Sample records for electrical conductivity improvement

  1. Improving electrical conductivity in polycarbonate nanocomposites using highly conductive PEDOT/PSS coated MWCNTs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian


    We describe a strategy to design highly electrically conductive polycarbonate nanocomposites by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with a thin layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ poly(styrenesulfonate), a conductive polymer. We found that this coating method improves the electrical properties of the nanocomposites in two ways. First, the coating becomes the main electrical conductive path. Second, the coating promotes the formation of a percolation network at a low filler concentration (0.3 wt %). To tailor the electrical properties of the conductive polymer coating, we used a polar solvent ethylene glycol, and we can tune the final properties of the nanocomposite by controlling the concentrations of the elementary constituents or the intrinsic properties of the conductive polymer coating. This very flexible technique allows for tailoring the properties of the final product. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Graphene oxide with improved electrical conductivity for supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.J. [Institute of Nano Functional Materials, Huanghe University of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou 450006 (China); Yang, B.C., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Functional Materials, Huanghe University of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou 450006 (China); Zhang, S.R.; Zhao, C.M. [Institute of Nano Functional Materials, Huanghe University of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou 450006 (China)


    Predominant few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets of high electrical conductivity have been synthesized by a multi-step intercalation and reduction method. The electrical conductivity of the as-synthesized FLG is measured to be {approx}3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} S m{sup -1}, comparable to that of pristine graphite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman analysis reveal that the as-synthesized FLG sheets have large areas with single and double layers. The specific capacitance of 180 F g{sup -1} is obtained for the FLG in a 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte by integrating the cyclic voltammogram. The good capacitive behavior of the FLG is very promising for the application for next-generation high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  3. Laterally extended atomically precise graphene nanoribbons with improved electrical conductivity for efficient gas sensing. (United States)

    Mehdi Pour, Mohammad; Lashkov, Andrey; Radocea, Adrian; Liu, Ximeng; Sun, Tao; Lipatov, Alexey; Korlacki, Rafal A; Shekhirev, Mikhail; Aluru, Narayana R; Lyding, Joseph W; Sysoev, Victor; Sinitskii, Alexander


    Narrow atomically precise graphene nanoribbons hold great promise for electronic and optoelectronic applications, but the previously demonstrated nanoribbon-based devices typically suffer from low currents and mobilities. In this study, we explored the idea of lateral extension of graphene nanoribbons for improving their electrical conductivity. We started with a conventional chevron graphene nanoribbon, and designed its laterally extended variant. We synthesized these new graphene nanoribbons in solution and found that the lateral extension results in decrease of their electronic bandgap and improvement in the electrical conductivity of nanoribbon-based thin films. These films were employed in gas sensors and an electronic nose system, which showed improved responsivities to low molecular weight alcohols compared to similar sensors based on benchmark graphitic materials, such as graphene and reduced graphene oxide, and a reliable analyte recognition. This study shows the methodology for designing new atomically precise graphene nanoribbons with improved properties, their bottom-up synthesis, characterization, processing and implementation in electronic devices.Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons are a promising platform for tailored electron transport, yet they suffer from low conductivity. Here, the authors devise a strategy to laterally extend conventional chevron nanoribbons, thus achieving increased electrical conductivity and improved chemical sensing capabilities.

  4. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles (United States)


    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  5. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  6. Electrical conductivity improvement of aeronautical carbon fiber reinforced polyepoxy composites by insertion of carbon nanotubes


    Lonjon, Antoine; Demont, Philippe; Dantras, Eric; Lacabanne, Colette


    International audience; An increase and homogenization of electrical conductivity is essential in epoxy carbon fiber laminar aeronautical composites. Dynamic conductivity measurements have shown a very poor transversal conductivity. Double wall carbon nanotubes have been introduced into the epoxy matrix to increase the electrical conductivity. The conductivity and the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy matrix were evaluated. The epoxy matrix was filled with 0.4 wt.% of CNTs to ...

  7. Electrically conductive cellulose composite (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan


    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  8. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana


    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  9. Red mud enhances methanogenesis with the simultaneous improvement of hydrolysis-acidification and electrical conductivity. (United States)

    Ye, Jie; Hu, Andong; Ren, Guoping; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Shungui


    The role of red mud in the improvement of methanogenesis during sludge anaerobic digestion was innovatively investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that the addition of 20g/L red mud resulted in a 35.5% increase in methane accumulation. Red mud effectively promoted the hydrolysis-acidification of organic compounds in the sludge, which resulted in the increase of protein, polysaccharide, and VFAs by 5.1-94.5%. The activities of key enzymes were improved by 41.4-257.3%. Electrochemical measurements presented direct evidence that the electrical conductivity was significantly improved with red mud. More conductive magnetite was formed during the secondary mineralization after Fe(III) reduction by Fe (III)-reducing genes such as Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae. The higher conductivity enhanced the electron transfer between the syntrophic bacteria (Geobacteraceae) and methanogens (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina), and then improved the methanogenesis. This research provides a novel perspective on the synergism between sludge and red mud for methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nanotubes with silver nanoparticle decoration and conductive polymer coating for improving the electrical conductivity of polycarbonate composites

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Archana S.


    We proposed a strategy to enhance the conductivity of polycarbonate by using three-phase hybrid metallic/non-metallic fillers. Ethylene diamine (EDA) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-EDA) are first decorated with silver nanoparticles. These Ag/ MWCNT-EDA fillers are then coated with a conductive layer of ethylene glycol treated PEDOT: PSS (poly [3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]: poly [styrenesulfonate]) (EP). In such an approach, the MWCNT backbone is covered by a highly conductive coating made of Ag nanoparticles surrounded by EP. To understand how Ag and EP form a highly conductive coating, the effect of different wt% of Ag nanoparticles on EP was studied. Ag nanoparticles around the size of 128 ± 28 nmeffectively lowered the volume resistivity of bulk EP, resulting in a highly conducting Ag/EP blend. We found that in the final Ag/MWCNT-EDA/EP assembly, the EP coating enhances the electrical conductivity in two ways: (1) it is an efficient dispersing agent that helps in achieving a uniform dispersion of the Ag/MWCNT-EDA and (2) it acts as a conductive bridge between particles (Ag and MWCNT-EDA), reducing the particle to particle resistivity. When inserted into polycarbonate, this three-phase blend successfully reduced the volume resistivity of the polymer by two orders of magnitude compared with previous approaches.

  11. Improved theory of time domain reflectometry with variable coaxial cable length for electrical conductivity measurements (United States)

    Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...

  12. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  13. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  14. Improvement of optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of silver nanowires by Cu ion beam irradiation (United States)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Shehla, H.; Zafar Ali, Naveed; Akram, Waheed; Shakil, Khan; Diallo, A.; Shahzad, N.; Maaza, Malik


    Concatenation of Silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) networks upon ion-beam irradiation is a novel annealing process with various opto-electronics and nano-electronics applications. In the present study, the Ag-NWs have been irradiated with copper (Cu) ion having MeV energy. The effect of ion fluencies on optical (ultraviolet and visible ranges) and electrical properties of Cu ion irradiated Ag NWs are investigated. It has been observed that electrical conductivity and optical transmittance rises with the increase of Cu ion fluences i.e. at 1  ×  1015 ions cm-2, optical transmittance of Ag-NWs thin film increased up to 34% in the visible and 19% in the ultraviolet ranges with reference to un-irradiated Ag-NWs thin film. At the equivalent dose, the electrical conductivity raised twice to the pristine value. The increase in optical transmittance has been attributed to the ion beam induced localized heating source causing slicing of Ag-NWs, whereas ion beam induced fusion of Ag-NWs at contact position is the main reason to increase the electrical conductivity. This study offers a base for the future design of transparent metal NWs thin films in various photovoltaic applications, specifically in harsh irradiation environment.

  15. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  16. C60 as fine fillers to improve poly(phenylene sulfide) electrical conductivity and mechanical property. (United States)

    Zhang, Maliang; Wang, Xiaotian; Bai, Yali; Li, Zhenhuan; Cheng, Bowen


    Electrical conductive poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS)/fullerene (C60) composites were prepared by 1-chlornaphthalene blending method, and the interface effects of C60 and PPS on PPS/C60 properties were characterized. C60 is an excellent nanofiller for PPS, and 2 wt% PPS/C60 composite displayed the optimal conductivity which achieved 1.67 × 10-2 S/cm. However, when C60 concentration reached 2 wt%, the breaking strength and tensile modulus of PPS/C60 fiber achieved maximum 290 MPa and 605 MPa, and those values were 7.72 and 11.2 times as that of pure PPS. The excellent conductive and mechanical properties of PPS/C60 were attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of C60 during PPS crystallization, formation of a large number of covalent bond by main C60-thiol adducts and minor C60-ArCl alkylation between C60 outer surface and PPS matrix. At same time, PPS/C60 thermal properties were also investigated.

  17. Wrapping and dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes improves electrical conductivity of protein-nanotube composite biomaterials. (United States)

    Voge, Christopher M; Johns, Jeremy; Raghavan, Mekhala; Morris, Michael D; Stegemann, Jan P


    Composites of extracellular matrix proteins reinforced with carbon nanotubes have the potential to be used as conductive biopolymers in a variety of biomaterial applications. In this study, the effect of functionalization and polymer wrapping on the dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in aqueous media was examined. Carboxylated MWCNT were wrapped in either Pluronic(®) F127 or gelatin. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that covalent functionalization of the pristine nanotubes disrupted the carbon lattice and added carboxyl groups. Polymer and gelatin wrapping resulted in increased surface adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen, respectively. Wrapping also markedly increased the stability of MWCNT suspensions in water as measured by settling time and zeta potential, with Pluronic(®)-wrapped nanotubes showing the greatest effect. Treated MWCNT were used to make 3D collagen-fibrin-MWCNT composite materials. Carboxylated MWCNT resulted in a decrease in construct impedance by an order of magnitude, and wrapping with Pluronic(®) resulted in a further order of magnitude decrease. Functionalization and wrapping also were associated with maintenance of fibroblast function within protein-MWCNT materials. These data show that increased dispersion of nanotubes in protein-MWCNT composites leads to higher conductivity and improved cytocompatibility. Understanding how nanotubes interact with biological systems is important in enabling the development of new biomedical technologies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites (United States)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.


    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  19. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and energy. If the temperature is below certain characteristic values then the lattice vibration will be able to give up this energy and momentum to another conduction electron. Thus though one electron loses its energy and momentum, another. The electron moves with acceleration inbetween collisions with the lattice and.

  20. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song


    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  1. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung


    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In comparison with these competing finishes, the present nanocomposite finishes are expected to cost 50

  2. The capability of graphene on improving the electrical conductivity and anti-corrosion properties of Polyurethane coatings (United States)

    Tong, Yao; Bohm, Siva; Song, Mo


    Graphite and graphene particles were used to reinforce the electrical conductivity and anti-corrosion properties of polyurethane (PU) coatings. The effect of graphite and graphene were compared. Hybrid filler using carbon nanotube was adopted as well and the performance in electrical conductivity was much superior to single filler system. At the same filler loading, the electrical conductivity of hybrid filler system was significantly higher than single filler system (0.77 S/m at 5 wt% while single filler system was not conductive). The conductive mechanism was revealed. In terms of anti-corrosion properties, the coatings with low filler loading had better anti-corrosion properties. The resistance values obtained from EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) and four point probe method were compared and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Starkov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The method of natural concentrated groundings substitution by the set of electrodes taking them into account in the algorithm of electric characteristics calculation for complicated grounding connections of electric installation is offered. An equivalent model as a set of linear electrodes is chosen in accordance with two criteria: leakage resistance and potentials on the ground surface. Methodology. We have applied induced potential method and methods for computing branched electrical circuits with distributed parameters. Results. We have obtained the algorithm for calculating complex non-equipotential grounding connections, which makes it possible to obtain refined values of the potential distribution in the electric stations and substations with outdoor switchgear. Originality. For the first time, we have taking into account the conductivity of natural concentrated grounds by a set of vertical and horizontal electrodes based on equivalent electrical characteristics applied to a two-layer ground. Practical value. The using of the proposed calculation algorithm in the electric grids of JSC «Kharkivoblenergo» made it possible to determine the values of the potential distribution at short circuit in electrical substation taking into account the influence of the conductivity of natural concentrated groundings.

  4. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter


    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  5. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF{sub 2} - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments.

  6. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays (United States)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.


    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  7. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda


    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  8. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen


    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  9. Electrically conductive black optical paint (United States)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.


    An electrically conductive flat black paint has been developed for use on the Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in the late 1980s. The paint, designed for equipment operating in high-energy radiation fields, has multipurpose functions. Its electrical conductivity keeps differential charging of the spacecraft external surfaces and equipment to a minimum, preventing the buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Its flat black aspect minimizes the effects of stray light and unwanted reflectances, when used in optical instruments and on sunshades. Its blackness is suitable, also, for thermal control, when the paint is put on spacecraft surfaces. The paint has good adherence properties, as measured by tape tests, when applied properly to a surface. The electrically conductive paint which was developed has the following characteristics: an electrical resistivity of 5 x 10 to the 7th ohms per square; a visual light total reflectance of approximately 5 percent; an infrared reflectance of 0.13 measured over a spectrum from 10 to the (-5.5) power to 0.001 meter; a solar absorptivity, alpha-s, of 0.93, and a thermal emissivity, epsilon, of 0.87, resulting in an alpha-s/epsilon of 1.07. The formula for making the paint and the process for applying it are described.

  10. Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav


    The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.

  11. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH. For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  12. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis. (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Costa, Annamaria; Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni


    The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS) of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC) signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS): 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC) were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH). For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  13. Electrical conductivity and impedance behaviour of hydrogels (United States)

    Warren, Holly; in het Panhuis, Marc


    The impedance and electrical conductivity behavior of gellan gum hydrogels containing the conducting fillers poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and vapour grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) is presented. Impedance analysis showed that an equivalent circuit consisting of a Warburg element in series with a resistor could be used to model the gels' behavior. It is demonstrated that the addition of the conducting fillers PEDOT:PSS and VGCNFs can result in a measurable improvement in the conductivity of hydrogels with high water content and swelling ratios. Incorporation of combinations of these conducting fillers resulted in an improvement of the conductivity of gellan gum-containing hydrogels with water content (swelling ratio) of at least 97.5% (40) from 1.2 +/- 0.1 mS/cm to 4 +/- 0.6 mS/cm.

  14. Macrophages Facilitate Electrical Conduction in the Heart. (United States)

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Clauss, Sebastian; Xiao, Ling; Aguirre, Aaron D; King, Kevin R; Hanley, Alan; Hucker, William J; Wülfers, Eike M; Seemann, Gunnar; Courties, Gabriel; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sun, Yuan; Savol, Andrej J; Sager, Hendrik B; Lavine, Kory J; Fishbein, Gregory A; Capen, Diane E; Da Silva, Nicolas; Miquerol, Lucile; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Naxerova, Kamila; Mitchell, Richard N; Brown, Dennis; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Kohl, Peter; Vinegoni, Claudio; Milan, David J; Ellinor, Patrick T; Nahrendorf, Matthias


    Organ-specific functions of tissue-resident macrophages in the steady-state heart are unknown. Here, we show that cardiac macrophages facilitate electrical conduction through the distal atrioventricular node, where conducting cells densely intersperse with elongated macrophages expressing connexin 43. When coupled to spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes via connexin-43-containing gap junctions, cardiac macrophages have a negative resting membrane potential and depolarize in synchrony with cardiomyocytes. Conversely, macrophages render the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes more positive and, according to computational modeling, accelerate their repolarization. Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing macrophages improves atrioventricular conduction, whereas conditional deletion of connexin 43 in macrophages and congenital lack of macrophages delay atrioventricular conduction. In the Cd11b(DTR) mouse, macrophage ablation induces progressive atrioventricular block. These observations implicate macrophages in normal and aberrant cardiac conduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualification of black electrically conductive paint (United States)

    Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C. H.


    A paint having low electrical resistance has been developed. Using a low outgassing polyurethane resin, specific amounts of conductive carbon particles were added to produce paint compositions having a range of electrical resistance. Methods of testing for electrical resistance are discussed. The adhesion of these paints has been tested successfully over the temperature range from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 80 C (176 F).

  16. Using soil apparent electrical conductivity to optimize sampling of soil penetration resistance and to improve the estimations of spatial patterns of soil compaction. (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Bueno Lema, Javier; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; França e Silva, Ênio Farias


    This study presents a combined application of an EM38DD for assessing soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and a dual-sensor vertical penetrometer Veris-3000 for measuring soil electrical conductivity (ECveris) and soil resistance to penetration (PR). The measurements were made at a 6 ha field cropped with forage maize under no-tillage after sowing and located in Northwestern Spain. The objective was to use data from ECa for improving the estimation of soil PR. First, data of ECa were used to determine the optimized sampling scheme of the soil PR in 40 points. Then, correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between soil PR and ECa, ranging from -0.36 to -0.70 for the studied soil layers. The spatial dependence of soil PR was best described by spherical models in most soil layers. However, below 0.50 m the spatial pattern of soil PR showed pure nugget effect, which could be due to the limited number of PR data used in these layers as the values of this parameter often were above the range measured by our equipment (5.5 MPa). The use of ECa as secondary variable slightly improved the estimation of PR by universal cokriging, when compared with kriging.

  17. Electrically conductive proppant and methods for detecting, locating and characterizing the electrically conductive proppant (United States)

    Cannan, Chad; Bartel, Lewis; Palisch, Terrence; Aldridge, David


    Electrically conductive proppants and methods for detecting, locating, and characterizing same are provided. The electrically conductive proppant can include a substantially uniform coating of an electrically conductive material having a thickness of at least 500 nm. The method can include injecting a hydraulic fluid into a wellbore extending into a subterranean formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to open a fracture therein, injecting into the fracture a fluid containing the electrically conductive proppant, electrically energizing the earth at or near the fracture, and measuring three dimensional (x, y, and z) components of electric and magnetic field responses at a surface of the earth or in an adjacent wellbore.

  18. Electrically Conductive White Thermal-Control Paint (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Forsberg, Gustaf A.; O'Donnell, Timothy P.


    Report describes development of white thermal-control paint intended for use on spacecraft. Paint required to exhibit combination of high emittance (equal to or greater than 0.90), low absorptance (equal to or less than 0.20), and electrical conductivity sufficient to prevent charging with static electricity to potentials beyond range of plus or minus 10 V.

  19. Electrical conductivity imaging using magnetic resonance tomography. (United States)

    Katscher, Ulrich; Voigt, Tobias; Findeklee, Christian


    The electrical conductivity of human tissue could be used as an additional diagnostic parameter or might be helpful for the prediction of the local SAR during MR measurements. In this study, the approach "Electric Properties Tomography" (EPT) is applied, which derives the patient's electric conductivity using a standard MR system. To this goal, the spatial transmit sensitivity distribution of the applied RF coil is measured. This sensitivity distribution represents the positive circularly polarized component of the magnetic field. It can be post-processed utilizing Faraday's and Ampere's law, yielding an estimation of the spatial distribution of the patient's electric conductivity. Thus, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents, or RF probes. In this study, phantom experiments underline the principle feasibility of EPT. Furthermore, initial conductivity measurements in the brain allow distinguishing cerebro-spinal fluid from the surrounding grey and white matter.

  20. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  1. Surface growth of MG(multilayer graphene)-SiC nanofillers/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites for improving thermal conductivity and maintaining electrical insulation (United States)

    He, Jing; Guo, Yulan; Tian, Konghu; Wang, Hua; Su, Zheng; Huang, Weiqi; Tian, Xingyou


    In the present research, a high-frequency heating process with the advantages of simplicity and high yield was applied to synthesize multilayer graphene-SiC nanofillers (MG-SiCnf) and found to boost yields dramatically. The growth process of MG-SiCnf was also investigated. Nanofillers grown on an MG surface consisted of both SiC particles and SiC nanofibers. Interestingly, the growth process of SiC nanofibers included two main steps: firstly, SiC particles gathered on the edge of the MG, and then they grew into SiC nanofibers. SiC nanofibers enhanced the thermal conductivity of materials whereas SiC particles tended to hinder electronic transmission. The vertical and in-plane orientated thermal conductivities of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/MG-SiCnf composites were determined to be 0.28 and 30.491 W m-1 K-1, while the maximum value of the electrical conductivity of PVDF/MG-SiCnf composites was only 2.0  ×  10-11 S cm-1. In addition, the storage modulus of PVDF/MG-SiCnf composites also improved remarkably in comparison with that of pure PVDF.

  2. Contact-independent electrical conductance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Tamar S.; MacLean, Kenneth; Kastner, Marc A.; Ray, Nirat


    Electrical conductance measurement system including a one-dimensional semiconducting channel, with electrical conductance sensitive to electrostatic fluctuations, in a circuit for measuring channel electrical current. An electrically-conductive element is disposed at a location at which the element is capacitively coupled to the channel; a midpoint of the element aligned with about a midpoint of the channel, and connected to first and second electrically-conductive contact pads that are together in a circuit connected to apply a changing voltage across the element. The electrically-conductive contact pads are laterally spaced from the midpoint of the element by a distance of at least about three times a screening length of the element, given in SI units as (K.di-elect cons..sub.0/e.sup.2D(E.sub.F)).sup.1/2, where K is the static dielectric constant, .di-elect cons..sub.0 is the permittivity of free space, e is electron charge, and D(E.sub.F) is the density of states at the Fermi energy for the element.

  3. An experimental investigation of electrical conductivities in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 4. An experimental ... polymers doped with inorganic salts. The ion transference number of these biopolymers show their superionic nature of electrical conduction. The overall conduction mechanism seems to be protonic in nature rather than electronic one.

  4. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert


    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  5. Electrical Conductivity of Micas at High Temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, T.


    Electrical conductivity, along with seismic velocity, gives us clues to infer constituent materials and temperatures in the Earth's interior. Dry rocks have been considered to be electrically insulating at crustal temperatures. Observed high conductivity has been ascribed to the existence of fluids. However, Fuji-ta et al. (2007) recently reported that a dry gneiss shows relatively high conductivity (10-4-10-3 S/m) at the temperature of 300-400°C, and that it is strongly anisotropic in conductivity. They suggested that the alignment of biotite grains governs conductivity of the gneiss sample. Electrical properties of rock forming minerals are still poorly understood. We thus have measured electrical properties of biotite single crystals up to 700°C. In order to get a good understanding of conduction mechanisms, measurements have been also made on phlogopite and muscovite, which are common micas with similar crystallographic structures. Thin plates parallel to cleavages (thickness~0.1mm) were prepared from mica single crystals. Electrical impedance was measured by 2-electrode method. The specimen was kept in nitrogen or argon atmosphere. The conductivity measured parallel to cleavages is higher than that measured perpendicular to cleavages by 3-4 orders of magnitude. However, no significant difference in the activation energy of conductivity was observed between two directions. The activation energy of conductivity is ~50 kJ/mol for biotite and ~100 kJ/mol for phlogopite and muscovite. The conductivity of biotite is higher than those of phlogopite and muscovite by several orders of magnitude at the same temperature. The conductivity of biotite parallel to cleavages is ~10-1 S/m at 400°C. The conductivity of biotite increases irreversibly by heating. The irreversible change was not significant below 450°C. Remarkable increase is observed at the temperature of 450-550°C. No significant change was observed in the second heating. Such an increase in conductivity

  6. Effects of Silver Microparticles and Nanoparticles on Thermal and Electrical Characteristics of Electrically Conductive Adhesives (United States)

    Zulkarnain, M.; Fadzil, M. A.; Mariatti, M.; Azid, I. A.


    The effects of different volume fractions of silver (Ag) particles of different size (microsize, 2 μm to 3.5 μm diameter; nanosize, 80 nm diameter) on the thermal and electrical characteristics of epoxy-Ag electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) have been evaluated, as well as hybrid ECAs with both particle sizes at different ratios. Improved thermal and electrical conductivity resulted from the interaction between the particles, as evaluated by analysis of sample morphology. The interaction was altered to improve the conductivity. For both particle sizes, the electrical resistivity showed a transition from insulation to conduction at 6 vol.% Ag. In the hybrid system, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing microparticle filler ratio. The electrical conductivity of the hybrid composite increased at 50:50 weight ratio.

  7. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.


    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  8. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage


      It has recently been argued that growing societal pressures for better environmental conduct could induce environmental innovation, thereby entailing lower costs due to increased value and/or more efficient resource allocation. This has led to the claim that improved environmental conduct may...

  9. Towards electrically conductive, self-healing materials


    Williams, Kyle A; Boydston, Andrew J; Bielawski, Christopher W


    A novel class of organometallic polymers comprising N-heterocyclic carbenes and transition metals was shown to have potential as an electrically conductive, self-healing material. These polymers were found to exhibit conductivities of the order of 10−3 S cm−1 and showed structurally dynamic characteristics in the solid-state. Thin films of these materials were cast onto silicon wafers, then scored and imaged using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scored films were subsequently healed...

  10. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  11. Empirical Relationships Between Electrical Conductivity, Salinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that some level of desalination/treatment for the water before consumption would be necessary. On the other hand, the values obtained for Abraka, Ughelli, Oleh and Ozoro fall within the WHO maximum permissible limit for fresh drinking water. KEY WORDS: Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Density, pH, Water ...

  12. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  13. Measurement of Ground Electrical Conductivity for Planning Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of propagation measurements are often required to improve the coverage of Medium Frequency (MF) broadcast transmitters. To achieve this, ground electrical conductivity measurement is one of the parameters often determined. In this study, ground conductivity has been measured around MF radio transmitters in ...

  14. Pulsed electrical discharge in conductive solution (United States)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya; Son, E. E.


    Electrical discharge in a conductive solution of isopropyl alcohol in tap water (330 μ S cm-1) has been studied experimentally applying high voltage millisecond pulses (rise time  ˜0.4 μ \\text{s} , amplitude up to 15 kV, positive polarity) to a pin anode electrode. Dynamic current-voltage characteristics synchronized with high-speed images of the discharge were studied. The discharge was found to develop from high electric field region in the anode vicinity where initial conductive current with density  ˜100 A cm-2 results in fast heating and massive nucleation of vapor bubbles. Discharges in nucleated bubbles then produce a highly conductive plasma region and facilitate overheating instability development with subsequent formation of a thermally ionized plasma channel. The measured plasma channel propagation speed was 3-15 m s-1. A proposed thermal model of plasma channel development explains the low observed plasma channel propagation speed.

  15. Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity (United States)

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.


    The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

  16. Towards electrically conductive, self-healing materials. (United States)

    Williams, Kyle A; Boydston, Andrew J; Bielawski, Christopher W


    A novel class of organometallic polymers comprising N-heterocyclic carbenes and transition metals was shown to have potential as an electrically conductive, self-healing material. These polymers were found to exhibit conductivities of the order of 10(-3) S cm-1 and showed structurally dynamic characteristics in the solid-state. Thin films of these materials were cast onto silicon wafers, then scored and imaged using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scored films were subsequently healed via thermal treatment, which enabled the material to flow via a unique depolymerization process, as determined by SEM and surface profilometry. A method for incorporating these features into a device that exhibits electrically driven, self-healing functions is proposed.

  17. Universality of DC electrical conductivity from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xian-Hui, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA92122 (United States); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Shao-Feng, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444 (China)


    We propose a universal formula of dc electrical conductivity in rotational- and translational-symmetries breaking systems via the holographic duality. This formula states that the ratio of the determinant of the dc electrical conductivities along any spatial directions to the black hole area density in zero-charge limit has a universal value. As explicit illustrations, we give several examples elucidating the validation of this formula: We construct an anisotropic black brane solution, which yields linear in temperature for the in-plane resistivity and insulating behavior for the out-of-plane resistivity; We also construct a spatially isotropic black brane solution that both the linear-T and quadratic-T contributions to the resistivity can be realized.

  18. Electrical conductivity of the global ocean (United States)

    Tyler, Robert H.; Boyer, Tim P.; Minami, Takuto; Zweng, Melissa M.; Reagan, James R.


    The electrical conductivity of the ocean is a fundamental parameter in the electrodynamics of the Earth System. This parameter is involved in a number of applications ranging from the calibration of in situ ocean flow meters, through extensions of traditional induction studies, and into quite new opportunities involving the remote sensing of ocean flow and properties from space-borne magnetometers such as carried aboard the three satellites of the Swarm mission launched in 2013. Here, the first ocean conductivity data set calculated directly from observed temperature and salinity measurements is provided. These data describe the globally gridded, three-dimensional mean conductivity as well as seasonal variations, and the statistics of spatial and seasonal variations are shown. This "climatology" data set of ocean conductivity is offered as a standard reference similar to the ocean temperature and salinity climatologies that have long been available.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  20. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.


    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  1. Electrical Conductivity Calculations from the Purgatorio Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S B; Isaacs, W A; Sterne, P A; Wilson, B G; Sonnad, V; Young, D A


    The Purgatorio code [Wilson et al., JQSRT 99, 658-679 (2006)] is a new implementation of the Inferno model describing a spherically symmetric average atom embedded in a uniform plasma. Bound and continuum electrons are treated using a fully relativistic quantum mechanical description, giving the electron-thermal contribution to the equation of state (EOS). The free-electron density of states can also be used to calculate scattering cross sections for electron transport. Using the extended Ziman formulation, electrical conductivities are then obtained by convolving these transport cross sections with externally-imposed ion-ion structure factors.

  2. Evaluation of Cow Milk Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gavan


    Full Text Available The efficiency of subclinical mastitis diagnosis using an electrical conductivity (EC meter was evaluated in the dairy farm of Agricultural Research and Development Station ( ARDS Simnic Craiova. The results were compared with those obtained by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the Somatic Cell Count (SCC.The milk quarter samples ( 1176 from Holstein Friesian cows were analyzed between September and December 2015. The EC evaluation with  the EC meter  ,showed a high proportion of results differing from SCC and CMT results. The CMT still shows to be the most accessible and efficient test in comparison to the EC meter tested.

  3. Electrical Conductivity of milk: ability to predict mastitis status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norberg, E.; Hogeveen, H.; Korsgaard, I.R.; Friggens, N.C.; Sloth, K.H.M.N.; Lovendahl, P.


    Electrical conductivity (EC) of milk has been introduced as an indicator trait for mastitis over the last decade, and it may be considered as a potential trait in a breeding program where selection for improved udder health is included. In this study, various EC traits were investigated for their

  4. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection. (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni


    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, N.; McCarron, E.M.; McQuillan, B.W.; Thompson, T.E.


    A set of novel first stage graphite salts of general formula C{sub 8}{sup +}MF{sub 6}{sup -} has been prepared (M = Os, Ir, As). Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these salts are hexagonal with a {approx} 4.9 and c {approx} 8.1 {angstrom}. The unit cell volume indicates that the anions are closely packed in the galleries. Platinum hexafluoride, which is the most powerful oxidizer of the third transition series, forms a first stage compound, which analytical, structural, and magnetic studies establish as C{sub 12}{sup 2+}PtF{sub 6}{sup 2-}. In this salt the anions are not close packed, but the electron withdrawal from the graphite planes is greater than for the C{sub 8}{sup +}MF{sub 6}{sup -} series. The variation in the electrical conductivity (in the a-b plane), as a function of composition, has been investigated with the OsF{sub 6}, IrF{sub 6}, PtF{sub 6} and AsF{sub 5} intercalates. For OsF{sub 6} and IrF{sub 6}, the conductance per plane of graphite is found to be a maximum at approximately C{sub 24}MF{sub 6} (second stage); the conductivity being an order of magnitude greater than that of the parent material. Intercalation beyond C{sub 24}MF{sub 6} leads to a marked decrease in conductivity. C{sub 8}MF{sub 6} is comparable in conductivity with the parent graphite. This behavior contrasts with the graphite/AsF{sub 5} system in which a steady increase in conductance per graphite plane with increasing AsF{sub 5} content is observed. For the PtF{sub 6} system, the second as well as the first stage materials are poorly conducting.

  6. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dry olivine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, W L; Roberts, J J; Toffelmier, D A; Tyburczy, J A


    [1] The electrical conductivity ({sigma}) was measured for a single crystal of San Carlos olivine (Fo{sub 89.1}) for all three principal orientations over oxygen fugacities 10{sup -7} < fO{sub 2} < 10{sup 1} Pa at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Fe-doped Pt electrodes were used in conjunction with a conservative range of fO{sub 2}, T, and time to reduce Fe loss resulting in data that is {approx}0.15 log units higher in conductivity than previous studies. At 1200 C and fO{sub 2} = 10{sup -1} Pa, {sigma}{sub [100]} = 10{sup -2.27} S/m, {sigma}{sub [010]} = 10{sup -2.49} S/m, {sigma}{sub [001]} = 10{sup -2.40} S/m. The dependences of {sigma} on T and fO{sub 2} have been simultaneously modeled with undifferentiated mixed conduction of small polarons and Mg vacancies to obtain steady-state fO{sub 2}-independent activation energies: Ea{sub [100]} = 0.32 eV, Ea{sub [010]} = 0.56 eV, Ea{sub [001]} = 0.71 eV. A single crystal of dry olivine would provide a maximum of {approx}10{sup 0.4} S/m azimuthal {sigma} contrast for T < 1500 C. The anisotropic results are combined to create an isotropic model with Ea = 0.53 eV.

  7. Measuring electric conductivity with modified light sensors (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa


    To obtain spatially distributed time series of electric conductivity (EC) of stream water we needed robust, reliable and low cost EC sensors with data logging and storage capacity. We modified the Onset temperature + light sensors and replaced their light detector with a simple setup to measure EC. Each sensor was calibrated individually. The raw data has to be adjusted for temperature effects and can then be recalculated into EC of the water with a calibration function. The final measurement accuracy varied little at lower ECs (+- 5 µS/cm at 0 - 200 µS/cm) and increased for higher ECs (+- 50µS/cm at 1000µs/cm). Measurements were possible until 3000 µS/cm with the 'best' data quality between 0 and 600µS/cm. 95 thus modified sensors are currently employed in streams of the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). In addition to stream EC data, dry periods of streams could also be easily detected with the modified sensors, as extremely low EC values indicate periods of no flow.

  8. Magneto-acousto-electrical measurement based electrical conductivity reconstruction for tissues. (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong


    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magneto-electrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall Effect and magneto-electrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a 3-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for non-dispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for non-destructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  9. A comparative study of electrode effects on the electrical and luminescent characteristics of Alq{sub 3}/TPD OLED: Improvements due to conductive polymer (PEDOT) anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Li, W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Steckl, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Klotzkin, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States)]. E-mail:


    The performance of organic light emitting device (OLED) structures, based on identically fabricated Alq{sub 3}/TPD active regions, with various anode and cathode electrode structures are compared, and performance differences related to the different anode structure. The best performance was achieved with a conductive polymer, 3,4-polyethylenedioxythiopene-polystyrenesultonate (PEDOT), used as an anode layer, yielding a brightness of 1720 cd/m{sup 2} at 25 V, a turn-on voltage of 3 V, and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 8.2 cd/A and 2%, respectively, at a brightness of 100 cd/m{sup 2} and 5 V. Compared to a baseline device (TPD/Alq{sub 3}/Al), PEDOT anodes substantially reduce the turn-on voltage and made current injection almost linear after turn-on, whiles devices incorporating a LiF and CuPc layers significantly improved device efficiency while slightly improving turn-on voltage and maintaining superlinear I-V injection. This is attributed to the reduced barrier at the organic-organic interface in PEDOT, the 'ladder' effect of stepping the band offset over several interfaces, and the favorable PEDOT film morphology. The benefit of the PEDOT anode is clearly seen in the improvement in device brightness and the high external quantum efficiency obtained.

  10. Electronic structure design for nanoporous, electrically conductive zeolitic imidazolate frameworks


    Butler, Keith T.; Worrall, Stephen D.; Molloy, Christopher D.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A.W.; Walsh, Aron


    Electronic structure calculations are used to develop design rules for enhanced electrical conductivity in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. The electrical resistivity of Co2+ based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks has previously been found to be ∼1000 times lower than that of Zn2+ based materials. The electrical conductivity of the frameworks can also be tuned by ligand molecule selection. Using density functional theory calculations, this controllable electrical conductivity is explained in t...

  11. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  12. Electrical conductivity of nanostructured and C60-modified aluminum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zameshin, Andrey; Popov, M.; Medvedev, Viacheslav; Perfilov, S.; Lomakin, R.; Buga, S.; Denisov, V.; Kirichenko, A.; Skryleva, E.; Tatyanin, E.; Aksenenkov, V.; Blank, V.


    In this paper, we study the electrical conductivity of nanostructured C60-modified aluminum, and the possibility of optimizing its electrical and mechanical properties. The model proposed allows estimating the electrical conductivity of the material at low surface filling factor. A number of samples

  13. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    for the electrical and thermal conductivities of the doped polymers it was observed that both conductivities .... ceramic insulators when very hot may conduct quite well. The more ... Doping also lead to the formation of polarons and bipolarons ...

  14. Electrically conducting nanobiocomposites using carbon nanotubes and collagen waste fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiyazhagan, Ashokkumar; Thangavel, Saravanamoorthy [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Center for Leather Apparel & Accessories Development, Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Hashim, Daniel P.; Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Palanisamy, Thanikaivelan, E-mail: [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Center for Leather Apparel & Accessories Development, Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)


    Electrically conducting hybrid biocomposite films were prepared using a simple and cost-effective method by incorporating different types of carbon nanotubes (XCNTs) viz., few walled carbon nanotube (FWCNT) and boron doped carbon nanotube (BCNT) into biopolymers. Collagen extracted from animal skin wastes was blended with guar gum and XCNTs in varying proportions to form flexible and electrically conducting hybrid films. We found that the electrical conductivity of both types of hybrid films increases radically as the XCNT loading increases. BCNT incorporated hybrid films show better electrical conductivity (3.0 × 10{sup −1} S/cm) than their FWCNT loaded counter parts (4.8 × 10{sup −4} S/cm) at a dosage of 2 wt.%. On the other hand, mechanical and other physical properties such as transparency, flexibility and surface smoothness of the developed hybrid films were affected as a function of XCNT concentration. We also demonstrated that the developed hybrid films lit up a LED lamp when inserted between batteries and the brightness of the emitted light depended on the XCNT loading. These results suggest a new way to transform an industrial biowaste into innovative advanced materials for applications in fields related to biomedicine, biosensors and electronics. - Highlights: • Hybrid nanobiocomposite films prepared using collagen, guar gum and CNTs. • Examined the effect of CNT doping on the properties of hybrid biocomposite films. • Higher CNT loading improved the conductivity radically, especially for BCNT. • The ability of developed hybrid films to lit up a LED lamp was demonstrated. • The results suggest a new way to transform biowaste into advanced materials.

