prices of general scraps, transportation costs, lack of access to working capital as well as ethnic, political and religious difference among the scrap dealers. The results of the elemental analysis revealed that generally the different sampling locations in the study area exhibited an overall metallic dominance pattern of SC > RD > VG > MS > CS > RS > DS > SG > BS. Lead levels registered in the in the soil samples analyzed ranged from 14.2 mg/kg to 7,020.0 mg/kg while Cd was found to be in the range of DS>SG>RS>MS>RD>CS>VF>SC. All the sampling sites showed very high

  19. Investgation concerning the structure, critical analysis and improvement of the organization of quality assurance in the qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power plants with new parts and in-service inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The study gives a survey of methods for the qualification of electrical equipment for nuclear power plants presently applied in the Federal Republic of Germany full consideration being given to the organization of quality assurance on the premises of the organizations involved (operators, plant suppliers, manufacturers). The organization of the qualification is to be kept distinct from the technical execution of the qualification. The qualification procedures are compared to those applied in France and in the USA. Aspects of future developments are shown with are promising with respect to: an increase in safety of electrical equipment for nuclear power plants, a simplification of the licencing procedure under Atomic Law. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Energy Flow in Conventional Dairy Farms with Emphasis on CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation and Use of Technical Equipment and Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Bayani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Energy is one of the most important commodities that make up a large proportion of international trade. Among all the countries in the world, Iran is known as semi-industrial developing country which is rich in energy such as non-renewable energy in particular fossil fuel. Use of energy affects the environment in various forms of pollution. In the agricultural sector, the FAO report states that livestock production has a major contribution to the world’s environmental problem (Sutton et al., 2011. Materials and methods This study analyzes energy flow and greenhouse gas emission in conventional dairy farms in Mazandaran province. The required data for this study was collected by conducting interviews and filling up questionnaires from 26 cattlemen. From the questionnaires, information on five inputs such as labor, livestock feeding, diesel fuel, electricity and technical equipment and machines as well as milk product for 159 dairy cattle was collected. Finally, energy productivity, efficiency and emissions of greenhouse gases were calculated for Methane (CH4, Nitrous Oxid (N2O and Carbon Dioxide (CO2. Results and discussion The results indicated that total energy which has been used to produce one liter of milk was 27.745 Mega Jul. Livestock feeding and fuel were energy inputs that has been extensively consumed. In this relation, 47.4% and 28.5% of the total energy consumption were drawn from the livestock feeding and fuel, respectively. In the study conducted by Sainz (2003, livestock feeding with 70% of the total energy consumption was also found as the largest input in terms of consuming energy. Technical equipment with 22.8% of the total energy consumption was found the third place. A low proportion (0.8% of the total energy consumption was drawn from labor. Electric power with 0.5% of the total energy consumption was placed at the last. Energy efficiency was measured at 0.257. The proportion of renewable and non

  1. ANALISIS PERBAIKAN SISTEM PENTANAHAN TELEKOMUNIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Umar

    2015-04-01

    Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah perbaikan sistem pentanahan site Kampung Baru dengan menggunakan konfigurasi single point connection window (SPCW, untuk mengamankan sistem telekomunikasi dari kebocoran arus dan petir serta imbasnya.  Perbaikan sistem pentanahan di site Kampung Baru menggunakan banyak elektroda yang membentuk persegi dikarenakan topografi tempat di sana yang memungkinkan dan efektif adalah menggunakan sistem tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan perhitungan perbaikan sistem di site Kampung Baru, didapatkan nilai perhitungan sistem pentanahan adalah 1.34 Ohm serta pengukurannya 1.21-1.25 Ohm.

  2. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  3. Activity of the Service for maintenance of RA reactor electrical equipment in 1976, report - Annex III; Prilog III - Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje elektro opreme reaktora RA u 1976. godini - Izvestaj -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  4. Activity of the Service for maintenance of RA reactor electrical equipment in 1978, report - Annex III; Prilog III - Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje elektro opreme reaktora RA u 1978. godini - Izvestaj -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  5. Service for maintenance of electrical equipment at the RA reactor, Report for 1977 - Annex III; Prilog III - Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje elektroopreme na reaktoru RA u 1977. godini - Izvestaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezoski, V; Stamenkovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1977-12-15

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje organizaciju rada Sluzbe za kontrolu i odrzavanje elektro-opreme i sadrzi detaljne podatke o potrosnji elektricne energije, smetnjama u napajanju elektricnom energijom, kvarovima u proteklom periodu.

  6. Transient and steady state analysis in the frequency domain for time-invariant and time variant electrical networks using the algebraic operational matrices approach; Analisis transitorio y de estado estable en el dominio de la frecuencia de redes electricas invariantes y variantes en el tiempo utilizando el enfoque algebraico de las matrices operacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro Castillo, Isidro Ignacio

    1999-02-01

    In this work, the problem of predicting waveform distortion is addressed in a more general form. The problem is presented in such a way that the solution process is not restricted to be held in the Fourier's domain but it can be worked out in any domain generated by any basis given by all the know orthogonal series expansions, Fourier series included. In this work, it is shown that orthogonal series such as Hartley series or Walsh series can be more efficiently used for solving harmonic distortion problems than the conventional form considered in the harmonic domain. It is clear from this work that the harmonic domain is indeed a particular case of the formulation presented here. The theory used for presenting and solving the harmonic distortion problem is based mainly on the concept of the operational matrices developed in the areas of Control and Systems. The approach has the advantage of providing a general framework for solving steady state and dynamic problems in electric networks and systems in general. An important fact presented in this thesis is that for both cases, steady state and dynamic analysis, an analytical solution can be provide. Power systems are operated to have periodic operating points with the quality required by the demand. In general, electrical networks include some on-linear devices. However, the analysis of non-linear networks as such is difficult specially when the analysis is required in the frequency domain. To make the problem tractable, it is generally accepted that it can be linearized about an operating point. It is shown that linearizing networks excited by periodic sources produce linear time varying systems. Unfortunately, the analysis of networks with time varying components is more complicated than the analysis of networks with constant elements. The solution of differential equations in the time domain leads to a considerable numerical effort. Usually, the practical network engineer is interested in getting qualitative

  7. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos

  9. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  10. Semiotika Teks: Sebuah Pendekatan Analisis Teks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasraf Amir Piliang

    2004-12-01

    tanda-tanda yang membentuk apa yang disebut sebagai ‘teks’. Analisis teks, menurut Roland Barthes, akan menghasilkan makna denotatif, yakni makna tanda yang bersifat eksplisit, dan makna konotatif, yaitu makna tanda lapis kedua yang bersifat implisit.

  11. Risk analysis; Analisis de riesgos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J H; Nunez McLeod, J; Rivera, S S [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina). Instituto de Capacitacion Especial y Desarrollo de Ingenieria Asistida por Computadora (CEDIAC)

    1997-07-01

    This book contains a selection of research works performed in the CEDIAC Institute (Cuyo National University) in the area of Risk Analysis, with specific orientations to the subjects of uncertainty and sensitivity studies, software reliability, severe accident modeling, etc. This volume presents important material for all those researches who want to have an insight in the risk analysis field, as a tool to solution several problems frequently found in the engineering and applied sciences field, as well as for the academic teachers who want to keep up to date, including the new developments and improvements continuously arising in this field. [Spanish] Este libro contiene una seleccion de trabajos de investigacion realizados dentro del Instituto de Capacitacion Especial y Desarrollo de la Ingenieria Asistida por Computadora en el area del analisis de riesgos, con una orientacion hacia el estudio de incertidumbres y sensibilidad, confiabilidad de software, modelacion de accidentes severos, etc. Este volumen recoge un material de indudable importancia e interes para todos aquellos investigadores y profesionales que desean incursionar en este campo del analisis de riesgos como herramienta para la solucion de problemas frecuentemente encontrados en la ingenieria y las ciencias aplicadas, asi como para los academicos que desean mantenerse al dia, conociendo los nuevos desarrollos y tecnicas que constantemente aparecen en su area.

  12. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  13. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  14. Analisis Harmonisa Inverter PWM Satu Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeki Simanjorang

    2008-01-01

    Pada tesis ini dianalisis harmonisa inverter PWM satu fasa. Inverter PWM satu fasa yang akan ditinjau adalah inverter satu fasa jembatan penuh (konvensional) dan inverter komposit. Analisis difokuskan pada penentuan pola penyaklaran yang optimum agar pembangkitan harmonisa dan switching losses inverter rendah. Untuk menentukan pola penyaklaran optimum maka dilakukan analisis yang berbasis pada rangkaian ekivalen harmonisa inverter satu fasa. Dengan menggunakan pola penyaklaran optimum, kedua ...

  15. The effect of introduction of energy storage equipments and time-of-day rates on the supply cost of electric energy in each area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Load factors of power systems are decreasing in these days. Under the circumstances, it is considered that 'load management' is an effective method to cut down the production cost of electricity. On the other hand, the introduction of energy storage equipments increases the load factor. It can be said that 'load management' has almost similar effect as 'energy storage'. When 'load management' and/or 'energy storage' is considered to be introduced, it is very important to estimate the effect of each method on the production cost. Since each area has its own load profile, the effect of 'load management' or 'energy storage' on the area is different from that on the other area. In this paper, the relationship between the improvement of the production cost and the load profile is discussed. It is found that 'load management' is more effective on the area which has small load factor and large kWh operation factor and 'energy storage' is more effective on the area which has small skewness of load profile. (author)

  16. A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  17. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  18. Perspectives for utilization of the experience from the electrical equipment modernization of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 in case of construction of new NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In 2005 a governmental decision for continue the project for construction of Belene NPP was adopted. In case of start of this significant project in short terms, a good option will be to utilize the already achieved experience by the modernization program of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP. The process of construction of new NPP is associated with significant amount of engineering, civil construction works, equipment order and delivery, installation works, testing and commissioning activities. It is vital necessity to have optimal technology, strict organization for project implementation and excellent documentation. From technical point of view the experience from the modernization of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP will be very important in case of utilization of similar types of WWER 1000 units. According to the 'Feasibility study for construction of Belene NPP', the most favorable option is to accomplish the already partially constructed Unit 1 on the basis of upgraded WWER B-320 design - WWER 1000 B-392, in order to fulfill IEC 331-3A, IEC 332-3A, and of US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 and to construct the second unit on the basis of ASE WWER/1000 B-466. However, for any type of unit selected, the achieved experience will be an important basis. This article is focused mostly on the modernization aspects of some electrical systems of Kozloduy NPP