  15. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P


    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  16. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB


    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  17. Electrically Conductive, Heat-Resistant Paint (United States)

    Hribar, V. F.; Mell, R. J.


    Improved, sprayable, thermal- and electrostatic-discharge-control coating for titanium possesses excellent adhesion and high resistance to both vibration and thermal shock. Coating is improved formulation of one described in "High-Temperature Coatings for Titanium" (NPO-16222).

  18. Electrical conduction in graphene and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shigeji


    Written in a self-contained manner, this textbook allows both advanced students and practicing applied physicists and engineers to learn the relevant aspects from the bottom up. All logical steps are laid out without omitting steps.The book covers electrical transport properties in carbon based materials by dealing with statistical mechanics of carbon nanotubes and graphene ? presenting many fresh and sometimes provoking views. Both second quantization and superconductivity are covered and discussed thoroughly. An extensive list of references is given in the end of each chapter, while derivati

  19. Method of imaging the electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy C.


    A method of imaging electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface containing metallic structures with known locations and dimensions is disclosed. Current is injected into the subsurface to measure electrical potentials using multiple sets of electrodes, thus generating electrical resistivity tomography measurements. A numeric code is applied to simulate the measured potentials in the presence of the metallic structures. An inversion code is applied that utilizes the electrical resistivity tomography measurements and the simulated measured potentials to image the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution and remove effects of the subsurface metallic structures with known locations and dimensions.

  20. Rapid and Effective Electrical Conductivity Improvement of the Ag NW-Based Conductor by Using the Laser-Induced Nano-Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Lee


    Full Text Available To date, the silver nanowire-based conductor has been widely used for flexible/stretchable electronics due to its several advantages. The optical nanowire annealing process has also received interest as an alternative annealing process to the Ag nanowire (NW-based conductor. In this study, we present an analytical investigation on the phenomena of the Ag NWs’ junction and welding properties under laser exposure. The two different laser-induced welding processes (nanosecond (ns pulse laser-induced nano-welding (LINW and continuous wave (cw scanning LINW are applied to the Ag NW percolation networks. The Ag NWs are selectively melted and merged at the junction of Ag NWs under very short laser exposure; these results are confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, focused-ion beam (FIB, electrical measurement, and finite difference time domain (FDTD simulation.

  1. Establishing a conversion factor between electrical conductivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 4, 2015 ... Total dissolved solids (TDS, in mg/ℓ) can be estimated from measurements of electrical conductivity at 25°C (EC, in µS/cm) by applying a conversion factor ... monly based on electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, using a conversion factor ...... situ estimation of total dissolved solids. J. Am. Water Works ...

  2. Application of electrical conductivity to predict field strength for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ground electrical conductivity in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria, has been measured using electrical resistivity method. The Wenner arrangement of electrodes was used for the measurement. Results obtained show that the average ground conductivity for different soil types in the state is 3.02±0.29mS/m. This value ...

  3. Measurement of salinity and electrical conductivity of some soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity and electrical conductivity of some selected soil samples from Uruan Local government area of Akwa Ibom state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria were measured. The results show that an increase in salinity gives rise to an increase in electrical conductivity. The salinities of the area under study falls within the ...

  4. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther


    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  5. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device (United States)

    Watson, Heather Christine [Dublin, CA; Roberts, Jeffrey James [Livermore, CA


    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  6. Utilization of the computational technique to improve the thermophysical performance in the transportation of an electrically conducting Al2O3 - Ag/H2O hybrid nanofluid (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Azhar, Ehtsham; Maraj, E. N.


    In this study, we analyzed the induced magnetic field effect on stagnation-point flow of a Al2O3-Ag/water hybrid nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Hybrid nanofluid, a new type of conventional fluid has been used for enhancement of heat transfer within boundary layer flow. It is notable here that only 1% to 5% contribution of nanoparticles enhance thermal conductivity of water. Nonlinear governing equations are simplified into boundary layer equations under boundary layer approximation assumption. A coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equation is transformed into a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equation by implementing suitable similarity conversions. Numerical analysis is performed by means of Keller box scheme. Effects of different non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, induced magnetic field and temperature profiles, along with skinfriction coefficient and local Nusselt number, are discussed and presented through graphs and tables. Hybrid nanofluid is considered by keeping the 0.1% volumetric fraction of silver. From this study it is observed that the heat transfer rate of hybrid nanofluid (Al2O3-Ag/water) is higher than nanofluid (Ag/water). Novel results computed are useful in academic studies of hybrid nanofluids in engineering and industry.

  7. Reactive sputtering of electrically conducting tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P. (Univ. of Tech., Loughborough (UK)); Barankova, H. (Inst. of Chemical Tech., Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Spencer, A.G. (Vacuum Coating Group, Loughborough Consultants Ltd. (UK))


    Tin was sputtered from a d.c. planar magnetron target in a confined volume. Stability was maintained in the reactive sputtering by controlling the oxygen partial pressure through observation of the light emitted by the oxygen in the plasma of the magnetron. The material deposited on the walls of the chamber was used to getter the system of impurities. The oxygen consumption at the set point was a good indication of the approach to stoichiometry of the film. It was observed that transparent conducting films were prepared at the point where the oxygen consumption indicated a break from full incorporation into the growing film. Films there had a resistivity of 100 {mu}{Omega} m for a 600 {Omega}/square sheet resistance, a thickness of about 150 nm. (orig.).

  8. Synthesis of novel electrically conducting polymers: Potential conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films and conducting polymers on defined surfaces (United States)

    Zimmer, Hans


    Based on previous results involving thiophene derived electrically conducting polymers in which it was shown that thiophene, 3-substituted thiophenes, furans, and certain oligomers of these compounds showed electrical conductivity after polymerization. The conductivity was in the order of up to 500 S/cm. In addition, these polymers showed conductivity without being doped and most of all they were practically inert toward ambient conditions. They even could be used in aqueous media. With these findings as a guide, a number of 3-long-chain-substituted thiophenes and 1-substituted-3-long-chain substituted pyrrols were synthesized as monomers for potential polymeric electrically conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  10. Recyclable and electrically conducting carbon nanotube composite films (United States)

    Zou, Guifu; Jain, Menka; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Yingying; Williams, Darrick; Jia, Quanxi


    Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite films possess unique electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In particular, some research has shown that CNT-polymer composite films greatly enhance the performance of organic light-emitting diodes. Therefore, CNT composite films have been intensively fabricated and applied. However, recent research has shown that CNTs carry carcinogenic risks in vivo. Therefore, how to collect and treat damaged or trashed CNT composite films are considerable tasks for scientists working in this area. From the viewpoint of environmental protection and saving resources, recycling the CNT composite films is the most efficient way to solve these problems. Here, we employ a benign water-soluble polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to disperse CNTs and a general spin-coating process to prepare the homogeneous CNT composite films. The prepared CNT composite films exhibit good water-soluble properties and recyclability, i.e. they can be formed and dissolved in water. In addition, the long CNTs and high loading in the PEI matrix facilitates good electric conductivity in these CNT composite films. A significant improvement in the conductivity of the composite films is observed as the concentration of CNTs in the PEI increases, reaching as high as 43.73 S cm-1 when the CNT concentration is equal to 3%.

  11. Grain boundary dominated electrical conductivity in ultrananocrystalline diamond (United States)

    Wiora, Neda; Mertens, Michael; Brühne, Kai; Fecht, Hans-Jörg; Tran, Ich C.; Willey, Trevor; van Buuren, Anthony; Biener, Jürgen; Lee, Jun-Sik


    N-type electrically conductive ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique with a gas mixture of H2, CH4 and NH3. Depending on the deposition temperature and ammonia feed gas concentration, which serves as a nitrogen source, room temperature electrical conductivities in the order of 10-2 to 5 × 101 S/cm and activation energies in the meV range were achieved. In order to understand the origin of the enhanced electrical conductivity and clarify the role of ammonia addition to the process gas, a set of UNCD films was grown by systematically varying the ammonia gas phase concentration. These samples were analyzed with respect to their morphology and electrical properties as well as their carbon and nitrogen bonding environments. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity measurements (300-1200 K) show that the electrical conductivity of the samples increases with temperature. The near edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the electrical conductivity of the UNCD films does not correlate directly with ammonia addition, but depends on the total amount of sp2 bonded carbon in the deposited films.

  12. Effect of Ligament Morphology on Electrical Conductivity of Porous Silver (United States)

    Zuruzi, Abu Samah; Mazulianawati, Majid Siti


    We investigate the effect of ligament morphology on electrical conductivity of open cell porous silver (Ag). Porous Ag was formed when silver nanoparticles in an organic phase were annealed at 150°C for durations ranging from 1 to 5 min. Electrical conductivity of porous Ag was about 20% of bulk value after 5 min annealing. Porous Ag was modeled as a collection of Kelvin cell (truncated octahedrons) structures comprised of conjoined conical ligaments and spherical vertices. An analytical expression for electrical conductivity was obtained. Electrical conductivity normal to hexagonal faces of the unit cell was computed. Our model indicates contribution of grain boundary to electrical resistance increases significantly after the first minute of annealing and plateaus thereafter. Using experimental electrical conductivity data as an input, the model suggests that the ratio, n, of surfaces of one half of a conjoined cone ligament is between 0.7 and 1.0. Average deviation from experimentally determined relative electrical conductivity, Δ σ r, was minimal when n = 0.9.


    This report describes the development of high thermal conductivity electrical embedding compounds utilizing a technique wherein the mold is first...Contained herein, are the pertinent results of a previously reported study which led to the development of three high thermal conductivity compounds...and the further development of several additional compounds with still higher conductivities. (Author)

  14. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  15. Electrical Resistivity Survey For Conductive Soils At Gas Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were carried out to delineate subsurface conductive soils for the design of earthling grid for electrical materials installation at the Gas Turbine Station, Ajaokuta, SW Nigeria. Interpretation of the resistivity data revealed three major geoelectric ...

  16. Cardiac fibrillation risks with TASER conducted electrical weapons. (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Kroll, Mark; Brave, Michael


    The TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon (CEW) delivers electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects. We analyzed the cardiac fibrillation risk with TASER CEWs. Our risk model accounted for realistic body mass index distributions, used a new model of effects of partial or oblique dart penetration and used recent epidemiological CEW statics.

  17. Ground electrical conductivity for medium wave activities over Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical properties remain a useful tool for most applications in engineering and communication, therefore, reliability and precision is highly required in their determination. Ground electrical conductivity as a function of signal frequency has been determined at Ilorin during the dry and the wet seasons. The study ...

  18. Measurement of Electrical Conductivity for a Biomass Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron


    Full Text Available A controlled fire burner was constructed where various natural vegetation species could be used as fuel. The burner was equipped with thermocouples to measure fuel surface temperature and used as a cavity for microwaves with a laboratory quality 2- port vector network analyzer to determine electrical conductivity from S-parameters. Electrical conductivity for vegetation material flames is important for numerical prediction of flashover in high voltage power transmission faults research. Vegetation fires that burn under high voltage transmission lines reduce flashover voltage by increasing air electrical conductivity and temperature. Analyzer determined electrical conductivity ranged from 0.0058 - 0.0079 mho/m for a fire with a maximum temperature of 1240 K.

  19. Potential of mean force for electrical conductivity of dense plasmas (United States)

    Starrett, C. E.


    The electrical conductivity in dense plasmas can be calculated with the relaxation-time approximation provided that the interaction potential between the scattering electron and the ion is known. To date there has been considerable uncertainty as to the best way to define this interaction potential so that it correctly includes the effects of ionic structure, screening by electrons and partial ionization. Current approximations lead to significantly different results with varying levels of agreement when compared to bench-mark calculations and experiments. We present a new way to define this potential, drawing on ideas from classical fluid theory to define a potential of mean force. This new potential results in significantly improved agreement with experiments and bench-mark calculations, and includes all the aforementioned physics self-consistently.

  20. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael


    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  1. Evaluating the Mechanical Properties of Tomato Based on Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi


    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of agricultural products plays an important role in equipment design and optimizing post-harvest operations. Among the crops, tomato and its products are the major processing industries in the world and its economic importance is increasing. Considering the importance of the quality and various post harvesting uses of tomato, the evaluation of mechanical properties including rupture force and deformation and the work done to establish the rupture of two tomato cultivars (Petoearly CH and Newton were studied under penetration test based on the electrical conductivity. These properties were measured at three levels of 1, 3 and 5 days after harvesting. The evaluated mechanical properties of both cultivars were decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time were significant at the 1% level, for all mechanical parameters except the deformation failure in both cultivars. The electrical conductivity of both cultivars was decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time on the electrical conductivity of both cultivars were significant at the 1% level. Significant relationships were found at the 1% level between electrical conductivity and mechanical properties except for deformation of Petoearly CH cultivar. Among the mechanical parameters, rupture forces and rupture works of both cultivars were highly correlated with the electrical conductivity.

  2. Effect of Plasma-Nitric Acid Treatment on the Electrical Conductivity of Flexible Transparent Conductive Films (United States)

    Phuong Pham, Viet; Jo, Young Woo; Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Soo Min; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Sung Hee; Jhon, Myung S.; Yeom, Geun Young


    A flexible transparent electrically conductive film (FTCF) was formed on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by spraying single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate in water and, to improve the electrical conductivity of FTCF, the effect on plasma treatment followed by nitric acid treatment was investigated. The Ar plasma treatment was effective in dissociating the surfactant and removing impurities attached to the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Therefore, through a cyclic treatment composed of an Ar plasma treatment and nitric acid treatment, more effective removal of surfactant and impurities attached to the spray-coated CNTs could be obtained than a cyclic treatment without the plasma treatment. With the optimized cyclic treatment, the sheet resistance (Ωs) of the spray-coated CNTs could be decreased up to 45% by removing most of the surfactant and impurities. Using the repeated cyclic treatment, the FTCF having the Ωs of 160 Ω/square at 81.5% optical transmittance at the wavelength of 550 nm could be obtained.

  3. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.


    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  4. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    application was compressed in a wooden mold to form tablets of the doped polymers. On testing for the electrical and thermal conductivities of the doped polymers it was observed that both conductivities were greatly enhanced as the concentrations of the dopants increased. Hence it is evident that those polymeric materials ...

  5. Evaluation of electrical and thermal conductivity of polymeric wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixture on melting with heat application was compressed in a wooden mold to form tablets of the doped polymers. On testing for the electrical and thermal conductivities of the doped polymers it was observed that both conductivities were greatly enhanced as the concentrations of the dopants increased. Hence it is ...

  6. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.


    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  7. Model for electrical conductivity of muscle meat during Ohmic heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.


    A model is presented for predicting the electrical conductivity of muscle meat, which can be used for the evaluation of Ohmic heating. The model computes the conductivity as a function of composition, temperature and microstructure. The muscle meat is thought to be composed of protein, water, salt.

  8. Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration measurements using a double-ring infiltrometer were conducted on a sandy-loam soil located in Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed for an undisturbed soil. The effect of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electric conductivity (EC) of the applied water on infiltration rate was examined. The infiltration ...

  9. Investigation of the electrical characteristics of electrically conducting yarns and fabrics (United States)

    Akbarov, R. D.; Baymuratov, B. H.; Akbarov, D. N.; Ilhamova, M.


    Electro-conductive textile materials and products are used presently giving solutions to the problems, related to static electricity, electromagnetic shielding and electromagnetic radiation. Thus a study of their electro-physical characteristics, character of conductivity, possibility of forecasting of electric parameters etc has a substantial value. This work shows the possibility of production electro-conducting textile materials with stable anti-static properties by introduction of electro-conducting yarn into the structure of fabrics. The results of the research, directed to the study of the electro-physical characteristics of electroconducting yarn and fabrics, are influenced by the frequent washing of polyester fabrics containing the different amounts of electro-conducting filaments in the composition. This article reviews the results of the related research, of the electrical characteristics of the yarn and fabric, of the effect of multiple water treatments on the electrical properties of polyester fabrics, containing in their composition different amounts of electrically conductive yarns.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of electrical conducting chitosan-graft-polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A mucopolysaccharide, chitosan was grafted with polyaniline through oxidative-radical copolymerization using ammonium persulfate in acidic medium. The grafting conditions were extensively studied by varying grafting parameters. All the findings have been discussed and proposed a plausible mechanism for the graft copolymerization. The representative chitosan-graft-polyaniline (Ch-g-PANI was characterized using UV-vis, FTIR, TGA, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy taking chitosan as reference. Ch-g-PANI exhibited electrical conductivity, which increases with the extent of grafting onto chitosan backbone. Its electrical conductivity is further influenced by pH and showed pH switching electrical conduction behavior when exposed to NN3/HCl vapors. The application of conducting biomaterial such as Ch-g-PANI in the electronic devices especially for the fabrication of sensor devices would be attractive not only in terms of product cost and environmental safety but also from a materials science point of view.

  11. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite (United States)

    Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio


    A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.

  12. Electrical conduction mechanism and improved multiferroic properties of NFO/ (Pb{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}) TiO{sub 3} bilayer nanostructure composite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Kanchan, E-mail:; Ram, Mast; Sharma, Hakikat; Negi, N. S. [Department of Physics Himachal Pradesh University Shimla-171005 India (India)


    Multiferroic 2-2 type layered NFO/ (Pb{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}) TiO{sub 3} composite thin film on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Si substrate was prepared by novel metallo-Organic process using spin coating technique. The structural and surface morphology were confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) atomic force microscope (AFM). Significantly improved ferroelectric properties (P{sub s} ∼ 8.69, P{sub r} ∼ 3.19 µC/cm{sup 2} and E{sub c} ∼ 419kV/cm) and magnetic properties (Ms), (M{sub r}) and (H{sub c}) is (104emu/cc, 0.8emu/cc and 25Oe.) were observed at room temperature. Our observation provides an effective way to manipulate the conduction behavior to understand the leakage current density of multiferroic composites film at the interface. Poole–Frankel tunneling conduction mechanism dominates the leakage current of films in the relatively high electric filed.

  13. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro


    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  14. Adaptation of electrical conductivity test for Moringa oleifera seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza de Souza Medeiros


    Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt and test the efficiency of electrical conductivity methodology test in quality evaluation of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds. For physiological characterization four seed sets were evaluated by tests of germination, seedlings emergency, speed of emergency index, emergency first count, seedlings length and dry mass and cold test. The electrical conductivity test was carried out at 25 °C for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h of immersion in 75 or 125 mL of distilled water using 25 or 50 seeds. A completely randomized design was used. The best results were obtained when using 50 seeds immersed in 75 mL or 125 mL of distilled water for 4 h. The electrical conductivity test adapted to moringa seeds was efficient in ranking sets of different vigor levels. The test may be efficiently used for physiological quality evaluation of moringa seeds.

  15. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields (United States)

    Chegel, Raad


    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  16. Electrically Conductive Multiphase Polymer Blend Carbon-Based Composites (United States)

    Brigandi, Paul J.

    Electrically conductive polymer composites consisting of conductive fillers dispersed in polymer systems continue to attract increasing research. Multiphase polymer blends provide unique morphologies to reduce the percolation concentration and increase conductivity of carbon-based polymer composites. The goal of this research is to further the current understanding of electrically conductive ternary polymer blends. The overall purpose is to leverage this work to design composite materials that achieve increased conductivity at reduced conductive filler loadings that can be extended to applications requiring conductivity and a balance of additional properties. The first part of this research investigated the kinetic and thermodynamic effects on a series of multiphase conductive polymer composites. The electrical conductivity and phase morphology of a carbon black (CB) filled polypropylene (PP)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/ethylene acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) ternary polymer blend was determined as a function of compounding sequence and annealing time. The phase morphology and conductivity at short annealing times were influenced by the compounding sequence; however, they were thermodynamically driven at longer annealing times. The resistivity was found to decrease by a statistically significant amount to similar levels for all of the composite systems with increasing annealing time. The increase in conductivity at longer annealing times was determined to be the result of changes in the phase morphology from sea-island, dispersed microstructure to a tri-continuous morphology. The second part of this research studied the influence of CB and multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) conductive fillers with different colloidal properties on the phase morphology, electrical properties, and rheological behavior in the PP/PMMA/EAA ternary polymer blend. A PP/PMMA/(EAA-CNT) system was compared to two different PP/PMMA/(EAA-CB) systems. The critical electrical percolation

  17. Instrumentation development for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Rhodes, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.


    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity non-destructive inspection methodology for polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. We use electrical impedance tomography to image the conductivity in the diamond table. In this paper we report on progress in preparing this instrument for factory deployment. Instrument enhancements include an adjustable part holder, a field-swappable sensor and GPU-enabled software capable of rapidly acquiring images.

  18. Electrically conducting porphyrin and porphyrin-fullerene electropolymers (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony; Gervaldo, Miguel Andres; Bridgewater, James Ward; Brennan, Bradley James; Moore, Thomas Andrew; Moore, Ana Lorenzelli


    Compounds with aryl ring(s) at porphyrin meso position(s) bearing an amino group in position 4 relative to the porphyrin macrocycle, and at least one unsubstituted 5 (hydrogen-bearing) meso position with the 10-, 15-, and/or 20-relationship to the aryl ring bearing the amino group, and metal complexes thereof, feature broad spectral absorption throughout the visible region. These compounds are electropolymerized to form electrically conducting porphyrin and porphyrin-fullerene polymers that are useful in photovoltaic applications. The structure of one such electrically conducting porphyrin polymer is shown below. ##STR00001##

  19. Thermodynamic properties and electrical conductivity of strongly correlated plasma media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V S; Levashov, P R; BoTan, A V; Fortov, V E [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13 bldg 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany)


    We study thermodynamic properties and the electrical conductivity of dense hydrogen and deuterium using three methods: classical reactive Monte Carlo, direct path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and a quantum dynamics method in the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics. We report the calculation of the deuterium compression quasi-isentrope in good agreement with experiments. We also solve the Wigner-Liouville equation of dense degenerate hydrogen calculating the initial equilibrium state by the PIMC method. The obtained particle trajectories determine the momentum-momentum correlation functions and the electrical conductivity and are compared with available theories and simulations.

  20. TNFα Modulates Cardiac Conduction by Altering Electrical Coupling between Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. George


    Full Text Available Background: Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα upregulation during acute inflammatory response has been associated with numerous cardiac effects including modulating Connexin43 and vascular permeability. This may in turn alter cardiac gap junctional (GJ coupling and extracellular volume (ephaptic coupling respectively. We hypothesized that acute exposure to pathophysiological TNFα levels can modulate conduction velocity (CV in the heart by altering electrical coupling: GJ and ephaptic.Methods and Results: Hearts were optically mapped to determine CV from control, TNFα and TNFα + high calcium (2.5 vs. 1.25 mM treated guinea pig hearts over 90 mins. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to measure changes in intercellular separation in the gap junction-adjacent extracellular nanodomain—perinexus (WP. Cx43 expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting and Cx43 distribution by confocal immunofluorescence. At 90 mins, longitudinal and transverse CV (CVL and CVT, respectively increased with control Tyrode perfusion but TNFα slowed CVT alone relative to control and anisotropy of conduction increased, but not significantly. TNFα increased WP relative to control at 90 mins, without significantly changing GJ coupling. Increasing extracellular calcium after 30 mins of just TNFα exposure increased CVT within 15 mins. TNFα + high calcium also restored CVT at 90 mins and reduced WP to control values. Interestingly, TNFα + high calcium also improved GJ coupling at 90 mins, which along with reduced WP may have contributed to increasing CV.Conclusions: Elevating extracellular calcium during acute TNFα exposure reduces perinexal expansion, increases ephaptic, and GJ coupling, improves CV and may be a novel method for preventing inflammation induced CV slowing.

  1. Improving the Quality of Electric Energy to Electric Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Ioan Toma


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of power quality problems created by an electric arc furnace (EAF with eccentric bottom tap (EBT at power system. The analysis have been done to EAF of 100 t capacity used for steel melting. Experimental results show this EAF is substantial source of electric disturbances, such as voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and unbalance between phases. Improvement of the quality of electric energy at EAF imposes a careful technical and economical analysis. Of all possible solutions for improvement of the power quality for an EAF (passive filter, STATCOM or SVC, SVC is the ideal solution.

  2. Osteoblast function on electrically conductive electrospun PLA/MWCNTs nanofibers. (United States)

    Shao, Shijun; Zhou, Shaobing; Li, Long; Li, Jinrong; Luo, Chao; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Xiaohong; Weng, Jie


    The electrospinning process was utilized successfully to fabricate the random oriented and aligned electrically conductive nanofibers of biodegradable poly-DL-lactide (PLA) in which multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded. The topographical features of the composite nanofibers were characterized by SEM. The dispersion and alignment of MWCNTs in nanofiber matrix were observed by TEM. The in vitro degradation was characterized in terms of the morphological change, the mass loss and the reduction of polymer molecular weight as well as the decrease of pH value of degradation media. In particular, these conductive nanofiber meshes offered a unique system to study the synergistic effect of topographic cues and electrical stimulation on osteoblasts outgrowth as a way of exploring their potential application in bone tissue engineering. The results of obsteoblasts assay unstimulated showed that the aligned nanofibers as topographic cues could enhance the extension and direct the outgrowth of obsteoblasts better than random fibers. In the presence of direct current (DC) of 100 μA, the obsteoblasts on all samples grew along the electrical current direction. The cellular elongation and proliferation were mainly dependent on the electrical stimulation whereas the topographical features played a minor role in them. Therefore, electrical stimulation with an appropriate DC value imparted on conductive substrate had great potential in application of bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiment of electrical conductivity at low temperature (preliminary measurement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.


    A muon collider needs very large amount of RF power, how to reduce the RF power consumption is of major concern. Thus the application of liquid nitrogen cooling has been proposed. However, it is known that the electrical conductivity depends on many factors and the data from different sources vary in a wide range, especially the data of conductivity of beryllium has no demonstration in a real application. Therefore it is important to know the conductivity of materials, which are commercially available, and at a specified frequency. Here, the results of the preliminary measurement on the electrical conductivity of copper at liquid nitrogen temperature are summarized. Addressed also are the data fitting method and the linear expansion of copper.

  4. Minimum Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Graphene: A Quasiclassical Approach


    Trushin, Maxim; Schliemann, John


    We investigate the minimum conductivity of graphene within a quasiclassical approach taking into account electron-hole coherence effects which stem from the chiral nature of low energy excitations. Relying on an analytical solution of the kinetic equation in the electron-hole coherent and incoherent cases we study both the electrical and thermal conductivity whose relation fullfills Wiedemann-Franz law. We found that the most of the previous findings based on the Boltzmann equation are restri...

  5. Contactless Quality Monitoring Sensor Based on Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin SATZ


    Full Text Available A first prototype of a contactless conductivity sensor for AdBlue® quality monitoring is presented. Based on a detailed sensor mode analysis it is shown that capacitive sensors can be designed to sense electrical liquid conductivity. The sensor design process is based on a sensor model, which allows simulating capacitive senor responses for arbitrary electrode and liquid tank geometries. Finally, temperature induced errors are estimated.

  6. D.C. electrical conductivity measurements on ADP single crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    exceed 10–2 so that in real cases with concentration of in- terstitials of the order of 1015–1020 cm–3, (1–f) ≈ 1 (Bunget and Popescu 1984). The electrical conduction in (NH4)H2PO4 crystals can be understood as due to proton as in the case of KH2PO4. The conduction is mainly due to the anions, viz. (H2PO4)–1.

  7. Electrical Conductivity Measurements in Reacting Metastable Intermolecular Composites (United States)

    Asay, B. W.; Tasker, D. G.; King, J. C.; Sanders, V. E.; Son, S. F.


    Metastable Intermolecular Composite (MIC) materials are comprised of a mixture of oxidizer and fuel with particle sizes in the nanometer range. To better understand the reaction mechanisms of burning MIC materials, dynamic electrical conductivity measurements have been performed on a MIC material for the first time. Simultaneous optical measurements of the wave front position have shown that the reaction and conduction fronts are coincident within 160 μm. Unlike detonating high explosives (HE) where the conductivity profile is represented by an initial peak followed by an exponential decay of conductivity, the MIC conductivity profile is a gradual, irregular ramp which increases from zero over many microseconds. This suggests that the reaction zone thickness is different in MICs compared to detonating HE. Static measurements of conductivity of pressed MIC pellets suggest that the conduction is associated with chemical reaction in the MIC.

  8. Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Behavior, and Seebeck Coefficient of Conductive Films for Printed Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems (United States)

    Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Menon, Akanksha K.; Iezzi, Brian; Yee, Shannon K.; Losego, Mark D.; Jur, Jesse S.


    Printed electronics is being explored as a rapid, facile means for manufacturing thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that can recover useful electrical energy from waste heat. This work examines the relevant electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, thermovoltage, and Seebeck coefficient of printed films for use in such printed flexible TEGs. The thermoelectric performance of TEGs printed using commercially relevant nickel, silver, and carbon inks is evaluated. The microstructure of the printed films is investigated to better understand why the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are degraded. Thermal conduction is shown to be relatively insensitive to the type of metalized coating and nearly equivalent to that of an uncoated polymer substrate. Of the commercially available conductive ink materials examined, carbon-nickel TEGs are shown to exhibit the highest thermovoltage, with a value of 10.3 μV/K. However, silver-nickel TEGs produced the highest power generation of 14.6 μW [from 31 junctions with temperature difference (Δ T) of 113°C] due to their low electrical resistance. The voltage generated from the silver-nickel TEG was stable under continuous operation at 275°C for 3 h. We have also demonstrated that, after a year of storage in ambient conditions, these devices retain their performance. Notably, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measured for individual materials were consistent with those measured from actual printed TEG device structures, validating the need for further fundamental materials characterization to accelerate flexible TEG device optimization.

  9. On the flow dependency of the electrical conductivity of blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetink, AE; Faes, TJC; Visser, KR; Heethaar, RM

    Experiments presented in the literature show that the electrical conductivity of flowing blood depends on flow velocity. The aim of this study is to extend the Maxwell-Fricke theory, developed for a dilute suspension of ellipsoidal particles in an electrolyte, to explain this flow dependency of the

  10. Wave Packet Propagation and Electric Conductivity of Nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeda, Munehiko; Saito, Keiji; Miyashita, Seiji; Raedt, Hans De


    We compute the electric conductivity of nanowires in the presence of magnetic domain walls by the method of wave packet propagation. We demonstrate that the propagation through the wire depends on the initial state used in the wave packet simulation. We propose a procedure, based on the Landauer

  11. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw attention to the fact that groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) and pH observations may assist in the development of a conceptual model of the groundwater resources of an area under investigation. The geologic environment investigated is the Benin Formation (Coastal Plain Sands) where ...

  12. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Pure and impurity added (with urea and thiourea) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out along both the unique axis and perpendicular directions at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 140°C by the conventional two-probe.

  13. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer blends. S H DESHMUKH*, D K BURGHATE, V P AKHARE, V S DEOGAONKAR,. P T DESHMUKH† and M S DESHMUKH††. Department of Physics, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati 444 603, India. †Department of Chemistry, Dr Panjabrao ...

  14. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  15. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills (United States)

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  16. Year long variability of ground electrical conductivity in the sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical conductivity was measured continuously on a soil type in Nigeria for one year using the Model R-50 Soil Test Resistivity Meter Equipment. The Wenner arrangement of electrodes, which is one of the probe methods of ground resistivity measurement, was employed for the measurement. About 67% of all ...

  17. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure and impurity added (with urea and thiourea) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out along both the unique axis and perpendicular directions at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 140°C by the conventional two-probe method.

  18. High pressure electrical conductivity in naturally occurring silicate liquids (United States)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Waff, Harve S.

    Electrical conductivities of molten Hawaiian rhyodacite and Yellowstone rhyolite obsidian were measured between 1200° C and 1400° C and at pressures up to 25 kilobars. The two melts exhibit similar trends. Arrhenius behavior is observed at all pressures studied. Isobaric activation enthalpies increase from about 0.5 eV at atmospheric pressure to about 0.9 eV at 25 kbars, and the magnitude of the conductivity decreases by about a factor of 4 between 0 and 25 kbar. At pressures between about 10 and 15 kbar an abrupt decrease in the slopes of isothermal log a versus pressure plots is observed. In each pressure range an equation of the form σ = σ'0 exp [- (E'σ + PΔV'σ)/kT], where σ'0, E'σ, and ΔV'σ, are constants, describes the polybaric, polythermal data. Comparison of these data with high pressure electrical conductivities of molten basalt and andesite reveals that relatively silica-rich melts, from andesitic to rhyolitic in composition, display similar trends, while the basaltic melt has analogous, but quantitatively different trends. Comparison of zero-pressure electrical conductivity and sodium diffusivity by means of the Nernst-Einstein relation indicates that sodium ion transport is the dominant mechanism of charge transport in the obsidian melt at zero pressure. The tholeiitic melt, on the other hand, displays only order of magnitude agreement between the electrical conductivity and sodium diffusivity, indicating that either ions other than sodium play a significant role in electrical transport or that the motions of the sodium ions are strongly correlated, or both. Comparison of the isobaric and isochoric activation enthalpies indicates that electrical conduction is energy restrained, as opposed to volume restrained. Conductivities in the andesitic, rhyodacitic, and rhyolitic melts conform to a single compensation law line, with no indication of the change in activation volume. The tholeiitic melt has a slightly different compensation line. In light

  19. Electrical conductivity and thermal behavior of solid electrolytes based on alkali carbonates and sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosda, S.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Guth, U.


    Both thermal stability and electrical conductivity of alkali ion conducting Na2CO3 and Na2SO4, were improved by adding alkaline earth carbonates and sulfates, respectively, as well as insulating materials like ¿-Al2O3. The admixing of divalent compounds causes two effects. First a more or less

  20. Rate dependence of electrical and mechanical properties of conductive polymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Foley, J. R.; Stilson, C. L.; Smith, K. K. G.; McKinion, C. M.; Chen, C.; Ganguli, S.; Roy, A. K.


    Conductive polymer nanocomposites with enhanced electrical and thermal properties show promise as an alternative solution for electronic materials. For example, electronic interconnect materials will have comparable electrical and thermal conductivity to solder with an increased operating range of strain and temperature. This paper documents the fabrication and experimental evaluation of a prototype conductive polymer nanocomposite. Material selection, fabrication processes, and initial characterization of a low Tg polymer with a high fill ratio of carbon nanotubes is presented. The electrical and thermal properties of the composite are measured and compared with predictions. The mechanical properties are measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) over a wide temperature range. The mechanical and electrical responses of the conductive polymer composite are simultaneously measured at higher strain rates using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. The dynamic stress-strain response is obtained using traditional analytic methods (e.g., two- and three-wave analysis). The electrical response is observed using constant current excitation with high bandwidth (>500 kHz) instrumentation. The dynamic compression data implies the change in electrical resistance is solely a function of the material deformation, i.e., the material exhibits constant electrical conductivity and is insensitive to the applied loads. DMA and SHPB dynamic data are used to estimate the parameters in a Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model, and the resulting behavior is critically evaluated. Finally, progress towards improving the polymer composite's mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties are discussed.

  1. Dynamic measurements of electrical conductivity in metastable intermolecular composites (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas G.; Asay, Blaine W.; King, James C.; Sanders, V. Eric; Son, Steven F.


    Metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) materials are comprised of a mixture of oxidizer and fuel with particle sizes in the nanometer range. Dynamic electrical conductivity measurements have been performed on a reacting MIC material. Simultaneous optical measurements of the wavefront position have shown that the reaction and conduction fronts are coincident within 160 μm. It has been observed that MICs, like high explosives, are insulators before reaction is initiated. Once reaction is induced, there is a conduction zone that corresponds with the reaction zone behind the reaction front. Unlike detonating high explosives (HEs) where the conductivity profile is represented by an initial peak followed by an exponential decay of conductivity, the MIC conductivity profile is a gradual, irregular ramp which increases from zero over many microseconds. This supports other studies that show the MIC reaction process to be significantly different from detonating HEs. Static measurements of conductivity of pressed MIC pellets suggest that the electrical conduction is associated with chemical reaction in the MIC and not compaction effects alone.

  2. Nonlinear Electrical Conductivity Properties of Au Films Prepared by Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Meng


    Full Text Available Metal-based films with tunable electrical conductivity have played an important role in developing new types of electric devices for future application. In this work, a sputtering method was used to obtain Au films on silicon substrate in a hypobaric atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM shows that the interspaces between the Au nanoparticles were highly uniform and orderly distributed, with the width of several nanometers at the surface. By measuring the I-V curves of the films with thickness less than 20 nm, the nonlinear behaviors of electrical resistivity became gradually obvious as the decrease of the film thickness. For example, upon the thickness reducing to 10 nm, remarkable discontinuous step phenomenon appeared. Moreover, a computational simulation was carried on the electrical conductivity of films under normal temperature based on the Coulomb blockade theory and scattering theory, in which the electric current was in the range from 0 to 1.5 × 10−5 A. The computational results were consistent well with the experimental observations, which confirm that the nonlinear and step phenomenon can be assigned to the Coulomb blockade effect when electrons transfer occurs in the interspaces between the nanoparticles.

  3. Proton conduction in water ices under an electric field. (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A Marco


    We report on a first-principles study of the effects produced by a static electric field on proton conduction in ordinary hexagonal ice (phase Ih) and in its proton-ordered counterpart (phase XI). We performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of both phases and investigated the effects produced by the field on the structure of the material, with particular attention paid to the phenomenon of proton transfer. We observed that in ice Ih molecules start to dissociate for field intensities around 0.25 V/Å, as in liquid water, whereas fields stronger than 0.36 V/Å are needed to induce a permanent proton flow. In contrast, in ice XI, electric fields as intense as 0.22 V/Å are already able to induce and sustain, through correlated proton jumps, an ionic current; this behavior suggests, somewhat counterintuitively, that the ordering of protons favors the autoprotolysis phenomenon. However, the same is not true for static conductivities. In fact, both crystalline phases show an ohmic behavior in the conduction regime, but the conductivity of ice Ih turns out to be larger than that of ice XI. We finally discuss the qualitative and quantitative importance of the conspicuous concentration of ionic defects generated by intense electric fields in determining the value of the conductivity, also through a comparison with the experimental data available for saline ices.

  4. Time resolved strain dependent morphological study of electrically conducting nanocomposites (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Mateus, Artur; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.