  19. Modified enforcement policy relating to 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental qualification of electrical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'' (Generic Letter 88-07)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Generic Letters, Bulletins, and Information Notices have been issued to provide guidance regarding the application and enforcement of 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental Qualification of Electric Equipment Important to Safety for Nuclear Power Plants.'' Generic Letter 85-15, issued August 6, 1985, and Generic Letter 86-15, issued September 22, 1986, provided information related to the deadlines for compliance with 10 CFR 50.49 and possible civil penalties applicable to licensees who were not in compliance with the rule as of the November 30, 1985 deadline. Upon review, the Commission found that the EQ Enforcement Policy promulgated in Generic Letter 86-15, could result in imposition of civil penalties that did not properly reflect the safety significance of EQ violations with respect to civil penalties imposed in the past. In the interest of continuing a tough but fair enforcement policy, the Commission determined that the EQ Enforcement Policy should be revised. The purpose of this letter is to provide a modification to the NRC's enforcement policy, as approved by the Commission, for environmental qualification (EQ) violations. This letter replaces the guidance provided in Generic Letters 85-15 and 86-15

  20. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-25

    flocronthoro ’roka "rNUSPONUS reuepa’rop Tpexzaamor TOKA 6C. so, iso ynpomxeuuoe 63aeg (O#cms1poHM reHepaTop C ObiBeleHnbumH WeCTblo KoimaUU itA3...currents during short circuit on the terminals/grippers: the turbogenerators 12): .I1’ 1.5; the hydraulic generators 0a:I. ,-0 (.PA >3) ISO ---01...330TATl 111-31500/110 BC- 17,5 (10,5) 6800 5600 7600 123 397 Bll - 10,5 (17) C11 - 6.3 (6) TJATI 11-000/I10 - 8583 5275 7700 129 474 TLI, 11’--I.U500/I 1o

  1. ANALISIS IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kumala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Salah satu kebijakan pemerintah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beras yaitu dengan menggenjot produksi beras dalam negeri. Namun dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk akan meningkatkan permintaan terhadap beras dan upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam negeri tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan beras dalam negeri. Sehingga untuk menutupi kekurangan tersebut pemerintah mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan impor beras dari negara lain. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya impor beras dilakukan ketika data statistik menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia sedang mengalami surplus beras. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi impor beras di Indonesia. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda dengan model Error Correction Model (ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama produksi beras, konsumsi beras, harga beras dalam negeri dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap impor beras di Indonesia. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ One of the government’s policy to fulfill the need of rice is to boost the domestic production. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increasing the domestic productivity cannot supply domestic rice need. So, to cover the shortage the government make decision to import rice from other countries. Yet, in fact importing rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The purpose of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the production, the consumption, the

  2. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  4. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  5. ICT in a straight flow. Survey on electricity consumption of the ICT-sector and ICT equipment; ICT stroomt door. Inventariserend onderzoek naar het elektriciteitsverbruik van de ICT-sector en ICT-apparatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevers, S.H.; Verweij, R.

    2007-10-25

    The use of ICT equipment and ICT services in the past ten years shows a huge development. However, there are little or no current data on the total consumption of electricity. Therefore, in this study an outline is given of the current electricity consumption of ICT equipment in households, the ICT equipment in offices, and the ICT infrastructure (data centers, mobile and fixed networks). There is also a forecast for the year 2010 and a forecast is made for use of electricity in the year 2020. [Dutch] Het gebruik van ICT-apparatuur en ICT-diensten heeft in de afgelopen tien jaar een enorme ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. Er zijn echter weinig tot geen actuele gegevens van het totale elektriciteitsverbruik beschikbaar. In deze studie is daarom het actuele elektriciteitsverbruik in kaart gebracht van de ICT-apparatuur in de huishoudens; de ICT-apparatuur in de kantoren; en de ICT-infrastructuur (datacenters, mobiel- en vastnetwerk). Daarnaast is er een prognose gegeven voor het jaar 2010 en is een verwachting gegeven voor het verbruik in het jaar 2020.

  6. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  7. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U; Hellmann, R [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W; Wortmann, K; Bregas, J [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz (BUND) 1998 und

  8. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  9. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program; Analisis de escenarios con la participacion de la energia nuclear en el sector electrico mexicano utilizando el programa DECADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: edithsosa@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  10. Energy analysis of the production process of sugar using modern technologies of process integration; Analisis energetico del proceso de produccion del azucar utilizando tecnicas modernas de integracion de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Ibarra, Luis; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The application of new concepts for the energy analysis of industrial processes, which consider the thermal integration of the process equipment, not only allows to detect energy recovery potentials that cannot be visualized with the traditional treatment of energy diagnosis of individual equipment, allows in addition, to suggest changes in the operation of the process that, without modifying the production, result in the reduction of the consumption of energy by the services and fuel. The analysis of thermal integration is illustrated for the case of a sugar mill, detecting a reduction potential in the use of fuel oil of 75%, and a potential increase of electrical production by cogeneration of 41%, departing from the modification of the use of the steam available in the process, and of the change of operation parameters of operation in the evaporation section. [Spanish] La aplicacion de nuevos conceptos para el analisis energetico de procesos industriales, los cuales consideran la integracion termica de los equipos del proceso, no unicamente permiten detectar potenciales de recuperacion de energia que no se pueden visualizar con el tratamiento tradicional de diagnostico energetico de equipos individuales, permiten ademas, sugerir cambios en la operacion del proceso que, sin modificar la produccion, redundan en una reduccion del consumo de servicios y combustible. El analisis de la integracion termica se ilustra para el caso de un ingenio azucarero, detectandose un potencial de reduccion del uso de combustoleo de 75%, y un potencial de incremento de produccion electrica por cogeneracion de 41%, a partir de la modificacion del uso del vapor disponible en el proceso, y del cambio de parametros de operacion en la seccion de evaporacion.

  11. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico; Implementacion de la teoria del portafolio para el analisis de la generacion de energia electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  12. Measurement of fat in the ovine milk: comparative study of the results acquired by official methodology and by electr onic equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study between the official method recommended by Brazilian laws and the electronic equipment of photometric measurement and ultrasound spectroscopy equipment for the quantification of total lipids of the ovine milk in order to check which equipment establishes the lipids level better. The experiment took place at Technology of Food Department in Santa Maria Federal University together with School Plant of Dairy products and Ovine culture Section of Zoo Technical Department. It was used twelve sheeps half Lacaune Lait blood, milked individually from the first to the tenth week of lactation. The milking was performed manually and the analyses took place after the refrigeration of the samples. Before executing the analyses, the samples were homogenized and soon after evaluated in terms of fat amount by three distinct methodologies: official Brazilian methodology through Gerber’s butyrometer (GB, electronic equipment of photometric measurement Milko-Tester® (MT and ultrasound spectroscopic equipment Lactoscan 90® (LS, which all analyses were performed in triple. The reproducibility of LS equipment was 100% for the analyzed samples, while MT equipment showed variability in most of the analyzed samples obtaining reproducibility of the results in just 22,5% of the samples. For the others samples the latter equipment obtained 50% of overrated values and 27,5% underrated values. Therefore, the results of this study let us to settle that the analysis of ovine Milk by ultrasound spectroscopy is efficient for the fat parameter when compared to the official Brazilian methodology.

  13. Analisis Value Chain Di Industri Otomotif

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri, Hendri

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini untuk menganalisis industri otomotif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan mengetahui aktivitas dan kondisi internal proses industri manufaktur dengan menggunakan value chain guna masukan dimasa akan datang bagi industri otomotif secara khusus. Value Chain merupakan rantai nilai yang dapat mengetahui kekuatan Perusahaan, keuntungan dan kesuksesan dari rantai aktivitas dalam Perusahaan atau industri manufaktur.Metode analisis menggunakan Statistika Deskript...

  14. Thermal analysis of electric power generation with solar collectors at how low temperature; Analisis termico de plantas de generacion de energia electrica con la integraacion de colectores solares trabajando a bajas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monne, C.; Salina, P.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.

    2004-07-01

    The main focus of this article is how low temperature heat sources can be used for electric power generation. The paper will focus on solar energy in particular. The article shows simulation of five different cycles, with solar energy integration, by means ENBIPRO program (ENergie-BIlanz-PROgramm), that at the moment it is being developed by Institut Warme und Brennstofftechnik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig (Germany). (Author)

  15. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  16. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  17. 21 CFR 866.4500 - Immunoelectrophoresis equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents... clinical use with its electrical power supply is a device used for separating protein molecules...

  18. Use of the theory of recognition of patterns in developing methane metering equipment for blow-out-dangerous mines. [Instrument recognizes rate of change of methane concentration and, if dangerous, shuts off electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, V N

    1978-01-01

    In the most general form, the existing methane-metering equipment which issues command signals when the maximum permissible value of methane concentration has been reached can be viewed as a recognition system. The algorithm for operation on the principle of evaluating the degree of blow-out danger of the ore atmosphere stipulates the recognition of two situations: 1) ''not dangerous ''(methane concentration below maximum permissible value); 2) ''dangerous'' (disorders in technological process; methane concentration above maximum permissible value). This approach for constructing means for gas protection is optimal only for mines working beds which are not dangerous for sudden blow-outs. However, if we ''train'' the apparatus to recognize what was the reason for increase in methane concentration, ways are afforded for solving the problem of creating an effective methane-metering equipment for mines with sudden blow-outs. Gas-dynamic processes with sudden blow-outs can be distinguished from standard technological, in particular, according to the rate in increase in methane concentration. On this basis, functional plan is proposed for constructing the automatic gas protection for explosiondangerous mines which includes a primary measurement of methane concentration, block of concentration control, block of process recognition, block of command signals, block of information delay, block of measuring the rate of methane concentration, threshold device for the rate of increase in concentration.

  19. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (data for figures and tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data used in the manuscript's tables and figures. Most data represent the modeled optimal capacity of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels-and-electricity (CBTLE)...

  20. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  1. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J I; Morillon Galvez, D [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  2. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  3. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  4. Fault detection in the electrical equipment of the artificial system, used for the oil production in marine platforms; Deteccion de fallas en los equipos electricos del sistema artificial, utilizado para la produccion de petroleo en plataformas marinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas H, Vicente; Rosales S, Inocente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Pimentel M, Jorge [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    At present, PEMEX is using new artificial pumping systems for the production of oil, specifically the Electro Centrifugal Pumping system (ECP). Nevertheless, during the operation of the (ECP) system problems by the failure of their electrical components have appeared, mainly of the equipment installed within the well. The faults have resulted in an increased cost for the diminution in the production and the maintenance cost of the remedial work. The maintenance personnel have procedures to perform verification tests of the conditions of the bottom electrical equipment. But, in the case of an electrical failure of the equipment, its location cannot be determined, since they are installed at 3,600 m from the production wellhead. In accordance with the former, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas proposed the application of the reflectometry technique in the time domain, to complement the maintenance procedures. This technique is a very useful diagnosis tool of the electrical equipment, which helps in the decision making of the maneuvers of preventive and corrective maintenance to be followed, with the consequent saving of resources. [Spanish] Actualmente, PEMEX esta utilizando nuevos sistemas artificiales de bombeo para la produccion de petroleo, en especifico el Sistema de Bombeo Electrocentrifugo (BEC). Sin embargo, durante la operacion del Sistema BEC se han presentado problemas por la falla de sus componentes electricos, sobre todo del equipo instalado dentro del pozo. Las fallas han resultado con un costo elevado por la disminucion en la produccion y por los trabajos de mantenimiento correctivo. El personal de mantenimiento cuenta con procedimientos para realizar pruebas de verificacion del estado de los equipos electricos de fondo. Pero, en el caso de una falla electrica de los equipos, no se puede determinar su ubicacion, dado que se instalan a 3,600 m del cabezal del pozo de produccion. De acuerdo con lo anterior, el Instituto de Investigaciones

  5. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-intensity discharge lamps, distribution transformers, and small electric motors as covered equipment. (42 U... following: Electric motors and pumps; commercial HVAC and water heating equipment (small, large, and very... prescribed for certain types of covered equipment. Specific requirements are established for electric motors...

  6. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  7. Economies of scale versus economies of density in the electricity distribution. A quantitative analysis; Economie di scala versus economie di densita' nella distribuzione elettrica. Un'analisi quantitativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the costs of the electricity distribution in Italy. The case examined (Enel's distribution activity) is particularly interesting. In fact the specific organization of Enel allows to separate the effects of firm scale from the influence of the customers territorial concentration (territorial density). On this subject, the results of the econometric analysis shows that density economics are more important than scale economics. [Italian] L'obiettivo di questo articolo e' analizzare i costi nell'attivita' di distribuzione elettrica in Italia. Il caso esaminato, la distribuzione dell'Enel, e' a questo proposito particolarmente interessante, grazie alla specifica organizzazione dell'Enel che prevede la presenza di centri di gestione gerarchicamente separati. E' stato cosi' possibile distinguere nettamente fra effetti dovuti alla scala produttiva ed effetti connessi alla concentrazione territoriale dell'utenza (effetti di densita'). Il modello econometrico costruito sui dati dell'Enel ha, al riguardo, permesso di verificare che le economie di densita' sono piu' importanti di quelle di scala.

  8. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma. Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  9. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  10. Analisis Kinerja Local Area Network Menggunakan Router.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Yosua

    2012-01-01

    Perangkat internetworking menawarkan komunikasi di antara segmen Local Area Network (LAN). Ada empat tipe utama perangkat internetworking ini: repeater, bridge, router, dan gateway. Perangkat ini dibedakan atas dasar system lapisan Open System Interconnection (OSI) yang digunakan, berfungsi sebagai media komunikasi dari LAN ke LAN. Pada Tugas Akhir ini penulis tertarik untuk membahas analisis kinerja Local Area Network (LAN) menggunakan Router yang menggunakan sistem antrian M/M/1 dimana j...

  11. Research on Control Strategies of an Open-End Winding Permanent Magnet Synchronous Driving Motor (OW-PMSM-Equipped Dual Inverter with a Switchable Winding Mode for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has a larger range of speed regulation than normal PMSM with the same DC voltage, and the control method is more flexible. It can also manage energy distribution between two power sources without a DC/DC converter. This paper aims at an electric vehicle equipped with OW-PMSM drive system with dual power sources and dual inverters; based on analyzing the external characteristics of each winding mode, we propose a winding mode switching strategy whose torque saturation judgmental algorithm, which is insensitive to motor’s parameters, could automatically realize upswitching of the winding mode. The proposed multi-level current hysteresis modulation algorithm could set the major power source and switch it at any time in independent mode, which accomplishes energy distribution between two power sources; its two control methods, low switching frequency method and high power difference method, could achieve different energy distribution effects. Simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the winding mode switching strategy and current modulation method. They also show that an electric vehicle under the proposed control methods has better efficiency than one equipped with a traditional OW-PMSM drive system under traditional control.

  12. Measures for theoperation and maintenance of wind turbine generatorsin wind farm electrical equipment%对于风电场电气设备中风力发电机的运行维护的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鲁川

    2016-01-01

    wind power generator is mechanical and electrical equipment, mechanical energy and electric energy can be transformed into each other between the wind farm wind power generator is very important equipment in the process of long-term use of wind power generator is prone to various problems, which must strengthen the processing of all kinds of fault, improve the efficiency of wind power generator. In this paper, the wind turbine operation and maintenance of the relevant strategies are analyzed and discussed.%风力发电机是实现风能、机械能与电能之间相互转化的机电设备,在风电场中风力发电机是十分重要的设备,长期使用过程中风力发电机很容易出现各种故障问题,对此必须要加强对各种故障的处理,提高风力发电机的运行效率.本文对风力发电机运行维护的相关策略进行分析和探讨.

  13. Fire prevention and protection for trackless equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    With the increased use of trackless diesel and electrical equipment underground, the fire danger associated with this equipment has increased. The need for adequate fire prevention and protection on all aspects of trackless mechanised mining must be taken into consideration. This paper describes briefly the causes of fires on trackless equipment and the precautions taken to reduce the risk of ignition. 1 tab.

  14. Potentiality Studies of Stainless Steel 304 Material for Production of Medical Equipment using Micro Electrical Discharge Machining (micro-EDM) Analysis and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    Stainless steel 304 (SS304) is a material widely used for production of medical equipment mainly because of its anti-corrosive properties. It has excellent mechanical properties, strength and reliability because of which it is one of the best materials for fabrication of medical devices. This paper...... and process parameters were developed. Grey relational analysis was used to optimize the micro-EDM quality characteristics, and the highest grey relational grade (GRG) of 0.8021 was obtained at a voltage of 100 V and a capacitance of 0.4 μF....

  15. Equipment repair in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S

    1982-01-01

    Most equipment in Chinese coal mines consists of machinery and equipment produced in the 1950s; the efficiency of 4-62, CTD-57 and 70B/sub 2/ ventilators is 15% lower than that of new ones; that of SSM and AYaP pumps, 10% lower than of modern ones. Equipment renovation is done in three ways: replacing obsolete equipment with new equipment of the same type; improving the performance of existing equipment by introducing efficiency and reconstruction; and replacing obsolete equipment with advanced equipment. It is indicated that the second way, for example, replacement of 4-62 ventilator blades with a maximum efficiency of 73% by 4-72 ventilator blades raises its efficiency to 90%. Replacing the 8DA-8x3 water pump, having a maximum efficiency of 63%, with the 200D 43x3 pump with a maximum efficiency of 78%, enables an electricity savings of 7000 yuan per year, which exceeds all replacement costs (600 yuan). The need to improve equipment maintenance and preventive work to increase equipment service life and to introduce new techniques and efficiency is noted.

  16. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  17. 46 CFR 111.50-1 - Protection of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... electric equipment must meet the following listed subparts of this chapter: (a) Appliances, Subpart 111.77...) Transformers, Subpart 111.20. ...

  18. Remotely operated replaceable process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-01

    The coupling process of pneumatic and electrical auxiliary lines of a pneumatic control pressure line in a large cell of the reprocessing plant is carried out, together with the coupling process of the connecting flange of the process equipment. The coupling places of the auxiliary lines, such as control or supply lines, are laid in the flange parts of the flanges to be connected. The pipe flange on the frame side remains flush with the connecting flange of the process equipment. (DG) [de

  19. Measurement of kVp, PPV and air kerma values in function of the electric current quantity and the focus-detector distance in one X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, Rodrigo F. de; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the X-ray equipment Pantak/Seifert, model MXR-160/22 of the calibration laboratory of IPEN, LCI, operating in the diagnostic radiology radiation quality RQR 5 (70 kV). For this evaluation it was used a noninvasive meter PTW, Diavolt TM model. The measurements of kVp, PPV and Dose (air kerma), were made varying the electric current and distance between the focal point and the meter. This behavior is described in the literature and was expected in the analysis of the measurements for comparison purposes. For the tests where it was only increased the electric current it was waited a linear increase of the dose (air kerma), but not a variation in the kVp and PPV. The measurements had corresponded to the waited behavior, since the Dose (air kerma) measurements presented a linear increase with the increase of the electric current and the kVp and PPV values showed a variation less than 2%. In the corresponding measurements increasing the distance between focal point and meter, it was waited the exponentially decreasing of the Dose (air kerma) and again a small variation or no variation of the PPV and kVP with the increase of the distance. Over again the measurements corresponded to the expected, where the Dose (air kerma) decreased exponentially and the PPV and the kVp had a variation less than 1.5%. (author)

  20. A hybrid approach based on ANP, ELECTRE and SIMANP metaheuristic method for outsourcing manufacturing procedures according to supply chain risks - Case study: A medical equipment manufacturer company in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprises should consider seeking to reduce the supply chain risks as a crucial part of their activities in order to improve their competitiveness in the international context. Choosing the suitable strategy in connection with assigning some parts of the production process to outside the organization is a complex multi-criteria decision making problem and it gets more complicated when supply chain risk factors as the factors to select the strategy as well as dependence and the close ties between these criteria also be considered. In this paper, after the identification of risks in the supply chain of a medical equipment manufacturer company, dependence and ties between criteria in line with choosing the best strategy among existing alternatives has been examined in the form of a combined ANP-ELECTRE method. This combined model is of high performance to give a solution to the problem considered in this paper. But given the complex and time consuming nature of the AHP and ELECTRE, in this study a meta-heuristic algorithm is developed called SIMANP that despite the simplicity of computing and high-speed, is good in the terms of precision and efficiency. The results of comparing SIMANP algorithm and the proposed ANP - ELECTRE method are presented at the end.

  1. Methodology of assessment of the impact on the risk of changes in peak times of unavailability of safety equipment integrating treatment and analysis of uncertainties; Metodologia de evaluacion del impacto en el riesgo de cambios en tiempos maximos de indisponibilidad de equipos de seguridad integrando tratamiento y analisis de incertidumbres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Marton, I.; Villanueva, J. f.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    Surveillance of safety equipment requirements form parts of the technical specifications of Performance included in the bases of operation of nuclear power plants license, so they are center of attention in the study of improvements to the safety of the operation of the plant using different methods, both traditional deterministic as probabilistic.