    An efficient and reliable method is introduced to understand the network behaviour of nano-fillers in a polymeric matrix under uniaxial strain coupled with small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes) are conductive and the particles form a percolating network that becomes apparent source of electrical conduction and consequently the samples behave as a bulk conductor. Polyurethane based nanocomposites containing 2% w/w multiwall carbon nanotubes are studied. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was (3.28×10-5s/m).The sample was able to be extended to an extension ratio of 1.7 before fracture. A slight variation in the electrical conductivity is observed under uniaxial strain which we attribute to the disturbance of conductive pathways. Further, this work is coupled with in- situ time resolved small angle x-ray scattering measurements using a synchrotron beam line to enable its measurements to be made during the deformation cycle. We use a multiscale structure to model the small angle x-ray data. The results of the analysis are interpreted as the presence of aggregates which would also go some way towards understanding why there is no alignment of the carbon nanotubes.

  5. Electrical conductivity of electrolytes applicable to natural waters from 0 to 100 degrees C (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine


    The electrical conductivities of 34 electrolyte solutions found in natural waters ranging from (10-4 to 1) mol•kg-1 in concentration and from (5 to 90) °C have been determined. High-quality electrical conductivity data for numerous electrolytes exist in the scientific literature, but the data do not span the concentration or temperature ranges of many electrolytes in natural waters. Methods for calculating the electrical conductivities of natural waters have incorporated these data from the literature, and as a result these methods cannot be used to reliably calculate the electrical conductivity over a large enough range of temperature and concentration. For the single-electrolyte solutions, empirical equations were developed that relate electrical conductivity to temperature and molality. For the 942 molar conductivity determinations for single electrolytes from this study, the mean relative difference between the calculated and measured values was 0.1 %. The calculated molar conductivity was compared to literature data, and the mean relative difference for 1978 measurements was 0.2 %. These data provide an improved basis for calculating electrical conductivity for most natural waters.

  6. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tutmez (Bulent); Z. Hatipoglu (Z.); U. Kaymak (Uzay)


    textabstractElectrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this

  7. Double-Wall Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoplatelets for Hybrid Conductive Adhesives with Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Messina, Elena; Leone, Nancy; Foti, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Riccucci, Cristina; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Di Maggio, Francesco; Cassata, Antonio; Gargano, Leonardo; D'Andrea, Cristiano; Fazio, Barbara; Maragò, Onofrio Maria; Robba, Benedetto; Vasi, Cirino; Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe


    Improving the electrical and thermal properties of conductive adhesives is essential for the fabrication of compact microelectronic and optoelectronic power devices. Here we report on the addition of a commercially available conductive resin with double-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets that yields simultaneously improved thermal and electrical conductivity. Using isopropanol as a common solvent for the debundling of nanotubes, exfoliation of graphene, and dispersion of the carbon nanostructures in the epoxy resin, we obtain a nanostructured conducting adhesive with thermal conductivity of ∼12 W/mK and resistivity down to 30 μΩ cm at very small loadings (1% w/w for nanotubes and 0.01% w/w for graphene). The low filler content allows one to keep almost unchanged the glass-transition temperature, the viscosity, and the curing parameters. Die shear measurements show that the nanostructured resins fulfill the MIL-STD-883 requirements when bonding gold-metalized SMD components, even after repeated thermal cycling. The same procedure has been validated on a high-conductivity resin characterized by a higher viscosity, on which we have doubled the thermal conductivity and quadrupled the electrical conductivity. Graphene yields better performances with respect to nanotubes in terms of conductivity and filler quantity needed to improve the resin. We have finally applied the nanostructured resins to bond GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors in power-amplifier circuits. We observe a decrease of the GaN peak and average temperatures of, respectively, ∼30 °C and ∼10 °C, with respect to the pristine resin. The obtained results are important for the fabrication of advanced packaging materials in power electronic and microwave applications and fit the technological roadmap for CNTs, graphene, and hybrid systems.

  8. Noninvasive electrical conductivity measurement by MRI: a test of its validity and the electrical conductivity characteristics of glioma. (United States)

    Tha, Khin Khin; Katscher, Ulrich; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Stehning, Christian; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Fujima, Noriyuki; Kudo, Kohsuke; Kazumata, Ken; Yamamoto, Toru; Van Cauteren, Marc; Shirato, Hiroki


    This study noninvasively examined the electrical conductivity (σ) characteristics of diffuse gliomas using MRI and tested its validity. MRI including a 3D steady-state free precession (3D SSFP) sequence was performed on 30 glioma patients. The σ maps were reconstructed from the phase images of the 3D SSFP sequence. The σ histogram metrics were extracted and compared among the contrast-enhanced (CET) and noncontrast-enhanced tumour components (NCET) and normal brain parenchyma (NP). Difference in tumour σ histogram metrics among tumour grades and correlation of σ metrics with tumour grades were tested. Validity of σ measurement using this technique was tested by correlating the mean tumour σ values measured using MRI with those measured ex vivo using a dielectric probe. Several σ histogram metrics of CET and NCET of diffuse gliomas were significantly higher than NP (Bonferroni-corrected p ≤ .045). The maximum σ of NCET showed a moderate positive correlation with tumour grade (r = .571, Bonferroni-corrected p = .018). The mean tumour σ measured using MRI showed a moderate positive correlation with the σ measured ex vivo (r = .518, p = .040). Tissue σ can be evaluated using MRI, incorporation of which may better characterise diffuse gliomas. • This study tested the validity of noninvasive electrical conductivity measurements by MRI. • This study also evaluated the electrical conductivity characteristics of diffuse glioma. • Gliomas have higher electrical conductivity values than the normal brain parenchyma. • Noninvasive electrical conductivity measurement can be helpful for better characterisation of glioma.

  9. Relating Relative Hydraulic Conductivity and Electrical Conductivity in the Unsaturated Zone (United States)

    Mawer, C. M.; Knight, R. J.; Kitanidis, P. K.


    Monitoring flow in the unsaturated zone is an important task, especially for overseeing managed aquifer recharge, tracking contaminant transport, and optimizing agricultural operations. Geophysical data can provide in-situ unsaturated subsurface information with much higher temporal and spatial resolution over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrologic methods. The measurement of electrical conductivity is a geophysical technique of particular interest in the vadose zone because the geophysical parameter that is obtained is highly correlated with saturation. Changes in saturation can then be used to make qualitative inferences on the rate of fluid motion within the unsaturated zone. However, quantitative information on infiltration rates and unsaturated flow rates via saturation is typically hard to find and usually requires a cumbersome hydrologic inversion that cannot be done in real-time. In this work, we used numerical simulations to find a relationship that relates electrical conductivity not to saturation, but to relative hydraulic conductivity, which has been shown to be a useful proxy for direct estimation of infiltration and unsaturated flow rates even under transient conditions. We obtained this relationship through numerical modeling by generating pore-scale soil structures, partially saturating them through morphological operations according to both wetting and draining schemes and calculating their hydraulic and electrical conductivities at a range of saturations. We found that a power law relationship exists between relative hydraulic conductivity (hydraulic conductivity divided by saturated conductivity) and relative electrical conductivity for each of the sixteen tested media. The power law exponent in the relationship changes depending on whether the medium is being wetted or drained as would be expected as hysteresis is evident in both unsaturated hydraulic and electrical conductivity. Parameters that are typically seen to be related to

  10. Synthesis of Conductive Nanofillers/Nanofibers and Electrical Properties of their Conductive Polymer Composites (United States)

    Sarvi, Ali

    Thanks to their corrosion resistance, light weight, low cost, and ease of processing, electrically conducting polymer composites (CPCs) have received significant attention for the replacement of metals and inorganic materials for sensors, actuators, supercapacitors, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shields. In this PhD thesis, high aspect ratio conductive nanofillers namely copper nanowires (CuNWs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were coated with polyaniline (PANi) using solution mixing and in-situ polymerization method, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a smooth polyaniline nano-coating between 5--18 nm in thickness on the nanofillers' surface. The coating thickness and; consequently, electrical conductivity was controlled and tuned by polyaniline/aniline concentration in solution. Composites with tunable conductivity may be used as chemisensors, electronic pressure sensors and switches. Coated nanofillers demonstrated better dispersion in polystyrene (PS) and provided lower electrical percolation threshold. Dispersion of nanofillers in PS was investigated using rheological measurements and confirmed with electron micrographs and nano-scale images of CPCs. Polyaniline (PANi), when used as a coating layer, was able to attenuate electromagnetic (EM) waves via absorption and store electrical charges though pseudocapacitance mechanism. The dielectric measurements of MWCNT-PANi/PS composites showed one order of magnitude increase in real electrical permittivity compared to that of MWCNT/PS composites making them suitable for charge storage purposes. Incorporation of PANi also brought a new insight into conductive network formation mechanism in electrospun mats where the orientation of conductive high aspect ratio nanofillers is a major problem. Conductive nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) filled with coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated using electrospinning. These highly oriented PVDF

  11. Electrical actuation of electrically conducting and insulating droplets using ac and dc voltages (United States)

    Kumari, N.; Bahadur, V.; Garimella, S. V.


    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets using dc voltages (classical electrowetting). Electrical actuation of conducting droplets using ac voltages and the actuation of insulating droplets (using dc or ac voltages) has remained relatively unexplored. This paper utilizes an energy-minimization-based analytical framework to study the electrical actuation of a liquid droplet (electrically conducting or insulating) under ac actuation. It is shown that the electromechanical regimes of classical electrowetting, electrowetting under ac actuation and insulating droplet actuation can be extracted from the generic electromechanical actuation framework, depending on the electrical properties of the droplet, the underlying dielectric layer and the frequency of the actuation voltage. This paper also presents experiments which quantify the influence of the ac frequency and the electrical properties of the droplet on its velocity under electrical actuation. The velocities of droplets moving between two parallel plates under ac actuation are experimentally measured; these velocities are then related to the actuation force on the droplet which is predicted by the electromechanical model developed in this work. It is seen that the droplet velocities are strongly dependent on the frequency of the ac actuation voltage; the cut-off ac frequency, above which the droplet fails to actuate, is experimentally determined and related to the electrical conductivity of the liquid. This paper then analyzes and directly compares the various electromechanical regimes for the actuation of droplets in microfluidic applications.

  12. Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andrew J; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L


    We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement of mass transport that accompanies giant fluctuations. Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient. Specifically, we predict a nonzero cation-anion Maxwell-Stefan coefficient proportional to the square root of the salt concentration, a prediction that agrees quantitatively with experimental measurements. The renormalized or effective macroscopic equations are different from the starting PNP equations, which contain no cross-diffusion terms, even for rather dilute binary electrolytes. At the same time, for infinitely dilute solutions the renormalized electric conductivity and renormalized diffusion coefficients are consistent and the classical PNP equations with renormalized coefficients are recovered, demonstrating the self-consistency of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations. Our calculations show that the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach recovers the electrophoretic and relaxation corrections obtained by Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory, while elucidating the physical origins of these corrections and generalizing straightforwardly to more complex multispecies electrolytes. Finally, we show that strong applied electric fields result in anisotropically enhanced "giant" velocity fluctuations and reduced fluctuations of salt concentration.

  13. Nanostructure design for drastic reduction of thermal conductivity while preserving high electrical conductivity. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki


    The design and fabrication of nanostructured materials to control both thermal and electrical properties are demonstrated for high-performance thermoelectric conversion. We have focused on silicon (Si) because it is an environmentally friendly and ubiquitous element. High bulk thermal conductivity of Si limits its potential as a thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of Si has been reduced by introducing grains, or wires, yet a further reduction is required while retaining a high electrical conductivity. We have designed two different nanostructures for this purpose. One structure is connected Si nanodots (NDs) with the same crystal orientation. The phonons scattering at the interfaces of these NDs occurred and it depended on the ND size. As a result of phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity of this nanostructured material was below/close to the amorphous limit. The other structure is Si films containing epitaxially grown Ge NDs. The Si layer imparted high electrical conductivity, while the Ge NDs served as phonon scattering bodies reducing thermal conductivity drastically. This work gives a methodology for the independent control of electron and phonon transport using nanostructured materials. This can bring the realization of thermoelectric Si-based materials that are compatible with large scale integrated circuit processing technologies.

  14. The Measurement of Electrical Conductivity in Detonating Condensed Explosives (United States)


    Gustavson to these studies are acknowledged. Grateful thanks to R. Hay, N. Snowden , B. Snowden , H. Gillum (deceased), C. Sorrels (deceased), R. Baker, and...Unreacted PBXN-111 conducts in electric fields exceeding =1 kV/mm. Consequently, it was necessary to insulate the explosive with a 25 um thick film of...second voltage probe was used to measure the potential difference across the film to verify that the Kapton’s resistance was indeed negligible; the

  15. Comparison of Systems for Levitation Heating of Electrically Conductive Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Dolezel


    Full Text Available Levitation heating of nonmagnetic electrically conductive bodies can be realized in various systems consisting of one of more inductors. The paper deals with compassion of the resultant. Lorentz lifts force acting on such a body (cylinder, sphere and velocity of its heating for different shapes of coils and parameters of the field currents (amplitudes, frequency. The tack is solved in quasi-coupled formulation. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with an illustrative example whose results are discussed.

  16. Thermodynamic properties and electrical conductivity of strongly correlated plasma media


    Filinov, V. S.; Levashov, P. R.; Boţan, A. V.; Bonitz, M.; Fortov, V E


    We study thermodynamic properties and the electrical conductivity of dense hydrogen and deuterium using three methods: classical reactive Monte Carlo (REMC), direct path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and a quantum dynamics method in the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics. We report the calculation of the deuterium compression quasi-isentrope in good agreement with experiments. We also solve the Wigner-Liouville equation of dense degenerate hydrogen calculating the initial equilibrium st...

  17. Evaluation of electrical conductivity of the fertiliser solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three fertiliser solutions (20:20:20, 15:5:25 and 12:30:10 NPK) with electrical conductivity (EC) of 1, 1.5 or 2 mS cm-1 on growth and flowering of Cymbidium 'Sleeping Nymph' were investigated over three years. One-year-old tissue-cultured propagules of 'Sleeping Nymph' were planted singly in plastic pots in ...

  18. Effect of aligned carbon nanotubes on electrical conductivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (V = 1·5, 3 kV) created between two plaques at a distance of. 100 mm and the solvent was left to evaporate slowly. Typical thickness of the composite samples was ∼20 μm. The electrical conductivity was measured at room tem- perature by a four-point probe technique using an electro- meter (GTM unito) with two outer ...

  19. Electrical Conductivity Response of Poly(Phenylene-vinylene)/Zeolite Composites Exposed to Ammonium Nitrate (United States)

    Kamonsawas, Jirarat; Sirivat, Anuvat; Niamlang, Sumonman; Hormnirun, Pimpa; Prissanaroon-Ouajai, Walaiporn


    Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) was chemically synthesized via the polymerization of p-xylene-bis(tetrahydrothiophenium chloride) monomer and doped with H2SO4. To improve the electrical conductivity sensitivity of the conductive polymer, Zeolites Y (Si/Al = 5.1, 30, 60, 80) were added into the conductive polymer matrix. All composite samples show definite positive responses towards NH4NO3. The electrical conductivity sensitivities of the composite sensors increase linearly with increasing Si/Al ratio: with values of 0.201, 1.37, 2.80 and 3.18, respectively. The interactions between NH4NO3 molecules and the PPV/zeolite composites with respect to the electrical conductivity sensitivity were investigated through the infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22219677

  20. Electrical conduction in SnO{sub 2} varistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glot, A.B., E-mail: alexglot@mixteco.utm.m [Universidad Tehnologica de la Mixteca, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico); Gaponov, A.V. [Dniepropetrovsk National University, Dniepropetrovsk 49010 (Ukraine); Sandoval-Garcia, A.P. [Universidad Tehnologica de la Mixteca, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico)


    This paper outlines some details of the conduction mechanism in SnO{sub 2}-based ceramic varistors. It is shown that the activation energy of electrical conduction E{sub s}igma (the barrier height phi) in SnO{sub 2} varistor is weakly decreased at low electric field E and strongly decreased at high fields. The strong decrease in E{sub s}igma(E) at high fields is conditioning factor of highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic. The conduction process is thermally activated not only at low (E{sub s}igmaapprox =0.8-1eV) but also at high electric fields (E{sub s}igmaapprox =0.3-0.5eV). The 'negative capacitance' phenomenon at high fields in highly nonlinear SnO{sub 2} varistor is observed. The relation between the high nonlinearity, the high slope of E{sub s}igma(E) dependence at high fields, the 'negative capacitance' and possible generation of the minority carriers (holes) at high fields is discussed.

  1. Electric conductivity of high explosives with carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Rubtsov, I. A.; Pruuel, E. R.; Ten, K. A.; Kashkarov, A. O.; Kremenko, S. I.


    The paper presents a technique for introducing carbon nanotubes into high explosives (HEs). For a number of explosives (trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, benzotrifuroxan), it was possible to achieve the appearance of conductivity by adding a small amount (up to 1% by mass) of single-walled carbon nanotubes TUBALL COATE H2O (CNTs) produced by OCSiAl. Thus it is possible to reduce the sensitivity of explosives to static electricity by adding an insignificant part of conductive nanotubes. This will increase safety of HEs during production and application and will reduce the number of accidents.

  2. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish


    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  3. Increase of adhesion of conductive films on dielectric substrates by means of electric field (United States)

    Pshchelko, N. S.; Vodkaylo, E. G.; Klimenkov, B. D.


    Films of aluminium and copper produced by vacuum deposition obtained on the glass substrates were investigated. Improve of the efficiency of adhesion of conductive layers was made by the use of ponderomotive forces of an electric field (electroadhesive effects). It is found that thermal and electric treatment of films make possible to increase the strength of the adhesive bond of the film with the dielectric substrate.

  4. Electrical conductivity imaging in the western Pacific subduction zone (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi


    Oceanic plate subduction is an important process for the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior, as it is regarded as a typical downward flow of the mantle convection that transports materials from the near surface to the deep mantle. Recent seismological study showed evidence suggesting the transportation of a certain amount of water by subduction of old oceanic plate such as the Pacific plate down to 150-200 km depth into the back arc mantle. However it is not well clarified how deep into the mantle the water can be transported. The electromagnetic induction method to image electrical conductivity distribution is a possible tool to answer this question as it is known to be sensitive to the presence of water. Here we show recent result of observational study from the western Pacific subduction zone to examine the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper mantle and in the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which will provide implications how water distributes in the mantle. We take two kinds of approach for imaging the mantle conductivity, (a) semi-global and (b) regional induction approaches. Result may be summarized as follows: (a) Long (5-30 years) time series records from 8 submarine cables and 13 geomagnetic observatories in the north Pacific region were analyzed and long period magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses were estimated in the period range from 1.7 to 35 days. These frequency dependent response functions were inverted to 3-dimensional conductivity distribution in the depth range between 350 and 850 km. Three major features are suggested in the MTZ depth such as, (1) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Philippine Sea, (2) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Hawaiian Islands, and (3) a low conductivity anomaly beneath and in the vicinity of northern Japan. (b) A three-year long deployment of ocean bottom electro-magnetometers (OBEM's) was conducted in the Philippine Sea and west Pacific Ocean from 2005

  5. Directly calculating electrical conductivities of dense hydrogen from molecular dynamics (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Kang, Dongdong; Dai, Jiayu


    The transport properties are important in warm and hot dense matter in which the Coulomb interaction is dominated in the scattering process. Density functional theory (DFT) is considered as an effective method to investigate the transport properties, but the dynamical collisions between particles are missed. Here we use an electron force field (eFF) method based molecular dynamics (MD) to include the electronic quantum effects to investigate the transport properties of warm dense hydrogen. The eFF method can be regarded as the development of wave packets molecular dynamics and it has been successfully used to describe the thermodynamics of hydrogen, Auger process in diamondoids, the equation of states for dense lithium. The most important point of eFF method is assuming that each electron is considered as a Gaussian wave packet controlled by position and size while ions are still charged points. The electrical conductivity is calculated via the correlation of electrical current. The results show that electronic quantum effects are important for the transport properties in warm dense hydrogen such as diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity, which are much smaller than the results from DFT calculations.

  6. Testing and Optimization of Electrically Conductive Spacecraft Coatings (United States)

    Mell, R. J.; Wertz, G. E.; Edwards, D. L. (Technical Monitor)


    This is the final report discussing the work done for the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program. It discusses test chamber design, coating research, and test results on electrically thermal control coatings. These thermal control coatings are being developed to have several orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than most available thermal control coatings. Most current coatings tend to have a range in surface resistivity from 1,011 to 1,013 ohms/sq. Historically, spacecraft have had thermal control surfaces composed of dielectric materials of either polymers (paints and metalized films) or glasses (ceramic paints and optical solar reflectors). Very seldom has the thermal control surface of a spacecraft been a metal where the surface would be intrinsically electrically conductive. The poor thermal optical properties of most metals have, in most cases, stopped them from being used as a thermal control surface. Metals low infrared emittance (generally considered poor for thermal control surfaces) and/or solar absorptance, have resulted in the use of various dielectric coatings or films being applied over the substrate materials in order to obtain the required optical properties.

  7. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua


    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  8. Electrical conductivity of polyazomethine/fullerene C60 nanocomposites (United States)

    Bronnikov, Sergei; Podshivalov, Aleksandr; Kostromin, Sergei; Asandulesa, Mihai; Cozan, Vasile


    We prepared the polyazomethine/fullerene C60 nanocomposites varying in C60 loading. With a broadband dielectric relaxation spectrometer, we measured their electrical conductivity σm being a sum of dc conductivity σdc and ac conductivity σac. A small C60 content (0.25 and 0.5 wt.%) was shown to decrease σdc, whereas a larger amount of C60 (2.5 wt.%) was found to increase σdc of the nanocomposite. The temperature dependences of σac were described with the Arrhenius equation, while the frequency dependences of σac were characterized with a power function. The correlated barrier hopping was accepted as the most suitable mechanism to explain the σac behavior of the nanocomposites.

  9. Crystal structure and electrical conductivity of imidazolium succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorzelec-Glaser, K.; Pawlaczyk, C.; Markiewicz, E. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Pietraszko, A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland)


    Small single crystals of the imidazolium succinate were grown and their structure was re-examined using the X-ray diffraction method and a probable protonic conduction mechanism has been proposed. The electric conductivity of the powdered tablets was measured using the impedance spectroscopy method. The range of obtained values of conductivity as well as the activation energy (0.65 eV) of the imidazolium succinate is close to these of imidazolium malonate and imidazolium glutarate investigated previously [K. Pogorzelec-Glaser, J. Garbarczyk, Cz. Pawlaczyk, E. Markiewicz, Materials Science Poland 24 (2006) 245-253]. Metastable and virtual positions for proton transfer were indicated by means of calculations of the atomic displacement factors and the probability density function. (author)

  10. Electrical conductivity and thermopower of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, C.O. [Korea Kumho Petrochem. Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chem. Labs.; Kim, J.H. [Korea Kumho Petrochem. Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chem. Labs.; Sung, H.K. [Korea Kumho Petrochem. Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chem. Labs.; Lee, H. [Korea Kumho Petrochem. Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chem. Labs.


    Electrical transport properties of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline are investigated by the measurements of low temperature conductivity and thermopower. Samples were prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline in aqueous solution of phosphoric acid at various ratios of acid to aniline (Z). The conductivity at room temperature increases from 3 S/cm to 40 S/cm, and the thermopower increases from +0.2 {mu}V/K to +7.6 {mu}V/K, as the ratio Z varies from 1 to 6. The low temperature conductivity follows variable range hopping (VRH) temperature dependence, ln {sigma} {proportional_to} -(T{sub 0}/T){sup x}, where VRH exponent systematically changes from x = 1/2 to 1/4. The thermopower changes from U-shape to linear temperature dependence as the ratio Z increases. The systematic variation of transport data was analyzed by considering heterogeneous contributions from metallic transport and VRH process in disordered polymeric system. (orig.)

  11. Electrical Conductivity of Metals: A New Look at this Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. R.


    Full Text Available Various parameters tied to the electrical conductivity of typical metals are estimated and are expressed in terms of universal constants. It happen s that they are close to those found in metallic copper at room temperature. The fact that the realization of the model occurs at room temperature is explained by using th e Landauer’s erasure principle. The averaged collision time of the electron of conduction is also thought as a particle lifetime. Finally an analogy is established between the motion of the electron of conduction and the cosmological constant problem, where a spherical surface of radius equal to the electron mean free path has been thought as a surf ace horizon for the charge carriers.

  12. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Choi, Bup Kyung; Oh, Tong In; Sajib, Saurav Zk; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments.

  13. Stimulation of Neurite Outgrowth Using an Electrically Conducting Polymer (United States)

    Schmidt, Christine E.; Shastri, Venkatram R.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Langer, Robert


    Damage to peripheral nerves often cannot be repaired by the juxtaposition of the severed nerve ends. Surgeons have typically used autologous nerve grafts, which have several drawbacks including the need for multiple surgical procedures and loss of function at the donor site. As an alternative, the use of nerve guidance channels to bridge the gap between severed nerve ends is being explored. In this paper, the electrically conductive polymer--oxidized polypyrrole (PP)--has been evaluated for use as a substrate to enhance nerve cell interactions in culture as a first step toward potentially using such polymers to stimulate in vivo nerve regeneration. Image analysis demonstrates that PC-12 cells and primary chicken sciatic nerve explants attached and extended neurites equally well on both PP films and tissue culture polystyrene in the absence of electrical stimulation. In contrast, PC-12 cells interacted poorly with indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(lactic acid-coglycolic acid) surfaces. However, PC-12 cells cultured on PP films and subjected to an electrical stimulus through the film showed a significant increase in neurite lengths compared with ones that were not subjected to electrical stimulation through the film and tissue culture polystyrene controls. The median neurite length for PC-12 cells grown on PP and subjected to an electrical stimulus was 18.14 μ m (n = 5643) compared with 9.5 μ m (n = 4440) for controls. Furthermore, animal implantation studies reveal that PP invokes little adverse tissue response compared with poly(lactic acid-coglycolic acid).

  14. The electrical conductivity and longitudinal magnetoresistance of metallic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, Luis, E-mail: [Universidad Central de Chile, Toesca 1783, Santiago 8370178 (Chile); Henriquez, Ricardo, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bravo, Sergio, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Solis, Basilio, E-mail: [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany)


    Proceeding from exact solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation, we present formulas for the electrical conductivity and longitudinal magnetoresistance of single-crystalline cylindrical nanotubes. The effects of surface scattering are taken into account by introducing different specularity parameters at the inner and outer surfaces. For small values of the inner diameter, these formulas reduce to the respective expressions for cylindrical nanowires. It is found that the existing measurements of the resistivity of nanotubes (Venkata Kamalakar and Raychaudhuri, New J. Phys. 14, 043032 (2012)) can be accurately described by this formalism.

  15. Increased electrical conductivity of peptides through annealing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Daniel Namgung


    Full Text Available Biocompatible biologically occurring polymer is suggested as a component of human implantable devices since conventional inorganic materials are apt to trigger inflammation and toxicity problem within human body. Peptides consisting of aromatic amino acid, tyrosine, are chosen, and enhancement on electrical conductivity is studied. Annealing process gives rise to the decrease on resistivity of the peptide films and the growth of the carrier concentration is a plausible reason for such a decrease on resistivity. The annealed peptides are further applied to an active layer of field effect transistor, in which low on/off current ratio (∼10 is obtained.

  16. Dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of flat micronic graphite/polyurethane composites (United States)

    Plyushch, Artyom; Macutkevic, Jan; Kuzhir, Polina P.; Banys, Juras; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain


    Results of broadband dielectric spectroscopy of flat micronic graphite (FMG)/polyurethane (PU) resin composites are presented in a wide temperature range (25-450 K). The electrical percolation threshold was found to lie between 1 and 2 vol. % of FMG. Above the percolation threshold, the composites demonstrated a huge hysteresis of properties on heating and cooling from room temperature up to 450 K, along with extremely high values of dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity. Annealing proved to be a very simple but powerful tool for significantly improving the electrical properties of FMG-based composites. In order to explain this effect, the distributions of relaxation times were calculated by the complex impedance formalism. Below room temperature, both dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity exhibited a very low temperature dependence, mainly caused by the different thermal properties of FMG and pure PU matrix.

  17. Electrical conductivities and chemical stabilities of mixed conducting pyrochlores for SOFC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, P.; Poulsen, F.W.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Pyrochlores with praseodymium as the A-site cation and zirconium, tin, cerium and manganese cations on the B-site were prepared in air and their electrical conductivities were investigated as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Pure Pr2Zr2O7+/-delta as well as samples modified...... on the B-site with 5% Mn or 20% Ce show conductivities, which are lower than 2 x 10(-3) S/cm at 1000 degreesC in H-2/H2O atmospheres. Electronic p-type conductivity was indicated for these materials in oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The electrically conducting pyrochlore solid solutions Gd2TiMoO7+/-delta and Gd......2Ti0.6Mo1.4O7+/-delta were synthesised and investigated in 1% H-2/3% H2O/96% N-2. No formation of a new phase by reaction with YSZ was indicated after exposure to this atmosphere at 1000 degreesC for 1000 h. Pr2Sn2O7+/-delta modified with 5% indium on the B-site exhibited a conductivity in air of 6...

  18. Electrical conduction in chalcogenide glasses of phase change memory (United States)

    Nardone, M.; Simon, M.; Karpov, I. V.; Karpov, V. G.


    Amorphous chalcogenides have been extensively studied over the last half century due to their application in rewritable optical data storage and in non-volatile phase change memory devices. Yet, the nature of the observed non-ohmic conduction in these glasses is still under debate. In this review, we consolidate and expand the current state of knowledge related to dc conduction in these materials. An overview of the pertinent experimental data is followed by a review of the physics of localized states that are peculiar to chalcogenide glasses. We then describe and evaluate twelve relevant transport mechanisms with conductivities that depend exponentially on the electric field. The discussed mechanisms include various forms of Poole-Frenkel ionization, Schottky emission, hopping conduction, field-induced delocalization of tail states, space-charge-limited current, field emission, percolation band conduction, and transport through crystalline inclusions. Most of the candidates provide more or less satisfactory fits of the observed non-linear IV data. Our analysis calls upon additional studies that would enable one to discriminate between the various alternative models.

  19. Magnetoresistance, electrical conductivity, and Hall effect of glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.F.


    These properties of glassy carbon heat treated for three hours between 1200 and 2700/sup 0/C were measured from 3 to 300/sup 0/K in magnetic fields up to 5 tesla. The magnetoresistance was generally negative and saturated with reciprocal temperature, but still increased as a function of magnetic field. The maximum negative magnetoresistance measured was 2.2% for 2700/sup 0/C material. Several models based on the negative magnetoresistance being proportional to the square of the magnetic moment were attempted; the best fit was obtained for the simplest model combining Curie and Pauli paramagnetism for heat treatments above 1600/sup 0/C. Positive magnetoresistance was found only in less than 1600/sup 0/C treated glassy carbon. The electrical conductivity, of the order of 200 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at room temperature, can be empirically written as sigma = A + Bexp(-CT/sup -1/4) - DT/sup -1/2. The Hall coefficient was independent of magnetic field, insensitive to temperature, but was a strong function of heat treatment temperature, crossing over from negative to positive at about 1700/sup 0/C and ranging from -0.048 to 0.126 cm/sup 3//coul. The idea of one-dimensional filaments in glassy carbon suggested by the electrical conductivity is compatible with the present consensus view of the microstructure.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.


    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  1. The electrical conductance growth of a metallic granular packing (United States)

    Jakšić, Zorica M.; Cvetković, Milica; Šćepanović, Julija R.; Lončarević, Ivana; Budinski-Petković, Ljuba; Vrhovac, Slobodan B.


    We report on measurements of the electrical conductivity on a two-dimensional packing of metallic disks when a stable current of 1 mA flows through the system. At low applied currents, the conductance σ is found to increase by a pattern σ( t) = σ ∞ - Δσ E α [ - ( t/ τ) α ], where E α denotes the Mittag-Leffler function of order α ∈ (0,1). By changing the inclination angle θ of the granular bed from horizontal, we have studied the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration g e ff = gsin θ on the relaxation features of the conductance σ( t). The characteristic timescale τ is found to grow when effective gravity g e ff decreases. By changing both the distance between the electrodes and the number of grains in the packing, we have shown that the long term resistance decay observed in the experiment is related to local micro-contacts rearrangements at each disk. By focusing on the electro-mechanical processes that allow both creation and breakdown of micro-contacts between two disks, we present an approach to granular conduction based on subordination of stochastic processes. In order to imitate, in a very simplified way, the conduction dynamics of granular material at low currents, we impose that the micro-contacts at the interface switch stochastically between two possible states, "on" and "off", characterizing the conductivity of the micro-contact. We assume that the time intervals between the consecutive changes of state are governed by a certain waiting-time distribution. It is demonstrated how the microscopic random dynamics regarding the micro-contacts leads to the macroscopic observation of slow conductance growth, described by an exact fractional kinetic equations.

  2. Electric conductivity of polymer films filled with magnetic nanoparticles (United States)

    Rumyantsev, B. M.; Bibikov, S. B.; Bychkova, A. V.; Leontiev, V. G.; Berendyaev, V. I.; Sorokina, O. N.; Kovarskii, A. L.


    The conductivity of polymer composites with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) containing magnetite and other MNP (Ni, Cu-Ni) in the layers and planar cells with Al electrodes is studied. For soluble polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol) containing 1-10 wt % of magnetite MNP, a substantial effect of MNP on surface conductivity is detected over a wide range (from 10-10 to 10-3 Ω-1). It is shown that the addition of magnetite MNP not only results in a considerable change in cell conductivity, but also leads to its partially irreversible variation (by an order of magnitude or more) via minor modifications of the experimental conditions (temperature, electric field). For high-resistance samples with low probabilities of conducting chain formation, temperature current peaks are observed upon moderate heating (up to 350 K). These peaks are similar to the maxima observed upon polymer electret thermodischarges when the charges are captured by the deep centers associated with separate MNP or MNP aggregates. The type and position of the maxima are determined by the characteristics of the polymer matrix. For polyvinylpyrrolidone composites, the maxima are observed some time after heating (the echo effect). With composites based on solventborne polymers (polyalkanesterimides, soluble polyimide) and Ni, Cu-Ni MNP, no change in film conductivity measured electrophotographically is observed, due to the formation of a dielectric coating formed by polymer macromolecules adsorbed on the MNP surface. An explanation based on the possible formation of magnetic aggregates of magnetite MNP and conducting chains is proposed. Magnetic aggregation IPM is proposed as one way of controlling cell conductivity.

  3. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and rheological properties of graphene oxide-based nanofluids (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboobeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Youssefi, Abbas


    Highly stable graphene oxide (GO)-based nanofluids were simply prepared by dispersing graphite oxide with the average crystallite size of 20 nm, in polar base fluids without using any surfactant. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and rheological properties of the nanofluids were measured at different mass fractions and various temperatures. An enormous enhancement, 25,678 %, in electrical conductivity of distilled water was observed by loading 0.0006 mass fraction of GO at 25 °C. GO-ethylene glycol nanofluids exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior followed by a shear-independent region. This shear-thinning behavior became more pronounced at higher GO concentrations. The maximum ratio of the viscosity of nanofluid to that of the ethylene glycol as a base fluid was 3.4 for the mass fraction of 0.005 of GO at 20 °C under shear rate of 27.5 s-1. Thermal conductivity enhancement of 30 % was obtained for GO-ethylene glycol nanofluid for mass fraction of 0.07. The measurement of the transport properties of this new kind of nanofluid showed that it could provide an ideal fluid for heat transfer and electronic applications.

  4. A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. Drzal


    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

  5. Investigation of Thermal and Electrical Properties for Conductive Polymer Composites (United States)

    Juwhari, Hassan K.; Abuobaid, Ahmad; Zihlif, Awwad M.; Elimat, Ziad M.


    This study addresses the effects of temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K on thermal ( κ) and electrical ( σ) conductivities, and Lorenz number ( L) for different conductive polymeric composites (CPCs), as tailoring the ratios between both conductivities of the composites can be influential in the design optimization of certain thermo-electronic devices. Both κ and σ were found to have either a linear or a nonlinear (2nd and 3rd degree polynomial function) increasing behavior with increased temperatures, depending on the conduction mechanism occurring in the composite systems studied. Temperature-dependent behavior of L tends to show decreasing trends above 300 K, where at 300 K the highest and the lowest values were found to be 3 × 103 W Ω/K2 for CPCs containing iron particles and 3 × 10-2 W Ω/K2 for CPCs-containing carbon fibers respectively. Overall, temperature-dependent behavior of κ/ σ and L can be controlled by heterogeneous structures produced via mechanical-molding-compression. These structures are mainly responsible for energy-transfer processes or transport properties that take place by electrons and phonons in the CPCs' bulks. Hence, the outcome is considered significant in the development process of high performing materials for the thermo-electronic industry.

  6. Interdiffusion and Spinodal Decomposition in Electrically Conducting Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Takala


    Full Text Available The impact of phase morphology in electrically conducting polymer composites has become essential for the efficiency of the various functional applications, in which the continuity of the electroactive paths in multicomponent systems is essential. For instance in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where the light-induced electron transfer through photon absorption creating excitons (electron-hole pairs, the control of diffusion of the spatially localized excitons and their dissociation at the interface and the effective collection of holes and electrons, all depend on the surface area, domain sizes, and connectivity in these organic semiconductor blends. We have used a model semiconductor polymer blend with defined miscibility to investigate the phase separation kinetics and the formation of connected pathways. Temperature jump experiments were applied from a miscible region of semiconducting poly(alkylthiophene (PAT blends with ethylenevinylacetate-elastomers (EVA and the kinetics at the early stages of phase separation were evaluated in order to establish bicontinuous phase morphology via spinodal decomposition. The diffusion in the blend was followed by two methods: first during a miscible phase separating into two phases: from the measurement of the spinodal decomposition. Secondly the diffusion was measured by monitoring the interdiffusion of PAT film into the EVA film at elected temperatures and eventually compared the temperature dependent diffusion characteristics. With this first quantitative evaluation of the spinodal decomposition as well as the interdiffusion in conducting polymer blends, we show that a systematic control of the phase separation kinetics in a polymer blend with one of the components being electrically conducting polymer can be used to optimize the morphology.