  2. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  3. Analysis of the models of the metal oxide lightning; Analisis de los modelos de apartarrayos de oxidos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel Hernandez, Alberto

    1999-12-01

    A criterion to judge the reliability of an electrical power system, is the frequency and duration of the interruption of the electrical energy supply to the consumers. Due to the importance of maintaining the continuity of the electrical energy supply, is necessary to study the protection devices against overvoltage, since in adverse meteorological conditions, as well as in configuration change in the network conditions, there can be presented overvoltage that can damage to the electrical equipment of the power system. The surge arresters are devices which function is to protect equipment of an electrical power system against overvoltage by means of energy absorption through grounding system. In the protection of Electrical Power Systems (EPS) against overvoltage surge arrester of silicon carbide were usually employed, offering a small margin of protection. In the last years, new technologies that have revolutionized the isolation coordination have been development. An example of these technologies is the application of the metal oxide surge arrester (MOSA), which increase the margin of protection considerably. In this work, the limitations and real potentials of the existing models of metal oxide surge arrester (ZnO) are evaluated as well as the proposed model, with the great help of the digital simulations in the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP), when the surge arresters are subject to transient by switching as well as to transients due to atmospherical discharges. All the simulations of this work were accomplished with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP), that is a widely used tool and recommended for the analysis of electromagnetic transient events. The modeling of the metal oxide surge arresters in the EMTP is complicated because the non-linear behavior of their elements and is required a great precision and care to implement them into the program. A test model was also proposed for the simulation with this scientific software. [Spanish] Un

  4. ANALISIS PERIKANAN HUHATE DI PERAIRAN LARANTUKA, FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adha Akbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Informasi mengenai beberapa aspek perikanan huhate sangat diperlukan sebagai bahan untuk perencanaan pengelolaan perikanan yang berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Larantuka, Flores Timur pada tahun 2014 dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis perikanan huhate sebagai salah satu tulang punggung perikanan TCT. Kegiatan penelitian diprioritaskan pada analisis unit alat tangkap, daerah penangkapan, komposisi hasil tangkapan dan estimasi Total Faktor Produktivitas (TFP perikanan huhate. Basis data pengukuran adalah himpunan  data pendaratan dan observasi lapang. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik armada terdiri dari kapal yang terbuat dari fibreglass dengan kisaran bobot kapal 6 - 30 GT. Daerah penangkapan di sekitar perairan Laut Sawu dan Laut Flores. Hasil tangkapan utama didominansi oleh cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis sebanyak 82%, juwana tuna (Thunnus spp. 17% dan tongkol (Auxis spp. 1% serta hasil tangkapan ikutan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus dan marlin (Makaira spp. < 1%. Hasil analisis tangkapan per unit upaya (CPUE memberikan nilai rata-rata sebesar 1,1 ton/trip (0,4-1,7 ton/trip dengan nilai tertinggi terjadi pada Februari, sedangkan terendah terjadi pada Januari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara tren bulanan CPUE dan nilai TFP.

  5. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN PERMUKIMAN DI KABUPATEN SOPPENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrani Rauf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengelolaan lingkungan permukiman di Kabupaten Soppeng pada aspek: (1 penyediaan dan penanganan lahan terbuka hijau (open space; (2 penyediaan dan penanganan drainase; (3  penanganan sampah; (4 penyediaan dan penanganan pembuangan veses (septic tank. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif dengan pendekatan survei.  Sampel wailayah penelitian ini adalah satu RW di ibu kota kabupaten dan satu RW di desa yang dipilih dengan metode purpossive sampling,  yaitu RW yang sudah maju di ibu kota kabupaten dan RW yang tertinggal di desa. Responden sebanyak 50 kepala keluarga yakni masing-masing 25 kepala keuarga di setiap RW, dipilih dengan  systematic random sampling.  Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan adalah melakukan observasi langsung dan dilengkapi dengan wawancara terhadap responden. Analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengelolaan lingkungan permukiman di Kabupaten Soppeng pada aspek: (1 ketersediaan dan penanganan lahan terbuka hijau (open space ditemukan belum memadai; (2 ketersediaan drainase (air kotor dan air hujan ditemukan belum memadai; (3 Penanganan sampahbelum memadai; dan (4 penanganan veses dan penyediaan septic tankbelum memadai.

  6. Pengaruh Advance Organizer Berbasis Proyek Terhadap Kemampuan Analisis – Sintesis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasiwan -

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pengatur kemajuan (advance organizer berbasis proyek terhadap kemampuan analisis – sintesis siswa pada konsep Energi. Sebelum pembelajaran, diberikan tugas proyek pada siswa untuk merealisasikan bel listrik sederhana, rangkaian arus seri - paralel, dan tuas. Produk proyek digunakan sebagai advance organizer dalam pembelajaran di kelas. Penguatan kognitif dilakukan melalui diskusi kelompok dan pembuatan peta konsep, ekspositori guru di kelas, dan kegiatan eksperimen laboratorium. Data diambil melalui pretest, post test, observasi partisipatif pembelajaran oleh dua orang observer, penilaian produk, peta konsep dan laporan kegiatan eksperimen. Teknik analisis data meliputi uji prasyarat data dan uji hipotesis Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa mengalami peningkatan kemampuan analisis – sintesis dalam aspek menguraikan, mengkategorikan, mengidentifikasi, merumuskan pernyataan, merekonstruksi, menentukan konsep, dan menganalisis konsep dengan rata – rata peningkatan delta skor sebesar 54,46 %, uji t sebesar 6,4, dan skala gain sebesar 0,3. This study was conducted to determine the effect of project-based advance organizer model on student’s analysis - synthesis ability of the energy concept. Students were given an assignment to realize the project on simple electric bell, the series – parallel circuit, and lever, before learning. The products of project were used as an advanced organizer in the learning activity. Cognitive strengthening was done through group discussions and concept mapping, expository learning in the classroom, and laboratory experiments activities. The data were taken through a pretest, post-test, participant observation study by two observers, product assessment, concept maps and report of experiment activities. Results showed that the students’ analysis - synthesis ability increased in the aspect of describing, categorizing, identifying, statement

  7. Emission of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in use of electric/electronic equipment and recycling of e-waste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-02-01

    The emission rates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from electric/electronic products during their use and disposal were estimated. E-wastes, including televisions and refrigerators, gathered at recycling centers were also analyzed to estimate their emissions. The average concentrations of PBDEs in TV rear covers produced before and after the year 2000 were 145,027 mg/kg and 14,049 mg/kg, respectively. The PBDEs concentration in TV front covers was lower than the concentration in TV rear covers. The concentration in the components of the refrigerator samples ranged from ND to 445 mg/kg. We estimated the atmospheric emissions of PBDEs based on the concentrations. The annual emissions from TV rear covers produced before 2000 were calculated to be approximately 162.1 kg and after 2000, the annual emissions were 18.7 kg. Refrigerators showed the lowest annual emissions of PBDEs (0.7 kg). The atmospheric concentrations were also measured to calculate emissions generated during the recycling process. The highest concentration was 16.86 ng/m(3) emitted from the TV sets during the dismantling process. The concentrations of PBDEs generated in the plastic processing field ranged from 2.05 to 5.43 ng/m(3) depending on the products, and ambient air in open-air yards showed concentrations in the range of 0.32 to 5.55 ng/m(3). Emission factors for the recycling process were calculated using the observed concentrations. The estimated emissions according to the emission factors ranged from 0.3×10(-1) to 90.3 kg/year for open-air yards and from 0.1×10(-1) to 292.7 kg/year for the dismantling and crushing processes of TV set, depending on the production year. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  9. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  10. IDENTIFIKASI MISKONSEPSI SISWA SMP PADA KONSEP FOTOSINTESIS MELALUI ANALISIS GAMBAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ariandini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi miskonsepsi siswa dengan analisis menggambar. Tiga puluh empat siswa di kelas 8 di sekolah menengah pertama digunakan sebagai subyek dalam penelitian ini. Teknik sampel menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Data yang diperlukan untuk penelitian ini dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner, menggambar analisis rubrik, dan wawancara. Identifikasi Kesalahpahaman ditentukan dengan menggambar siswa berdasarkan menggambar kriteria klasifikasi oleh Kose (2008. Siswa diperintahkan untuk menarik tentang konsep fotosintesis setelah proses pembelajaran. Gambar siswa dianalisis dengan rubrik dan setelah itu mereka diwawancarai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua tingkat kriteria menggambar dari tingkat 1 sampai 5 diidentifikasi. Dari hasil analisa, gambar paling banyak ditemukan adalah pada tingkat 4. Gambar pada tingkat 4 dikategorikan sebagai gambar lengkap konsep fotosintesis dan tidak ada kesalahpahaman ditemukan. Berdasarkan gambar mereka, ada siswa 2,9% diidentifikasi yang diselenggarakan kesalahpahaman. Ada perbedaan jumlah siswa yang diadakan kesalahpahaman antara gambar hasil analisis dan hasil wawancara. Dari hasil wawancara, ada siswa 35,2% dimiliki kesalahpahaman, lebih dari menggambar hasil analisis. Ini berarti bahwa identifikasi kesalahpahaman melalui analisis gambar tidak efektif. Kesalahpahaman siswa yang paling sering terjadi pada konsep fotosintesis adalah tempat berlangsungnya fotosintesis. Faktor yang membuat kesalahpahaman siswa yaitu karena siswa itu sendiri dan lingkungannya. Kata Kunci: fotosintesis, kesalahpahaman, konsep, menggambar analisis

  11. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  12. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  13. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  14. Analisis Tingkat Kepentingan Dan Kinerja Layanan Automated Teller Machine (Atm) Bank Mandiri

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Lenny; Sugiharto, Toto

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menganalisis tingkat kepentingan dan kinerja layananATM Bank Mandiri. Analisis Servqual yang terdiri atas dimensi tangible, realibility,responsiveness, assurance,dan empathy digunakan untuk menganalisis kinerjalayanan ATM. Sementara itu, Customer Satisfaction Index dan ImportancePerformance Analysis yang terdiri atas analisis kuadran dan analisis kesenjangandigunakan untuk menginvestigasi kepuasan pelanggan dan untuk mengidentifikasikandimensi layanan yang kiner...

  15. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  16. Equipment acquisition plans for the SSCL magnet excitation power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winje, R.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives a brief description of the major electrical technical equipment used in the Superconducting Super Collider accelerators systems and the present laboratory plans for the acquisition of the equipment

  17. Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle; Analisi ambientale del ciclo di vita del gas naturale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, A.; D' Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C. [Snam SpA, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account. [Italian] L'analisi del ciclo di vita e' una metodologia che consente di identificare gli effetti ambientali associati ad un prodotto, processo o attivita' lungo il loro ciclo di vita. La valutazione di studi pubblicati e l'applicazione della metodologia alla produzione di energia elettrica da combustibili fossili, utilizzando dati provenienti da banche dati di letteratura e raccolti dall'industria del gas, dimostrano l'importanza e la difficolta' di avere a disposizione dati affidabili ed aggiornati, necessari per un'analisi significativa del ciclo di vita. I risultati mostrano che i vantaggi ambientali del gas naturale rispetto agli altri combustibili fossili nella fase di utilizzo finale, aumentano ulteriormente se si considera l'intero ciclo di vita dei diversi combustibili, dalla produzione al consumo finale.