  7. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames


    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  8. Electrically conductive gel/fibers composite scaffold with graded properties. (United States)

    Khorshidi, Sajedeh; Karkhaneh, Akbar


    Gradient biomaterials have emerged as fascinating platforms to satisfy the need for imitation of ubiquitous gradients in biology, especially those found at tissue interfaces. In the current study, a gradient fiber-hydrogel scaffold was fabricated to imitate the extracellular matrix of soft-to-hard tissue interfaces. For the fiber proportion, a gradient electrospinning was developed where controlled mixing of solutions with dissimilar concentration of a conductive polymer in injection vessel imparted a composition gradient to electrospinning jet, and thus electrospun fibers. The planar graded fibers were exposed to ultrasound to be three-dimensional and gel permeable. For the hydrogel fraction, a gradient mixing tool was used in which controlled mixing of solutions with disparate concentration of hydrogel components conferred a composition gradient to hydrogel precursor solution. The graded precursor solution was introduced to gradient 3D fibers and then self-crosslinked. Gradient fibers, hydrogel and fiber-gel composite were assessed by many techniques including microscopy, spectroscopy, mechanical analysis and conductivity measurement to ascertain gradient formation. Polymeric constituents' gradient in electrospinning outflow gave rise to not only gradual changes in fiber diameter, also subtle variations in electrical conductivity and other fibers' attributes. Gradient hydrogel making apparatus rendered a steady increase in crosslink involving component and yielded a hydrogel with graded features. The created composite revealed the propitious unification of fibrous and gelation parts into a single scaffold with no detrimental effect on structure and gradient of each part. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric Conductivity and Dielectric-Breakdown Behavior for Polyurethane Magnetic Elastomers. (United States)

    Sasaki, Shuhei; Tsujiei, Yuri; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu


    The electric-voltage dependence of the electric conductivity for cross-linked and un-cross-linked magnetic elastomers was measured at various magnetic fields, and the effect of cross-linking on the electric conductivity and the dielectric-breakdown behavior was investigated. The electric conductivity for un-cross-linked elastomers at low voltages was independent of magnetic fields and the volume fraction of magnetic particles, indicating the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At high voltages, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, showing the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. On the other hand, the electric conductivity at low voltages for cross-linked elastomers with volume fractions below 0.06 was independent of the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.14, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. At high voltages, the electric conductivity for cross-linked elastomers with a volume fraction of 0.02 was independent of the magnetic field, indicating the electric conduction through the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.06, the electric conductivity suddenly increased at a critical voltage, exhibiting the dielectric breakdown at the bound layer of magnetic particles and/or the discontinuous part between chains.

  10. Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Santos


    Full Text Available Nanocomposites made up of polymer matrices and carbon nanotubes are a class of advanced materials with great application potential in electronics packaging. Nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers have been designed with the aim of exploiting the high thermal, electrical and mechanical properties characteristic of carbon nanotubes. Heat dissipation in electronic devices requires interface materials with high thermal conductivity. Here, current developments and challenges in the application of nanotubes as fillers in polymer matrices are explored. The blending together of nanotubes and polymers result in what are known as nanocomposites. Among the most pressing current issues related to nanocomposite fabrication are (i dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the polymer host, (ii carbon nanotube-polymer interaction and the nature of the interface, and (iii alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. These issues are believed to be directly related to the electrical and thermal performance of nanocomposites. The recent progress in the fabrication of nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers and their potential application in electronics packaging as thermal interface materials is also reported.

  11. Lunar magnetic permeability, magnetic fields, and electrical conductivity temperature (United States)

    Parkin, C. W.


    In the time period 1969-1972 a total of five magnetometers were deployed on the lunar surface during four Apollo missions. Data from these instruments, along with simultaneous measurements from other experiments on the moon and in lunar orbit, were used to study properties of the lunar interior and the lunar environment. The principal scientific results from analyses of the magnetic field data are discussed. The results are presented in the following main categories: (1) lunar electrical conductivity, temperature, and structure; (2) lunar magnetic permeability, iron abundance, and core size limits; (3) the local remnant magnetic fields, their interaction with the solar wind, and a thermoelectric generator model for their origin. Relevant publications and presented papers are listed.

  12. Electrical conductance of carbon nanotubes with misaligned ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantano, Antonio, E-mail:; Muratore, Giuseppe; Montinaro, Nicola [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica e Meccanica (Italy)


    During a manufacturing process, when a straight carbon nanotube is placed on a substrate, e.g., production of transistors, its two ends are often misaligned. In this study, we investigate the effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes' (MWCNTs) outer diameter and chirality on the change in conductance due to misalignment of the two ends. The length of the studied MWCNTs was 120 nm, while the diameters ranged between 4 and 7 nm. A mixed finite element-tight-binding approach was carefully designed to realize reduction in computational time by orders of magnitude in calculating the deformation-induced changes in the electrical transport properties of the nanotubes. Numerical results suggest that armchair MWCNTs of small diameter should work better if used as conductors, while zigzag MWCNTs of large diameter are more suitable for building sensors.Graphical Abstract.

  13. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR


    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  14. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi


    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  15. RF tumour ablation: computer simulation and mathematical modelling of the effects of electrical and thermal conductivity. (United States)

    Lobo, S M; Liu, Z-J; Yu, N C; Humphries, S; Ahmed, M; Cosman, E R; Lenkinski, R E; Goldberg, W; Goldberg, S N


    , the non-linear temperature response of RF induced heating can be adequately expressed mathematically as a function of electrical conductivity, radius and thermal conductivity. Hence, thermal conductivity accounts for some of the previously unexplained variance. Furthermore, the addition of this variable into the mathematical model substantially simplifies the equations and, as such, it is expected that this will permit improved prediction of RF ablation induced temperatures in clinical practice.

  16. Electrical conduction of LiF interlayers in organic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049–001, Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Leeuw, Dago M. de [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    An interlayer of LiF in between a metal and an organic semiconductor is commonly used to improve the electron injection. Here, we investigate the effect of moderate bias voltages on the electrical properties of Al/LiF/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes by systematically varying the thickness of the LiF layer (2-50 nm). Application of forward bias V below the bandgap of LiF (V < E{sub g} ∼ 14 V) results in reversible formation of an electrical double layer at the LiF/poly(spirofluorene) hetero-junction. Electrons are trapped on the poly(spirofluorene) side of the junction, while positively charged defects accumulate in the LiF with number densities as high as 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. Optoelectronic measurements confirm the built-up of aggregated, ionized F centres in the LiF as the positive trapped charges. The charged defects result in efficient transport of electrons from the polymer across the LiF, with current densities that are practically independent of the thickness of the LiF layer.

  17. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  18. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  19. Use of conductive gels for electric field homogenization increases the antitumor efficacy of electroporation therapies (United States)

    Ivorra, Antoni; Al-Sakere, Bassim; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.


    Electroporation is used in tissue for gene therapy, drug therapy and minimally invasive tissue ablation. The electrical field that develops during the application of the high voltage pulses needs to be precisely controlled. In the region to be treated, it is desirable to generate a homogeneous electric field magnitude between two specific thresholds whereas in other regions the field magnitude should be as low as possible. In the case of irregularly shaped tissue structures, such as bulky tumors, electric field homogeneity is almost impossible to be achieved with current electrode arrangements. We propose the use of conductive gels, matched to the conductivity of the tissues, to fill dead spaces between plate electrodes gripping the tissue so that the electric field distribution becomes less heterogeneous. Here it is shown that this technique indeed improves the antitumor efficacy of electrochemotherapy in sarcomas implanted in mice. Furthermore, we analyze, through finite element method simulations, how relevant the conductivity mismatches are. We found that conductivity mismatching errors are surprisingly well tolerated by the technique. Gels with conductivities ranging from 5 mS cm-1 to 10 mS cm-1 will be a proper solution for most cases.

  20. Electrical conduction and dielectric studies of ZnO pellets (United States)

    Chaari, Mariem; Matoussi, Adel


    A series of Zinc Oxide pellets sintered at different temperatures was studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy in the wide frequency range of 1-106 Hz and temperature interval from -100 °C to 30 °C. Electrical conductivity was analysed using Jonsher's universal power law, and the values of s were found to decrease with the increase in temperature, which agrees well with the correlation barrier hopping (CBH) model. As the temperature increased, energy activation Edc became less than 0.39 eV and dc conductivity (σdc) values in the range of 1.9×10-14-9.7×10-10 Ω m-1 were observed. The dielectric modulus showed ionic polarisation at the intermediate and high frequencies related to oxygen interstitial Oi, oxygen vacancy VO and Zinc interstitial Zni. At low frequency, it revealed a Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with barrier heights of grain boundaries between 0.74 and 0.88 eV for all the studied pellets.

  1. Thermally conductive and electrically insulating EVA composite encapsulant for solar photovoltaic (PV cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A new way of improving the heat dissipating ability and PV efficiency of the solar cells by enhancing the thermal conductivity of the rear EVA layer was reported. The thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, degree of curing of the EVA encapsulating composites and the PV efficiency of the solar cells are investigated. Filling with the thermal conductive fillers enhances the thermal conductivity of the composites effectively. The thermal conductivity of the filler influences significantly the thermal conductivity of the composite at high filler loading (greater than 20 vol%. Thermal conductivities of the composites filled with SiC, ZnO or BN reach respectively 2.85, 2.26 and 2.08 W/m•K at filler content of 60 vol%. The composites filled with ZnO or BN exhibit superior electrical insulation to those filled with SiC or Al2O3. ZnO can promote the cross-linking reaction of the EVA matrix. The test results indicated that the EVA composite encapsulating rear films filled with thermal conductive fillers are able to improve the PV efficiency and the heat dissipating ability of the solar cell effectively.

  2. Enhanced electrical conductivities of N-doped carbon nanotubes by controlled heat treatment. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Kazunori; Tojo, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Elías, Ana L; Vega-Díaz, Sofía M; Tristán-López, Ferdinando; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio


    The thermal stability of nitrogen (N) functionalities on the sidewalls of N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes was investigated at temperatures ranging between 1000 °C and 2000 °C. The structural stability of the doped tubes was then correlated with the electrical conductivity both at the bulk and at the individual tube levels. When as-grown tubes were thermally treated at 1000 °C, we observed a very significant decrease in the electrical resistance of the individual nanotubes, from 54 kΩ to 0.5 kΩ, which is attributed to a low N doping level (e.g. 0.78 at% N). We noted that pyridine-type N was first decomposed whereas the substitutional N was stable up to 1500 °C. For nanotubes heat treated to 1800 °C and 2000 °C, the tubes exhibited an improved degree of crystallinity which was confirmed by both the low R value (I(D)/I(G)) in the Raman spectra and the presence of straight graphitic planes observed in TEM images. However, N atoms were not detected in these tubes and caused an increase in their electrical resistivity and resistance. These partially annealed doped tubes with enhanced electrical conductivities could be used in the fabrication of robust and electrically conducting composites, and these results could be extrapolated to N-doped graphene and other nanocarbons.

  3. The effect of Holstein phonons on the electrical conductivity of doped monolayer graphene (United States)

    Rezania, Hamed


    Electrical conductivity of graphene sheets is studied in the presence of coupling between lattice optical vibrations and electrons. Green's function approach is implemented to find the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity. Moreover, the effect of electronic doping on the electrical conductivity of graphene with electron-phonon interaction is investigated. Our results show that electrical conductivity increases as a function of temperature at low temperature and gets a maximum value and then decays at high temperature.

  4. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.


    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation

  6. Electrically conductive bulk composites through a contact-connected aggregate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan I Nawroj

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a concept that allows the creation of low-resistance composites using a network of compliant conductive aggregate units, connected through contact, embedded within the composite. Due to the straight-forward fabrication method of the aggregate, conductive composites can be created in nearly arbitrary shapes and sizes, with a lower bound near the length scale of the conductive cell used in the aggregate. The described instantiation involves aggregate cells that are approximately spherical copper coils-of-coils within a polymeric matrix, but the concept can be implemented with a wide range of conductor elements, cell geometries, and matrix materials due to its lack of reliance on specific material chemistries. The aggregate cell network provides a conductive pathway that can have orders of magnitude lower resistance than that of the matrix material--from 10(12 ohm-cm (approx. for pure silicone rubber to as low as 1 ohm-cm for the silicone/copper composite at room temperature for the presented example. After describing the basic concept and key factors involved in its success, three methods of implementing the aggregate into a matrix are then addressed--unjammed packing, jammed packing, and pre-stressed jammed packing--with an analysis of the tradeoffs between increased stiffness and improved resistivity.

  7. Innovative methodology for electrical conductivity measurements and metal partition in biosolid pellets (United States)

    Jordan, Manuel Miguel; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Gómez-Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume


    Use of biosolids to improve the nutrient content in a soil is a common practice. The obligation to restore abandoned mine and the correct application of biosolids is guaranteed by the legislation on waste management, biosolids and soil conservation (Jordán et al. 2008). The present research was conducted to determine electrical conductivity in dry wastes (pellets) using a innovative methodology (Camilla and Jordán, 2009). On the other hand, the present study was designed to examine the distribution of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. In this context, heavy metal concentrations were studied in biosolid pellets under different pressures. Electrical conductivity measurements were taken in biosolid pellets under pressures on the order of 50 to 150 MPa and with currents of 10-15 A. Measurements of electrical conductivity and heavy metal content for different areas (H1, H2, and H3) were taken. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate portions were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The residual, reducible, and carbonate-sorbed forms were dominant. Higher Cr and Ni content were detected in pellets made with biosolids from the H3. The highest Cd and Ni values were detected in the H2. The trends of the conductivity curves were similar for the sludge from the isolation surface (H1) and for the mesophilous area (H2). In the case of the thermophilous area (H3), the electrical conductivity showed extremely high values. This behaviour was similar in the case of the Cr and Ni content. However, in the case of Cd and Pb, the highest values were detected in

  8. Conducting a SWOT Analysis for Program Improvement (United States)

    Orr, Betsy


    A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a teacher education program, or any program, can be the driving force for implementing change. A SWOT analysis is used to assist faculty in initiating meaningful change in a program and to use the data for program improvement. This tool is useful in any undergraduate or degree…

  9. Electron Transfer Between Electrically Conductive Minerals and Quinones (United States)

    Taran, Olga


    Long-distance electron transfer in marine environments couples physically separated redox half-reactions, impacting biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur and carbon. Bacterial bio-electrochemical systems that facilitate electron transfer via conductive filaments or across man-made electrodes are well known, but the impact of abiotic currents across naturally occurring conductive and semiconducitve minerals is poorly understood. In this paper I use cyclic voltammetry to explore electron transfer between electrodes made of common iron minerals (magnetite, hematite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite and greigite), and hydroquinones - a class of organic molecules found in carbon-rich sediments. Of all tested minerals, only pyrite and magnetite showed an increase in electric current in the presence of organic molecules, with pyrite showing excellent electrocatalytic performance. Pyrite electrodes performed better than commercially available glassy carbon electrodes and showed higher peak currents, lower overpotential values and a smaller separation between oxidation and reduction peaks for each tested quinone. Hydroquinone oxidation on pyrite surfaces was reversible, diffusion controlled, and stable over a large number of potential cycles. Given the ubiquity of both pyrite and quinones, abiotic electron transfer between minerals and organic molecules is likely widespread in Nature and may contribute to several different phenomena, including anaerobic respiration of a wide variety of microorganisms in temporally anoxic zones or in the proximity of hydrothermal vent chimneys, as well as quinone cycling and the propagation of anoxic zones in organic rich waters. Finally, interactions between pyrite and quinones make use of electrochemical gradients that have been suggested as an important source of energy for the origins of life on Earth. Ubiquinones and iron sulfide clusters are common redox cofactors found in electron transport chains across all domains of life and

  10. An electrical method for the measurement of the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide nanostructures. (United States)

    Schwamb, Timo; Burg, Brian R; Schirmer, Niklas C; Poulikakos, Dimos


    This paper introduces an electrical four-point measurement method enabling thermal and electrical conductivity measurements of nanoscale materials. The method was applied to determine the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide flakes. The dielectrophoretically deposited samples exhibited thermal conductivities in the range of 0.14-2.87 W m(-1) K(-1) and electrical conductivities in the range of 6.2 x 10(2)-6.2 x 10(3) Omega(-1) m(-1). The measured properties of each flake were found to be dependent on the duration of the thermal reduction and are in this sense controllable.

  11. Reversible Control of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivity using Colloidal Microfluidic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beskok, Ali; Bevan, Michael; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bahukudumbi, Pradipkumar; Everett, William


    This research addresses the tunable assembly of reversible colloidal structures within microfluidic networks to engineer multifunctional materials that exhibit a wide range of electrical properties...

  12. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia


    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  13. Study on the Effects of Adipic Acid on Properties of Dicyandiamide-Cured Electrically Conductive Adhesive and the Interaction Mechanism (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Chao; Fu, Yonggao; Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Xiaojian; Li, Mingyu


    A small quantity of adipic acid was found to improve the performance of dicyandiamide-cured electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) by enhancing its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The mechanism of action of the adipic acid and its effects on the ECA were examined. The results indicated that adipic acid replaced the electrically insulating lubricant on the surface of the silver flakes, which significantly improved the electrical conductivity. Specifically, one of the acidic functional groups in adipic acid reacted with the silver flakes, and an amidation reaction occurred between the other acidic functional group in adipic acid and the dicyandiamide, which participated in the curing reaction. Therefore, adipic acid may act as a coupling agent to improve the overall ECA performance.

  14. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  15. Transcardiac conducted electrical weapon (TASER) probe deployments: incidence and outcomes. (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Teacher, Eric; Winslow, James E


    TASER (TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are commonly used by law enforcement officers. Although animal studies have suggested that transcardiac CEW discharges may produce direct cardiac effects, this has not been demonstrated in human studies. This study sought to determine the incidence and outcomes of transcardiac CEW probe impact locations in a large series of actual CEW deployments. A multi-center database of consecutive CEW uses by law enforcement officers was retrospectively reviewed. Case report forms were independently reviewed by three investigators to identify cases with paired probe configurations potentially producing a transcardiac discharge vector. Descriptive analysis was performed and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Among 1201 total CEW uses, 813 included probe deployments and 178 cases had paired anterior probe impacts potentially capable of producing a transcardiac discharge vector. This represents 14.8% of all CEW uses (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.9%) and 21.9% of CEW uses in probe mode (95% CI 19.1-24.9%). Inter-rater agreement was very good, with kappa = 0.82. There were no immediate deaths in any cases (97.5% CI 0.0-0.3%) to suggest a cardiac dysrhythmia, including those with transcardiac discharge vector. CEW deployments with probe impact configurations capable of producing a transcardiac discharge occur in a minority of cases in field use conditions. None of these cases, transcardiac or otherwise, produced immediately fatal dysrhythmias. These data support the overall safety of CEWs and provide a benchmark estimate of the likelihood of transcardiac discharge vectors occurring in field use of CEWs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conducted electrical weapon (TASER) use against minors: a shocking analysis. (United States)

    Gardner, Alison R; Hauda, William E; Bozeman, William P


    Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) such as the TASER are often used by law enforcement (LE) personnel during suspect apprehension. Previous studies have reported an excellent safety profile and few adverse outcomes with CEW use in adults. We analyzed the safety and injury profile of CEWs when used during LE apprehension of children and adolescents, a potentially vulnerable population. Consecutive CEW uses by LE officers against criminal suspects were tracked at 10 LE agencies and entered into a database as part of an ongoing multicenter injury surveillance program. All CEW uses against minors younger than 18 years were retrieved for analysis. Primary outcomes included the incidence and type of mild, moderate, and severe CEW-related injury, as assessed by physician reviewers in each case. Ultimate outcomes, suspect demographics, and circumstances surrounding LE involvement are reported secondarily. Of 2026 consecutive CEW uses, 100 (4.9%) were uses against minor suspects. Suspects ranged from 13 to 17 years, with a mean age of 16.1 (SD, 0.99) years (median, 16 years). There were no significant (moderate or severe) injuries reported (0%; 97.5% confidence interval, 0.0%-3.6%). Twenty suspects (20%; 95% confidence interval, 12.7%-29.1%) were noted to sustain 34 mild injuries. The majority of these injuries (67.6%) were expected superficial punctures from CEW probes. Other mild injuries included superficial abrasions and contusions in 7 cases (7%). None of the minor suspects studied sustained significant injury, and only 20% reported minor injuries, mostly from the expected probe puncture sites. These data suggest that adolescents are not at a substantially higher risk than adults for serious injuries after CEW use.

  17. Redox Active Metal- and Covalent Organic Frameworks for Energy Storage: Balancing Porosity and Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Zhang, Yugen; Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Wang, Jinquan


    Porous redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as electrode materials for energy storage devices. These porous frameworks have different levels of intrinsic properties such as low solubility, high ionic conductivity (porosity) and low electrical conductivity, all of which are critical parameters when utilised as electrode materials. This Minireview focuses on recent developments of using porous MOFs/COFs as redox active electrode materials for energy storage and strategies to improve their electrochemical performance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Wilkes subglacial basin eastern margin electrical conductivity anomaly (United States)

    Rizzello, Daniele; Armadillo, Egidio; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Caneva, Giorgio


    allowed for a new processing of a wide dataset acquired during three different international Antarctic campaigns supported by the Italian Antarctic Project: the BACKTAM, WIBEM and WISE expeditions. The qualitative analysis of the induction arrows, in the period range 20-170 s, reveals an approximately 2D regional electrical conductivity pattern with a clear differentiation between the three Terrains crossed by the GDS transect we have re-analized: the Robertson Bay, the Bowers and the Wilson Terrain. Bi-dimensional conductivity models, jointly with magnetic and gravimetric profiles, suggest a differentiation of the investigated area in three crustal sectors separated by the Daniels Range and the Bowers Mts., in close relation with main known structural lineaments; to the West, a deep conductivity anomaly is associated with the transition to the Wilkes Subglagial Basin. We deem that such anomaly, together with the magnetic and gravimetric signatures, is compatible with an extensional regime in the eastern margin of the WSB. References Rizzello, D., Armadillo, E., Manzella, A."Statistical analysis of the polar electrojet influence on geomagnetic transfer functions estimates, over wide time and space scales". EGU 2013 General Assembly, Wien - poster presentation.

  19. The electrically detected magnetic resonance microscope: combining conductive atomic force microscopy with electrically detected magnetic resonance. (United States)

    Klein, Konrad; Hauer, Benedikt; Stoib, Benedikt; Trautwein, Markus; Matich, Sonja; Huebl, Hans; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Finger, Friedhelm; Bittl, Robert; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S


    We present the design and implementation of a scanning probe microscope, which combines electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and (photo-)conductive atomic force microscopy ((p)cAFM). The integration of a 3-loop 2-gap X-band microwave resonator into an AFM allows the use of conductive AFM tips as a movable contact for EDMR experiments. The optical readout of the AFM cantilever is based on an infrared laser to avoid disturbances of current measurements by absorption of straylight of the detection laser. Using amorphous silicon thin film samples with varying defect densities, the capability to detect a spatial EDMR contrast is demonstrated. Resonant current changes as low as 20 fA can be detected, allowing the method to realize a spin sensitivity of 8×10(6)spins/√Hz at room temperature.

  20. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  1. A percolation model for electrical conduction in wood with implications for wood-water relations (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Donald S. Stone


    The first models used to describe electrical conduction in cellulosic materials involved conduction pathways through free water. These models were abandoned in the middle of the 20th century. This article re-evaluates the theory of conduction in wood by using a percolation model that describes electrical conduction in terms of overlapping paths of loosely bound or...

  2. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan


    For silicon nanowires (Si NWs) to be used as a successful high capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling stability are required. Here we show that a conductive polymer surface coating on the Si NWs improves cycling stability; coating with PEDOT causes the capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles to increase from 30% to 80% over bare NWs. The improvement in cycling stability is attributed to the conductive coating maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cycled Si material, along with preserving electrical connections between NWs that would otherwise have become electrically isolated during volume changes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik

    disadvantages are challenges in terms of cost and system complexity. The noise floor of the accelerometer prevents iii/xi motional control at very low displacements. The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 %. This is only true at high power...... of the bended copper foils to optimize the DC resistance. The DC resistance was reduced by 30 % compared to the starting point for a 10 turn toroidal inductor using this method. The combined work indicate that large sound system improvements are in reach by use of electrical means. Innovative solutions have...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Vilar


    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to study the variation of the electrode distribution potential under electrical conductivity variation of graphite felt RVG 4000 ( Le Carbone Lorraine when submitted to a mechanical compression. Experimental and theoretical studies show that this electrical conductivity variation can changes the electrode potential distribution E(x working under limiting current conditions. This may occur when graphite felt is confined in an electrochemical reactor compartment or simply when it is submitted to a force performed by an electrolyte percolation in a turbulent flow. This investigation can contribute to the improvement of electrochemical cells that may use this material as an electrode. Finally, one modification is suggested in the equation that gives the electrode potential distribution E(x - E(0. In this case the parameter L (thickness in metal porous electrodes is substituted for Lf = Li (1-j, where j corresponds to the reduction factor of the initial thickness Li.


    Runge, M. Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Yaszemski, Michael J.


    Summary Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping technique were surface modified by solution deposition of electrically conductive polypyrrole coatings with or without hydroxyapatite. Scaffolds were electrically conductive with resistivity as low as 2Ω. Scaffold characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis shows both polypyrrole and hydroxyapatite are present. Cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed using human fetal osteoblast cells. These studies show that surface modification using hydroxyapatite improved cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts onto the PPF scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker for osteogenic differentiation of cell to mature osteoblasts was analyzed. Our data reveal that osteoblasts maintained their phenotype on PPF scaffolds with and without coatings. Thus, these scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for our future in vivo studies. PMID:22051167

  6. Electrically Conductive Compounds of Polycarbonate, Liquid Crystalline Polymer, and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwisa Pisitsak


    Full Text Available A thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP was blended with polycarbonate (PC and multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT with the goal of improving electrical conductivity and mechanical properties over PC. The LCP was anticipated to produce fibrillar domains in PC and help improve the mechanical properties. The study was carried out using two grades of LCP—Vectra A950 (VA950 and Vectra V400P (V400P. The compounds contained 20 wt% LCP and 0.5 to 15 wt% CNT. The compounds were prepared by melt-blending in a twin-screw minicompounder and then injection molded using a mini-injection molder. The fibrillar domains of LCP were found only in the case of PC/VA950 blend. However, these fibrils turned into droplets in the presence of CNT. It was found that CNT preferentially remained inside the LCP domains as predicted from the value of spreading coefficient. The electrical conductivity showed the following order with the numbers in parenthesis representing the electrical percolation threshold of the compounds: PC/CNT (1% > PC/VA950P/CNT (1% > PC/V400P/CNT (3%. The storage modulus showed improvements with the addition of CNT and VA950.

  7. Maximum on the electrical conductivity polytherm of molten TeCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten TeCl{sub 4} was measured up to 761 K, i.e. 106 degrees above the normal boiling point of the salt. For the first time it was found that TeCl{sub 4} electrical conductivity polytherm has a maximum. It was recorded at 705 K (Κ{sub max}=0.245 Sm/cm), whereupon the conductivity decreases as the temperature rises. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  8. Materials and methods for autonomous restoration of electrical conductivity (United States)

    Blaiszik, Benjamin J; Odom, Susan A; Caruso, Mary M; Jackson, Aaron C; Baginska, Marta B; Ritchey, Joshua A; Finke, Aaron D; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Sottos, Nancy R; Braun, Paul V; Amine, Khalil


    An autonomic conductivity restoration system includes a solid conductor and a plurality of particles. The particles include a conductive fluid, a plurality of conductive microparticles, and/or a conductive material forming agent. The solid conductor has a first end, a second end, and a first conductivity between the first and second ends. When a crack forms between the first and second ends of the conductor, the contents of at least a portion of the particles are released into the crack. The cracked conductor and the released contents of the particles form a restored conductor having a second conductivity, which may be at least 90% of the first conductivity.

  9. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.


    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equation was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer). Joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements were performed to estimate the vertical soil electrical conductivity profiles. The inversion minimizes the misfit between the measured and modeled soil apparent electrical conductivity by DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is based on Bayesain approach. Results indicate that soil electrical conductivity profiles have low values close to the corn plants, which indicates loss of soil moisture due to the root water uptake. These results offer valuable insights into future potential and emerging challenges in the development of joint analysis of multi-configuration EMI measurements to retrieve effective soil electrical conductivity profiles.

  10. Enhancement of Intercellular Electrical Synchronization by Conductive Materials in Cardiac Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Guo, Liang


    cardiac tissue regeneration for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has been of great research interest. Under the hypothesis that electrical synchronization of cardiac cells can be aided by conductive materials, electrically conductive scaffolds have been frequently used to improve cardiac tissue regeneration. However, theoretical analysis is presently absent in examining the underlying mechanism and rationally guiding the design of these conductive scaffolds. here, equivalent-circuit models are proposed, in which two adjacent groups of cardiomyocytes are grown either on a bulk conductive substrate or around conductive nanostructures. When one group of cells leads with action potentials, the membrane depolarization of the following group is investigated. this study reveals that membrane depolarization of the following group is most sensitive to seal resistance to the substrate while surface roughness and conductivity of the material have less influence. In addition, it is found that a multiple-cell group is easier to be depolarized by its adjacent beating cardiomyocytes. For nanostructure-bridged cardiac cells, substantial depolarization occurs only with a seal resistance larger than 10 Ω/sqr, which is contradictory to many reported estimations. this work theoretically confirms the positive role of conductive scaffolds and nanostructures in aiding electrical synchronization of cardiac cells and reveals that its performance mainly relies on the cell-device interface. this work provides a theoretical basis for the rational design of electroactive scaffolds for enhanced cardiac tissue engineering. cardiac tissue regeneration for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has been of great research interest. Under the hypothesis that electrical synchronization of cardiac cells can be aided by conductive materials, electrically conductive scaffolds have been frequently used to improve cardiac tissue regeneration. However, theoretical analysis is presently absent in

  11. Electrical conductivity beneath the volcanoes of the NW Argentinian Puna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lezaeta, Pamela; Brasse, Heinrich


    ...., in the eastern Puna and backarc zone. The 2‐D conductivity models show a conductive zone beneath the eastern Puna shoshonitic volcanoes and nearby Tuzgle volcano, which reaches from the upper crust to the upper mantle...

  12. Influence of electrical conductivity on water uptake and vase life of cut gladiolus stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa


    Full Text Available Several experiments reveal that distilled water varies among different laboratories and also does not have a standard composition. Water electrical conductivity (EC of vase solution is one of the parameters that influence the water uptake by cut flowers. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of electrical conductivity on water uptake and vase life in cut stems of gladiolus. The stems harvested and kept in distilled water (pH 6.6, EC <0.01dS m-1 and tap water (pH 7.0, EC 0.75 dS m-1 at room temperature. Flowers kept in tap water showed lower fresh weight loss after the second day and higher water uptake during vase life. In a second set of experiments, we verified the limit EC saturation supported by the flower. For this, flowers were placed in individual test tubes containing four different solutions with varying ion concentrations. Solution 2 (EC 0.60 dS m-1 promoted increased vase life and allowed maximum water uptake by the flowers. The results show that the electrical conductivity of vase solution is a major parameter in experiments with vase life of cut gladiolus. The presence of ions in the vase solution increases the overall vase life and improves water uptake of flowers with favorable optimal EC between 0.60 to 0.87 dS m-1.

  13. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study ...

  14. Conductivity of Graphene Nanoribbon Affected by DC Electric Field (United States)

    Konobeev, N. N.; Belonenko, M. B.


    The paper focuses on the calculation of the density of states based on the electron hopping Hamiltonian of graphene using the direct Hamiltonian diagonalization. The density of states is then recalculated into the tunneling current arising between graphene nanoribbon and contact metal. It is shown that the dc electric field applied in parallel to the nanoribbon plane modifies the properties of the tunneling current.

  15. Inversion of electrical conductivity data with Tikhonov regularization approach: some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manzi


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic induction measurements, which are generally used to determine lateral variations of apparent electrical conductivity, can provide quantitative estimates of the subsurface conductivity at different depths. Quantitative inference about the Earth's interior from experimental data is, however, an ill-posed problem. Using the generalised McNeill's theory for the EM38 ground conductivity meter, we generated synthetic apparent conductivity curves (input data vector simulating measurements at different heights above the soil surface. The electrical conductivity profile (the Earth model was then estimated solving a least squares problem with Tikhonov regularization optimised with a projected conjugate gradient algorithm. Although the Tikhonov approach improves the conditioning of the resulting linear system, profile reconstruction can be surprisingly far from the desired true one. On the contrary, the projected conjugate gradient provided the best solution without any explicit regularization ( a= 0 of the objective function of the least squares problem. Also, if the initial guess belongs to the image of the system matrix, Im(A, we found that it provides a unique solution in the same subspace Im(A.

  16. Enhanced electrical and thermal conduction in graphene-encapsulated copper nanowires. (United States)

    Mehta, Ruchit; Chugh, Sunny; Chen, Zhihong


    Highly conductive copper nanowires (CuNWs) are essential for efficient data transfer and heat conduction in wide ranging applications like high-performance semiconductor chips and transparent conductors. However, size scaling of CuNWs causes severe reduction in electrical and thermal conductivity due to substantial inelastic surface scattering of electrons. Here we report a novel scalable technique for low-temperature deposition of graphene around CuNWs and observe strong enhancement of electrical and thermal conductivity for graphene-encapsulated CuNWs compared to uncoated CuNWs. Fitting the experimental data with the theoretical model for conductivity of CuNWs reveals significant reduction in surface scattering of electrons at the oxide-free CuNW surfaces, translating into 15% faster data transfer and 27% lower peak temperature compared to the same CuNW without the graphene coating. Our results provide compelling evidence for improved speed and thermal management by adapting the Cu-graphene hybrid technology in future ultrascaled silicon chips and air-stable flexible electronic applications.

  17. Electrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene composites


    Park, Wonjung; Hu, Jiuning; Jauregui, Luis A.; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Yong P.


    The author reports an experimental study of electrical and thermal transport in reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/polystyrene (PS) composites. The electrical conductivity (sigma) of RGO/PS composites with different RGO concentrations at room temperature shows a percolation behavior with the percolation threshold of similar to 0.25 vol. %. Their temperature-dependent electrical conductivity follows Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping conduction in the temperature range of 30-300K. The thermal c...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Sokol


    Full Text Available Purpose. To elaborate a method of electric field numerical calculation in systems with curved boundaries between conductive and non-conductive mediums at final volume method usage and application of the rectangular grids. Methodology. At electric field calculation in quasi-stationary approximation, potential of the whole conductive object (rod is constant. At final difference scheme writing, presence of the curved part of the boundary between conducting and non-conducting media has been taking into account as follows. It was supposed that curved section complements the closed loop on which integration of the solvable equation is done instead of a straight section which extends within a conducting medium. Usage of this approach allows taking into account square of the curved sections of the boundary and distance between surface of non-conductive medium and nearest nodes of the computational grid. Results. Dependence of the maximum electric field intensity on the height and radius of curvature peaks rods has been got with the help of calculations. As a result, a polynomial approximation for the analytical expression of the external electric field intensity, upon which application to the conductive object of a certain height and radius of curvature of its top, corona discharges will develop.

  19. In vivo human-skin electrical conduction and pain sensations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegelin, M. R. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Div. di Fisica Medica. Dipt. di Fisiopatologia; Paoli, G.; Zoppi, M. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Istituto della I Clinica Medica


    In vivo human skin is stimulated by direct current the intensity of which ranges from 1 {mu}A to 1 mA. They have detected the voltage/current plot and the temporal trend of potential difference between two electrodes placed in a suitable cutaneous region of stimulation, in a group of healthy subjects. They have elaborated a non-linear functional equivalent model to describe the system behaviour. The electrical stimulation can induce painful sensation, over a critical value of the current intensity, and they believe that this sensation is due to thermal dissipation into the inner layers of the skin. In fact, subjects begin to feel pain when the electric power dissipated in the stimulated region for unit time is within the range of 235-260 mcal/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s, that corresponds to the thermal threshold required to evoke pain.

  20. Electrically Conductive, Hydrophilic Porous Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to produce a conductive polyethersulfone (PES) microporous membrane for fuel cell water management applications. This membrane will...

  1. Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt solutions by a second generation high pressure electrical conductivity probe. (United States)

    Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A; Dunstan, Dave E; Hartley, Patrick G; Maeda, Nobuo


    We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt solutions was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second generation of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl solutions upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl solutions was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.

  2. Electrical perturbations of ultrathin bilayers: role of ionic conductive layer. (United States)

    Nazaripoor, Hadi; Koch, Charles R; Bhattacharjee, Subir


    The effect of electrostatic force on the dynamics, morphological evolution, and drainage time of ultrathin liquid bilayers (evolution of the liquid-liquid interface responses to transverse electric field. In order to predict the electrostatic component of conjoining/disjoining pressure acting on the interface for IL-PD bilayers, an analytical model is developed using the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is found that IL-PD bilayers with electric permittivity ratio of layers (lower to top), εr, greater than one remain stable under an applied electric field. An extensive numerical study is carried out to generate a map based on εr and the initial mean thickness of the lower layer. This map is used to predict the formation of various structures on PD-PD bilayer interface and provides a baseline for unstable IL-PD bilayers. The use of an ionic liquid (IL) layer is found to reduce the size of the structures, but results in polydispersed and disordered pillars spread over the domain. The numerical predictions follow similar trend of experimental observation of Lau and Russel. (Lau, C. Y.; Russel, W. B. Fundamental Limitations on Ordered Electrohydrodynamic Patterning; Macromolecules 2011, 44, 7746-7751).

  3. Bentonite electrical conductivity: a model based on series–parallel transport

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.


    Bentonite has significant applications nowadays, among them as landfill liners, in concrete industry as a repairing material, and as drilling mud in oil well construction. The application of an electric field to such perimeters is under wide discussion, and subject of many studies. However, to understand the behaviour of such an expansive and plastic material under the influence of an electric field, the perception of its electrical properties is essential. This work serves to compare existing data of such electrical behaviour with new laboratorial results. Electrical conductivity is a pertinent parameter since it indicates how much a material is prone to conduct electricity. In the current study, total conductivity of a compacted porous medium was established to be dependent upon density of the bentonite plug. Therefore, surface conductivity was addressed and a series-parallel transport model used to quantify/predict the total conductivity of the system. © The Author(s) 2010.

  4. The variation of electrical conductivity with temperature for Cu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The narrowing of the band gaps facilitates the ease of electronic transition from the valence band to the conduction band thereby enhancing the conductivity of the samples. All the samples investigated are characterized by wide band gaps which make them invaluable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices that utilize ...

  5. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films (United States)

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue


    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  6. Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous and immobilized potassium hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mollerup, Pia Lolk


    It is important to know the conductivity of the electrolyte of an alkaline electrolysis cell at a given temperature and concentration so as to reduce the ohmic loss during electrolysis through optimal cell and system design. The conductivity of aqueous KOH at elevated temperatures and high concen...