  18. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  19. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Enhancement of equipment services for Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion After 5 years of maintenance services, KNPP and AREVA have continuously intensified their partnership Close cooperation between KNPP, AREVA Local Office Engineers and OEM experts Involvement of sophisticated tools for diagnostics and condition monitoring Performance of engineering services and obsolescence evaluation Possibilities to perform equipment modernization of Electrical and IC equipment in future

  1. ANALISIS VARIABEL KEUANGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEBIJAKAN DEVIDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiadji -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh variabel keuangan yang terdiri dari: rasio pro-fitabilitas (return on assets, likuiditas (cash ratio, rasio hutang (debt to equity ratio, market value (earnings per share, dan perputaran total aset (total assets turnover terhadap kebijakan dividen yang diproksikan dengan dividend payout ratio (DPR pada perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia tahun 2004-2008. Prosedur pemilihan sampel penelitian menggunakan purposive sampling sehingga menghasilkan 8 perusahaan yang memenuhi kriteria sampel. Data sekunder dikumpulkan dengan teknik dokumentasi bersumber dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD, laporan keuangan, dan hasil Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS. Teknik analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian ini adalah secara simultan variabel ROA, CR, DER, EPS dan TATO berpengaruh terhadap DPR. Secara parsial variabel yang mempengaruhi DPR adalah CR, EPS dan TATO. Varabel lainnya, yaitu ROA dan DER ditemukan tidak berpengaruh terhadap DPR. This research was conducted to examine the influence of the financial variables which consists of: return on assets (ROA, cash ratio (CR, debt to equity ratio (DER, earnings per share (EPS, and total asset turnover (TATO to the dividend policy that indicated by the dividend payout ratio (DPR of listed manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange  2004 to 2008. The sample selection procedure used was a purposive sampling so that it produced eight companies that met the sample criteria. Se-condary data was collected by the documentation technique were obtained from the Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD, financial statements, and the results of the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. The analysis technique used was multiple linear regression analysis. The research found that five variables of kind of ROA, CR, DER, EPS dan TATO simultaneously influence to dividend

  2. Towards a generic procedure for the detection of relevant contaminants from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) in plastic food-contact materials: a review and selection of key parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Vilímková, Věra; Kopečková, Šárka; Ratiborská, Andrea; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus; Oppermann, Uwe

    2017-10-01

    Recently, traces of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been detected in black plastic food-contact materials (FCMs), indicating the presence of recycled plastics, mainly coming from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) as BFRs are one of the main additives in electric applications. In order to evaluate efficiently and preliminary in situ the presence of WEEE in plastic FCMs, a generic procedure for the evaluation of WEEE presence in plastic FCMs by using defined parameters having each an associated importance level has been proposed. This can be achieved by combining parameters like overall bromine (Br) and antimony (Sb) content; additive and reactive BFR, rare earth element (REE) and WEEE-relevant elemental content and additionally polymer purity. In most of the cases, the WEEE contamination could be confirmed by combining X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and thermal desorption/pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at first. The Sb and REE content did not give a full confirmation as to the source of contamination, however for Sb the opposite counts: Sb was joined with elevated Br signals. Therefore, Br at first followed by Sb were used as WEEE precursors as both elements are used as synergetic flame-retardant systems. WEEE-specific REEs could be used for small WEEE (sWEEE) confirmation; however, this parameter should be interpreted with care. The polymer purity by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and pyrolysis GC-MS in many cases could not confirm WEEE-specific contamination; however, it can be used for purity measurements and for the suspicion of the usage of recycled fractions (WEEE and non-WEEE) as a third-line confirmation. To the best of our knowledge, the addition of WEEE waste to plastic FCMs is illegal; however, due to lack on screening mechanisms, there is still the breakthrough of such articles onto the market, and, therefore, our generic procedure enables the quick and effective screening of suspicious

  3. The development of superconducting equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Hiue, H

    2003-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)

  4. Analisis Kesesuaian Kursi Pembatik Terhadap Kondisi Antropometri Pekerja Batik Tulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Setiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKSejak diakuinya Batik sebagai warisan budaya tak benda oleh UNESCO, perkembangan industri batik mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan pasar. Pada saat ini peralatan utama untuk membatik (kursi, gawangan, canting, kompor, meja cap, canting cap, wajan cap, dan lain-lain masih menggunakan peralatan batik yang lama, yang belum diteliti mengenai usability dan safety-nya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji ukuran kursi dan gawangan pembatikan yang beredar di pasaran apakah telah sesuai dengan kebutuhan pembatik dan sesuai dengan konsep ergonomi. Pengumpulan data kursi dan gawangan dari berbagai tempat industri batik. Data yang diperlukan diwakili oleh N = 30 buah. Data-data ini kemudian dilakukan analisis statistik dengan metode histogram. Penggunaan kursi pembatikan di industri batik masih sangat jauh dari kondisi ideal (minimum tinggi 370 mm, lebar 380 mm dan kedalaman 380 mm. Ukuran tinggi kursi pembatik yang ada, rata-rata hanya berketinggian alas duduk 263,7 mm, lebar alas duduk 353 mm, kedalaman alas duduk 305 mm, dan tanpa menggunakan sandaran punggung.Kata kunci: kursi pembatikan, ergonomi, antropometriABSTRACTSince the approval of batik as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO, the improvement of batik industry have evolved along with the increase in market demand. At this time the main equipment for batik processes are still using the old batik equipment that has not been studied regarding its usability and safety. The purpose of this study was to assess the size of the seat and gawangan batik on the market whether in accordance with the requirements in accordance with the concept of batik and ergonomics. The data collected from several places batik industry. The data required to make is represented by N = 30 pieces. These data are then performed statistical analysis with the histogram method. The use of seat batik batik industry is still very far from ideal conditions. The size of the existing

  5. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  6. ANALISIS VARIABILITAS CURAH HUJAN DAN SUHU DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogi Setiawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan yang terdiri dari pulau-pulau besar dan kecil menjadi sangat rentan terhadap dampak perubahan iklim. Salah satu pulau yang juga rentan terhadap perubahan iklim adalah pulau Bali. Dampak potensial adanya perubahan iklim adalah perubahan pola hujan, peningkatan suhuudaradankenaikanpermukaanlaut. Sektoryangakanmenerimadampakperubahaniklimdengan serius adalah sektor kehutanan dan pertanian. Untuk mendukung upaya mitigasi dan adaptasi maka diperlukan informasi perubahan iklim yang terjadi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variabilitas iklim di Bali. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis kecenderungan curah hujan, analisis perubahan suhu udara, analisis perubahan tipe iklim dan analisis pergeseran bulan basah, lembab dan kering. Data hujan yang digunakan adalah data hujan dari GPCC (1961-1998 dan BMKG Bali (19992008, sedangkan data suhu berasal dari BMKG Bali (2004-2008. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa di pulau Bali secara umum sudah mengalami perubahan iklim. Tipe iklim berdasarkan Schmidt-Ferguson mengalami perubahan dari relatif basah menjadi agak kering. Suhu udara rata-rata bulanan serta curah hujan bulanan dan tahunan memiliki kecenderungan yang semakin meningkat. Bulan basah dan bulan kering telah mengalami pergeseran dan perubahan jumlahnya. Dampak perubahan iklim terhadap ekosistem hutan di Bali belum diketahui dengan pasti, namun terdapat beberapa implikasi perubahan iklim terhadap sektor kehutanan diantaranya kebakaran hutan dan perubahan jadwal penanaman.

  7. Electric equipment technical regulation on a relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It is about a relay for power protection. It describes the definitions of structure, a point of contact protection of contact, reclosing, relay scheme and input circuit. It explains normal use condition, special use condition, rated frequency, rated voltage and rated current, fluctuation range of permission of incoming relay. It deals with general structing outer case, correction device, operation indicator and outer terminal condition sort and method of the test. It adds the marks and pictures about currents

  8. Lightning effects on electrical and nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives the physical bases on which lightning protection of buildings and other erections such as nuclear power stations depend. To this end it first examines the impact phenomena of lightning, the operating systems of lightning conductors and methods of protection using metal mesh. It then describes various secondary effects of lightning, particularly those which occur inside buildings as a result of the potential rise in earthing systems and electromagnetic induction phenomena. 18 refs [fr

  9. Rational use of energy in air conditioning equipment, through an appropriate selection of the main equipment; Uso racional de la energia en equipos de aire acondicionado, mediante la eleccion apropiada del equipo principal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Zuniga, Jose de Jesus; Herrera Ramos, Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis to diminish the consumption of energy in central air conditioning equipment through an appropriate selection of the equipment. The analysis shows the levels of security and toxicity of the refrigerant, the operational, constructive and economic advantages of the equipment, taking as reference the cooling demand and expenses of energy consumption, as well as the ecological impact derived from the use of the refrigerant. Finally, an economic analysis is presented, involving the expenses of the equipment, operation, maintenance, costs of the consumption of used fluids, et cetera. [Spanish] Uso racional de la energia en equipos de aire acondicionado, mediante la eleccion apropiada del equipo principal. Este trabajo presenta un analisis para disminuir el consumo de energia en los equipos centrales de aire acondicionado mediante la seleccion apropiada del equipo. El analisis muestra los niveles de seguridad y toxicidad del refrigerante, las ventajas operativas, constructivas y economicas del equipo, tomando como referencia la demanda de enfriamiento y gastos de consumo de energia, asi como el impacto ecologico derivado de su empleo del refrigerante. Finalmente, se presenta un analisis economico, involucrando los gastos del equipo, operacion, mantenimiento, costos de consumos de fluidos utilizados, etcetera.

  10. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  11. Equipment qualification research program: program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Smith, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed this program plan for research in equipment qualification (EQA). In this report the research program which will be executed in accordance with this plan will be referred to as the Equipment Qualification Research Program (EQRP). Covered are electrical and mechanical equipment under the conditions described in the OBJECTIVE section of this report. The EQRP has two phases; Phase I is primarily to produce early results and to develop information for Phase II. Phase I will last 18 months and consists of six projects. The first project is program management. The second project is responsible for in-depth evaluation and review of EQ issues and EQ processes. The third project is responsible for detailed planning to initiate Phase II. The remaining three projects address specific equipment; i.e., valves, electrical equipment, and a pump

  12. ANALISIS SPASIAL KEJADIAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE BERDASARKAN KEPADATAN PENDUDUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agcrista Permata Kusuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Puskesmas Kedungmundu merupakan wilayah endemis DBD dengan kasus yang tinggi. Diperlukan upaya dalam menentukan kebijakan strategi pengendalian vektor secara efektif dan efisien. Analisis spasial dalam SIG dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui pola penyebaran dan daerah potensi penularan DBD. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif analitik menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan sampel wilayah memperhatikan proporsi sampel dengan jumlah sampel 146 responden. Pengambilan titik koordinat menggunakan GPS. Analisis data menggunakan analisis univariat dan analisis spasial. Hasil perhitungan statistik spasial ANN diperoleh nilai Z-score = -11,054 terdapat pola spasial kasus DBD di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kedungmundu. Nilai ANN = 0,52 < 1, artinya pola penyebaran kejadian DBD yang terjadi adalah berkerumun. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini sebaran kasus DBD memiliki keterkaitan secara spasial dengan kepadatan penduduk. Abstract Kedungmundu PHC is an endemich region with a high case. Be required to determine policy of vector control strategies effectively and efficiently. Spatial analsys in GIS can be used to determine the pattern of distribution and areas of DHF potential transmission. The type this research was analysis descriptive with cross sectional approach. The sampling technique used a sample area of attention to the proportion of the sample with 146 respondents of total sample. Capturing the coordinates used GPS. Data analisys used univariat and spatial analisys. Result of ANN obtained a Z-score= -11,054, there was a spatial pattern of dengue cases in Kedungmundu PHC. ANN value = 0,52 < 1, it meant that the pattern of DHF distribution was clustered. The conclution of this research was DHF distribution cases has spatial correlation with density population.

  13. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  14. Analisis Kelayakan Finansial Usaha Budidaya Bambu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnul Khotimah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya bambu diperlukan untuk menambah populasi bambu yang cenderung berkurang yang disebabkan oleh beralihnya fungsi lahan yang digunakan untuk pemukiman atau diganti dengan komoditi tanaman lain yang dianggap lebih menguntungkan. Sementara itu kebutuhan bahan baku bambu terus meningkat sejalan dengan pertumbuhan penduduk dan perkembangan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan. Budidaya bambu bermanfaat selain untuk menjaga ketersediaan suplai juga untuk meningkatkan kualitas bambu untuk memenuhi permintaan pasar. Tulisan ini mengkaji analisis finansial dari penanaman bambu. Kajian finansial dibutuhkan untuk menunjukkan bahwa upaya penanaman atau budidaya bambu ini layak atau tidak secara finansial untuk dilakukan. Data yang digunakan adalah data hasil penelitian di perusahaan perkebunan bambu PT XYZ di Lampung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai NPV (Rp 36.644.364,08 lebih besar dari nol, Net B/C (2,56 lebih besar dari satu, IRR (11 % lebih besar dari suku bunga 6 %, serta payback period pada tahun ke-9 umur proyek 15 tahun. Berdasarkan kriteria indikator kelayakan finansial dapat disimpulkan bahwa usaha budidaya bambu layak secara finansial untuk diusahakan. Katakunci: Hasil Hutan Bukan Kayu (HHBK, budidaya bambu, studi kelayakan, analisis finansial   Financial analysis and feasibity study of bamboo cultivation  Abstract Bamboo cultivation is necessary to increase the population of bamboo clumps. The bamboo clumps tend to decrease due to the shift of used lands for residential or replaced by other crop comodities, which are considered more profitable. On the other hand, the need of bamboo for raw materials remain increase in line with population growth and the development of science. The important of the bamboo cultivation are to maintain the availability of its supply and to improve the quality of bamboo, which meet the market demands. This paper examined financial analysis of bamboo cultivation. Financial study was necessary to show whether

  15. Development of superconducting equipment for fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Masayuki; Ueda, Toshio; Hiue, Hisaaki; Ohgushi, Kouzou

    1993-01-01

    At Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., the development of superconductivity was started from 1960, and superconducting equipment for fusion device has been developed for ten years. The superconducting equipment, which is developed for fusion by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., are able to be grouped in three categories which are current lead, superconducting coil and superconducting bus-line. The current lead is an electrical feeder between a superconducting coil and an electrical power supply. The rated current of developed current lead is 30kA at continuous use and 100kA at short time use respectively. The advanced disk type coil is developed for the toroidal field coil and some coils are developed for critical current measurement. Superconductor is applied to the superconducting bus-line between the superconducting coils and the current leads, and the bus-line is being developed for the Large Helical Device. This report describes an abstract of these equipment. (author)

  16. Analisis Korelasi Kanonik Hubungan Perilaku Pemimpin dan Motivasi Kerja Karyawan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Made Srinadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas pemimpin merupakan penentu keberhasilan organisasi yang dipimpin. Hubungan antara pemimpin dengan karyawannya merupakan hubungan saling ketergantungan yang umumnya tidak seimbang. Dalam proses interaksi yang terjadi antara pemimpin dan karyawan, berlangsung proses saling memengaruhi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari hubungan perilaku pemimpin terhadap motivasi kerja karyawan dengan menggunakan analisis korelasi kanonik. Pengujian dengan menggunakan analisis korelasi kanonik menunjukkan bahwa perilaku pemimpin dengan motivasi karyawan memiliki keeratan hubungan dengan nilai korelasi kanonik sebesar 0,9058533. Faktor perilaku pemimpin yang paling tinggi berkorelasi dengan motivasi kerja karyawan di McDonald’s Kuta Beach adalah faktor kemampuan mengarahkan dan menghadapi karyawan dengan nilai korelasi yaitu sebesar 0,7619707.

  17. Analisis Korelasi Kanonik Hubungan Perilaku Pemimpin dan Motivasi Kerja Karyawan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Made Srinadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas pemimpin merupakan penentu keberhasilan organisasi yang dipimpin. Hubungan antara pemimpin dengan karyawannya merupakan hubungan saling ketergantungan yang umumnya tidak seimbang. Dalam proses interaksi yang terjadi antara pemimpin dan karyawan, berlangsung proses saling memengaruhi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari hubungan perilaku pemimpin terhadap motivasi kerja karyawan dengan menggunakan analisis korelasi kanonik. Pengujian dengan menggunakan analisis korelasi kanonik menunjukkan bahwa perilaku pemimpin dengan motivasi karyawan memiliki keeratan hubungan dengan nilai korelasi kanonik sebesar 0,9058533. Faktor perilaku pemimpin yang paling tinggi berkorelasi dengan motivasi kerja karyawan di McDonald’s Kuta Beach adalah faktor kemampuan mengarahkan dan menghadapi karyawan dengan nilai korelasi yaitu sebesar 0,7619707.

  18. Analisis Aliran Daya Berbasis Injeksi Arus dalam Bentuk Vektor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Wira Satriawan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memaparkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membandingkan metode analisis aliran daya berbasis injeksi arus dalam bentuk vektor dengan format polar dan rektangular. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh metode analisa aliran daya dengan perhitungan yang lebih cepat dan akurat, serta iterasi yang lebih sedikit. Metode iterasi Newton Raphson diadopsi dalam penelitian ini dan bahasa pemrograman Python serta library komputasinya digunakan. Analisis terhadap karakteristik konvergensi dari kedua format dilakukan pada IEEE 14-bus Test System. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh hasil bahwa format rektangular lebih unggul dibandingkan format polar untuk kasus yang diteliti.

  19. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  20. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  1. ANALISIS FAKTOR KEHADIRAN DOSEN DI UNIVERSITAS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Mulia Rani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspek kualitas pekerjaan berkaitan langsung dengan waktu yang khusus digunakan dosen untuk mengembangkan kemampuan. Maka untuk merealisasikan kualitas dosen yang terbaik , pihak manajemen khusunya dekan membuat peraturan untuk kehadiran dosen adalah minimal 25 jam/minggu. Dengan peraturan ini diharapkan dosen dapat melaksanakan beban kerja dosen sebaik-baiknya. Peraturan ini tertulis dan tertuang pada SK Dekan No 20/2006 pada kampus X. Dengan Menggunakan Analisis faktor mencoba menemukan hubungan atar sejumlah variable-variabel yang awalnya saling independen satu dengan yang lain dimana variable penyebab kekurangan jam dosen datang/minggu adalah keluaraga, manajemen, hubungan social, fasilitas pengajaran, jarak/lokasi, kompensasi transport. Berdasarkan uji Bartley test dan Measure sample of adequate yang pertama maka dengan nilai sig 0.04 dan msa 0.540 . Dengan menggunakan metode principal component analysis maka pembentukan factor hanya ada 1 componen karena nilai eigen value yang mempunyai nilai diatas 1. Faktor pembentuk baru yaitu manajemen, kompensasi dan jarak menjadi satu component.

  2. Analisis Gameplay Game Genre Virtual Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Senoprabowo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Game adalah struktur interaktif yang membuat pemain berjuang menuju sebuah tujuan. Game dapat memberikan emosi dan mood, menghubungkan dengan orang latihan, sarana latihan, serta dapat memberikan edukasi. Salah satu game yang berkembang saat ini adalah game bergenre Virtual pet. Game virtual pet merupakan game simulasi memelihara sesuatu. Virtual pet memiliki gameplay yang menarik dan menyenangkan yang membuat pemain seolah-olah benar-benar memiliki binatang peliharaan mereka sendiri. Virtual pet dianggap oleh sebagian besar penggunanya dapat memberikan kegembiraan serta rasa kasih sayang karena tingkat interaksinya yang baik. Banyak pengembang game pemula yang mengembangkan genre ini sebagai game yang mereka buat karena kemudahaan dan tingkat penggunanya yang banyak. Akan tetapi banyak dari pengembang game pemula tidak memperhatikan tingkat keberlanjutan game virtual pet yang mereka buat sehingga membuat pemain cepat bosan. Pada penelitian ini, analisis game bergenre virtual pet yang sudah sukses dibuat seperti Zombigotchi, Tamagotchi Unicorn, dan Bird Land, diharapkan dapat membantu para pengembang game pemula agar mengetahui cara merancang dan mengembangkan game virtual pet dengan baik. Kata Kunci: game, gameplay, virtual pet

  3. ANALISIS MODEL KEPUASAN TERHADAP PEMBELIAN ULANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji pengaruh brand equity, nilai pelanggan dan lifestyle yang dimediasi kepuasan konsumen terhadap pembelian ulang produk gadget di Kota Semarang. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh konsumen yang telah melakukan pembelian produk gadget merek Samsung, sebanyak 120 orang. Teknik sampling yang digunakan yaitu purposive sampling. Teknik analisis yang digunakan yaitu Partial Least Square (PLS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh brand equity terhadap kepuasan, namun dalam konteks lifestyle dan nilai pelanggan tidak ada pengaruh terhadap kepuasan. Sedangkan kepuasan menunjukkan adanya pengaruh terhadap pembelian ulang. Diharapkan dari hasil penelitian ini mampu meningkatkan pembelian ulang melalui brand equity, lifestyle dan nilai pelanggan dalam konteks kepuasan. The objective of the research was to test the influence of brand equity, customer value and lifestyle which were mediated by consumer satisfaction toward re-purchasing of gadget products in Semarang. The respondents of the study were all consumers who have purchased Samsung gadget products. It was a purposive sampling study with 120 respondents. The data were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of the study showed that there was an influence of brand equity toward satisfaction, but in the lifestyle context and customer value did not give any influence toward satisfaction. Whereas; the satisfaction gave influence toward re-purchase. It is expected that this study can increase the repurchasethrough brand equity, lifestyle and customer values in the satisfaction context.

  4. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.306 - Specific purpose equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Cranes and hoists. This paragraph applies to the installation of electric equipment and wiring used in..., and similar events. This paragraph covers the installation of portable wiring and equipment, including... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific purpose equipment and installations. 1910.306...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a... mounting bracket or system-priming equipment. (b) Classification. (1) Class I. The device is classified as class I if it does not involve an electrical connection to the patient. The device is exempt from the...

  7. ANALISIS KONTRIBUSI PAJAK HOTEL TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH KABUPATEN NUNUKAN

    OpenAIRE

    -, MULIATI

    2014-01-01

    2014 Analisis Kontribusi Pajak Hotel terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kabupaten Nunukan Analysis of The Contributions Tax on Hotel Againts Regional Renenue Nunukan District Muliati Haerial M. Christian Mangiwa Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kontribusi pajak hotel terhadap pendapatan asli daerah, mengetahui sistem pengawasan, dan potensi yang ada untuk meningkatkan pajak hotel, mengetahui sistem dan prosedur...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require... installation instructions. ...