  7. A New Insight in Determining the Percolation Threshold of Electrical Conductivity for Extrinsically Conducting Polymer Composites through Different Sigmoidal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafizur Rahaman


    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of extrinsically conducting polymer composite systems passes through a transition state known as percolation threshold. A discussion has been made on how different Sigmoidal models (S-models, such as Sigmoidal–Boltzmann (SB, Sigmoidal–Dose Response (SD, Sigmoidal–Hill (SH, Sigmoidal–Logistic (SL, and Sigmoidal–Logistic-1 (SL-1, can be applied to predict the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity for ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA and acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR conducting composite systems filled with different carbon fillers. An interesting finding that comes from these observations is that the percolation threshold for electrical conductivity determined by SB and SD models are similar, whereas, the other models give different result when estimated for a particular composite system. This similarity and discrepancy in the results of percolation threshold have been discussed by considering the strength, weakness, and limitation of the models. The percolation threshold value for the composites has also been determined using the classical percolation theory and compared with the sigmoidal models. Moreover, to check the universal applicability, these Sigmoidal models have also been tested on results from some published literature. Finally, it is revealed that, except SL-1 model, the remaining models can successfully be used to determine the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity for extrinsically conductive polymer composites.

  8. Thermal switching of the electrical conductivity of Si(111)([Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J W; Kallehauge, Jesper; Hofmann, Ph


    The temperature-dependent surface conductivity of the Si(111)([Formula: see text])Ag surface was measured using a microscopic four-point probe. The conductivity was found to undergo a sharp increase of about three orders of magnitude when the system was heated above about 220 K. This strong...... conductivity change is reversible and attributed to the phase transition which is generally believed to occur on this surface. It is also shown that, in order to find the true surface conductivity, it is necessary to separate it from the contribution of the bulk and space charge layer. In this work......, this is achieved by using a finite-element model. A percolating network of Ag islands on Si(111) was also studied and a much simpler behaviour (compared to that of Si(111)([Formula: see text])Ag) was found. The temperature-dependent conductivity of this system was found to display typical metallic behaviour...

  9. Dynamic conductivity of symmetric three-barrier plane nanosystem in constant electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Voitsekhivska


    Full Text Available The theory of dynamic conductivity of nanosystem is developed within the model of rectangular potentials and different effective masses of electron in open three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure in a constant homogeneous electric field. The application of this theory for the improvement of operating characteristics of quantum cascade laser active region (for the experimentally investigated In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterosystem proves that for a certain geometric design of nanosystem there exists such minimal magnitude of constant electric field intensity, at which the electromagnetic field radiation power together with the density of current flowing through the separate cascade of quantum laser becomes maximal.

  10. Electrically conductive bacterial cellulose composite membranes produced by the incorporation of graphite nanoplatelets in pristine bacterial cellulose membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zhou


    Full Text Available Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs were utilized to improve the electrical conductivity of pristine bacterial cellulose (BC membranes. By physical and chemical methods, flake-shaped GNPs, weaving through the surface layer of web-like cellulose nanofibrils, were indeed fixed or trapped by the adjacent nanofibrils in the BC surface network, for comparison, rod-shaped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were homogeneously inserted into BC membrane through the pore structures and tunnels within the BC membrane. Strong physical and chemical interaction exists between the BC nanofibrils and the particles of GNP or MWCNT even after 15 h sonication. BC membrane with 8.7 wt% incorporated GNPs reached the maximum electrical conductivity of 4.5 S/cm, while 13.9 wt% MWCNT/BC composite membrane achieved the maximum electrical conductivity of 1.2 S/cm. Compared with one dimensional (1-D MWCNTs, as long as GNPs inserted into BC membranes, the 2-D reinforcement of GNPs was proven to be more effective in improving the electrical conductivity of BC membranes thus not only break the bottleneck of further improvement of the electrical conductivity of BC-based composite membranes but also broaden the applications of BC and GNPs.

  11. Beneficial effect of aligned nanofiber scaffolds with electrical conductivity for the directional guide of cells. (United States)

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho


    Conducting polymer-based scaffolds receive biological and electrical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) or peripheral cells, thereby promoting cell growth and differentiation. Chitin, a natural polymer, is widely used as a scaffold because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to fabricate conductive scaffolds from aligned chitin/polyaniline (Chi/PANi) nanofibers for the directional guidance of cells. Pure chitin and random and aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and by assessing wettability, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity. The diameters of aligned Chi/PANi nanofibers were confirmed to be smaller than those of pure chitin and random nanofibers owing to electrostatic forces and stretching produced by rotational forces of the drum collector. The electrical conductivity of aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~91% higher than that of random nanofibers. We also studied the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) cultured on Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds in vitro using a CCK-8 assay, and found that cell viability on the aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~2.1-fold higher than that on random Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells on aligned nanofiber scaffolds spread in the direction of the aligned nanofibers (bipolar), whereas cells on the random nanofibers showed no spreading (6 h of culture) or multipolar patterns (7 days of culture). These results suggest that aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds with conductivity exert effects that could improve survival and proliferation of cells with directionality.

  12. A Novel Electro Conductive Graphene/Silicon-Dioxide Thermo-Electric Generator (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Abdi, Yusuf


    Thermoelectric generators are all solid-state devices that convert heat energy into electrical energy. The total energy (fuel) supplied to the engine, approximately 30 to 40% is converted into useful mechanical work; whereas the remaining is expelled to the environment as heat through exhaust gases and cooling systems, resulting in serious green house gas (GHG) emission. By converting waste energy into electrical energy is the aim of this manuscript. The technologies reported on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas of internal combustion engines (ICE) are thermo electric generators (TEG) with finned type, Rankine cycle (RC) and Turbocharger. This paper has presented an electro-conductive graphene oxide/silicon-dioxide (GO-SiO2) composite sandwiched by phosphorus (P) and boron (B) doped silicon (Si) TEG to generate electricity from the IC engine exhaust heat. Air-cooling and liquid cooling techniques adopted conventional TEG module has been tested individually for the electricity generation from IC engine exhausts heat at engine speed of 1000-3000rpm. For the engine speed of 7000 rpm, the maximum voltage was recorded as 1.12V and 4.00V for the air-cooling and liquid cooling respectively. The GO-SiO2 simulated result shows that it’s electrical energy generation is about 80% more than conventional TEG for the exhaust temperature of 500°C. The GO-SiO2 composite TEG develops 524W to 1600W at engine speed 1000 to 5000 rpm, which could contribute to reduce the 10-12% of engine total fuel consumption and improve emission level by 20%.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Electric Conductance of a thin Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmir Kollar


    Full Text Available In this paper the numeric modelling of total resistance of a thin sheet, with local conductivity in randomlydistributed grains higher then is that of the basic matrix, is presented. The 2D model is formed by a structure of longitudinaland transversal conductors interconnected in nodes of a square net. In all nodes, using iteration procedure, the potential isdetermined from which the conductance of sheet is computed between two touching electrodes. The described model can beused to imitate the behaviour of heterogeneous thin conducting sheets prepared by different techniques. The model wasverified in some cases where the net resistance is well known from the theory.

  14. Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanocoatings Prepared from Pyrolysed Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Molenda


    Full Text Available Conductive carbon nanocoatings (conductive carbon layers—CCL were formed on α-Al2O3 model support using three different polymer precursors and deposition methods. This was done in an effort to improve electrical conductivity of the material through creating the appropriate morphology of the carbon layers. The best electrical properties were obtained with use of a precursor that consisted of poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid (PMA. We demonstrate that these properties originate from a specific morphology of this layer that showed nanopores (3-4 nm capable of assuring easy pathways for ion transport in real electrode materials. The proposed, water mediated, method of carbon coating of powdered supports combines coating from solution and solid phase and is easy to scale up process. The optimal polymer carbon precursor composition was used to prepare conductive carbon nanocoatings on LiFePO4 cathode material. Charge-discharge tests clearly show that C/LiFePO4 composites obtained using poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid exhibit higher rechargeable capacity and longer working time in a battery cell than standard carbon/lithium iron phosphate composites.

  15. Estimating the stability of electrical conductivity of filled polymers under the influence of negative temperatures (United States)

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.


    One of the key problems in modern materials technology is synthesis of materials for electrotechnical devices capable of operating under severe conditions. Electrical and power engineering, in particular, demands for electrically conductive composite materials operating at high and low temperatures, various mechanical loads, electric fields, etc. Chaotic arrangement of electrically conductive component in the matrix and its structural and geometrical inhomogeneity can increase the local electric and thermal energy flux densities up to critical values even when their average values remain moderate. Elastomers filled with technical carbon being a promising component for electrotechnical devices was chosen as an object of study.

  16. Development and characterization of novel electrically conductive PANI-PGS composites for cardiac tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Rai, Ranjana; Dippold, Dirk; Roether, Judith E; Schubert, Dirk W; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Boccaccini, Aldo R


    Cardiovascular diseases, especially myocardial infarction, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, also resulting in huge economic burdens on national economies. A cardiac patch strategy aims at regenerating an infarcted heart by providing healthy functional cells to the injured region via a carrier substrate, and providing mechanical support, thereby preventing deleterious ventricular remodeling. In the present work, polyaniline (PANI) was doped with camphorsulfonic acid and blended with poly(glycerol-sebacate) at ratios of 10, 20 and 30vol.% PANI content to produce electrically conductive composite cardiac patches via the solvent casting method. The composites were characterized in terms of their electrical, mechanical and physicochemical properties. The in vitro biodegradability of the composites was also evaluated. Electrical conductivity increased from 0Scm(-1) for pure PGS to 0.018Scm(-1) for 30vol.% PANI-PGS samples. Moreover, the conductivities were preserved for at least 100h post fabrication. Tensile tests revealed an improvement in the elastic modulus, tensile strength and elasticity with increasing PANI content. The degradation products caused a local drop in pH, which was higher in all composite samples compared with pure PGS, hinting at a buffering effect due to the presence of PANI. Finally, the cytocompatibility of the composites was confirmed when C2C12 cells attached and proliferated on samples with varying PANI content. Furthermore, leaching of acid dopants from the developed composites did not have any deleterious effect on the viability of C2C12 cells. Taken together, these results confirm the potential of PANI-PGS composites for use as substrates to modulate cellular behavior via electrical stimulation, and as biocompatible scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting the pH and electrical conductivity of MgO–ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    conducting paint, electrically conducting adhesives28 and electric field-induced pattern formation in colloids such as in magnetorheological fluid40 for lubrication, efficient heat transfer and semi-active control of vehicle suspen- sions.41 Research, development and implementation of electrospray technology is also an area ...

  18. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (United States)

    In order to predict water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types of milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with water content of 18%-37% between 5-40ºC. Regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The...

  19. Soil permittivity response to bulk electrical conductivity for selected soil water sensors (United States)

    Bulk electrical conductivity can dominate the low frequency dielectric loss spectrum in soils, masking changes in the real permittivity and causing errors in estimated water content. We examined the dependence of measured apparent permittivity (Ka) on bulk electrical conductivity in contrasting soil...

  20. ECON-KG: A Code for Computation of Electrical Conductivity Using Density Functional Theory (United States)


    AND SUBTITLE ECON-KG: A Code for Computation of Electrical Conductivity Using Density Functional Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER ...Functional Theory by DeCarlos E Taylor Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The...Computation of Electrical Conductivity Using Density Functional Theory by DeCarlos E Taylor Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  1. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  2. Microstructure and electrical conductivity of Al–SiC p composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The grain size of the composite materials was observed to be lower than that of the base Al-alloy. The composite materials invariably indicated their lower electrical conductivity compared to that of the monolithic Al-alloy. The electrical conductivity of composites decreased with increase in the volume fraction and decrease in ...

  3. Boosting electrical conductivity in a gel-derived material by nanostructuring with trace carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Canevet, David; Pérez Del Pino, Angel; Amabilino, David B.; Sallé, Marc


    An organogelator with two distinct π-functional units is able to incorporate carbon nanotubes into its mesh of fibres in the gel state. The morphology of the material derived from this nanocomposite after evaporation of the solvent is a complex mesh of fibres which is clearly different from the pure gelator. This feature indicates a role of the nanotubes in assisting the formation of a fibre structure in the gel thanks to their interaction with the pyrene units in the organogelator. The nanocomposite conducts electricity once the p-type gelator is doped with iodine vapour. The change in morphology caused by the carbon material increases the conductivity of the material compared with the purely organic conducting system. It is remarkable that this improvement in the physical property is caused by an extremely small proportion of the carbon material (only present at a ratio of 0.1% w/w). The practically unique properties of TTF unit allow measurements with both doped and undoped materials with conducting atomic force microscopy which have demonstrated that the carbon nanotubes are not directly responsible for the increased conductivity.An organogelator with two distinct π-functional units is able to incorporate carbon nanotubes into its mesh of fibres in the gel state. The morphology of the material derived from this nanocomposite after evaporation of the solvent is a complex mesh of fibres which is clearly different from the pure gelator. This feature indicates a role of the nanotubes in assisting the formation of a fibre structure in the gel thanks to their interaction with the pyrene units in the organogelator. The nanocomposite conducts electricity once the p-type gelator is doped with iodine vapour. The change in morphology caused by the carbon material increases the conductivity of the material compared with the purely organic conducting system. It is remarkable that this improvement in the physical property is caused by an extremely small proportion of the

  4. Calibration of EMI derived apparent electrical conductivity based on ERT measurements (United States)

    Rudolph, S.; Mester, A.; van der Kruk, J.; Weihermüller, L.; Zimmermann, E.; Vereecken, H.


    Soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an indirect measure for various soil physical and chemical parameters. Among non-invasive geophysical methods, electromagnetic induction (EMI) appears to be the most efficient one that is able to measure ECa over large areas in short time. However, this method currently does not provide quantitative values of ECa due to calibration problems. In the calibration approach of Lavoué et al. (2010) inverted electrical conductivity data from a 120 m long ERT (electrical resistivity tomography) calibration transect were used as input parameter for an electromagnetic forward model to predict ECa measured with EMI. To further improve this calibration method we conducted a field survey within an agricultural field for crop breeding studies. The entire field (60x100 m) was mapped with the EM38-MK2 (Geonics, Ontario, Canada), an EMI system with multiple coil spacing which measures the weighted average of ECa over four depth ranges, immediately after the harvest of sugar beet. On the basis of high-resolution ECa distribution maps, an area with high contrast in ECa was selected for calibrating the EMI sensor with ERT. Along a 30 m long transect EMI measurements with two different internal calibration settings were carried out. A Syscal Pro System (IRIS Instruments, Orleans France) and 120 electrodes with an electrode spacing of 0.25 m were used to measure the apparent resistivity of soil. Post processed ERT measurements were inverted using the robust inversion method of the RES2DINV software. Quantitative EM inductions measurements were derived by linear regression between measured and predicted ECa measurements. The observed offset between the repeated EMI measurements could be removed successfully. Furthermore, shortening and focusing the ERT measurements to a specific area of interest could reduce the measurement time for calibration significantly. Prospectively, the application of a quantitative multi-layer inversion of multi

  5. Fabrication of Extrinsically Conductive Silicone Rubbers with High Elasticity and Analysis of Their Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Saleem


    Full Text Available Conductive plastics are attracting more and more interest in electronics due to their light weight and inability to rust, which are common problems associated with metals. The field of conducting plastics is not new. Much work has been done to impart electrical conductivity to mechanically strong polymers such as polypropylene, polycarbonate and epoxies, etc. However there is a need to fabricate more flexible and elastic conductive polymers such as conducting silicone rubbers for use in various applications. In this work silicone rubbers reinforced with conductive fillers have been fabricated for use as sensors in textiles to detect the resistance change produced by stretching or relaxing. The variations of electrical resistance have been investigated by stretching and releasing the strands of conductive rubbers as a function of time. Two types of silicone rubbers—addition cured and condensation cured—were compounded with different electrically conductive fillers, among which carbon fibers have shown the best results. The carbon fibers improved the electrical conductance of the rubbers, even in very low weight percentages. The increasing concentration of fillers decreases the elasticity of the rubber. In order to keep the original properties of silicones, the filler concentration was kept as low as possible to produce a significantly detectable signal. The fabricated compounds were analyzed for their mechanical properties by stress strain curves. Such materials find their applications in electronics, antistatic applications, sports and the automotive industry where they can be used as deformation sensors.

  6. The Efficiency Improvement by Combining HHO Gas, Coal and Oil in Boiler for Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang


    Full Text Available Electricity is an essential energy that can benefit our daily lives. There are many sources available for electricity generation, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear. Among these sources, coal has been widely used in thermal power plants that account for about 41% of the worldwide electricity supply. However, these thermal power plants are also found to be a big pollution source to our environment. There is a need to explore alternative electricity sources and improve the efficiency of electricity generation. This research focuses on improving the efficiency of electricity generation through the use of hydrogen and oxygen mixture (HHO gas. In this research, experiments have been conducted to investigate the combined effects of HHO gas with other fuels, including coal and oil. The results show that the combinations of HHO with coal and oil can improve the efficiency of electricity generation while reducing the pollution to our environment.

  7. Spin fluctuation and small polaron conduction dominated electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    1Department of Physics, Holkar Science College, A-B Road, Indore 452 001, India. 2School of Electronics, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452 001, India. 3School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University ... The spin-polarized transport of conduction elec- trons at the grain boundaries seems to be the ...

  8. Fullerene as alligator clips for electrical conduction through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The conductance of a single molecule transport junction comprising anthracene molecular junction (AMJ) with fullerene as alligator clips was investigated using a b − i n i t i o density functional theory (DFT) in the Landauer–Imry regime of coherent tunnelling transport. In our previous research, we have already calculatedthe ...

  9. Corrosion Effects on the IV Characteristics of Electrically Conducting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    JASEM ISSN 1119-8362. All rights reserved. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. March, 2007. Vol. 11 (1) 5 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Corrosion Effects on ... conductivity of the cable due to increase in the amount of degradation and weight losses. Further ... corrosion on the resistance of Alumina and.

  10. Fullerene as alligator clips for electrical conduction through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 20, 2017 ... presented the suitability of fullerene anchoring in coupling anthracene molecule with gold electrodes. AMJ with boron-20 (B-20) and C-20 alligator clips exhibited strongest conduction in contrast to nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon alligator clips. Keywords. HOMO; LUMO; fullerenes; alligator clips; ...

  11. A laboratory study of the correlation between the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of soil (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaopei; Du, Lizhi


    Thermal conductivity k (Wm- 1 K- 1) and electrical resistivity ρ (Ω·m) depend on common parameters such as grain size, dry density and saturation, allowing the finding of a relationship between both parameters. In this paper, we found a linear quantitative formula between thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of soil. To accomplish this, we measured the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of 57 soil samples in the laboratory; samples included 8 reconstructed soils from the Changchun area (clay, silt, and sand) with approximately 7 different saturation levels. A linear relationship between thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity was found excluding the parameter of soil saturation, and the linear model was validated with undisturbed soils in Changchun area. To fully use this relationship (e.g., by imaging the thermal conductivity of soils with electrical resistivity tomography), further measurements with different soils are needed.

  12. Electrical Conductivity Images of South African Continental Collision Zones (United States)

    Weckmann, U.; Ritter, O.; Becken, M.; Pek, J.; de Wit, M.


    Within the framework of the German-South African geo-scientific research initiative Inkaba yeAfrica several magnetotelluric (MT) field experiments were conducted along the Agulhas-Karoo transect in South Africa. This 600km long transect is designed to cross the Cape Fold Belt, the Namaqua-Natal Mobile Belt (NNMB), the Karoo Basin and the transition into the Kaapvaal Craton. At the same time, the transect crosses the Beattie Magnetic Anomaly and the Southern Cape Conductive Belt, two of Earth's largest continental geophysical anomalies. In this presentation we will focus on the ~ 1.2-1.0 Ga old convergent margin represented by the Kaapvaal craton-bounding Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal orogenic belt. Along the northernmost segment of the transect, we deployed over 120 MT sites along the 250km profile with a site spacing of 2-4km. With our experiment we focussed on a high-resolution image of the Mobile Belt-Craton transition on lithospheric scale. The MT data show a predominantly 2D behaviour; however, some sites show strong 3D effects, which are consistently observed over a 15km long segment. Anisotropic and 3D modelling studies show that these effects are caused by the unique setting of the extremely resistive rocks of the Kaapvaal Craton in combination with very conductive shallow structures. 2D- and 3D inversion results exhibit a shallow conductivity anomaly: a sub-horizontal, high conductivity band in the upper 5km of the NNMB. In view of other MT data collected in the area, we can map this anomaly over an area of 400km2. Based on deep borehole information, we are able to correlate the conductive band with the black shale and pyrite rich Whitehill formation within the Karoo basin, which seems to wedge out in vicinity of the Craton transition. In mid to lower crustal levels, the MT models show the transition from the untypically conductive rocks of the Proterozoic mobile belt and the extremely resistive rocks of the Kaapvaal Craton.

  13. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High Frequency Electrical Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eLisenker


    Full Text Available The effect of high frequency (HF electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO43 was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300V/cm at 1MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS to compare conventionally and field sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 hour of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31% vs. 26% with and without field, respectively . Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  14. Relating bulk electrical conduction to litho-textural properties and pore-fluid conductivity within porous alluvial aquifers (United States)

    Mele, M.; Giudici, M.; Inzoli, S.; Cavalli, E.; Bersezio, R.


    The estimate of hydraulic conductivity from Direct Current methods represents a powerful tool in aquifer characterization as both electrical and hydraulic conductivities depend on connected pore volumes and connected pore surface areas. A crucial, intermediate stage of this process is the assessment of sediments' textures and lithology from DC electrical conductivity as the electrical response of the aquifers' basic building blocks (i.e., hydrofacies) is controlled by the prevailing process of electrical conduction, electrolytic (σEL; pore-volume dominated) vs. "shale" (σSH; pore-surface dominated), determined by pore-space structure, clay distribution and electrical properties of pore fluids (σW). In this work laboratory experiments were conducted and the results were interpreted through the analysis i) of a volume-averaged, macroscopic litho-textural property of alluvial hydrofacies', the coarse-to-fine ratio (C/F), as a "proxy" of the process of electrical conduction within each samples on the basis of the volume proportion between nonconductive, coarse-grained and conductive, shaly textures and ii) of the surface conduction component, produced in fresh-to-salt water environment by clay materials. 8 hydrofacies' samples were collected with an hand-auger within the outcropping alluvial aquifers of the Quaternary meander river belt of the southernmost Lodi plain (northern Italy), represented by loose gravelly-sands to sands (6 samples), fine and sandy-silty clays (2 samples). As a first step, laboratory measurements of the bulk electrical conductivity (σB) of representative sub-samples, totally saturated with water with different salinity (σW from 125 to 1100 μs/cm), were performed. The experimental apparatus was made up by a series of polycarbonate, cylindrical cells (9cm x 12cm) equipped with external, copper plates as current electrodes and internal, copper squared-grids as potential electrodes. Electrical conductivity of each sample was obtained

  15. Investigation of the electrical conductivity of propylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids. (United States)

    White, Steven Bryan; Shih, Albert Jau-Min; Pipe, Kevin Patrick


    Electrical conductivity is an important property for technological applications of nanofluids that has not been widely studied. Conventional descriptions such as the Maxwell model do not account for surface charge effects that play an important role in electrical conductivity, particularly at higher nanoparticle volume fractions. Here, we perform electrical characterizations of propylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids with volume fractions as high as 7%, measuring up to a 100-fold increase in electrical conductivity over the base fluid. We observe a large increase in electrical conductivity with increasing volume fraction and decreasing particle size as well as a leveling off of the increase at high volume fractions. These experimental trends are shown to be consistent with an electrical conductivity model previously developed for colloidal suspensions in salt-free media. In particular, the leveling off of electrical conductivity at high volume fractions, which we attribute to counter-ion condensation, represents a significant departure from the "linear fit" models previously used to describe the electrical conductivity of nanofluids.

  16. Investigation of the electrical conductivity of propylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Electrical conductivity is an important property for technological applications of nanofluids that has not been widely studied. Conventional descriptions such as the Maxwell model do not account for surface charge effects that play an important role in electrical conductivity, particularly at higher nanoparticle volume fractions. Here, we perform electrical characterizations of propylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids with volume fractions as high as 7%, measuring up to a 100-fold increase in electrical conductivity over the base fluid. We observe a large increase in electrical conductivity with increasing volume fraction and decreasing particle size as well as a leveling off of the increase at high volume fractions. These experimental trends are shown to be consistent with an electrical conductivity model previously developed for colloidal suspensions in salt-free media. In particular, the leveling off of electrical conductivity at high volume fractions, which we attribute to counter-ion condensation, represents a significant departure from the "linear fit" models previously used to describe the electrical conductivity of nanofluids.

  17. Oxygen vacancy doping of hematite analyzed by electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power measurements (United States)

    Mock, Jan; Klingebiel, Benjamin; Köhler, Florian; Nuys, Maurice; Flohre, Jan; Muthmann, Stefan; Kirchartz, Thomas; Carius, Reinhard


    Hematite (α -F e2O3 ) is known for poor electronic transport properties, which are the main drawback of this material for optoelectronic applications. In this study, we investigate the concept of enhancing electrical conductivity by the introduction of oxygen vacancies during temperature treatment under low oxygen partial pressure. We demonstrate the possibility of tuning the conductivity continuously by more than five orders of magnitude during stepwise annealing in a moderate temperature range between 300 and 620 K. With thermoelectric power measurements, we are able to attribute the improvement of the electrical conductivity to an enhanced charge-carrier density by more than three orders of magnitude. We compare the oxygen vacancy doping of hematite thin films with hematite nanoparticle layers. Thereby we show that the dominant potential barrier that limits charge transport is either due to grain boundaries in hematite thin films or due to potential barriers that occur at the contact area between the nanoparticles, rather than the potential barrier within the small polaron hopping model, which is usually applied for hematite. Furthermore, we discuss the transition from oxygen-deficient hematite α -F e2O3 -x towards the magnetite F e3O4 phase of iron oxide at high density of vacancies.

  18. Synthesis of Electrical Conductive Silica Nanofiber/Gold Nanoparticle Composite by Laser Pulses and Sputtering Technique (United States)

    Hamza, Sarah; Ignaszak, Anna; Kiani, Amirkianoosh


    Biocompatible-sensing materials hold an important role in biomedical applications where there is a need to translate biological responses into electrical signals. Increasing the biocompatibility of these sensing devices generally causes a reduction in the overall conductivity due to the processing techniques. Silicon is becoming a more feasible and available option for use in these applications due to its semiconductor properties and availability. When processed to be porous, it has shown promising biocompatibility; however, a reduction in its conductivity is caused by its oxidization. To overcome this, gold embedding through sputtering techniques are proposed in this research as a means of controlling and further imparting electrical properties to laser induced silicon oxide nanofibers. Single crystalline silicon wafers were laser processed using an Nd:YAG pulsed nanosecond laser system at different laser parameters before undergoing gold sputtering. Controlling the scanning parameters (e.g., smaller line spacings) was found to induce the formation of nanofibrous structures, whose diameters grew with increasing overlaps (number of laser beam scanning through the same path). At larger line spacings, nano and microparticle formation was observed. Overlap (OL) increases led to higher light absorbance's by the wafers. The gold sputtered samples resulted in greater conductivities at higher gold concentrations, especially in samples with smaller fiber sizes. Overall, these findings show promising results for the future of silicon as a semiconductor and a biocompatible material for its use and development in the improvement of sensing applications.

  19. Highly anisotropic electric conductivity in PAN-based carbon nanofibers (United States)

    Aprojanz, J.; Dreyer, B.; Wehr, M.; Wiegand, J.; Baringhaus, J.; Koch, J.; Renz, F.; Sindelar, R.; Tegenkamp, C.


    In addition to the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures their successful utilization for applications is strongly triggered by economic aspects. Electrospinning of nanowires from solution followed by subsequent annealing steps is a comparably cheap technique to fabricate conductive carbon nanofibers (CNF) made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) molecules in large quantities. In this work, we investigated the microscopic properties of the CNFs with diameters of 100–300 nm by means of Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and correlated these results with transport measurements done with a 4-tip STM. In particular, we investigated the effect of fiber alignment and knot densities, which can be controlled by applying constant creep due to stress during the stabilization process. The comparison of the conductivity obtained from single CNFs revealed further that the fiber crossings within the ensemble structure act as scattering centers and proofs that the transport is along the surfaces of the CNFs.

  20. Electric conductance of films prepared from polymeric composite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hain, J.; Pich, A.; Adler, H. J.; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav


    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 61-65 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coating s * composites * conducting polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Pump effect of a capillary discharge in electrically conductive liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Baerdemaeker, F.; Šimek, Milan; Leys, C.; Verstraete, W.


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2007), s. 473-485 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water * conductive * capillary * AC discharge * pump Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2007

  2. Effect of neutron flux on the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynov, E.; Garibli, A., E-mail: [National Nuclear Research Center, Department of Nanotechnology and Radiation Material Science, 1073, Inshaatchilar pr. 4, Baku (Azerbaijan)


    It has been reviewed the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of nanoparticles affected by neutron flux at different times and initial state, at various constant temperatures such as 100, 200, 300 and 400 K. Measurements have been carried out at each temperature at the different 97 values of frequency in the 1 Hz - 1 MHz range. From interdependence between real and imaginary parts of electrical conductivity it has been determined the type of conductivity. Moreover, in the work it is given the mechanism of electrical conductivity according to the obtained results. (Author)

  3. Combining Proximal and Penetrating Soil Electrical Conductivity Sensors for High Resolution Digital Soil Mapping (United States)

    Proximal ground conductivity sensors produce high spatial resolution maps that integrate the bulk electrical conductivity (ECa) of the soil profile. Variability in conductivity maps must either be inverted to profile conductivity, or be directly calibrated to profile properties for meaningful interp...

  4. Electrical conduction mechanism in GeSeSb chalcogenide glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 1. Introduction. To the best of our knowledge, every sector of scientific field, especially in material science, has gained remarkable improvements. Despite of several existing semiconducting materials (e.g., Si, Ge, GaAs and many more) and ...

  5. Electrical stimulation to conductive scaffold promotes axonal regeneration and remyelination in a rat model of large nerve defect. (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Lei; Zhang, Jianbin; Hu, Xueyu; Zhang, Yongguang; Liang, Wei; Wu, Siyu; Luo, Zhuojing


    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to promote nerve regeneration when it was applied to the proximal nerve stump. However, the possible beneficial effect of establishing a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect on nerve regeneration has not been reported in previous studies. The present study attempted to establish a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect, and examined its effect on nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In the present study, a conductive scaffold was constructed and used to bridge a 15 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and intermittent ES (3 V, 20 Hz) was applied to the conductive scaffold to establish an electrical environment at the site of nerve defect. Nerve regeneration and functional recovery were examined after nerve injury repair and ES. We found that axonal regeneration and remyelination of the regenerated axons were significantly enhanced by ES which was applied to conductive scaffold. In addition, both motor and sensory functional recovery was significantly improved and muscle atrophy was partially reversed by ES localized at the conductive scaffold. Further investigations showed that the expression of S-100, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), P0 and Par-3 was significantly up-regulated by ES at the conductive scaffold. Establishing an electrical environment with ES localized at the conductive scaffold is capable of accelerating nerve regeneration and promoting functional recovery in a 15 mm nerve defect in rats. The findings provide new directions for exploring regenerative approaches to achieve better functional recovery in the treatment of large nerve defect.

  6. Highly doped carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles and their influence on electrical conductivity and thermopower of nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungwho Choi

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often used as conductive fillers in composite materials, but electrical conductivity is limited by the maximum filler concentration that is necessary to maintain composite structures. This paper presents further improvement in electrical conductivity by precipitating gold nanoparticles onto CNTs. In our composites, the concentrations of CNTs and poly (vinyl acetate were respectively 60 and 10 vol%. Four different gold concentrations, 0, 10, 15, or 20 vol% were used to compare the influence of the gold precipitation on electrical conductivity and thermopower of the composites. The remaining portion was occupied by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(styrenesulfonate, which de-bundled and stabilized CNTs in water during synthesis processes. The concentrations of gold nanoparticles are below the percolation threshold of similar composites. However, with 15-vol% gold, the electrical conductivity of our composites was as high as ∼6×10(5 S/m, which is at least ∼500% higher than those of similar composites as well as orders of magnitude higher than those of other polymer composites containing CNTs and gold particles. According to our analysis with a variable range hopping model, the high conductivity can be attributed to gold doping on CNT networks. Additionally, the electrical properties of composites made of different types of CNTs were also compared.

  7. Improving Students' Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism (United States)

    Li, Jing


    Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…

  8. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Conductivity profile; Niger delta; solar quiet day current; spherical harmonic analysis (SHA); mantle; ... The method of analysis involves the differential .... cos mφ + b m n sinmφ)X m n. (θ) (5a). D= ∑ n. ∑ m. (−bm n cos mφ + a m n sinmφ)Y m n. (θ) (5b). Z = ∑ n. ∑ m. (C m n cos mφ + d m n sinmφ)P m n. (θ) (5c).

  9. Improvement in ionic conductivities of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis, characterization and improved ionic conductivities of the salts of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid are reported here. In this study, the alternating current conductivity measurements were carried out within the temperature range of 30–90° C and the frequency range of 1 Hz–100 kHz ...

  10. Latent synthesis of electrically conductive surface-silvered polyimide films. (United States)

    Davis, Luke M; Abelt, Christopher J; Scott, Joseph L; Orlova, Evguenia; Thompson, David W


    A facile ambient temperature route to the fabrication of surface silver-metallized polyimide films is described. Silver(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate or silver(I) nitrate and a polyimide, derived from 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride and an equimolar amount of 4,4'-oxydianiline and 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid, were dissolved together in dimethylacetamide. Silver(I)-doped films were prepared at thicknesses of 25-40 microm and depleted of solvent by evaporation at ambient temperature and low humidity. The silver(I)-ion-containing films were then treated with aqueous solutions of the reducing agents hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine, which brought forth surface-silvered films exhibiting conductivity on the order of bulk polycrystalline silver accompanied by modest-to-high specular reflectivity.

  11. Tuning the Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Thermoelectric Oxides through Impurity Doping (United States)

    Torres Arango, Maria A.

    Waste heat and thermal gradients available at power plants can be harvested to power wireless networks and sensors by using thermoelectric (TE) generators that directly transform temperature differentials into electrical power. Oxide materials are promising for TE applications in harsh industrial environments for waste heat recovery at high temperatures in air, because they are lightweight, cheaply produced, highly efficient, and stable at high temperatures in air. Ca3Co4O9(CCO) with layered structure is a promising p-type thermoelectric oxide with extrapolated ZT value of 0.87 in single crystal form [1]. However the ZT values for the polycrystalline ceramics remain low of ˜0.1-0.3. In this research, nanostructure engineering approaches including doping and addition of nanoinclusions were applied to the polycrystalline CCO ceramic to improve the energy conversion efficiency. Polycrystalline CCO samples with various Bi doping levels were prepared through the sol-gel chemical route synthesis of powders, pressing and sintering of the pellets. Microstructure features of Bi doped ceramic bulk samples such as porosity, development of crystal texture, grain boundary dislocations and segregation of Bi dopants at various grain boundaries are investigated from microns to atomic scale. The results of the present study show that the Bi-doping is affecting both the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity simultaneously, and the optimum Bi doping level is strongly correlated with the microstructure and the processing conditions of the ceramic samples. At the optimum doping level and processing conditions of the ceramic samples, the Bi substitution of Ca results in the increase of the electrical conductivity, decrease of the thermal conductivity, and improvement of the crystal texture. The atomic resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast imaging and the chemistry analysis also reveal the Bi-segregation at grain boundaries of CCO

  12. Nanoionics phenomenon in proton-conducting oxide: Effect of dispersion of nanosize platinum particles on electrical conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshige Matsumoto et al


    Full Text Available High-temperature proton conductors are oxides in which low-valence cations are doped as electron acceptors; the incorporation of water molecules into the oxides results in the formation of protonic defects that act as charge carriers. Since the protons thus formed are in equilibrium with other electronic defects, electrons and holes, the oxides possibly have different proton-conduction properties at and near boundaries when they are in contact with another phase. In this paper, we present our recent experimental observation of a marked change in the electrical properties of a proton conductor upon the dispersal of fine platinum particles in the oxide. First, the material shows extremely low electrical conductivity in comparison with the original proton-conducting perovskite. Second, there was a threshold amount of platinum at which such a drop in conductivity occurred. A percolation model is employed to explain these experimental results; the fine platinum particles dispersed in the proton-conducting oxide wears highly resistive skin that is formed due to shifts in defect equilibriums, which prevents ionic/electronic conduction. The experiments suggest that the ion-conducting properties of oxides can be varied by introducing interfaces at a certain density; nanoionics is a key to yielding enhanced and/or controlled ionic conduction in solids.

  13. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.


    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  14. Verification of Joule heat evolution model for silicate building materials with electrically conductive admixtures (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert


    Silicate building materials naturally exhibit electrically non-conductive behavior. However, a sufficient amount of electrically conductive admixtures leads to a significant increase of the electrical conductivity. This fact can be utilized in several practical ways, such as for development of self-sensing, electromagnetically-shielding or self-heating materials. In this paper, self-heating ability of chosen silicate material was tested and previously developed heating model was verified by means of comparison of calculated temperature evolution in time data with those experimentally determined by thermocouples placed on lateral sides. Sufficiently electrically conductive mixture with carbon black (CB) in amount of 8.89 % was used for DC experiment. Theoretical data were obtained by subsequent FEM calculations conducted on 3D model of the tested sample.

  15. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin


    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  16. Influence of mashed potato dielectric properties and circulating water electric conductivity on radio frequency heating at 27 MHz. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Olsen, Robert G; Tang, Juming; Tang, Zhongwei


    Experiments and computer simulations were conducted to systematically investigate the influence of mashed potato dielectric properties and circulating water electric conductivity on electromagnetic field distribution, heating rate, and heating pattern in packaged food during radio frequency (RF) heating processes in a 6 kW, 27 MHz laboratory scale RF heating system. Both experimental and simulation results indicated that for the selected food (mashed potato) in this study, the heating rate decreased with an increase of electric conductivity of circulating water and food salt content. Simplified analytical calculations were carried out to verify the simulation results, which further indicated that the electric field distribution in the mashed potato samples was also influenced by their dielectric properties and the electric conductivity of the surrounding circulating water. Knowing the influence of water electric conductivity and mashed potato dielectric properties on the heating rate and heating pattern is helpful in optimizing the radio frequency heating process by properly adjusting these factors. The results demonstrate that computer simulation has the ability to demonstrate influence on RF heat pattern caused by the variation of material physical properties and the potential to aid the improvement on construction and modification of RF heating systems.