  9. Maintenance program guidelines for programmatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Division Directors at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are responsible for implementing a maintenance program for research equipment (also referred to as programmatic equipment) assigned to them. The program must allow maintenance to be accomplished in a manner that promotes operational safety, environmental protection and compliance, and cost effectiveness; that preserves the intended functions of the facilities and equipment; and that supports the programmatic mission of the Laboratory. Programmatic equipment -- such as accelerators, lasers, radiation detection equipment, and glove boxes -- is dedicated specifically to research. Installed equipment, by contrast, includes the mechanical and electrical systems installed as part of basic building construction, equipment essential to the normal functioning of the facility and its intended use. Examples of installed equipment are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems; elevators; and communications systems. The LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (PUB-3111, Revision 4) requires that a maintenance program be prepared for programmatic equipment and defines the basic maintenance program elements. Such a program of regular, documented maintenance is vital to the safety and quality of research activities. As a part of that support, this document offers guidance to Laboratory organizations for developing their maintenance programs. It clarifies the maintenance requirements of the Operating and Assurance Program (OAP) and presents an approach that, while not the only possibility, can be expected to produce an effective maintenance program for research equipment belonging to the Laboratory's organizations

  10. Experience with rotating equipment in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, A.; Subramanian, K.G.; Selvam, B.

    2006-01-01

    Fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) is a 40MWth sodium cooled PuC-UC fuelled fast breeder reactor located at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. FBTR has a variety of mechanical and electrical equipment comprising of single stage and multi stage water pumps, sodium pumps, compressors, Chiller units, Diesel Generator sets, vacuum pumps, ventilation fans, Turbo generator etc. The degree and extent of maintenance on these equipment are decided based on nuclear safety, station technical specification requirements, design criteria and operating philosophy. The variety and complexity of the equipment in FBTR demands various maintenance strategies (preventive, predictive, proactive etc.) for their upkeep. This paper discusses the performance of all mechanical and electrical equipment in FBTR, measures taken for their upkeep, major modifications done to prevent recurring failures, condition monitoring programme implemented, Maintenance Management and Information System developed for data acquisition and dissemination, etc. (author)

  11. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  12. The french safety approach regarding equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Deletre, G.; Henry, J.Y.; Rousseau, L.

    1989-10-01

    The qualification of the equipment, used in France on nuclear reactors and reactor components, is discussed. The approach on safety involves the qualification of mechanical and electrical components, under operating and under seismic conditions. The principles of the qualification program and the list of the equipment concerned, are given. The conditions in which qualification tests are performed and the methods applied, are summarized. The actions for preserving the qualification procedures, are considered

  13. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  14. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  15. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  16. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  17. VFDs: Are They Electrical Parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are electronic speed controllers used mainly to modulate and reduce the overall speed and power consumption of an electrical motor. They can be used as soft starters for equipment that has a large rotational mass, thus reducing belt ware and large electrical peaks when starting large pieces of equipment. VFDs have…

  18. PROMSYS, Plant Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.L.; Srite, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PROMSYS is a computer system designed to automate the scheduling of routine maintenance and inspection of plant equipment. This 'programmed maintenance' provides the detailed planning and accomplishment of lubrication, inspection, and similar repetitive maintenance activities which can be scheduled at specified predetermined intervals throughout the year. The equipment items included are the typical pumps, blowers, motors, compressors, automotive equipment, refrigeration units, filtering systems, machine shop equipment, cranes, elevators, motor-generator sets, and electrical switchgear found throughout industry, as well as cell ventilation, shielding, containment, and material handling equipment unique to nuclear research and development facilities. Four related programs are used to produce sorted schedule lists, delinquent work lists, and optional master lists. Five additional programs are used to create and maintain records of all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance history. 2 - Method of solution: Service specifications and frequency are established and stored. The computer program reviews schedules weekly and prints, on schedule cards, instructions for service that is due the following week. The basic output from the computer program comes in two forms: programmed-maintenance schedule cards and programmed-maintenance data sheets. The data sheets can be issued in numerical building, route, and location number sequence as equipment lists, grouped for work assigned to a particular foreman as the foreman's equipment list, or grouped by work charged to a particular work order as the work-order list. Data sheets grouped by equipment classification are called the equipment classification list

  19. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  20. Analisis Pembiayaan Kesehatan Keluarga Penderita Talasemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Kurniawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pembiayaan kesehatan sekitar 146 (60% penderita talasemia di Banyumas, tahun 2011 ditanggung rumah tangga dalam bentuk pembayaran langsung (out of pocket payment. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ability to pay, willingness to pay, dan need assessment pembiayaan kesehatan penderita talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas. Jenis penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan rancangan studi kasus. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain studi cross sectional dengan teknik pengambilan sampel simple random sampling. Jumlah sampel penelitian 30 responden yang mempunyai anggota keluarga penderita talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keluarga penderita talasemia mempunyai ability to pay rata-rata adalah Rp34.448,8/bulan dan rata-rata willingness to pay pengobatan talasemia adalah Rp133.833,3/ bulan. Pola pembiayaan kesehatan talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas menggunakan 93,3% Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Jamkesmas, 3,3% biaya sendiri, dan 3,3% asuransi kesehatan. Sebelum mendapatkan Jamkesmas, 90,0% responden membayar dengan out of pocket, berhutang, berhemat pada kebutuhan nonkesehatan, dan menjual perhiasan/sawah. Kebutuhan pelayanan kesehatan yang diharapkan keluarga penderita talasemia adalah konsultasi talasemia dan desain khusus ruang perawatan anak. Kebutuhan pembiayaan kesehatan keluarga penderita talasemia adalah uang transportasi ke rumah sakit sebagai bentuk biaya tidak langsung. Health financing of majority thalassemia patients, around 146 people (60% in Banyumas year 2011 is assured by Households in direct payments to health care providers (out-of-pocket payment. This study aimed to analyze the ability to pay, willingness to pay, and need assessment of health financing thalassemia in Banyumas. This research an analytic observation- Analisis Pembiayaan Kesehatan Keluarga Penderita Talasemia Health Financing Analysis of Thalassemia Patient Family Arif Kurniawan, Arih Diyaning Intiasari al with case study design

  1. 40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including phase... electrical shunt and voltmeter is allowed for current measurement); meter(s) to measure the voltage across... locomotives are equipped with an internal electrical resistance load bank and fans for cooling of the load...

  2. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  3. Analisis Spektral Daya dan Koherensi EEG Pada Anak Penderita Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Handayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD adalah kondisi neurodevelopmental yang berkaitan dengan defisit dalam fungsi eksekutif, emosi, bahasa, dan komunikasi sosial. Beberapa teknik neuroimaging dan neurofisiologi digunakan untuk memahami hubungan antara fungsionalitas otak dan perilaku autis. Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG adalah sebuah teknik non-invasif yang dapat digunakan untuk memberikan gambaran fungsionalitas otak melalui beberapa besaran fisis yang dikaji. Pada paper ini akan dibahas tentang karakteristik sinyal listrik otak pada penderita austis berdasarkan analisis QEEG. Perekaman sinyal otak menggunakan Emotiv Epoc 14 channel (AF3, F7, F3, FC5, T7, P7, O1, O2, P8, T7, FC6, F4, F8, AF4 dan 2 channel referensi (CMS dan DRL. Jumlah subjek uji dalam penelitian sebanyak 6 anak penderita autis dan 5 anak sehat sebagai kontrol dengan rentang usia antara 10-15 tahun. Perekaman otak dilakukan pada kondisi rileks dan mata terutup selama 15 menit. Metode analisis data meliputi pre-processing data EEG untuk menghilangkan noise dan artefak, perhitungan spektral daya menggunakan periodogram Welch, dan analisis konektivitas fungsional otak dengan menghitung besarnya koherensi intra-hemisphere dan inter-hemisphere. Dari hasil studi diperoleh bahwa pada anak autis terjadi peningkatan spektral daya pada pita delta dan penurunan spektral daya pada pita alpha dibandingkan dengan subjek kontrol. Analisis konektivitas fungsional otak pada anak autis menunjukkan nilai koherensi intra-hemisphere dan inter-hemisphere yang lebih rendah pada pita delta dan theta, khususnya pada area frontal. QEEG dapat digunakan untuk karakterisasi sinyal otak pada penderita autis dan membedakannya dari subjek normal. Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deficits in executive function, emotions, language, and social communication. Several neuroimaging and neurophysiology techniques are used to understand the relationship between

  4. Thermal analysis of the integration of an ammonia plant; Analisis de la integracion termica de una planta de amoniaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M.; Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Alcaraz Calderon, A. Moises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aarriola@iie.org.mx; lhp@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; malcaraz@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper the thermal integration of an existing ammonia plant is evaluated using the Pinch Analysis tools. It is shown the design criteria that would have to fulfill the heat recovery network to take advantage of process streams thermal potentials. It was identified the heat recovery equipment that induces energy losses by incorrect streams selection, and the economic implications. [Spanish] En este trabajo se evalua la integracion termica de una planta existente de amoniaco usando las herramientas del analisis Pinch. Se muestran los criterios de diseno que deberian de cumplir las redes de recuperacion de calor, para aprovechar al maximo el potencial termico de las corrientes del proceso. Tomando como base dichos criterios se analizo el diseno la red de recuperacion de calor de la planta existente, identificando los equipos de recuperacion de calor que generan perdidas de calor por la seleccion incorrecta de las corrientes. Se estiman las perdidas economicas derivadas del diseno ineficiente de la red.

  5. Influence of dose rate of ionizing radiation on working capacity of the oil-filled electrical equipment for NPP; Vliyanie moshchnosti dozy ioniziruyushchego oblucheniya na rabotosposobnost` maslonapolnennogo ehlektrooborudovaniya dlya AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutnev, A P [and others

    1994-12-31

    Dependence of radiation electric conductivity transformer oil on the gamma radiation absorbed dose rate and on the energy proton flux is investigated. It is ascertained that the electrical reliability of oil and oil-barrier insulation does not depend on the absorbed dose rate up to the maximum achieved values of 200 rad/s.

  6. Analisis Komoditi Unggulan Subsektor Tanaman Pangan di Sumatera Utara Tahun 2010 – 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Terry Praganda

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkembangan produksi komoditi tanaman pangan selama periode tersebut sehingga dapat menganalisis komoditi subsektor tanaman pangan yang menjadi unggulan di Sumatera Utara. Komoditi unggulan tersebut juga dijabarkan untuk setiap kabupatem/kota yang ada di Sumatera Utara. Metode yang digunakan yaitu secara Convenience Sampling, dan metode analisis data dengan menggunakan analisis Location Quotient. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan ba...

  7. ANALISIS KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PT. ASURANSI JIWASRAYA (PERSERO) CABANG SULAWESI SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    ARIANTY, ASTRI

    2012-01-01

    ANALISIS KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PT. ASURANSI JIWASRAYA (PERSERO) CABANG SULAWESI SELATAN COMPANY FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS PT. INSURANCE JIWASRAYA (LIMITED) SOUTH BRANCH SULAWESI Astri Arianty Prof. Dr. H. Muhammad Ali, SE., M.S Drs. Armayah Sida, M.Si Analisis terhadap kinerja keuangan perusahaan sangat penting dilakukan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana tingkat pencapaian yang telah diperoleh perusahaan sebagaimana tujuan perusahaan dalam menjalankan proses produk...