  17. Utilization of Polyaniline (PAni) as Conductive Filler on Poly (Ethylene Oxide) / Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Films: Effects of Naphthalene as Surface Modifier on Electrical Conductivity (United States)

    Yazid, Mohammed Izzuddeen Bin Mohd; Ghani, Supri A.; Jin, Tan Soo; Fazlina Osman, Azlin; Din, Siti Hajar Mohd


    The aim of the study was to utilize polyaniline (PAni) as conductive filler in poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) films. Naphthalene was used as surface modifier to increase the properties of PEO/PVC/PAni films. The electrical conductivity of PEO/PVC/PAni film improved with higher loading of PAni until it reached the percolation threshold at 10 wt%. Moreover, the conductivity of the films also improved with the addition of naphthalene compared to the films without naphthalene. These enhancements were due to the improved interfacial bonding between PEO/PVC blend and PAni, which were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. In addition, no new chemical bonding was created with the incorporation of naphthalene as proved by the FTIR analysis.

  18. Development of a LSSVM-GC model for estimating the electrical conductivity of ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi


    In this communication, an extensive set of 1077 experimental electrical conductivity data for 54 ionic liquids (ILs) was collected from 21 different literature sources. Using this dataset, a reliable least square support vector machine-group contribution (LSSVM-GC) model has been developed, which...... employs a total of 22 sub-structures in addition to the temperature to represent/predict the electrical conductivity of ILs. In order to distinguish the effects of the anion and cation on the electrical conductivity of ILs, 11 sub-structures related to the chemical structure of anions, and 11 sub...

  19. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity of reinforced natural rubber (nr vulca nizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.F. Adeosun


    Full Text Available The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, ΔGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, ΔHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, ΔSe and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced composites are relatively more ordered and more spontaneous to elasticity than the unreinforced composite. These more ordered composites were observed to conduct electricity better than the unreinforced. The inclusion of the agricultural wastes examined in the formulation of natural rubber composite enhances the elasticity and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber.

  20. Evaluation of biodegradable electric conductive tube-guides and mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Pereira, Tiago; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Amado, Sandra; França, Miguel; Gonçalves, Carolina; Lopes, Maria Ascensão; Santos, José Domingos; Silva, Dina Morais; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette


    To study the therapeutic effect of three tube-guides with electrical conductivity associated to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on neuro-muscular regeneration after neurotmesis. Rats with 10-mm gap nerve injury were tested using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and MSCs, and PVA-polypyrrole (PPy). The regenerated nerves and tibialis anterior muscles were processed for stereological studies after 20 wk. The functional recovery was assessed serially for gait biomechanical analysis, by extensor postural thrust, sciatic functional index and static sciatic functional index (SSI), and by withdrawal reflex latency (WRL). In vitro studies included cytocompatibility, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and karyotype analysis of the MSCs. Histopathology of lung, liver, kidneys, and regional lymph nodes ensured the biomaterials biocompatibility. SSI remained negative throughout and independently from treatment. Differences between treted groups in the severity of changes in WRL existed, showing a faster regeneration for PVA-CNTs-MSCs (P nerve fiber regeneration. Functional and kinematics analysis revealed positive synergistic effects brought by MSCs and PVA-CNTs. The PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are promising scaffolds with electric conductive properties, bio- and cytocompatible that might prevent the secondary neurogenic muscular atrophy by improving the reestablishment of the neuro-muscular junction.

  1. Electrical conductivity in single crystals of GaSe x Te1 - x solid solutions in strong electrical fields (United States)

    Tagiev, B. G.; Tagiev, O. B.


    This paper presents some results of studying the Poole-Frenkel effect with allowance for shielding in layered GaSe and GaTe single crystals and their solid solutions in strong electrical fields of up to 105 V/cm at temperatures of 103-250 K. According to the relationship (σ/σ(0))^{1/2} logσ/σ(0) = E√{ɛ/4π n(0)kT}, there exists a linear dependence between (σ/σ(0))^{1/2} logσ/σ(0) and the electrical field E (σ is the electrical conductivity in strong electrical fields, and σ(0) is the electrical conductivity in the ohmic region). The slopes of these lines have been determined at different temperatures (103-250 K) by estimating the concentration of current carriers n(0) = 3 × 1013-5 × 1015 cm-3 in the ohmic region of the electrical conductivity of solid solutions of layered GaSe x Te1- x single crystals ( x = 1.00, 0.95, 0.90, 0.80, 0.70, 0.30, 0.20, 0.10, 0).

  2. Electric Conduction in Solids: a Pedagogical Approach Supported by Laboratory Measurements and Computer Modelling Environments (United States)

    Bonura, A.; Capizzo, M. C.; Fazio, C.; Guastella, I.


    In this paper we present a pedagogic approach aimed at modeling electric conduction in semiconductors, built by using NetLogo, a programmable modeling environment for building and exploring multi-agent systems. `Virtual experiments' are implemented to confront predictions of different microscopic models with real measurements of electric properties of matter, such as resistivity. The relations between these electric properties and other physical variables, like temperature, are, then, analyzed.

  3. The electric field effect and conduction in the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berashevich, Julia A; Bookatz, Adam D; Chakraborty, Tapash [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)


    The velocity of polaron migration in the long poly-DNA chain ({approx}40 base pairs) in an applied electric field has been studied within a polaron model. A small polaron shows a slow propagation and strong tolerance to the electric field, while a large polaron is much faster and less stable with increasing electric field. Moreover, the conductance of the DNA molecule within the polaron model is found to be sensitive to structural disorders in the DNA geometry.

  4. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse


    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  5. Electrical conductivity of cobalt-titanium substituted SrCaM hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraky, M.R., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt)


    A series of polycrystalline M-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Co{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} (where x=0.0-0.8) were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. The electrical conductivity has been measured from 300 to 590 K. The dc conductivity, {sigma}{sub dc}, exhibited a semiconductor behavior. The negative sign of thermoelectric power coefficient S reveals that all samples are n-type semiconductors. Both {sigma}{sub dc} and mobility, {mu}{sub d}, increases with the substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} ions, reach maximum at x=0.4 and start decreasing at x>0.4. Many conduction mechanisms were discussed to explain the electric conduction in the system. It was found that the hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism. For samples with compositional parameter x=0.0 and 0.8, the band conduction mechanism shares in electric conduction beside the hopping process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrCaCoTiM hexaferrites have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical conductivity exhibited a semiconductor behavior. There is an increase in conductivity up to x=0.4 for Co and Ti substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism.

  6. Evaluation of the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance for layers deposited via sputtering on stainless steel (United States)

    Blanco, J.; Salas, Y.; Jiménez, C.; Pineda, Y.; Bustamante, A.


    In some Engineering fields, we need that conductive materials have a mechanic performance and specific electrical for that they maintain conditions or corrosive attack if they are in the environment or if they are closed structure. The stainless steels have an inert film on their surface and it has the function to act in contrast to external agents who generates the corrosion, especially for stings, spoiling the film until to fail. We found a solution taking into account the electrical performance and the anticorrosive; into the process we put recovering of specific oxides on, stainless steel using the method of sputtering with Unbalanced Magnetron, (UBM) varying the oxygen in the reactive environment. The coating obtained had a thickness one micron approximately and we saw on serious structural uniformity [1]. The corrosion resistance was evaluated through the potentiodynamics polarization and electrochemical spectroscopy impedance in NACL according to the standard. The cathode protection is the most important method employed for the corrosion prevention of metallic structures in the soil or immersed on the water. The electrical resistivity was evaluated with the four points methods and it showed a behaviour of diode type in some substrates with a threshold potential in several volts. We noticed a simple resistance solution when it was analysed in the Nyquist graphics whit the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique. With on equivalent circuit, for this reason we determinate a variation in the corrosion speed in almost two orders of magnitude when we analysed the potentiodynamics curve by Tafel approximation. The data obtained and analysed show that this type of surface modification maintains the conductivity condition at the interface, improving the resistance in relation whit the corrosion of these elements where the recovering allowed the ionic flow wished for overcoming threshold voltage, acting as an insulator in different cases.

  7. Influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity of leachate from municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Grellier, Solenne; Robain, Henri; Bellier, Gérard; Skhiri, Nathalie


    A bioreactor landfill is designed to manage municipal solid waste, through accelerated waste biodegradation, and stabilisation of the process by means of the controlled addition of liquid, i.e. leachate recirculation. The measurement of electrical resistivity by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows to monitor water content present in the bioreactors. Variations in electrical resistivity are linked to variations in moisture content and temperature. In order to overcome this ambiguity, two laboratory experiments were carried out to establish a relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity: the first set of measurements was made for leachate alone, whereas the second set was made with two different granular media saturated with leachate. Both experiments confirm a well known increase in conductivity of about 2% degrees C(-1). However, higher suspended matter concentrations lead to a lower dependence of electrical conductivity on temperature. Furthermore, for various porous media saturated with an identical leachate, the higher the specific surface of the granular matrix, the lower the effective bulk electrical conductivity. These observations show that a correct understanding of the electrical properties of liquids requires the nature and (in particular) the size of the electrical charge carriers to be taken into account.

  8. A New Approach to Determine Time and Temperature Combination for Electrical Conductivity Test in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soaking water were measured using an EC meter in 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factor factorial (7 × 3 × 4 arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars with the lower germination percentage gave the higher electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and 24 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

  9. Ignition Sensitivity and Electrical Conductivity of a Composite Energetic Material with Conductive Nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric S. Collins; Brandon R. Skelton; Michelle L. Pantoya; Fahmida Irin; Micah J. Green; Michael A. Daniels


    The safe handling of powdered composite energetic materials requires an understanding of their response to electrostatic ignition stimuli. A binary composite comprised of Al and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was tailored for ESD ignition sensitivity with varied concentrations of highly conductive nanofillers. The goal was to control the ESD ignition response of the Al+PTFE with small concentrations of nanofillers that may not significantly affect the overall combustion performance of the mixture. The nanofillers examined include carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Adding CNTs created percolation at a lower volumetric percentage than GNPs and were found to be the controlling nanofiller, creating percolation for the mixture containing both CNTs and GNPs. Various mixing methods were examined. Ignition was achieved only for adding nanofillers at a volumetric percentage and mixing method that led to a bulk conductivity of approximately 5x10-3 ?S/cm.

  10. Ramp-preserving denoising for conductivity image reconstruction in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography. (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ock; Jeon, Kiwan; Ahn, Seonmin; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je


    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, among several conductivity image reconstruction algorithms, the harmonic B(z) algorithm has been successfully applied to B(z) data from phantoms and animals. The algorithm is, however, sensitive to measurement noise in B(z) data. Especially, in in vivo animal and human experiments where injection current amplitudes are limited within a few milliampere at most, measured B(z) data tend to have a low SNR. In addition, magnetic resonance (MR) signal void in outer layers of bones and gas-filled organs, for example, produces salt-pepper noise in the MR phase and, consequently, B(z) images. The B(z) images typically present areas of sloped transitions, which can be assimilated to ramps. Conductivity contrasts change ramp slopes in B(z) images and it is critical to preserve positions of those ramps to correctly recover edges in conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a ramp-preserving denoising method utilizing a structure tensor. Using an eigenvalue analysis, we identified local regions of salt-pepper noise. Outside the identified local regions, we applied an anisotropic smoothing to reduce noise while preserving their ramp structures. Inside the local regions of salt-pepper noise, we used an isotropic smoothing. After validating the proposed denoising method through numerical simulations, we applied it to in vivo animal imaging experiments. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC). PMID:26218470

  12. Liquid Phase Synthesis of CoP Nanoparticles with High Electrical Conductivity for Advanced Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qun Zhang


    Full Text Available Transition metal phosphide alloys possess the metalloid characteristics and superior electrical conductivity and are a kind of high electrical conductive pseudocapacitive materials. Herein, high electrical conductive cobalt phosphide alloys are fabricated through a liquid phase process and a nanoparticles structure with high surface area is obtained. The highest specific capacitance of 286 F g−1 is reached at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. 63.4% of the specific capacitance is retained when the current density increased 16 times and 98.5% of the specific capacitance is maintained after 5000 cycles. The AC//CoP asymmetric supercapacitor also shows a high energy density (21.3 Wh kg−1 and excellent stability (97.8% of the specific capacitance is retained after 5000 cycles. The study provides a new strategy for the construction of high-performance energy storage materials by enhancing their intrinsic electrical conductivity.

  13. Numerical solution of an inverse electrocardiography problem for a medium with piecewise constant electrical conductivity (United States)

    Denisov, A. M.; Zakharov, E. V.; Kalinin, A. V.; Kalinin, V. V.


    A numerical method is proposed for solving an inverse electrocardiography problem for a medium with a piecewise constant electrical conductivity. The method is based on the method of boundary integral equations and Tikhonov regularization.

  14. Research of the electrical anisotropic characteristics of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams (United States)

    Su, Ben-Yu; Yue, Jian-Hua


    Water flooding disasters are one of the five natural coal-mining disasters that threaten the lives of coal miners. The main causes of this flooding are water-conducting fractured zones within coal seams. However, when resistivity methods are used to detect water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams, incorrect conclusions can be drawn because of electrical anisotropy within the water-conducting fractured zones. We present, in this paper, a new geo-electrical model based on the geology of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams. Factors that influence electrical anisotropy were analyzed, including formation water resistivity, porosity, fracture density, and fracture surface roughness, pressure, and dip angle. Numerical simulation was used to evaluate the proposed electrical method. The results demonstrate a closed relationship between the shape of apparent resistivity and the strike and dip of a fracture. Hence, the findings of this paper provide a practical resistivity method for coal-mining production.

  15. Abnormal thermal shock behavior in electrical conductivity of Ti2SnC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linquan Zhang


    Full Text Available Some ternary carbide and nitride ceramics have been demonstrated to exhibit abnormal thermal shock behavior in mechanical properties. However, the influence of thermal shock on other properties is not clear. This work reports on the influence of thermal shock on electrical conductivity of Ti2SnC as a representative member of ternary carbides. Abnormal change in electrical conductivity was first demonstrated during quenching Ti2SnC in water at 500–800 °C. The residual electrical conductivity of the quenched Ti2SnC gradually decreased with increasing temperature, but abnormally increased after quenching at 600 °C. The microstructure of surface cracks was characterized. The main mechanism for the abnormal electrical conductivity recovery is that some narrow branching cracks are filled by metallic Sn precipitating from Ti2SnC.

  16. Electrical conductivity and viscosity of melts of products of the reaction of zirconium with potassium halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, K.I.; Zagidulin, S.M.; Katyshev, S.F.; Desyatnik, V.N.


    The authors report results of a study of the electrical conductivity and viscosity of melts of products of the reaction of zirconium with potassium chloride and fluoride in binary and ternary mixtures composed of these substances.

  17. Hydrothermal Fabrication of Silver Nanowires-Silver Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanosheets Composites in Enhancing Electrical Conductive Performance of Electrically Conductive Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru Ma


    Full Text Available Silver nanowires-silver nanoparticles-graphene nanosheets (AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated through a hydrothermal method by using glucose as a green reducing agent. The charge carriers of AgNWs-AgNPs-GN passed through defect regions in the GNs rapidly with the aid of the AgNW and AgNP building blocks, leading to high electrical conductivity of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA filled with AgNWs-AgNPs-GN. The morphologies of synthesized AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD and laser confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of AgNWs-AgNPs-GN. The resistance of cured ECAs was investigated by the four-probe method. The results indicated AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials exhibited excellent electrical properties for decreasing the resistivity of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA. The resistivity of ECA was 3.01 × 10−4 Ω·cm when the content of the AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterial was 0.8 wt %.

  18. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  19. The effect of electrically conductive additives on the plasma pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbons (United States)

    Sadikov, K. G.; Sofronitskiy, A. O.; Larionov, V. M.


    It’s shown that the electric discharge initiation of in-situ combustion can be executed by entering conductive additives to hydrocarbon raw materials. It is observed, that the most of all the soot is formed from aromatic hydrocarbons during the plasma pyrolysis. Cracking of hydrocarbons by electric discharge, with conducting additives and precursors of catalysts, leads to formation of carbon and metal nanoparticles.

  20. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency (United States)

    Haeussermann, W.


    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  1. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Sabater


    Full Text Available The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the  performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution.

  2. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles


    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes in the electrical volume conductivity of an anhydride-cured epoxy polymer during moisture sorption-desorption experiments. Gravimetric analysis showed that the polymer exhibits a two-stage sorption behavior resulting from the competition between diffusive and reactive mechanisms. As expected, the macroscopic electrical conductivity increases with the diffusion of water. However, our most surprising observation was severe hysteresis in the relation between water uptake and electrical conductivity during the sorption and desorption experiments. This indicates that change in the electrical conductivity depends on both the water uptake and the competition between the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. We studied samples with various thicknesses to determine the relative effects of the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. This is an important observation as it means that general electrical monitoring techniques should be used cautiously when it comes to measuring the moisture content of polymer or polymer-based composite samples.

  3. Electrical stimulation of nerve cells using conductive nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. (United States)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Fabrication of scaffolds with suitable chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties is critical for the success of nerve tissue engineering. Electrical stimulation was directly applied to electrospun conductive nanofibrous scaffolds to enhance the nerve regeneration process. In the present study, electrospun conductive nanofibers were prepared by mixing 10 and 15 wt% doped polyaniline (PANI) with poly (epsilon-caprolactone)/gelatin (PG) (70:30) solution (PANI/PG) by electrospinning. The fiber diameter, pore size, hydrophilicity, tensile properties, conductivity, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of nanofibers were determined, and the in vitro biodegradability of the different nanofibrous scaffolds was also evaluated. Nanofibrous scaffolds containing 15% PANI was found to exhibit the most balanced properties to meet all the required specifications for electrical stimulation for its enhanced conductivity and is used for in vitro culture and electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and scanning electron microscopy results showed that conductive nanofibrous scaffolds are suitable substrates for the attachment and proliferation of nerve stem cells. Electrical stimulation through conductive nanofibrous PANI/PG scaffolds showed enhanced cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth compared to the PANI/PG scaffolds that were not subjected to electrical stimulation.

  4. Single flexible nanofiber to achieve simultaneous photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctionality. (United States)

    Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Lv, Nan; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia


    In order to develop new-type multifunctional composite nanofibers, Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous photoluminescence and electrical conductivity have been successfully fabricated via electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and polyaniline (PANI). X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and a Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the morphology and properties of the composite nanofibers. The results indicate that the bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. Fluorescence emission peaks of Eu(3+) ions are observed in the Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10(-3)  S/cm. The luminescent intensity and electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers can be tuned by adjusting the amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and PANI. The obtained photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as microwave absorption, molecular electronics, biomedicine and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construction technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional naonomaterials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Development of Electrically Conductive Double-Network Hydrogels via One-Step Facile Strategy for Cardiac Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Yang, Boguang; Yao, Fanglian; Hao, Tong; Fang, Wancai; Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Yan; Li, Junjie; Wang, Changyong


    Cardiac tissue engineering is an effective method to treat the myocardial infarction. However, the lack of electrical conductivity of biomaterials limits their applications. In this work, a homogeneous electronically conductive double network (HEDN) hydrogel via one-step facile strategy is developed, consisting of a rigid/hydrophobic/conductive network of chemical crosslinked poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid) (PTAA) and a flexible/hydrophilic/biocompatible network of photo-crosslinking methacrylated aminated gelatin (MAAG). Results suggest that the swelling, mechanical, and conductive properties of HEDN hydrogel can be modulated via adjusting the ratio of PTAA network to MAAG network. HEDN hydrogel has Young's moduli ranging from 22.7 to 493.1 kPa, and its conductivity (≈10(-4) S cm(-1)) falls in the range of reported conductivities for native myocardium tissue. To assess their biological activity, the brown adipose-derived stem cells (BADSCs) are seeded on the surface of HEDN hydrogel with or without electrical stimulation. Our data show that the HEDN hydrogel can support the survival and proliferation of BADSCs, and that it can improve the cardiac differentiation efficiency of BADSCs and upregulate the expression of connexin 43. Moreover, electrical stimulation can further improve this effect. Overall, it is concluded that the HEDN hydrogel may represent an ideal scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren


    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  7. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges. (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis


    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  8. Laboratory device to analyse the impact of soil properties on electrical and thermal conductivity (United States)

    Bertermann, David; Schwarz, Hans


    Gathering information about soil properties in an efficient way is essential for many soil applications also for very shallow geothermal systems (e.g. collector systems or heat baskets). In the field, electrical resistivity tomogramphy measurements enable non-invasive and extensive analyses regarding the determination of soil properties. For a better understanding of measured electrical resistivity values in relation to soil properties within this study, a laboratory setup was developed. The structure of this laboratory setup is geared to gather electrical resistivity or rather electrical conductivity values which are directly comparable to data measured in the field. Within this setup grain size distribution, moisture content, and bulk density, which are the most important soil parameters affecting the electrical resistivity, can be adjusted. In terms of a better estimation of the geothermal capability of soil, thermal conductivity measurements were also implemented within the laboratory test sequence. The generated data reveals the serious influence of the water content and also provides a huge impact of the bulk density on the electrical as well as on the thermal conductivity. Furthermore, different behaviour patterns of electrical and thermal conductivity in their particular relation to the different soil parameters could be identified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI


    Full Text Available The aim of research was to investigate the impact of feeding pigs the fodder with addition of different level of conjugated linoleic acid on results of electric conductivity of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Electric conductivity (LF, Ger. Leitfähigkeitmessung is the method of meat quality estimation. This technique uses high relationships between electric conductivity and the other parameters of meat quality. In breeding and production of pigs the aim is to obtain fatteners of low fat and high meat content simultaneously keeping good meat tissue quality. One of the ways of their quality improvement is using fodder supplements as i.e. conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Results of many research proved that conjugated linoleic acid impacts also in a favourable way on humans health because reduces cholesterol level, prevents from heart attacks and some cancers, stimulates immune system and has antiinfl ammatory properties. Statistical analysis covered the results of 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunfl ower oil (SFO in amounts: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Fattening period of animals lasted for 8 weeks with ad-libitum feeding. In 1, 3, 6 hour, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after slaughter electric conductivity of muscle tissue was measured – muscle Longissimus dorsi. Electric conductivity measured in different time after slaughter was not statistically diversed between tested groups of animals. The results concerned electric conductivity of muscle Longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid should be stated as satisfactory and proved normal meat. Therefore, feeding pigs the fodder with CLA addition in amount of 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impacts negatively on meat quality.

  10. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Z. K. Sajib


    Full Text Available Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  11. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong, E-mail:, E-mail:; Woo, Eung Je, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Eun Jung [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Bum [Department of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of)


    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  12. Fluorine follows water: Effect on electrical conductivity of silicate minerals by experimental constraints from phlogopite (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Haotian; Yang, Xiaozhi


    Fluorine and hydroxyl groups are minor constituents of silicate minerals, and share a lot of similarities concerning their physical and chemical properties. Hydroxyl groups significantly enhance the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals, and it is expected that fluorine would have a comparable effect. This, however, has never been documented quantitatively. Here we present experimental approaches on this issue, by investigating the electrical conductivity of phlogopite with a wide range of fluorine content (but with broadly similar contents for other major elements). Electrical conductivities of gem-quality single crystal phlogopites, with samples prepared along the same orientation (normal to the (0 0 1) plane), were determined at 1 GPa and 200-650 °C using an end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus and a Solartron-1260 Impedance/Gain Phase Analyzer over the frequency range of 106 to 0.1 Hz. The complex spectra usually show an arc in the high frequency range and a short tail in the low frequency range, which are caused by lattice conduction and electrode effects, respectively. The electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluorine content, and the main charge carriers are fluorine. The activation enthalpies are ∼180 to 200 kJ/mol, nearly independent of fluorine content. The conductivity is linearly proportional to the content of fluorine, with an exponent factor of ∼1. The results demonstrate that conduction by fluorine leads to very high electrical conductivity at high temperatures. The influence of fluorine on electrical conductivity may be compared to that of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals. This, along with the close association of fluorine and hydroxyl groups in silicate minerals and their similar crystal-chemical behaviors, suggests a more general role of fluorine in enhancing the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals. Fluorine-rich assemblages, e.g., phlogopite and amphibole, could be locally enriched in the upper

  13. Dual percolation behaviors of electrical and thermal conductivity in metal-ceramic composites (United States)

    Sun, K.; Zhang, Z. D.; Qian, L.; Dang, F.; Zhang, X. H.; Fan, R. H.


    The thermal and electrical properties including the permittivity spectra in radio frequency region were investigated for copper/yttrium iron garnet (Cu/YIG) composites. Interestingly, the percolation behaviors in electrical and thermal conductivity were obtained due to the formation of copper particles' networks. Beyond the electrical percolation threshold, negative permittivity was observed and plasmon frequency was reduced by several orders of magnitude. With the increase in copper content, the thermal conductivity was gradually increased; meanwhile, the phonon scattering effect and thermal resistance get enhanced, so the rate of increase in thermal conductivity gradually slows down. Hopefully, Cu/YIG composites with tunable electrical and thermal properties have great potentials for electromagnetic interference shielding and electromagnetic wave attenuation.

  14. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Md Fauzi


    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electrical and Electronic (EE Industry. These manufacturers have to keep improving in key activities and processes to cope the challenges. Therefore, EE industry realize the importance of continuous improvement in helping the industries by setting clear goals and priorities for the area of improvement. The aims of this study are to determine the main factor in implementing continuous improvement practices, identify tools of continuous improvement that have been used and their obstacle in implementing continuous improvement practices. 200 questionnaires had been distributed to the employees in Electrical and Electronic Industry located at Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 41 questionnaires were answered which represented about 20.5% response rates. Survey result shows that teamwork and training and learning are respectively the importance factor and the most practices factor in Electrical and Electronic Industry. Most of the Electrical and Electronic Industry emphasis is on using Lean Manufacturing as the tool of continuous improvement practices. Besides that, Electrical and Electronic Industry faced the problems of lack of budget and lack of worker commitment.

  15. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera


    Full Text Available When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor.

  16. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics (United States)

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Mohamadou, Youssoufa; Lee, Kyounghun; Wi, Hun; Oh, Tong In; Woo, Eung Je; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Seo, Jin Keun


    When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor. PMID:24892493

  17. Improved petrographic-coded model and its evaluation to determine a thermal conductivity log (United States)

    Gegenhuber, Nina; Kienler, Markus


    Thermal conductivity is one of the crucial properties for thermal modelling as well as tunnelling or geological modelling. Available data are mainly from laboratory measurements. Therefore, additional ways, such as correlations with other properties to derive the petrophysical parameter, will be an advantage. The research presented here continues and improves the petrographic-coded model concept with an increased set of data, including a variety of lithologies, and, furthermore, the correlations, including the electrical resistivity. Input parameters are no longer taken from the literature, but are derived directly from measurements. In addition, the results are compared with other published approaches. Results show good correlations with measured data. The comparison with the multi-linear regression method shows acceptable outcome, in contrast to a geometric-mean method, where data scatter. In summary, it can be said that the improved model delivers for both correlation (compressional wave velocity and electrical resistivity with thermal conductivity) positive results.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of Zn-In-Sn-O transparent conducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Paz, E-mail:; Antony, Aldrin; Rojas, Fredy; Bertomeu, Joan


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the widely used transparent conductive oxides (TCO) for application as transparent electrode in thin film silicon solar cells or thin film transistors owing to its low resistivity and high transparency. Nevertheless, indium is a scarce and expensive element and ITO films require high deposition temperature to achieve good electrical and optical properties. On the other hand, although not competing as ITO, doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a promising and cheaper alternative. Therefore, our strategy has been to deposit ITO and ZnO multicomponent thin films at room temperature by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering in order to achieve TCOs with reduced indium content. Thin films of the quaternary system Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) with improved electrical and optical properties have been achieved. The samples were deposited by applying different RF powers to ZnO target while keeping a constant RF power to ITO target. This led to ZITO films with zinc content ratio varying between 0 and 67%. The optical, electrical and morphological properties have been thoroughly studied. The film composition was analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The films with 17% zinc content ratio showed the lowest resistivity (6.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Ohm-Sign cm) and the highest transmittance (above 80% in the visible range). Though X-ray Diffraction studies showed amorphous nature for the films, using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy we found that the microstructure of the films consisted of nanometric crystals embedded in a compact amorphous matrix. The effect of post deposition annealing on the films in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres were studied. The changes were found to strongly depend on the zinc content ratio in the films.

  19. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel


    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite\\'s conductivity based on these parameters.

  20. What we can learn from measurements of air electric conductivity in 222Rn-rich atmosphere (United States)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Pili, E.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.


    Electric conductivity of air is an important characteristic of the electric properties of an atmosphere. Testing instruments to measure electric conductivity ranging from 10-13 to 10-9 S m-1 in natural conditions found in the Earth atmosphere is not an easy task. One possibility is to use stratospheric balloon flights; another (and a simpler one) is to look for terrestrial environments with significant radioactive decay. In this paper we present measurements carried out with different types of conductivity sensors in two 222Rn-rich environments, i.e., in the Roselend underground tunnel (French Alps) and in the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety BACCARA (BAnC de CAllibrage du RAdon) chamber. The concept of the conductivity sensor is based on the classical time relaxation method. New elements in our design include isolation of the sensor sensitive part (electrode) from the external electric field and sensor miniaturization. This greatly extends the application domain of the sensor and permits to measure air electric conductivity when the external electric field is high and varies from few tens of V m-1 to up to few tens of kV m-1. This is suitable to propose the instrument for a planetary mission. Two-fold objectives were attained as the outcome of these tests and their analysis. First was directly related to the performances of the conductivity sensors and the efficiency of the conductivity sensor design to shield the external electric field. Second objective aimed at understanding the decay mechanisms of 222Rn and its progeny in atmosphere and the impact of the enclosed space on the efficiency of gas ionization.

  1. Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlgren, E.O.; Poulsen, F.W.


    Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of pure and 5, 10 and 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite are determined as function of temperature in air and of P-O2 at 1000 degrees C. At high temperatures the thermoelectric power is negative. Both thermoelectric power and conductivity...

  2. Electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle tissue: Experimental results from different musclesin vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, F.L.H.; Wallinga, W.; Boon, K.L.


    For a quantitative EMG analysis reliable and unique values of the electrical conductivities of skeletal muscle tissuein vivo are indispensable. Literature values do not satisfy these criteria. In the paper experimental results of conductivity measurements (four-electrode technique) on musclesin vivo

  3. The effect of ZnS thin film's electrical conductivity on electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of electrical conductivity on an electromagnetic wave propagating through ZnS thin film is analyzed using electromagnetic wave equation with relevant boundary condition. The solution of this equation enabled us to obtain a parameter known as the skin depth that relates to the conductivity of the thin film. This was ...

  4. Mobility of hydrogen in minerals: Implications for diffusion and electrical conductivity (United States)

    Karato, S.


    Hydrogen is one of the important minor elements in minerals that have important effects on transport properties. However, experimental studies on the properties affected by hydrogen are tricky including their interpretations. Consequently, there have been some confusions in the community regarding the role of hydrogen on transport properties. In this talk, I will focus on the influence of hydrogen on electrical conductivity with the emphasis on the following two points: (1) different mobility of hydrogen in different minerals, and (2) the different mobility of different hydrogen-related species in a given mineral. A compilation of the experimental data on electrical conductivity in different minerals shows that even when their conductivities are compared at the same water content, conductivity of different classes of hydrogen-bearing minerals differ significantly. Hydrous minerals show the lowest (normalized) conductivity, and minerals with relatively low hydrogen solubility (e.g., olivine) show relatively high conductivity. This observations shows that the mobility of hydrogen in hydrous minerals is much lower than those in nominally anhydrous minerals. Also experimental studies show that even in a given mineral, several hydrogen-related species are present. And a comparison of a thermodynamic model with the observed IR absorption spectra and electrical conductivity suggests that electrical conductivity is due mostly to a hydrogen-related minority defect with high mobility. A model is developed to connect isotope diffusion coefficient to the diffusion coefficients of individual hydrogen-related defects. I show that, if the relative abundance of hydrogen-related defects is controlled by the local thermo-chemical equilibrium, then the isotopic diffusion coefficient is a harmonic average of diffusion coefficients of individual hydrogen-related species and is dominated by the slow moving species. In contrast, electrical conductivity is proportional to the arithmetic

  5. Strategies for molecular designing of novel low-band-gap electrically conducting polymers. (United States)

    Bakhshi, A K; Kaul, S


    Molecular designing of low-band-gap electrically conducting polymers continues to be a major challenge of the field of electrically conducting polymers. Such polymers are expected to show not only good intrinsic conductivity but also possibly a good transparency in the visible spectrum for their use as infrared sensors/detectors. Low-band-gap polymers can also be of great interest as new polymeric materials for nonlinear optics. Various routes presently followed to achieve this designing with special reference to the donor-acceptor polymers and important results obtained with this route are briefly reviewed.

  6. Electrical conductivity and local structure of barium manganese iron vanadate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail:; Masuda, Hitomi; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Furumoto, Isao; Nishida, Tetsuaki [Kinki University, Major in Advanced Materials, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering (Japan)


    Local structure and electrical conductivity of semiconducting 20BaO{center_dot}10Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}x MnO{sub 2}{center_dot}(70 - x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass (x = 0 - 30), abbreviated as xBFMV, were investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and DC four-probe method. Moessbauer spectrum of these vanadate glasses consists of a doublet with an identical isomer shift ({delta}) of 0.38{+-}0.01 mm s{sup - 1}, indicating that distorted FeO{sub 4} tetrahedra constitute the structural units with distorted VO{sub 4} tetrahedra and VO{sub 5} pyramids. Quadrupole splitting ({Delta}) gradually increases from 0.70{+-}0.02 to 0.87{+-}0.02 mm s{sup - 1} with an increase in the MnO{sub 2} content, indicating an increased local distortion of Fe{sup III}O{sub 4} tetrahedra. DTA study of these glasses showed a gradual increase of glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) from 329{+-}5 to 411{+-}5 Degree-Sign C, showing an improved thermal durability. 'T{sub g} vs. {Delta} plot' yielded a straight line with a large slope of 707 Degree-Sign C(K)/mm s{sup - 1}, proving that Fe{sup III} played a role of network former (NWF). An isothermal annealing of 10BFMV glass at 500 Degree-Sign C for 1000 min resulted in a marked increase in the electrical conductivity ({sigma}) from (4.5{+-}3.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 7} to (1.4{+-}0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 2} S cm{sup - 1} and a decrease in the activation energy for the electrical conduction (E{sub a}) from 0.33 {+-} 0.07 to 0.11{+-}0.01 eV, while {Delta} of Fe{sup III} decreased from 0.76{+-}0.02 to 0.49{+-}0.02 mm s{sup - 1}. These results suggest that decrease in the distortion of Fe{sup III}O{sub 4} tetrahedra involved with the structural relaxation causes an increase in the probability of electron hopping from V{sup IV} or V{sup III} to V{sup V}.

  7. Understanding Electrical Conduction States in WO3 Thin Films Applied for Resistive Random-Access Memory (United States)

    Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh; Pham, Kim Ngoc; Dao, Thi Bang Tam; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Bach Thang


    The electrical conduction and associated resistance switching mechanism of top electrode/WO3/bottom electrode devices [top electrode (TE): Ag, Ti; bottom electrode (BE): Pt, fluorine-doped tin oxide] have been investigated. The direction of switching and switching ability depended on both the top and bottom electrode material. Multiple electrical conduction mechanisms control the leakage current of such switching devices, including trap-controlled space-charge, ballistic, Ohmic, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effects. The transition between electrical conduction states is also linked to the switching (SET-RESET) process. This is the first report of ballistic conduction in research into resistive random-access memory. The associated resistive switching mechanisms are also discussed.

  8. Electromagnetic fields with electric and chiral magnetic conductivities in heavy ion collisions (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sheng, Xin-li; Wang, Qun


    We derive an analytic formula for electric and magnetic fields produced by a moving charged particle in a conducting medium with the electric conductivity σ and the chiral magnetic conductivity σχ. We use the Green's function method and assume that σχ is much smaller than σ . The compact algebraic expressions for electric and magnetic fields without any integrals are obtained. They recover the Lienard-Wiechert formula at vanishing conductivities. Exact numerical solutions are also found for any values of σ and σχ and are compared with analytic results. Both numerical and analytic results agree very well for the scale of high-energy heavy ion collisions. The spacetime profiles of electromagnetic fields in noncentral Au+Au collisions have been calculated based on these analytic formula as well as exact numerical solutions.

  9. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford


    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  10. A Chemically Polymerized Electrically Conducting Composite of Polypyrrole Nanoparticles and Polyurethane for Tissue Engineering (United States)

    Broda, Christopher R.; Lee, Jae Y.; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Schmidt, Christine E.; Harrison, Benjamin S.


    A variety of cell types respond to electrical stimuli, accordingly many conducting polymers (CPs) have been used as tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds, one such CP is polypyrrole (PPy). PPy is a well studied biomaterial with potential TE applications due to its electrical conductivity and many other beneficial properties. Combining its characteristics with an elastomeric material, such as polyurethane (PU), may yield a hybrid scaffold with electrical activity and significant mechanical resilience. Pyrrole was in situ polymerized within a PU emulsion mixture in weight ratios of 1:100, 1:20, 1:10 and 1:5, respectively. Morphology, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with C2C12 myoblast cells were characterized. The polymerization resulted in a composite with a principle base of PU interspersed with an electrically percolating network of PPy nanoparticles. As the mass ratio of PPy to PU increased so did electrical conductivity of the composites. In addition, as the mass ratio of PPy to PU increased, stiffness of the composite increased while maximum elongation length decreased. Ultimate tensile strength was reduced by approximately 47% across all samples with the addition of PPy to the PU base. Cytocompatibility assay data indicated no significant cytotoxic effect from the composites. Static cellular seeding of C2C12 cells and subsequent differentiation showed myotube formation on the composite materials. PMID:21681943

  11. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl


    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil-water content (SWC) variability in agricultural fields is useful for improving crop management. Spatial patterns of SWC can be characterized using temporal stability analysis of difficult-to-obtain data from high spatial density and temporal frequency. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements with high spatial density have been widely used to infer the spatial variability of SWC. The objective of this work is to test the hypothesis that temporal stability of ECa can be demonstrated and that relationships between temporal stability characteristics of SWC and ECa can be established. Apparent electrical conductivity and topsoil gravimetric SWC (θ) were periodically measured in an olive orchard in southwest Spain on 6 and 18 occasions, respectively. A temporal stability analysis of ECa elucidated three zones where ECa was close to, consistently substantially smaller than, and substantially larger than the spatial average ECa throughout the study period. Representative locations for θ were found with a chance of 75% within the representative zone for ECa. Yet, the driest locations, with consistently smaller θ than the field average (), could be successfully identified (89%) within the zone with consistently smaller ECa than average. The θ - relations showed generally a linear behaviour, although a better fit was obtained at the highest θ using either exponential or power law equations at half of the locations. The former provided the best fit within the zone with ECa consistently smaller than average, while the latter performed best in the zone with ECa consistently larger than average. The linear equation provided the best fit within the representative ECa zone. This study demonstrates that temporal stability characteristics of ECa and SWC are linked and that ECa surveys can be used to delimit zones with representative locations for SWC measurement or estimation. Such information is of importance for a range of

  12. Magnetic induction spectroscopy: non-contact measurement of the electrical conductivity spectra of biological samples (United States)

    Barai, A.; Watson, S.; Griffiths, H.; Patz, R.


    Measurement of the electrical conductivity of biological tissues as a function of frequency, often termed ‘bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS)’, provides valuable information on tissue structure and composition. In implementing BIS though, there can be significant practical difficulties arising from the electrode-sample interface which have likely limited its deployment in industrial applications. In magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) these difficulties are eliminated through the use of fully non-contacting inductive coupling between the sensors and sample. However, inductive coupling introduces its own set of technical difficulties, primarily related to the small magnitudes of the induced currents and their proportionality with frequency. This paper describes the design of a practical MIS system incorporating new, highly-phase-stable electronics and compares its performance with that of electrode-based BIS in measurements on biological samples including yeast suspensions in saline (concentration 50-400 g l-1) and solid samples of potato, cucumber, tomato, banana and porcine liver. The shapes of the MIS spectra were in good agreement with those for electrode-based BIS, with a residual maximum discrepancy of 28%. The measurement precision of the MIS was 0.05 S m-1 at 200 kHz, improving to 0.01 S m-1 at a frequency of 20 MHz, for a sample volume of 80 ml. The data-acquisition time for each MIS measurement was 52 s. Given the value of spectroscopic conductivity information and the many advantages of obtaining these data in a non-contacting manner, even through electrically-insulating packaging materials if necessary, it is concluded that MIS is a technique with considerable potential for monitoring bio-industrial processes and product quality.

  13. Electrical conductivity of a silicone network upon electron irradiation: influence of formulation (United States)

    Roggero, A.; Dantras, E.; Paulmier, T.; Tonon, C.; Lewandowski, S.; Dagras, S.; Payan, D.


    In this study, the electrical conductivity of a silicone elastomer filled with inorganic fillers was investigated upon electron irradiation. Neat samples consisting of the isolated polysiloxane matrix (with no fillers) were studied in parallel to identify the filler contribution to this evolution. It was shown that exposure to 400 keV electron doses induced a decrease in electrical conductivity for both the filled and neat materials. This decrease was much more pronounced with the filled samples than with the neat ones. Moreover, the activation energy of electrical conductivity (Arrhenius behaviour) doubled in the filled case, while it varied only weakly for the neat case. In light of these results, structure-property relationships were proposed on the basis of the radiation-induced crosslink processes to which this material is subject. In the framework of electronic percolation theory, it is suggested that the radiation-induced formation of SiO3 crosslinks in the polysiloxane network and SiO4 crosslinks at filler-matrix interfaces affects the percolation path of the material, which can be simply modelled by a network of resistors in series. On one hand, their densification increases the overall resistance of the percolation path, which results in the observed decrease of effective electrical conductivity. On the other hand, the steep increase in activation energy in the filled material attributes to the SiO4 crosslinks becoming the most restrictive barrier along the percolation path. In spite of the misleading likeness of electrical conductivities in the pristine state, this study presented evidence that silicone formulation can affect the evolution of electrical properties in radiative environments. To illustrate this conclusion, the use of this material in space applications, especially when directly exposed to the radiative space environment, was discussed. The decrease in electrical conductivity was associated with a progressively increasing risk for the

  14. Innovative processing for improved electrical steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, J.


    Full Text Available Electrical steel grades are the normal construction material for electrical motors and transformers because of their enhanced soft magnetic properties. One of the current trends in their production aims for increasing the silicon and/or aluminum concentration (above 3 wt % to reduce magnetic losses through increased electrical resistivity. This is very difficult to realize by conventional processing, mainly because of cracking during cold rolling. An alternative production route is proposed that raises the silicon and/or aluminum concentration by surface deposition of silicon and/or aluminum on a low-Si/low-Al steel substrate, e.g. by a short immersion in a molten Al-Si bath, followed by its diffusion into the bulk during subsequent annealing. This diffusion substantially modifies the microstructural features and therefore affects the mechanical and magnetic properties. Results of research efforts to optimize this production route and to understand the mechanisms and effects of the structural changes are presented and discussed.Los aceros eléctricos se usan, normalmente, en la construcción de motores eléctricos y transformadores debido a sus suaves propiedades magnéticas. Una de las tendencias actuales es producir aceros con contenidos mayores de silicio y/o aluminio (por encima de un 3 %, en peso para reducir las pérdidas magnéticas a través del incremento de la resistividad eléctrica. Una de las desventajas de producir este tipo de aceros con altos contenidos de silicio y/o aluminio es el agrietamiento producido en el material durante el proceso de laminado en frío. Para incrementar el contenido de silicio y/o aluminio en aceros con bajos contenidos de estos elementos de aleación, se sugiere un procedimiento alternativo de producción que se basa, fundamentalmente, en depositar un recubrimiento rico en silicio y/o aluminio, en la superficie del acero. Por ejemplo, uno de los métodos utilizados es sumergir el material en una aleaci

  15. Ohmic heating of pomegranate juice: Electrical conductivity and pH change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosain Darvishi


    Full Text Available Ohmic heating is an alternative fast heating method for food products. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating technique on electrical conductivity, heating rate, system performance and pH of pomegranate juice was investigated. Ohmic heating rate, electrical conductivity, and pH are dependent on the voltage gradient used (30–55 V/cm. As the voltage gradient increased, time, system performance and pH decreased. The electrical conductivity of the sample increased with temperature rise (20–85 °C. The range of electrical conductivity during ohmic heating was 0.209–1.013 (S/m. Among the two models tested to fit the electrical conductivity of pomegranate juice, the linear model gave the best fit for all the data points. Bubbling was observed above 81 °C especially at high voltage gradients. The system performance coefficients for pomegranate juice samples were in the range of 0.764–0.939.

  16. Electrochemical Device Comprising an Electrically-Conductive, Selectively-Permeable Membrane (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Laicer, Castro S. T. (Inventor); Harrison, Katherine E. (Inventor); McPheeters, Bryn M. (Inventor)


    An electrochemical device, such as a fuel cell or an electrolyzer. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, the membrane including a solid polymer electrolyte and a non-particulate, electrically-conductive material, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and/or metal nanowires. In addition, each bipolar plate also includes an electrically-conductive fluid chamber in contact with the electrically-conductive, selectively-permeable membrane and further includes a non-porous and electrically-conductive plate in contact with the fluid chamber.

  17. Quantitative conductivity and permittivity imaging of the human brain using electric properties tomography. (United States)

    Voigt, Tobias; Katscher, Ulrich; Doessel, Olaf


    The electric properties of human tissue can potentially be used as an additional diagnostic parameter, e.g., in tumor diagnosis. In the framework of radiofrequency safety, the electric conductivity of tissue is needed to correctly estimate the local specific absorption rate distribution during MR measurements. In this study, a recently developed approach, called electric properties tomography (EPT) is adapted for and applied to in vivo imaging. It derives the patient's electric conductivity and permittivity from the spatial sensitivity distributions of the applied radiofrequency coils. In contrast to other methods to measure the patient's electric properties, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents, or radiofrequency probes, which enhances the practicability of the approach. This work shows that conductivity distributions can be reconstructed from phase images and permittivity distributions can be reconstructed from magnitude images of the radiofrequency transmit field. Corresponding numerical simulations using finite-difference time-domain methods support the feasibility of this phase-based conductivity imaging and magnitude-based permittivity imaging. Using this approximation, three-dimensional in vivo conductivity and permittivity maps of the human brain are obtained in 5 and 13 min, respectively, which can be considered a step toward clinical feasibility for EPT. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. UV Cross-Linkable Graphene/Poly(trimethylene Carbonate) Composites for 3D Printing of Electrically Conductive Scaffolds. (United States)

    Sayyar, Sepidar; Bjorninen, Miina; Haimi, Suvi; Miettinen, Susanna; Gilmore, Kerry; Grijpma, Dirk; Wallace, Gordon


    Conductive, flexible graphene/poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) composites were prepared. Addition of just 3 wt % graphene to PTMC oligomers functionalized with methacrylate end-groups followed by UV cross-linking resulted in more than 100% improvement in tensile strength and enhanced electrical conductivity by orders of magnitude without altering the processability of the host material. The addition of graphene also enhanced mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and proliferation. When electrical stimulation via the composite material was applied, MSC viability was not compromised, and osteogenic markers were upregulated. Using additive fabrication techniques, the material was processed into multilayer 3D scaffolds which supported MSC attachment. These conducting composites with excellent processability and compatibility with MSCs are promising biomaterials to be used as versatile platforms for biomedical applications.

  19. Nigerian electric power supply quality improvement | Ibe | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the quality of the Nigeria electric power supply means improving voltage, transient and frequency stabilities. Power system voltages are controlled by the reactive power component of the power supply; hence voltage and transient stabilities can be improved by using reactive power compensators to either supply ...

  20. On the quantum magnetic oscillations of electrical and thermal conductivities of graphene (United States)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Reis, M. S.


    Oscillating thermodynamic quantities of diamagnetic materials, specially graphene, have been attracting attention of the scientific community due to the possibility to experimentally map the Fermi surface of the material. These have been the case of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas effects, found on the magnetization and electrical conductivity, respectively. In this direction, managing the thermodynamic oscillations is of practical purpose, since from the reconstructed Fermi surface it is possible to access, for instance, the electronic density. The present work theoretically explores the quantum oscillations of electrical and thermal conductivities of a monolayer graphene under a crossed magnetic and electric fields. We found that the longitudinal electric field can increase the amplitude of the oscillations and this result is of practical and broad interest for both, experimental and device physics.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of Dielectric with Dispersed Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin


    Full Text Available Composites are increasingly used for application in engineering as structural, thermal protection and functional materials, including dielectrics, because of a wide variety of properties. The relative dielectric constant and the dielectric loss tangent are basic functional characteristics of a composite used as a dielectric. The quantitative level of these characteristics is mainly affected by the properties of the composite matrix and inclusions as well as their shape and volume concentration. Metallic inclusions in a dielectric, which serves as a function of the composite matrix, expand electrical properties of the composite in particular increase its dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent and thereby greatly expand its application field. Dielectric losses are defined by the imaginary component of the complex value of the relative dielectric constant of the dielectric. At a relatively low vibration frequency of electromagnetic field affecting the dielectric, this value is proportional to the electrical conductivity of the dielectric and inversely proportional to the frequency. In order to predict the expected value of the electric conductivity of the dielectric with metallic inclusions, a mathematical model that properly describes the structure of the composite and the electrical interaction of the matrix and inclusions is required.In the paper, a mathematical model of the electrical interaction of the representative element of the composite structure and a homogeneous isotropic medium with electrical conductivity, which is desired characteristics of the composite, is constructed. Globular shape of the metallic inclusions as an average statistical form of dispersed inclusions with a comparable size in all directions is adopted. The inclusion is covered with a globular layer of electrical insulation to avoid percolation with increasing volume concentration of inclusions. Outer globular layer of representative structure of composite

  2. Electrical stimulation to conductive scaffold promotes axonal regeneration and remyelination in a rat model of large nerve defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation (ES has been shown to promote nerve regeneration when it was applied to the proximal nerve stump. However, the possible beneficial effect of establishing a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect on nerve regeneration has not been reported in previous studies. The present study attempted to establish a local electrical environment between a large nerve defect, and examined its effect on nerve regeneration and functional recovery. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In the present study, a conductive scaffold was constructed and used to bridge a 15 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and intermittent ES (3 V, 20 Hz was applied to the conductive scaffold to establish an electrical environment at the site of nerve defect. Nerve regeneration and functional recovery were examined after nerve injury repair and ES. We found that axonal regeneration and remyelination of the regenerated axons were significantly enhanced by ES which was applied to conductive scaffold. In addition, both motor and sensory functional recovery was significantly improved and muscle atrophy was partially reversed by ES localized at the conductive scaffold. Further investigations showed that the expression of S-100, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, P0 and Par-3 was significantly up-regulated by ES at the conductive scaffold. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Establishing an electrical environment with ES localized at the conductive scaffold is capable of accelerating nerve regeneration and promoting functional recovery in a 15 mm nerve defect in rats. The findings provide new directions for exploring regenerative approaches to achieve better functional recovery in the treatment of large nerve defect.

  3. Numerical investigation of entropy generation in unsteady MHD generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity. (United States)

    Chinyoka, T; Makinde, O D


    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.

  4. Development of Electrically Conductive Oligo(polyethylene Glycol) Fumarate-Polypyrrole Hydrogels for Nerve Regeneration


    Runge, M. Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Ruesink, Terry; Lu, Lichun; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.


    Electrically conductive hydrogel composites consisting of oligo(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) and polypyrrole (PPy) were developed for applications in nerve regeneration. OPF-PPy scaffolds were synthesized using three different anions: naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NSA), dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBSA), and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS). Scaffolds were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, AFM, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrical resistivity measureme...

  5. Higher Capacity, Improved Conductive Matrix VB2/Air Batteries (Postprint) (United States)


    drives the need for increased energy density batteries . Zinc - air batteries are primary batteries with the highest commercial energy capacity. zinc - air - battery -the-revolution/ inert in the alkaline electrolyte environment, displaying zero capacity in control...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0326 HIGHER CAPACITY, IMPROVED CONDUCTIVE MATRIX VB2/ AIR BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) Matthew Lefler, Jessica

  6. Peculiarities of high electric field conduction in p-type diamond (United States)

    Mortet, V.; Trémouilles, D.; Bulíř, J.; Hubík, P.; Heller, L.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Soltani, A.


    The electrical properties of chemical vapour deposited p-type epitaxial diamond layers are studied in high electric field conditions. The quasi-static current-voltage characteristics have been measured using transmission-line pulse method with 100 ns pulses. Reproducible impurity impact ionization avalanche breakdown occurs at a critical electrical field in the range of 100-200 kV cm-1 depending on the acceptor concentration and temperature, leading to complete ionisation of neutral impurities. The current-voltage characteristics exhibit an S-shape with the bi-stable conduction characteristic of impurity impact ionisation.

  7. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes/polyurethane composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. F. Lima


    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs functionalized with amine and carboxyl groups were used to prepare polyurethane/MWCNT nanocomposites in two distinct concentrations: a lower value of 1 mass% (spray coating and a higher one of ~50 mass% (buckypaper based. The MWCNT-NH2 sample contained only 0.5 mass% of amine groups, whereas MWCNT-COOH contained 5 mass% of carboxyl groups. The MWCNT functionalized with low amine group content showed improved thermal properties when compared to neat thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU and MWCNT-COOH based nanocomposites. The electrical conductivity of the polyurethane elastomer was greatly increased from 10-12 to ~10-5 S cm-1in the 1 mass% nanotube composite and to 7 S cm-1for the MWCNT-NH2 buckypaper-based nanocomposite. Furthermore, the relative high content of functional groups in the MWCNT-COOH sample, which disrupt the sp²structure in the nanotube walls, led to inferior properties; for instance the conductivity of the buckypaper based composite is one order of magnitude lower when using MWCNT-COOH in comparison with the MWCNT-NH2. These results show the range of property design possibilities available with the elastomeric polyurethane nanocomposite by tailoring the functional group content and the carbon nanotube load.

  8. Non-conductive ferromagnets based on core double-shell nanoparticles for radio-electric applications. (United States)

    Takacs, Hélène; Viala, Bernard; Hermán, Vanessa; Tortai, Jean-Hervé; Duclairoir, Florence; Alarcon Ramos, Juvenal; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Okuno, Hanako; Tallec, Gwenolé


    Two fabrication schemes of magnetic metal-polymer nanocomposites films are described. The nanocomposites are made of graphene-coated cobalt nanoparticles embedded in a polystyrene matrix. Scheme 1 uses non-covalent chemistry while scheme 2 involves covalent bonding with radicals. Preservation of the net-moment of cobalt and electrical insulation are achieved by means of a core double-shell structure of cobalt-graphene-polystyrene. The graphene shell has two functions: it is a protective layer against metal core oxidation and it serves as the functionalization surface for polymer grafting as well. The polystyrene shell is used as an insulating layer between nanoparticles and improves nanoparticles dispersion inside the polystyrene matrix. The theoretical maximum volume filling ratio estimated at ~30 % is almost reached. The nanocomposites are shown to undergo percolation behavior but retain low conductivity (<1 S/m) at the highest filling ratio reached ~25 % leading to extremely low losses (10(-3)) at high frequency. Such low conductivity values are combined with large magnetization, as high as 0.9 T. Ability for radiofrequency applications is discussed in regards to the obtained magnetization.

  9. The Influence of Preparation Conditions on the Electrical Conductivity of Poly N-Methyl-pyrrole Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidanapathirana, K.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen


    on the electrical conductivity has been investigated. The conductivity was measured by the in situ method using a specially prepared two-band microelectrode. The current density used during the polymerization has a considerable influence on the conductivity, as earlier observed for polypyrrole in non......-aqueous electrolytes. The conductivity changes with the size of the anion and the concentration of the electrolyte as well as on the temperature at which the polymerization was carried out. Polymer films formed at relatively higher temperatures had lower conductivities and were not able to insert as many counterions...

  10. Application of conductive polymers, scaffolds and electrical stimulation for nerve tissue engineering. (United States)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein; Kiani, Sahar; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Among the numerous attempts to integrate tissue engineering concepts into strategies to repair nearly all parts of the body, neuronal repair stands out. This is partially due to the complexity of the nervous anatomical system, its functioning and the inefficiency of conventional repair approaches, which are based on single components of either biomaterials or cells alone. Electrical stimulation has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and this consequently makes the use of electrically conductive polymers very attractive for the construction of scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. In this review, by taking into consideration the electrical properties of nerve cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerve cells, we discuss the most commonly utilized conductive polymers, polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI), along with their design and modifications, thus making them suitable scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. Other electrospun, composite, conductive scaffolds, such as PANI/gelatin and PPy/poly(ε-caprolactone), with or without electrical stimulation, are also discussed. Different procedures of electrical stimulation which have been used in tissue engineering, with examples on their specific applications in tissue engineering, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Enhanced thermoelectric efficiency via orthogonal electrical and thermal conductances in phosphorene. (United States)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Faghaninia, Alireza; Soklaski, Ryan; Yan, Jia-An; Lo, Cynthia; Yang, Li


    Thermoelectric devices that utilize the Seebeck effect convert heat flow into electrical energy and are highly desirable for the development of portable, solid state, passively powered electronic systems. The conversion efficiencies of such devices are quantified by the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), which is proportional to the ratio of a device's electrical conductance to its thermal conductance. In this paper, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities. First-principles and model calculations reveal not only that phosphorene possesses a spatially anisotropic electrical conductance, but that its lattice thermal conductance exhibits a pronounced spatial-anisotropy as well. The prominent electrical and thermal conducting directions are orthogonal to one another, enhancing the ratio of these conductances. As a result, ZT may reach the criterion for commercial deployment along the armchair direction of phosphorene at T = 500 K and is close to 1 even at room temperature given moderate doping (∼2 × 10(16) m(-2) or 2 × 10(12) cm(-2)). Ultimately, phosphorene hopefully stands out as an environmentally sound thermoelectric material with unprecedented qualities. Intrinsically, it is a mechanically flexible material that converts heat energy with high efficiency at low temperatures (∼300 K), one whose performance does not require any sophisticated engineering techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. AHMAD


    Full Text Available In this present work, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC – ammonium chloride (NH4Cl solid polymer electrolyte (SPE films were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and electrical properties of SPE films were investigated using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. SPE film containing 16 wt. % NH4Cl exhibited the highest ionic conductivity of 1.43 x 10-3 S/cm at ambient temperature, 303K. The temperature dependence SPE films showed an Arrhenius-type relation where the regression values obtained from the log conductivity versus reciprocal temperature is close to unity (R2≈1. The electrical properties have been measured as a function of frequency of Ԑr,Ԑi, Mr, Mi shown a non-Debye type behavior

  13. CaSiO3 Perovskite May Cause Electrical Conductivity Jump in the Topmost Lower Mantle (United States)

    Fei, Hongzhan; Huang, Rong; Yang, Xiaozhi


    The electrical conductivity of CaSiO3 perovskite was measured in situ between 17-24 GPa and 1300-2000 K using a multianvil apparatus and Solartron 1260 Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer in the frequency range of 107-1 Hz. The activation energies are 95-100 and 100-120 kJ/mol, and the activation volumes are 0.06 ± 0.08 and -0.46 ± 0.03 cm3/mol, at 1300-1800 and 1800-2000 K, respectively. Conduction under lower mantle conditions may be dominated by the ionic diffusion of oxygen. The electrical conductivity of CaSiO3 perovskite is higher than that of bridgmanite, majoritic garnet, and ferropericlase, the main constituents of the topmost lower mantle. Therefore, CaSiO3-perovsktie may significantly contribute to the electrical structure of the topmost lower mantle in spite of its relatively small volume proportion.

  14. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav


    generative approach to connectivity based on the observation that biological organization is hierarchical and composed of a limited set of building blocks, i.e. a vascular network consists of blood vessels which in turn are composed by one or more cell types. Fast electrical communication is crucial...... to synchronize vessel tone across the vast distances within a network. We hypothesize that electrical conduction capacity is delimited by the size of vascular structures and connectivity of the network. Generation and simulation of series of dynamical models of electrical spread within vascular networks...... of different size and composition showed that (1) Conduction is enhanced in models harboring long and thin endothelial cells that couple preferentially along the longitudinal axis. (2) Conduction across a branch point depends on endothelial connectivity between branches. (3) Low connectivity sub...

  15. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H


    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  16. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr, Joe H.


    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  17. Mobile TDR for geo-referenced measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anton; Schelde, Kirsten; Drøscher, Per


    content and electrical conductivity within two research fields. Measurements made during the early or late season, when soil moisture levels are close to field capacity, are related to the amount of plant available water and soil texture. Combined measurements of water content and electrical conductivity...... analysis of the soil water measurements, recommendations are made with respect to sampling strategies. Depending on the variability of a given area, between 15 and 30 ha can be mapped with respect to soil moisture and electrical conductivity with sufficient detail within 8 h......The development of site-specific crop management is constrained by the availability of sensors for monitoring important soil and crop related conditions. A mobile time-domain reflectometry (TDR) unit for geo-referenced soil measurements has been developed and used for detailed mapping of soil water...

  18. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja


    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies—consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions. PMID:26804186

  19. Analytical solution of electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole inside the earth and the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity inhomogeneity (United States)

    Mosayebidorcheh, Taha; Hosseinibalam, Fahimeh; Hassanzadeh, Smaeyl


    In this paper, the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity on the electromagnetic waves radiated by a vertical electric dipole located in the earth, near the surface of the earth, is investigated. As far as electrical conductivity is concerned, the atmosphere is divided into three areas, in which the electrical conductivity changes with altitude. The Maxwell equations in these areas are investigated as well. Using the differential transform method, the differential equation is solved in a way that atmospheric electrical conductivity is variable. Solving the problem in these areas indicates that electrical conductivity in the middle and lower areas of atmosphere may be ignored. However, in the upper areas of atmosphere, the magnitude of the magnetic field in the ionosphere at a frequency of 10 kHz at night is five times smaller when electrical conductivity is considered compared to when it is neglected.

  20. High electrical conductivity of individual epitaxially grown MoO2 nanorods (United States)

    Xie, Qiliang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Di; Chen, Xiaoliu; Shi, Jiao; Han, Xintong; Zhang, Xueao; Peng, Gang; Gao, Yongli; Huang, Han


    Molybdenum dioxides (MoO2) have potential applications in batteries owing to their good electrical conductivity. Here, we report the electrical properties of high-quality MoO2 nanorods grown using chemical vapor deposition which are partially wrapped in MoS2 on c-sapphire [α-Al2O3(0001)] substrates and subsequently transferred onto Si wafers for device fabrication. The as-fabricated devices with the individual MoO2 nanorods showed a high electrical conductivity of 6.04 × 103 S/cm and a low contact resistance of 33 Ω, thus demonstrating a superior electrical performance than in any other previous reports on MoO2-based devices. The MoS2 wrapping around the rods had a negligible effect on the conductivity. The electrical conductivity of the MoO2 nanorods was observed to decline in air when a high voltage was applied; this could be mitigated by packaging the nanorods using SiO2 or holding them under high vacuum. Our results provide the foundation for understanding the properties and potential applications of MoO2 nanorods in nanoscale electronic devices.

  1. ZnO Coatings with Controlled Pore Size, Crystallinity and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SCHMACK


    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with unique optical, electrical and catalytic properties. Many of its practical applications rely on the materials pore structure, crystallinity and electrical conductivity. We report a synthesis method for ZnO films with ordered mesopore structure and tuneable crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The synthesis relies on dip-coating of solutions containing micelles of an amphiphilic block copolymer and complexes of Zn2+ ions with aliphatic ligands. A subsequent calcination at 400°C removes the template and induces crystallization of the pore walls. The pore structure is controlled by the template polymer, whereas the aliphatic ligands control the crystallinity of the pore walls. Complexes with a higher thermal stability result in ZnO films with a higher content of residual carbon, smaller ZnO crystals and therefore lower electrical conductivity. The paper discusses the ability of different types of ligands to assist in the synthesis of mesoporous ZnO and relates the structure and thermal stability of the precursor complexes to the crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide.DOI:

  2. Nerve growth factor-immobilized polypyrrole: Bioactive electrically conducting polymer for enhanced neurite extension (United States)

    Gomez, Natalia; Schmidt, Christine E.


    Biomaterials that present multiple stimuli are attractive for a number of biomedical applications. In particular, electrical and biological cues are important factors to include in interfaces with neurons for applications such as nerve conduits and neural probes. Here, we report the combination of these two stimuli, by immobilizing nerve growth factor (NGF) on the surface of the electrically conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy). NGF was immobilized using an intermediate linker provided by a layer of polyallylamine conjugated to an arylazido functional group. Upon exposure to UV light and activation of the azido groups, NGF was fixed to the substrate. Three different surface concentrations were obtained (0.21–0.98 ng/mm2) and similar levels of neurite extension were observed on immobilized NGF as with soluble NGF. Additionally, electrical stimulation experiments were conducted with the modified polymer and revealed a 50% increase in neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells compared to experiments without electrical stimulation. This novel modification of PPy provides both electrical and biological stimulation, by presenting tethered growth factors and only producing a small decrease in the material's properties (conductivity ~10 S cm−1) when compared to other modification techniques (conductivity ~10−3–10−6 S cm−1. PMID:17111407

  3. A Study on Electrically Conducting Magnesia—carbon Bricks for DC EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONGXiaojun; YANLiyi; 等


    This paper gives a brief introduction to a kind of special refractories for DC EAF-electrically conducting magnesia-carbon bricks.The application of the conductive magnesia-carbon brick as a hearth electrode is a trend of development in DC arc furnace hearth bootom because of its features of anti corrosion and easy repatching,This is a proven process already available abroad.After a study of teh effect of different amount of graphite added and pretreating temperatures on the eletric-conductivity of magnesia-carbon bricks it has been found that for a balance between electric and thermal conductivities,the proper amount of graphite to be added should be 8%-14% and the pretreatment at temperature of 1300-1500℃ will result in the formation inside the magnesia-carbon bricks of a continuous three-dimensional network of graphite and semi-coke,thus making the brick conductive.

  4. Preparation, characterisation, and in vitro evaluation of electrically conducting poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-based nanocomposite scaffolds using PC12 cells. (United States)

    Gopinathan, Janarthanan; Quigley, Anita F; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Padhye, Rajiv; Kapsa, Robert M I; Nayak, Rajkishore; Shanks, Robert A; Houshyar, Shadi


    In the current study, we describe the synthesis, material characteristics, and cytocompatibility of conducting poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)-based nano-composite films. Electrically conducting carbon nano-fillers (carbon nano-fiber (CNF), nano-graphite (NG), and liquid exfoliated graphite (G)) were used to prepare porous film type scaffolds using modified solvent casting methods. The electrical conductivity of the nano-composite films was increased when carbon nano-fillers were incorporated in the PCL matrix. CNF-based nano-composite films showed the highest increase in electrical conductivity. The presence of an ionic solution significantly improved the conductivity of some of the polymers, however at least 24 h was required to absorb the simulated ion solutions. CNF-based nano-composite films were found to have good thermo-mechanical properties compared to other conducting polymer films due to better dispersion and alignment in the critical direction. Increased nano-filler content increased the crystallisation temperature. Analysis of cell viability revealed no increase in cell death on any of the polymers compared to tissue culture plastic controls, or compared to PCL polymer without nano-composites. The scaffolds showed some variation when tested for PC12 cell attachment and proliferation, however all the polymers supported PC12 attachment and differentiation in the absence of cell adhesion molecules. In general, CNF-based nano-composite films with highest electrical conductivity and moderate roughness showed highest cell attachment and proliferation. These polymers are promising candidates for use in neural applications in the area of bionics and tissue engineering due to their unique properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Khodadadi, Jabbar; Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Yarmohammadi, Zahra


    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  6. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio


    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  7. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio


    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  8. Electrical Conductivity of SiC/Si Composites Obtained from Wood Preforms (United States)

    Béjar, Marco Antonio; Mena, Rodrigo; Toro, Juan Esteban


    Biomorphic SiC/Si composites were produced from pine and beech wood, and the corresponding electrical conductivity was determined as a function of the temperature. Firstly, wood preforms were pyrolized at 1050 °C in nitrogen. Then, the pyrolized preforms were impregnated with liquid silicon and kept at 1600 °C for 2 h in vacuum. The SiC/Si composites were obtained due to the produced carbothermal reaction. As expected, the resulting electrical conductivity of these composites increased with the temperature and with the silicon content.

  9. On the origin of electrical conductivity in the bio-electronic material melanin (United States)

    Bernardus Mostert, A.; Powell, Ben J.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul


    The skin pigment melanin is one of a few bio-macromolecules that display electrical and photo-conductivity in the solid-state. A model for melanin charge transport based on amorphous semiconductivity has been widely accepted for 40 years. In this letter, we show that a central pillar in support of this hypothesis, namely experimental agreement with a hydrated dielectric model, is an artefact related to measurement geometry and non-equilibrium behaviour. Our results cast significant doubt on the validity of the amorphous semiconductor model and are a reminder of the difficulties of electrical measurements on low conductivity, disordered organic materials.

  10. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers (United States)

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C


    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  11. Comparison between multitrait and unitrait analysis in the heritability estimate of electrical conductivity of milk


    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas; Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz; Aníbal Eugênio Vercesi Filho; Raul Lara Resende de Carneiro; Lenira El Faro


    Electrical conductivity of milk is an indirect method for diagnosis of mastitis that can be used as criterion of selection in breeding programs, to obtain more resistant animals to infection. Data from 9,302 records of electrical conductivity from the morning milking (ECM), 13,070 milk yield records (MY) and 11,560 records of milking time (MT), of 1,129 first lactation Holstein cows, calving from 2001 to 2011, were used in statistical analysis. Data of eight herds of Southeast region of Brazi...

  12. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical) (United States)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.


    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  13. Improved battery charger for electric vehicles (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.


    Polyphase version of single-phase "boost chopper" significantly reduces ripple and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Drive circuit of n-phase boost chopper incorporates n-phase duty-cycle generator; inductor, transistor, and diode compose chopper which can run on single-phase or three-phase alternating current or on direct current. Device retains compactness and power factors approaching unity, while improving efficiency.

  14. Electrospun Polyaniline-Based Composite Nanofibers: Tuning the Electrical Conductivity by Tailoring the Structure of Thiol-Protected Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Pierini


    Full Text Available Composite nanofibers made of a polyaniline-based polymer blend and different thiol-capped metal nanoparticles were prepared using ex situ synthesis and electrospinning technique. The effects of the nanoparticle composition and chemical structure on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. This study confirmed that Brust’s procedure is an effective method for the synthesis of sub-10 nm silver, gold, and silver-gold alloy nanoparticles protected with different types of thiols. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that electrospinning is a valuable technique for the production of composite nanofibers with similar morphology and revealed that nanofillers are well-dispersed into the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction tests proved the lack of a significant influence of the nanoparticle chemical structure on the polyaniline chain arrangement. However, the introduction of conductive nanofillers in the polymer matrix influences the charge transport noticeably improving electrical conductivity. The enhancement of electrical properties is mediated by the nanoparticle capping layer structure. The metal nanoparticle core composition is a key parameter, which exerted a significant influence on the conductivity of the nanocomposites. These results prove that the proposed method can be used to tune the electrical properties of nanocomposites.

  15. Multishot echo-planar MREIT for fast imaging of conductivity, current density, and electric field distributions. (United States)

    Chauhan, Munish; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Ashok Kumar, Neeta; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sadleir, Rosalind


    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) sequences typically use conventional spin or gradient echo-based acquisition methods for reconstruction of conductivity and current density maps. Use of MREIT in functional and electroporation studies requires higher temporal resolution and faster sequences. Here, single and multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) based MREIT sequences were evaluated to see whether high-quality MREIT phase data could be obtained for rapid reconstruction of current density, conductivity, and electric fields. A gel phantom with an insulating inclusion was used as a test object. Ghost artifact, geometric distortion, and MREIT correction algorithms were applied to the data. The EPI-MREIT-derived phase-projected current density and conductivity images were compared with simulations and spin-echo images as a function of EPI shot number. Good agreement among measures in simulated, spin echo, and EPI data was achieved. Current density errors were stable and below 9% as the shot number decreased from 64 to 2, but increased for single-shot images. Conductivity reconstruction relative contrast ratios were stable as the shot number decreased. The derived electric fields also agreed with the simulated data. The EPI methods can be combined successfully with MREIT reconstruction algorithms to achieve fast imaging of current density, conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Evaluation of biodegradable electric conductive tube-guides and mesenchymal stem cells (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Pereira, Tiago; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Amado, Sandra; França, Miguel; Gonçalves, Carolina; Lopes, Maria Ascensão; Santos, José Domingos; Silva, Dina Morais; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette


    AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of three tube-guides with electrical conductivity associated to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on neuro-muscular regeneration after neurotmesis. METHODS: Rats with 10-mm gap nerve injury were tested using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and MSCs, and PVA-polypyrrole (PPy). The regenerated nerves and tibialis anterior muscles were processed for stereological studies after 20 wk. The functional recovery was assessed serially for gait biomechanical analysis, by extensor postural thrust, sciatic functional index and static sciatic functional index (SSI), and by withdrawal reflex latency (WRL). In vitro studies included cytocompatibility, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and karyotype analysis of the MSCs. Histopathology of lung, liver, kidneys, and regional lymph nodes ensured the biomaterials biocompatibility. RESULTS: SSI remained negative throughout and independently from treatment. Differences between treted groups in the severity of changes in WRL existed, showing a faster regeneration for PVA-CNTs-MSCs (P < 0.05). At toe-off, less acute ankle joint angles were seen for PVA-CNTs-MSCs group (P = 0.051) suggesting improved ankle muscles function during the push off phase of the gait cycle. In PVA-PPy and PVA-CNTs groups, there was a 25% and 42% increase of average fiber area and a 13% and 21% increase of the “minimal Feret’s diameter” respectively. Stereological analysis disclosed a significantly (P < 0.05) increased myelin thickness (M), ratio myelin thickness/axon diameter (M/d) and ratio axon diameter/fiber diameter (d/D; g-ratio) in PVA-CNT-MSCs group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results revealed that treatment with MSCs and PVA-CNTs tube-guides induced better nerve fiber regeneration. Functional and kinematics analysis revealed positive synergistic effects brought by MSCs and PVA-CNTs. The PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are promising scaffolds with electric conductive properties, bio

  17. Electrical conductivity of H2O-NaCl fluids to 10 kbar (United States)

    Sinmyo, R.; Keppler, H.


    Magnetotelluric studies often reveal zones of elevated electrical conductivity in the mantle wedge above subducting slabs, in the deep crust below fold belts, or below active volcanoes. Since both aqueous fluids and hydrous silivate melts may be highly conductive, they may both account for these observations. Distinguishing between these two posssibilities, however, is difficult. One reason for this problem is that while there are very good conductivity data for silicate melts, such data do not exist for aqueous fluids under the relevant conditions of pressure, temperature and solute concentration. Most crustal and mantle fluids likely contain some NaCl, which greatly enhances conductivity due to its partial dissociation into Na+ and Cl-. We therefore studied the electrical conductivity of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m NaCl solutions in water to 10 kbar and 600 °C. The measurements were carried out in externally-heated diamond cells containing two gaskets separated by an insulating ring of diamond, following a method described by Ni et al. (2014). The two gaskets were used as electrodes and full impedance spectra were measured from 30 Hz to 10 MHz using a Solartron 1260 impedance analyzer. Electrical conductivity was generally found to increase with pressure temperature, and fluid density. The conductivity increase observed upon variation of NaCl concentration from 0.1m to 1m was smaller than from 0.01m to 0.1m, which reflects the reduced degree of dissociation at high NaCl concentration. In general, the data show that already a very small fraction of NaCl-bearing aqueous fluid is sufficient to enhance bulk conductivities to values that would be expected for a high degree of partial melting. Accordingly, aqueous fluids may be distinguished from hydrous melts by comparing magnetotelluric and seismic data. H2O-NaCl fluids may enhance electrical conductivities with little disturbance of vp or vp/vs ratios.