  8. Historical-statistical analysis of energy consumption in energy management; Analisis historico-estadistico del consumo energetico en la administracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar Bejarano, Ruben [IMENOR (Mexico); Oven, Mark [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Washington (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the specific consumption of energy has been considered as the most adequate index to evaluate the efficiencies in the productive processes. Nevertheless, this index, in some instances is highly susceptible to suffer significant variations, due to factors such as equipment condition, raw materials quality, operational parameters, climate and production level. This last one definitely is the most important and requires a deeper analysis. In this presentation a methodology is developed to analyze the energy consumption as well as their specific energy consumption with respect to production. Enough historical data are utilized to allow for a statistical analysis. This study is of equal usefulness in an energy diagnosis, as in a management program of energy saving. In presenting the possibility of identifying potential energy saving, stands out the advantages of the analysis and the conclusions that can be derived from it. Through the actual data collected in several industries during the energy diagnosis, various possible results of the analysis are presented. Finally, how this type of analysis can be adapted to a more precise control of the energy consumption is described and be used as a base for establishing goals in energy efficiency in the long term. [Espanol] Tradicionalmente se ha considerado al consumo especifico de energia como el indice energetico mas adecuado para evaluar las eficiencias de los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, este indice es en ocasiones altamente susceptible a sufrir variaciones importantes, debido a factores como el estado de los equipos, la calidad de la materia prima, los parametros operativos, el clima, y el nivel de produccion. Este ultimo es decididamente el mas importante, y requiere un analisis mas profundo. En esta presentacion se desarrolla una metodologia para analizar tanto consumos de energia como consumos especificos de energia con respecto a la produccion. Se utilizan suficientes datos historicos para permitir

  9. Historical-statistical analysis of energy consumption in energy management; Analisis historico-estadistico del consumo energetico en la administracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar Bejarano, Ruben [IMENOR (Mexico); Oven, Mark [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Washington (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Traditionally the specific consumption of energy has been considered as the most adequate index to evaluate the efficiencies in the productive processes. Nevertheless, this index, in some instances is highly susceptible to suffer significant variations, due to factors such as equipment condition, raw materials quality, operational parameters, climate and production level. This last one definitely is the most important and requires a deeper analysis. In this presentation a methodology is developed to analyze the energy consumption as well as their specific energy consumption with respect to production. Enough historical data are utilized to allow for a statistical analysis. This study is of equal usefulness in an energy diagnosis, as in a management program of energy saving. In presenting the possibility of identifying potential energy saving, stands out the advantages of the analysis and the conclusions that can be derived from it. Through the actual data collected in several industries during the energy diagnosis, various possible results of the analysis are presented. Finally, how this type of analysis can be adapted to a more precise control of the energy consumption is described and be used as a base for establishing goals in energy efficiency in the long term. [Espanol] Tradicionalmente se ha considerado al consumo especifico de energia como el indice energetico mas adecuado para evaluar las eficiencias de los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, este indice es en ocasiones altamente susceptible a sufrir variaciones importantes, debido a factores como el estado de los equipos, la calidad de la materia prima, los parametros operativos, el clima, y el nivel de produccion. Este ultimo es decididamente el mas importante, y requiere un analisis mas profundo. En esta presentacion se desarrolla una metodologia para analizar tanto consumos de energia como consumos especificos de energia con respecto a la produccion. Se utilizan suficientes datos historicos para permitir

  10. Identifiksi Sebaran Litologi berdasarkan Analisis Data Resistivitas di Gunung Wungkal

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Dzakiya; MGS. Dwiki Nugraha; Nenden L. Sidik; Trias Galena

    2017-01-01

    Analisis data untuk mengidentifikasi sebaran litologi yang memiliki potensi bahan galian industri di Daerah Gunung Wungkal Yogyakarta dengan menggunakan metode resistivitas dan survei geologi permukaan telah dilakukan. Hasil korelasi kedua data tersebut menunjukkan sebaran litologi merupakan pelapukan intrusi batuan beku yang kemudian menghasilkan material lempung (6,0-10 m), lempung pasiran (11-30 m) dan lapukan batuan diorit (30-55 m) yang berada di kedalaman berbeda. Ketebalan batuan di pe...

  11. Analisis Sikap Konsumen terhadap Produk Fashion Lokal dan Impor

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak: Analisis Sikap Konsumen Terhadap Produk Fashion Lokal dan Impor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sikap konsumen terhadap produk fashion lokal dan impor yang akan berpengaruh terhadap keputusan konsumsi. Sampel yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 1.000 mahasiswa dari 10 perguruan tinggi swasta terbesar di Surabaya. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode kuesioner. Hasil pengujian statistik menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar mahasiswa di Surabaya merasa bangga d...

  12. Uso de Analisis de Covarianza (ANCOVA en investigacion cientifica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badii, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The basics of the ANalisis of COVAriance (ANCOVA are given. The objectives and the application of ANCOVA are laid out. Techniques for the estimation of contrasts and for the control and reduction of the degree of error are discussed. The application of a simple ANCOVA using real data is highlighted. The application of this technique in fixing the auxiliary variable in experimentation is emphasized.

  13. Analisis Pemasaran Ayam Ras Pedaging di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fachri, Yusrizal

    2017-01-01

    130306044 YUSRIZAL FACHRI, 2017. “Analisis Pemasaran Ayam Ras Pedaging di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan”. Dibimbing oleh ARMYN HAKIM DAULAY dan NEVY DIANA HANAFI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik lembaga pemasaran, bentuk saluran, fungsi pemasaran, dan menganalisis nilai tambah di lembaga-lembaga pemasaran ayam ras pedaging di pasar tradisional Kota Medan pada April sampai Mei 2017. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer yang didapatkan dari observasi dan waw...

  14. Metode Pengumpulan dan Analisis Data : Lang Kah Vital Proses Penelitian

    OpenAIRE

    Suprapto, Agus .

    2005-01-01

    The process of data collection and. analysis is one of chains in scientific method that should be done in a research. This part later on will determine the right method in searching and analyzing a way in solving a problem. The data collected should be the ones which are relevant which the essence of research problems, so that the next interpreted data will eventually be concluded as valid. keywords: Pengumpulan data, analisis data,dan metode ilmiah

  15. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... motors and pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy resources of the nation... the efficiency of electric motors, pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy... electric motors as covered equipment. A compressor may have some or all of the following components: piston...

  16. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of ignition. A motor vehicle or mechanical equipment showing any signs of leakage or electrical fault... equipment is stowed. (f) Each hold or compartment must be ventilated and fitted with an overhead water... smoke or fire detection system capable of alerting personnel on the bridge. (h) All electrical equipment...

  17. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  18. ANALISIS PENGARUH KINERJA LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP KINERJA INDUSTRI KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirman -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi, menganalisis praktik pengelolaan lingkungan pada sentra industri kecil dibandingkan best practices dalam upaya meningkatkan kinerja lingkungan di Kabupaten Pati. Kajian difokuskan pada pengelolaan lingkungan secara efektif dengan melibatkan variabel inisiatif lingkungan, keterlibatan karyawan, dan integrasi dengan supplier. Populasinya adalah seluruh perusahaan Industri Kecil di Kabupaten Pati. Sampel berjumlah 97 perusahaan. Teknik sampling menggunakan kluster sampling, dengan sampel pada sentra industri kecil di Kabupaten Pati.  Analisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan analisis komparatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan praktik pengelolaan lingkungan pada sentra industri kecil di Kabupaten Pati belum dilaksanakan secara optimal. Sementara itu, variabel integrasi supplier berpengaruh langsung terhadap kinerja perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to identify and to analyze an environmental management practice which is compared to the best practices in order to improve environmental performance in the industrial centers in Pati District. This study focuses on managing the environment effectively by involving environmental initiative variables, employee involvement, and integration of suppliers. Population in this study was all small industrial enterprises in Pati regency which has 97 companies as data samples. Data were collected by using cluster sampling techniques, and samples were taken from small industrial centers in the District of Pati. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and comparative methods. Results of this study showed that environmental management practices in small industrial centers had not been implemented optimally. Meanwhile, supplier integration variables influenced directly toward corporate performance.

  19. Microfinanza: analisi d’impatto di un programma in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Rondinella

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available L’analisi d’impatto dei programmi di microfinanza è uno strumento utile sia per migliorare i servizi offerti sia per garantire ai donatori che il denaro concesso sia utilizzato per programmi efficaci nell’alleviare la povertà. Il presente lavoro è costituito da due parti: la prima è dedicata all’analisi d’impatto, la seconda all’analisi empirica sul campo. L’indagine è stata condotta attraverso l’utilizzo di uno strumento in grado di dare una indicazione chiara dei cambiamenti avvenuti nelle condizioni di vita dei beneficiari e con il pregio di essere applicabile a costi molto ridotti. I risultati ottenuti mostrano in che misura l’accesso al credito cambi le condizioni di vita dei più poveri inducendo consistenti aumenti del reddito familiare, dei risparmi, della diversificazione delle attività produttive e del consumo di cibo. Inoltre si osserva, all’interno dei nuclei familiari, un miglioramento della condizione femminile chiaramente dipendente dalla partecipazione al programma di microcredito

  20. ANALISIS CLUSTER K-MEANS DALAM PENGELOMPOKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poerwanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cluster Analysis, K-Means Algorithm, Student Classification. This study aims to classify students based on learning outcomes for subject the basic of statistics (DDS, which is measured based on attendance, task, midterm (UTS, and final exams (UAS to further used to evaluate learning for subjects that require analysis of quantitative . This study uses k-means cluster analysis to classify the students into three groups based on learning outcomes. After grouped, there are 3 people in the low category, 27 in the medium category and over 70% in the high category.Abstrak. Analisis Cluster K-Means dalam Pengelompokan Kemampuan Mahasiswa. Pene-litian ini bertujuan untuk mengelompokkan mahasiswa berdasarkan hasil belajar mata kuliah dasar-dasar statistika (DDS yang diukur berdasarkan variabel nilai kehadiran, tugas, ujian tengah semester (UTS, dan ujian akhir semester (UAS untuk selanjutnya digunakan untuk mengevaluasi pembelajaran untuk mata kuliah yang membutuhkan kemampuan analisis kuantititatif yang baik. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis cluster k-means dalam mengelompokkan mahasiswa ke dalam tiga kelompok berdasarkan hasil belajarnya. Seteleh dikelompokkan, terdapat 3 orang yang masuk pada kategori rendah, 27 orang pada kategori sedang dan lebih dari 70% pada kategori tinggi.Kata Kunci: Cluster Analysis, K-Means Algoritma, Klasifikasi Mahasiswa, Universitas Cokroaminoto Palopo