  18. Superposition approach for description of electrical conductivity in sheared MWNT/polycarbonate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saphiannikova


    Full Text Available The theoretical description of electrical properties of polymer melts, filled with attractively interacting conductive particles, represents a great challenge. Such filler particles tend to build a network-like structure which is very fragile and can be easily broken in a shear flow with shear rates of about 1 s–1. In this study, measured shear-induced changes in electrical conductivity of polymer composites are described using a superposition approach, in which the filler particles are separated into a highly conductive percolating and low conductive non-percolating phases. The latter is represented by separated well-dispersed filler particles. It is assumed that these phases determine the effective electrical properties of composites through a type of mixing rule involving the phase volume fractions. The conductivity of the percolating phase is described with the help of classical percolation theory, while the conductivity of non-percolating phase is given by the matrix conductivity enhanced by the presence of separate filler particles. The percolation theory is coupled with a kinetic equation for a scalar structural parameter which describes the current state of filler network under particular flow conditions. The superposition approach is applied to transient shear experiments carried out on polycarbonate composites filled with multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  19. Acoustic patterning for 3D embedded electrically conductive wire in stereolithography (United States)

    Erdem Yunus, Doruk; Sohrabi, Salman; He, Ran; Shi, Wentao; Liu, Yaling


    In this paper, we reported a new approach for particle assembly with acoustic tweezers during three-dimensional (3D) printing, for the fabrication of embedded conductive wires with 3D structures. A hexagon shaped acoustic tweezer was incorporated with a digital light processing based stereolithography printer to pattern conductive lines via aligning and condensing conductive nanoparticles. The effect of filler content on electrical resistivity and pattern thickness were studied for copper, magnetite nanoparticles, and carbon nanofiber reinforced nanocomposite samples. The obtained data was later used to produce examples of conductive 3D microstructures and embedded electronic components by using the suggested method.

  20. Large apparent electric size of solid-state nanopores due to spatially extended surface conduction. (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Joly, Laurent; Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Bocquet, Lydéric


    Ion transport through nanopores drilled in thin membranes is central to numerous applications, including biosensing and ion selective membranes. This paper reports experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical predictions demonstrating an unexpectedly large ionic conduction in solid-state nanopores, taking its origin in anomalous entrance effects. In contrast to naive expectations based on analogies with electric circuits, the surface conductance inside the nanopore is shown to perturb the three-dimensional electric current streamlines far outside the nanopore in order to meet charge conservation at the pore entrance. This unexpected contribution to the ionic conductance can be interpreted in terms of an apparent electric size of the solid-state nanopore, which is much larger than its geometric counterpart whenever the number of charges carried by the nanopore surface exceeds its bulk counterpart. This apparent electric size, which can reach hundreds of nanometers, can have a major impact on the electrical detection of translocation events through nanopores, as well as for ionic transport in biological nanopores.

  1. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.


    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  2. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft application. I - Silicate matrix formulation (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.; Odonnell, T. P.; Hribar, V. F.


    The formulation of the graphite silicate paints MH-11 and MH-11Z, which will serve as electrically conductive, heat-resistant thermal control coatings for the Galileo spacecraft's 400 Newton engine plume shield, 10 Newton thruster plume shields, and external shunt radiators, is described, and performance results for these paints are reported. The MH-11 is produced by combining a certain grade of graphite powder with a silicate base to produce a black, inorganic, electrically conductive, room temperature cure thermal control paint having high temperature capability. Zinc oxide is added to the MH-11 formulation to produce the blister resistant painta MH-11Z. The mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and radiation characteristics of the coatings are reported. The formulation, mixing, application, and surface preparation of the substrates are described, and a method of determining the electrical resistance of the coatings is demonstrated.

  3. Investigations for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of ABS-Graphene Blended Prototypes. (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sandhu, Gurleen S; Penna, Rosa; Farina, Ilenia


    The thermoplastic materials such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and Nylon have large applications in three-dimensional printing of functional/non-functional prototypes. Usually these polymer-based prototypes are lacking in thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene (Gr) has attracted impressive enthusiasm in the recent past due to its natural mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. This paper presents the step by step procedure (as a case study) for development of an in-house ABS-Gr blended composite feedstock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) applications. The feedstock filament has been prepared by two different methods (mechanical and chemical mixing). For mechanical mixing, a twin screw extrusion (TSE) process has been used, and for chemical mixing, the composite of Gr in an ABS matrix has been set by chemical dissolution, followed by mechanical blending through TSE. Finally, the electrical and thermal conductivity of functional prototypes prepared from composite feedstock filaments have been optimized.

  4. Development of Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing Platform Based on Single-Molecule Electrical Conductance (United States)


    electrical conductivity of DNA polymerase can be directly measured by conjugating the enzyme to a proT, the conductance trajectory may be useful in...incubation. The uptake of GNPs is consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis . Nevertheless, most GNPs can enter cells efficiently, and most studies...were isolated, and the organ weights of all the mice were measured . Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) For the total element

  5. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of Li2 O :B O3 : V2 O5 glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The study of electrical conductivity of 30Li2O:(70 – x) B2O3 :xV2O5 glass samples has been carried out. The results have been explained by dividing the temperature range into two regions. In region I, conducti- vity shows Arrhenius behaviour for all the samples. The conductivity increases with addition of V2O5.

  6. Microstructure, electrical conductivity and modulus spectra of CdI{sub 2} doped nanocomposite-electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Ranadip [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Siliguri Institute of Technology, Darjeeeling 734009, West Bengal (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Debasish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharya, Sanjib, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Siliguri Institute of Technology, Darjeeeling 734009, West Bengal (India)


    Ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of Ag{sub 2}O–CdI{sub 2}–CdO nanocomposite system have been studied. X-ray diffraction has been carried out to obtain the crystallite sizes and the growth of CdO dispersed in glass-matrices. Total conductivity of them shows thermally activated nature. It is observed that total conductivity decreases and corresponding activation energy for conduction follows opposite behavior. The high-frequency ac conductivity may correspond to a nonrandom, correlated and sub-diffusive motion of Ag{sup +} ions. Conductivity relaxation time is found to increase. The nature of scaling of the conductivity as well as modulus spectra indicates that the electrical relaxation of Ag{sup +} is temperature independent but depends upon composition.

  7. Electric Conduction in Semiconductors: A Pedagogical Model Based on the Monte Carlo Method (United States)

    Capizzo, M. C.; Sperandeo-Mineo, R. M.; Zarcone, M.


    We present a pedagogic approach aimed at modelling electric conduction in semiconductors in order to describe and explain some macroscopic properties, such as the characteristic behaviour of resistance as a function of temperature. A simple model of the band structure is adopted for the generation of electron-hole pairs as well as for the carrier…

  8. Electrical conductivity, speeds of sound, and viscosity of aqueous ammonium nitrate solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wahab, Abdul; Mahiuddin, Sekh


    Density, electrical conductivity, speeds of sound, and viscosity of aqueous ammonium nitrate solutions were measured as functions of concentration (m, mol kg –1 ) (0.1599 m 20.42) and temperature (T, K) (273.15 T 323.15...

  9. Electrical conductivity, speeds of sound, and viscosity of aqueous ammonium nitrate solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wahab A; Mahiuddin S


    Density, electrical conductivity, speeds of sound, and viscosity of aqueous ammonium nitrate solutions were measured as functions of concentration (m, mol kg 1) (0.1599 m 20.42) and temperature (T, K) (273.15 T 323.15...

  10. Surface roughness and grain boundary scattering effects on the electrical conductivity of thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George


    In this work, we investigate surface/interface roughness and grain boundary scattering effects on the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline thin films in the Born approximation. We assume for simplicity a random Gaussian roughness convoluted with a domain size distribution ~e^-πr^2/ζ^2 to

  11. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.


    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  12. Short Communication: Genetic Correlation Between Test-Day Electrical Conductivity of Milk and Mastitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norberg, E; Rogers, G. W; Odegard, J; Cooper, J. B; Madsen, P


    ... and labor are connected to the sampling of SCC. Electrical conductivity ( EC ) of milk was introduced as an indicator for mastitis in the 1970s and has been used for detection of mastitis ( Hamann and Zecconi, 1998 ). If a cow suffers from mastitis, the concentration of Na + and Cl − in the milk increases, leading to increased EC of milk from infected quarters ...

  13. Electrical conductivity of the hippocampal CA1 layers and application to current-source-density analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.


    The microstructure of the layers in the hippocampal CA1 area suggests that differences may exist between the electrical conductivities of these layers. In order to quantify these differences a sinusoidal current was applied to hippocampal slices in a bathing medium and potential differences were

  14. An analysis of the electrical conductivity in BaSO4-added AgZSO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci, Vol. 18, No. 3, June 1995, pp. 237*246. (6) Printed in India. An analysis of the electrical conductivity in BaSO4-added AgZSO4 solid electrolyte system. K SINGH, S M PANDE* and S S BHOGA+. Department of Physics, Nagpur University, Nagpur 440010, India. *Department of Applied Physics, Ramdeobaba ...

  15. Surface-roughness fractality effects in electrical conductivity of single metallic and semiconducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Barnaś, J.


    Surface-roughness effects in electrical conductivity of thin metallic and semiconducting films with self-affine fractal surfaces are considered in the framework of the Born approximation. The surface roughness is described by the k-correlation model, and is characterized by the roughness exponent H

  16. Highly electrically conductive Ag-doped graphene fibers as stretchable conductors. (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Liu, Zheng; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao


    Ag-doped graphene fibers show remarkable electrical conductivity, high current capacity, good mechanical strength and fine flexibility. The integration of these merits promises Ag-doped graphene fibers expanding applications as stretchable conductors, wearable electronics, and actual microcables. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  18. Electrical conductivity of miscibility gap salt systems based on lithium fluoride with alkali metal bromides (United States)

    Babushkina, L. M.; Dokashenko, S. I.; Stepanov, V. P.; Shcherbakov, K. N.


    The electrical conductivity κ of miscibility gap ionic melts of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides is measured. The role of the size and temperature factors in migration is discussed for the systems with a predominant Coulomb interaction of particles in the saturation line.

  19. The study of electrical conductivity of DNA molecules by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (United States)

    Sharipov, T. I.; Bakhtizin, R. Z.


    An interest to the processes of charge transport in DNA molecules is very high, due to perspective of their using in nanoelectronics. The original sample preparation for studying electrical conductivity of DNA molecules by scanning tunneling spectroscopy has been proposed and tested. The DNA molecules immobilized on gold surface have been imaged clearly and their current-voltage curves have been measured.

  20. Standardization of soil apparent electrical conductivity using multi-temporal surveys across multiple production fields (United States)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an efficient technique for understanding within-field variability of physical and chemical soil characteristics. Commercial devices are readily available for collecting ECa on whole fields and used broadly for crop management in precision agriculture; h...

  1. Inversion of soil electrical conductivity data to estimate layered soil properties (United States)

    CBulk apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors respond to multiple soil properties, including clay content, water content, and salt content (i.e., salinity). They provide a single sensor value for an entire soil profile down to a sensor-dependent measurement depth, weighted by a nonlinear...

  2. Model of electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle based on tissue structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, F.L.H.; Cruts, H.E.P.; Alberts, B.A.; Boon, K.L.; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.


    Recent experiments carried out in our laboratory with the four-electrode method showed that the electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle tissue depends on the frequency of the injected current and the distance between the current electrodes. A model is proposed in order to study these effects. The

  3. Music through the Skin--Simple Demonstration of Human Electrical Conductivity (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Möllmann, K. P.


    The conduction of electricity is an important topic for any basic physics course. Issues of safety often results in teacher demonstration experiments in front of the class or in extremely simple though--for students--not really fascinating (not to say boring) hands on activities for everybody using 1.5 V batteries, cables and light bulbs etc. Here…

  4. D-bar method for electrical impedance tomography with discontinuous conductivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Lassas, Matti; Mueller, Jennifer L.

    The effects of truncating the (approximate) scattering transform in the D-bar reconstruction method for 2-D electrical impedance tomography are studied. The method is based on Nachman s uniqueness proof [Ann. of Math. 143 (1996)] that applies to twice differentiable conductivities. However, the r...

  5. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.


    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total

  6. Optimization routes for high electrical conductivity of polypyrrole nanotubes prepared in presence of methyl orange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, D.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Vrňata, M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kopecká, J.; Václavík, M.


    Roč. 230, August (2017), s. 89-96 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * electrical conductivity * nanotube Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  7. Couette flow of a hydro-magnetic electrically conducting fluid with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solution of the problem of Couette flow of a hydromagnetic electrically conducting fluid has been obtained where the temperature of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially. Results obtained for the flow velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer indicate that the temperature is higher when the ...

  8. Application of Skin Electrical Conductance of Acupuncture Meridians for Ureteral Calculus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chou Lin


    Full Text Available Renal colic is a common condition seen in the emergency department (ED. Our recent study showed that measures of electrical conductance may be used as supplementary diagnostic methods for patients with acute renal colic. Here, we describe the case of a 30-year-old male subject with a left ureteral calculus who presented with frequency and normal-looking urine. He had already visited the outpatient department, but in vain. Normal urinalysis and nonobstructive urogram were reported at that time. Two days later, he was admitted to the ED because of abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant. The urinalysis did not detect red blood cells. Ultrasonography did not indicate hydronephrosis. The meridian electrical conductance and index of sympathovagal balance were found to be abnormal. High level of electrical conductance on the left bladder meridian was found. An unenhanced helical computed tomography was scheduled to reveal a left ureterovesical stone. Ureteroscopic intervention was later uneventfully performed, and the patient's pain was relieved. The follow-up measurements showed that the meridian parameters had returned to normal one month after treatment. This case suggests that bladder meridian electrical conductance might be used as a supplemental method for ureteral calculus diagnosis.

  9. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris


    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  10. Angiotensin II modulates conducted vasoconstriction to norepinephrine and local electrical stimulation in rat mesenteric arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    the effect of intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), losartan or methoxamine on conducted vasoconstriction to local application of norepinephrine (NE) or local electrical stimulation onto the surface of rat mesenteric arterioles in vivo. METHODS: In anesthetized male Wistar rats (n = 43) NE (0.1 m...

  11. Effects of Environmental Factors and Metallic Electrodes on AC Electrical Conduction Through DNA Molecule. (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Obaid, A; Al-Marzouki, F M


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the best candidate materials for various device applications such as in electrodes for rechargeable batteries, biosensors, molecular electronics, medical- and biomedical-applications etc. Hence, it is worthwhile to examine the mechanism of charge transport in the DNA molecule, however, still a question without a clear answer is DNA a molecular conducting material (wire), semiconductor, or insulator? The answer, after the published data, is still ambiguous without any confirmed and clear scientific answer. DNA is found to be always surrounded with different electric charges, ions, and dipoles. These surrounding charges and electric barrier(s) due to metallic electrodes (as environmental factors (EFs)) play a substantial role when measuring the electrical conductivity through λ-double helix (DNA) molecule suspended between metallic electrodes. We found that strong frequency dependence of AC-complex conductivity comes from the electrical conduction of EFs. This leads to superimposing serious incorrect experimental data to measured ones. At 1 MHz, we carried out a first control experiment on electrical conductivity with and without the presence of DNA molecule. If there are possible electrical conduction due to stray ions and contribution of substrate, we will detected them. This control experiment revealed that there is an important role played by the environmental-charges around DNA molecule and any experiment should consider this role. We have succeeded to measure both electrical conductivity due to EFs (σ ENV) and electrical conductivity due to DNA molecule (σ DNA) independently by carrying the measurements at different DNA-lengths and subtracting the data. We carried out measurements as a function of frequency (f) and temperature (T) in the ranges 0.1 Hz molecule from all EFs effects that surround the molecule, but also to present accurate values of σ DNA and the dielectric constant of the molecule ε'DNA as a function

  12. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.


    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  13. Product Quality Improvement Using FMEA for Electric Parking Brake (EPB) (United States)

    Dumitrescu, C. D.; Gruber, G. C.; Tişcă, I. A.


    One of the most frequently used methods to improve product quality is complex FMEA. (Failure Modes and Effects Analyses). In the literature various FMEA is known, depending on the mode and depending on the targets; we mention here some of these names: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Process, or analysis Failure Mode and Effects Reported (FMECA). Whatever option is supported by the work team, the goal of the method is the same: optimize product design activities in research, design processes, implementation of manufacturing processes, optimization of mining product to beneficiaries. According to a market survey conducted on parts suppliers to vehicle manufacturers FMEA method is used in 75%. One purpose of the application is that after the research and product development is considered resolved, any errors which may be detected; another purpose of applying the method is initiating appropriate measures to avoid mistakes. Achieving these two goals leads to a high level distribution in applying, to avoid errors already in the design phase of the product, thereby avoiding the emergence and development of additional costs in later stages of product manufacturing. During application of FMEA method using standardized forms; with their help will establish the initial assemblies of product structure, in which all components will be viewed without error. The work is an application of the method FMEA quality components to optimize the structure of the electrical parking brake (Electric Parching Brake - E.P.B). This is a component attached to the roller system which ensures automotive replacement of conventional mechanical parking brake while ensuring its comfort, functionality, durability and saves space in the passenger compartment. The paper describes the levels at which they appealed in applying FMEA, working arrangements in the 4 distinct levels of analysis, and how to determine the number of risk (Risk Priority Number); the analysis of risk factors and established

  14. FMEA and FTA Analyses of the Adhesive Joining Process using Electrically Conductive Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Povolotskaya


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a formulation of appropriate risk estimation methods that can be used for improving of processes in the electronics area. Two risk assessment methods have been chosen with regard to the specifics of adhesive joining based on electrically conductive adhesives. The paper provides a combination of a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA and fault tree analysis (FTA for optimizing of the joining process. Typical features and failures of the process are identified. Critical operations are found and actions for avoiding failures in these actions are proposed. A fault treehas been applied to the process in order to get more precise information about the steps and operations in the process, and the relations between these operations. The fault tree identifies potential failures of the process. Then the effects of the failures have been estimated by the failure mode and effect analysis method. All major differences between failure mode and effect analysis and fault tree analysis are defined and there is a discussion about how to use the two techniquescomplement each other and achieve more efficient results.

  15. Functionalized Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Oxide Embedded Electrically Conductive Hydrogel Synergistically Stimulates Nerve Cell Differentiation. (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A Lee; Park, Sungjo; Waletzki, Brian E; Zhou, Zifei; Terzic, Andre; Lu, Lichun


    Nerve regeneration after injury is a critical medical issue. In previous work, we have developed an oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel incorporated with positive charges as a promising nerve conduit. In this study, we introduced cross-linkable bonds to graphene oxide and carbon nanotube to obtain the functionalized graphene oxide acrylate (GOa) and carbon nanotube poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (CNTpega). An electrically conductive hydrogel was then fabricated by covalently embedding GOa and CNTpega within OPF hydrogel through chemical cross-linking followed by in situ reduction of GOa in l-ascorbic acid solution. Positive charges were incorporated by 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTAC) to obtain rGOaCNTpega-OPF-MTAC composite hydrogel with both surface charge and electrical conductivity. The distribution of CNTpega and GOa in the hydrogels was substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and strengthened electrical conductivities were determined. Excellent biocompatibility was demonstrated for the carbon embedded composite hydrogels. Biological evaluation showed enhanced proliferation and spreading of PC12 cells on the conductive hydrogels. After induced differentiation using nerve growth factor (NGF), cells on the conductive hydrogels were effectively stimulated to have robust neurite development as observed by confocal microscope. A synergistic effect of electrical conductivity and positive charges on nerve cells was also observed in this study. Using a glass mold method, the composite hydrogel was successfully fabricated into conductive nerve conduits with surficial positive charges. These results suggest that rGOa-CNTpega-OPF-MTAC composite hydrogel holds great potential as conduits for neural tissue engineering.

  16. Electrical Conductance Map for the Kachchh Rift Basin: Constraint on Tectonic Evolution and Seismotectonic Implications (United States)

    Subba Rao, P. B. V.; Arora, B. R.; Singh, A. K.


    Geomagnetic field variations recorded by an array of magnetometers spread across the Kachchh Rift basin are reduced to a set of induction arrows as a diagnostic of lateral electrical conductivity variations. A non-uniform thin-sheet electrical conductance model is developed to account for the salient induction patterns. It indicates that the imaged conductivity anomalies can be related to the sediment-filled structural lows in between the fault bounded uplifts. It is suggested that sagging structural lows preserved the marine sediments deposited during the Mesozoic sea transgression and later developed into first order embayment basins for the deposition of sediments in association with Late Eocene transgression. Depth integrated electrical conductance helped in mapping two depo-centres: along the ENE-WSW trending Banni half-Graben bounded by the Kachchh Main fault on the south and, second, along the Vinjan depression formed in response to the subsidence between the Vigodi fault and westward extension of the Katrol Hill fault together with the westward bending of the Median High. Presence of metamorphosed graphite schist clasts in shale dominated Mesozoic sequence and/or thin films of carbon resulting from the thermal influence of Deccan activity on Carbonate-rich formations can account for the high electrical conductivity anomalies seen in the depo-centres of thick Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. Additionally two high conductivity zones are imaged encompassing a block defined by the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its aftershocks. In agreement with gravity, magnetic and seismic velocity signatures, aqueous fluids released by recrystallizing magmatic bodies intruded in association with Deccan trap activity account for mapped high conductivity zones. High fluid pressure in such a fractured domain, surrounding the intruded magmatic plugs, perturb the regional stress concentrations to produce frequent and low magnitude aftershocks in the shallow section of the epicentral

  17. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of metallic dental materials and their impact on MR imaging artifacts. (United States)

    Starcuková, Jana; Starcuk, Zenon; Hubálková, Hana; Linetskiy, Igor


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dental materials vary significantly in MR-relevant material parameters-magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity, and that knowledge of these parameters may be used to estimate the quality of MR imaging in the presence of devices made of such materials. Magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and artifacts were evaluated for 45 standardized cylindrical samples of dental alloys and amalgams. Magnetic susceptibility was determined by fitting the phase of gradient-echo MR images to numerically modeled data. Electrical conductivity was determined by standard electrotechnical measurements. Artifact sizes were measured in spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) images at 1.5T according to the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials. It has been confirmed that dental materials differ considerably in their magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and artifacts. For typical dental devices, magnetic susceptibility differences were found of little clinical importance for diagnostic SE/GE imaging of the neck and brain, but significant for orofacial imaging. Short-TE GE imaging has been found possible even in very close distances from dental devices made of amalgams, precious alloys and titanium alloys. Nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium artifacts were found still acceptable, but large restorations of aluminum bronzes may preclude imaging of the orofacial region. The influence of electrical conductivity on the artifact size was found negligible. MR imaging is possible even close to dental devices if they are made of dental materials with low magnetic susceptibility. Not all materials in current use meet this requirement.

  18. Investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming using apparent electrical conductivity measurements (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Seuntjens, Piet


    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming has been widely applied commercially at large scale. Biodegradation is one of the dominant pollutant removal mechanisms involved in landfarming, but strongly depends on the environmental conditions (e.g. presence of oxygen, moisture content). Conventionally the biodegradation process is monitored by the installation of field monitoring equipment and repeated sample collection and analysis. Because the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons and their degradation products can affect the electrical properties of the soil, proximal soil sensors such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors may provide an alternative to investigate the biodegradation process of these contaminants. We investigated the relation between the EMI-based apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of a landfarm soil and the presence and degradation status of petroleum hydrocarbons. The 3 ha study area was located in an oil refinery complex contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly composed of diesel. At the site, a landfarm was constructed in 1999. The most recent survey of the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations was conducted between 2011 and 2013. The sampling locations were defined by a grid with a 10 m by 10 m cell size and on each location a sample was taken from four successive soil layers with a thickness of 0.5 m each. Because the survey was carried out in phases using different georeferencing methods, the final dataset suffered from uncertainty in the coordinates of the sampling locations. In September 2013 the landfarm was surveyed for ECa with a multi-receiver electromagnetic induction sensor (DUALEM-21S) using motorized conveyance. The horizontal measurement resolution was 1 m by 0.25 m. On each measurement location the sensor recorded four ECa values representative of measurement depths of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.6 m and 3.2 m. After the basic processing, the ECa measurements were filtered to remove

  19. Interior-architectured ZnO nanostructure for enhanced electrical conductivity via stepwise fabrication process. (United States)

    Chong, Eugene; Kim, Sarah; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Eung-Sug; Lee, Jaewhan; Park, Inkyu; Lee, Jihye


    Fabrication of ZnO nanostructure via direct patterning based on sol-gel process has advantages of low-cost, vacuum-free, and rapid process and producibility on flexible or non-uniform substrates. Recently, it has been applied in light-emitting devices and advanced nanopatterning. However, application as an electrically conducting layer processed at low temperature has been limited by its high resistivity due to interior structure. In this paper, we report interior-architecturing of sol-gel-based ZnO nanostructure for the enhanced electrical conductivity. Stepwise fabrication process combining the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process with an additional growth process was newly applied. Changes in morphology, interior structure, and electrical characteristics of the fabricated ZnO nanolines were analyzed. It was shown that filling structural voids in ZnO nanolines with nanocrystalline ZnO contributed to reducing electrical resistivity. Both rigid and flexible substrates were adopted for the device implementation, and the robustness of ZnO nanostructure on flexible substrate was verified. Interior-architecturing of ZnO nanostructure lends itself well to the tunability of morphological, electrical, and optical characteristics of nanopatterned inorganic materials with the large-area, low-cost, and low-temperature producibility.

  20. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)


    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Effects of A Rotating Magnetic Field on Electrically Conducting Aqueous Solutions (United States)

    Ramachandran Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstantin


    The use of a rotating magnetic field for stirring metallic melts has been a commonly adopted practice for a fairly long period. The elegance of the technique stems from its non-intrusive nature and the intense stirring it can produce in an electrically conducting medium. A further application of the method in recent times has been in the area of crystal growth from melts (e.g. germanium). The latter experiments have been mainly research oriented in order to understand the basic physics of the process and to establish norms for optimizing such a technique for the commercial production of crystals. When adapted for crystal growth applications, the rotating magnetic field is used to induce a slow flow or rotation in the melt which in effect significantly curtails temperature field oscillations in the melt. These oscillations are known to cause dopant striations and thereby inhomogeneities in the grown crystal that essentially degrades the crystal quality. The applied field strength is typically of the order of milli-Teslas with a frequency range between 50-400 Hz. In this investigation, we report findings from experiments that explore the feasibility of applying a rotating magnetic field to aqueous salt solutions, that are characterized by conductivities that are several orders of magnitude smaller than semi-conductor melts. The aim is to study the induced magnetic field and consequently the induced flow in such in application. Detailed flow field description obtained through non-intrusive particle displacement tracking will be reported along with an analytical assessment of the results. It is anticipated that the obtained results will facilitate in establishing a parameter range over which the technique can be applied to obtain a desired flow field distribution. This method can find applicability in the growth of crystals from aqueous solutions and give an experimenter another controllable parameter towards improving the quality of the grown crystal.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of electrical and thermal conductivities of suspended monolayer graphene (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Kurata, Kosaku; Fukunaga, Takanobu; Ago, Hiroki; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xing; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takata, Yasuyuki


    We measured both in-plane electrical and thermal properties of the same suspended monolayer graphene using a novel T-type sensor method. At room temperature, the values are about 240 000 Ω-1 m-1 and 2100 W m-1 K-1 for the electrical and thermal conductivities, respectively. Based on the Wiedemann-Franz law, the electrons have negligible contribution to the thermal conductivity of graphene, while the in-plane LA and TA modes phonons are the dominant heat carriers. In monolayer graphene, the absence of layer-layer and layer-substrate interactions enhances the contribution of long wave-length phonons to the heat transport and increases the thermal conductivity accordingly. The reported method and experimental data of suspended monolayer graphene are useful for understanding the basic physics and designing the future graphene electronic devices.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of electrical and thermal conductivities of suspended monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haidong; Kurata, Kosaku; Fukunaga, Takanobu; Takamatsu, Hiroshi, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ago, Hiroki [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Zhang, Xing, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Nishiyama, Takashi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takata, Yasuyuki [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    We measured both in-plane electrical and thermal properties of the same suspended monolayer graphene using a novel T-type sensor method. At room temperature, the values are about 240 000 Ω{sup −1} m{sup −1} and 2100 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} for the electrical and thermal conductivities, respectively. Based on the Wiedemann-Franz law, the electrons have negligible contribution to the thermal conductivity of graphene, while the in-plane LA and TA modes phonons are the dominant heat carriers. In monolayer graphene, the absence of layer-layer and layer-substrate interactions enhances the contribution of long wave-length phonons to the heat transport and increases the thermal conductivity accordingly. The reported method and experimental data of suspended monolayer graphene are useful for understanding the basic physics and designing the future graphene electronic devices.

  4. Thermo-structural analysis and electrical conductivity behavior of epoxy/metals composites (United States)

    Boumedienne, N.; Faska, Y.; Maaroufi, A.; Pinto, G.; Vicente, L.; Benavente, R.


    This paper reports on the elaboration and characterization of epoxy resin filled with metallic particles powder (aluminum, tin and zinc) composites. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures, density measurements and x-ray diffraction analysis (DRX) showed a homogeneous phase of obtained composites. The differential scanning calorimetry revealed a good adherence at matrix-filler interfaces, confirming the SEM observations. The measured glass transition temperatures depend on composites fillers' nature. Afterwards, the electrical conductivity of composites versus their fillers' contents has been investigated. The obtained results depict a nonlinear behavior, indicating an insulator to conductor phase transition at a conduction threshold; with high contrast of ten decades. Hence, the elaborated materials give a possibility to obtain dielectric or electrically conducting phases, which can to be interesting in the choice of desired applications. Finally, the obtained results have been successfully simulated on the basis of different percolation models approach combined with structural characterization inferences.

  5. Electrical properties and penetration rate of solvent into irradiated LDPE/SBR conductive blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwy, A.; Badawy, M.M.; Nasr, G.M. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics


    The effects of gamma-irradiation on both the electrical conductivity sigma and the penetration rate of benzene in low density polyethylene (LDPE)/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) conductive blends have been studied. The diffusion coefficient (D) and the penetration rate (p) decrease with increasing gamma-irradiation dose for unloaded and loaded samples with 1 and 3 phr of LDPE content, presumably due to crosslinking and polymer chain immobilization in the interfacial regions. Meanwhile, both D and p increase for samples loaded with 5 phr of LDPE. The carbon-carbon interspacing distance was found to be highly affected by the gamma-irradiation dose, which in turn influences the electrical conductivity of these blends. (UK).

  6. Local electric stimulation causes conducted calcium response in rat interlobular arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Gustafsson, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conducted Ca(2+) response to local electrical stimulation in isolated rat interlobular arteries. Interlobular arteries were isolated from young Sprague-Dawley rats, loaded with fura 2, and attached to pipettes in a chamber on an inverted...... microscope. Local electrical pulse stimulation (200 ms, 100 V) was administered by means of an NaCl-filled microelectrode (0.7-1 M(Omega)) juxtaposed to one end of the vessel. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with an image system at a site approximately 500 microm from......% of baseline, whereas the response was absent when the electrode was negative. This response was not dependent on perivascular nerves, because the conducted response was unaffected by TTX (1 microM). The conducted [Ca(2+)](i) response was abolished by an ambient Ca(2+) free solution and blunted by nifedipine...

  7. Electrically conducting polymers from phenylacetylene substituted Schiff`s base momomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D.J. [R and D Center, Kumho and Co., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Electrically conducting polymers have been synthesized from novel mono- or difunctional phenylacetylene-substituted Schiff`s base monomers. These monomers melt to a viscous liquid state, and on continued heating above about 300 C, thermally polymerize to form an electrically insulating thermoset polymers. On further postcure heat treatment, the polymers become electroconductive showing a bulk conductivity of approximately 10{sup -2}S/cm. Because the monomers remain in a liquid stage for 1-2h, depending on the cure conditions, moldings, castings, and pre-pregs can be fabricated using conventional processing techniques. In addition, since reactive dopants are not used, the resulting polymers and conductivity are stable in ambient as well as more aggressive environments, allowing them to function at 300 C and above. The monomers are well characterized, but the structure of the cured and postcured polymers are not yet well defined because of their high stability and intractability in the cured state. (orig.)

  8. In vivo total body electrical conductivity following perturbations of body fluid compartments in rats. (United States)

    Cunningham, J J; Molnar, J A; Meara, P A; Bode, H H


    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) provides a rapid and safe noninvasive technique for the assessment of total body water in animals and man. An instrument employing this principle has been shown to measure body water in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. With the exception of adult obesity in humans, alterations in body fluid compartments that could theoretically affect the utility of conductivity measurements have not been studied. We, therefore, applied the total body electrical conductivity measurement in rats following perturbations of body fluid/electrolyte spaces including obesity, furosemide diuresis, severe burn, and low protein diet. Our findings confirm that total body water can be accurately measured by TOBEC in conditions of abnormal body fluid distribution. However, when the ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluid is significantly reduced, such as the severe burn or low protein intake, TOBEC does not reflect the intracellular (potassium) space but does predict total water and extracellular (sodium) space.

  9. Electrical Grounding Improves Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants. (United States)

    Passi, Rohit; Doheny, Kim K; Gordin, Yuri; Hinssen, Hans; Palmer, Charles


    Low vagal tone (VT) is a marker of vulnerability to stress and the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Electric fields produced by equipment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) induce an electric potential measurable on the skin in reference to ground. An electrical connection to ground reduces the skin potential and improves VT in adults. We aimed to measure the electric field strengths in the NICU environment and to determine if connecting an infant to electrical ground would reduce the skin potential and improve VT. We also wished to determine if the skin potential correlated with VT. Environmental magnetic flux density (MFD) was measured in and around incubators. Electrical grounding (EG) was achieved with a patch electrode and wire that extended to a ground outlet. We measured the skin potential in 26 infants and heart rate variability in 20 infants before, during, and after grounding. VT was represented by the high-frequency power of heart rate variability. The background MFD in the NICU was below 0.5 mG, but it ranged between 1.5 and 12.7 mG in the closed incubator. A 60-Hz oscillating potential was recorded on the skin of all infants. With EG, the skin voltage dropped by about 95%. Pre-grounding VT was inversely correlated with the skin potential. VT increased by 67% with EG. After grounding, the VT fell to the pre-grounding level. The electrical environment affects autonomic balance. EG improves VT and may improve resilience to stress and lower the risk of neonatal morbidity in preterm infants. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Measuring and Reporting Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Cd2(TTFTB) as a Case Study. (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Park, Sarah S; Sheberla, Dennis; Dincă, Mircea


    Electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a subclass of porous materials that can have a transformative effect on electronic and renewable energy devices. Systematic advances in these materials depend critically on the accurate and reproducible characterization of their electrical properties. This is made difficult by the numerous techniques available for electrical measurements and the dependence of metrics on device architecture and numerous external variables. These challenges, common to all types of electronic materials and devices, are especially acute for porous materials, whose high surface area make them even more susceptible to interactions with contaminants in the environment. Here, we use the anisotropic semiconducting framework Cd 2 (TTFTB) (TTFTB 4- = tetrathiafulvalene tetrabenzoate) to benchmark several common methods available for measuring electrical properties in MOFs. We show that factors such as temperature, chemical environment (atmosphere), and illumination conditions affect the quality of the data obtained from these techniques. Consistent results emerge only when these factors are strictly controlled and the morphology and anisotropy of the Cd 2 (TTFTB) single-crystal devices are taken into account. Most importantly, we show that depending on the technique, device construction, and/or the environment, a variance of 1 or even 2 orders of magnitude is not uncommon for even just one material if external factors are not controlled consistently. Differences in conductivity values of even 2 orders of magnitude should therefore be interpreted with caution, especially between different research groups comparing different compounds. These results allow us to propose a reliable protocol for collecting and reporting electrical properties of MOFs, which should help improve the consistency and comparability of reported electrical properties for this important new class of crystalline porous conductors.

  11. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki


    Full Text Available We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS. This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  12. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder. (United States)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan; Smirnov, Sergei; Ivanov, Ilia; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai, Sheng; Meyer, Harry; Chi, Miaofang; Hensley, Dale; Datskos, Panos; Lavrik, Nickolay V


    In this paper we present a study of graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under different conditions with the main emphasis on correlating the thermal and electrical properties with the degree of disorder. Graphene grown by CVD on Cu and Ni catalysts demonstrates the increasing extent of disorder at low deposition temperatures as revealed by the Raman peak ratio, IG/ID. We relate this ratio to the characteristic domain size, La, and investigate the electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of La. The electrical resistivity, ρ, measured on graphene samples transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates shows linear correlation with La(-1). The thermal conductivity, K, measured on the same graphene samples suspended on silicon pillars, on the other hand, appears to have a much weaker dependence on La, close to K∼La1/3. It results in an apparent ρ∼K3 correlation between them. Despite the progressively increasing structural disorder in graphene grown at lower temperatures, it shows remarkably high thermal conductivity (10(2)-10(3) W K(-1) m(-1)) and low electrical (10(3)-3×10(5) Ω) resistivities suitable for various applications.

  13. High electrical conductivity in out of plane direction of electrodeposited Bi2Te3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz Rojo


    Full Text Available The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi2Te3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi2Te3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. A high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4 ⋅ 105 S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi2Te3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction.

  14. Electrospun conducting polymer nanofibers and electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells. (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Jin, Guorui; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Tissue engineering of nerve grafts requires synergistic combination of scaffolds and techniques to promote and direct neurite outgrowth across the lesion for effective nerve regeneration. In this study, we fabricated a composite polymeric scaffold which is conductive in nature by electrospinning and further performed electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells seeded on the electrospun nanofibers. Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) was blended with polyaniline (PANi) at a ratio of 85:15 and electrospun to obtain PLLA/PANi nanofibers with fiber diameters of 195 ± 30 nm. The morphology, chemical and mechanical properties of the electrospun PLLA and PLLA/PANi scaffolds were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and tensile instrument. The electrospun PLLA/PANi fibers showed a conductance of 3 × 10⁻⁹ S by two-point probe measurement. In vitro electrical stimulation of the nerve stem cells cultured on PLLA/PANi scaffolds applied with an electric field of 100 mV/mm for a period of 60 min resulted in extended neurite outgrowth compared to the cells grown on non-stimulated scaffolds. Our studies further strengthen the implication of electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells on conducting polymeric scaffolds towards neurite elongation that could be effective for nerve tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of electrically conductive polycaprolactone fumarate-polypyrrole composite materials for nerve regeneration. (United States)

    Runge, M Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Knight, Andrew M; Ruesink, Terry; Lazcano, Eric A; Lu, Lichun; Windebank, Anthony J; Yaszemski, Michael J


    Electrically conductive polymer composites composed of polycaprolactone fumarate and polypyrrole (PCLF-PPy) have been developed for nerve regeneration applications. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of PCLF-PPy and in vitro studies showing PCLF-PPy materials support both PC12 cell and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurite extension. PCLF-PPy composite materials were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole in preformed PCLF scaffolds (M(n) 7,000 or 18,000 g mol(-1)) resulting in interpenetrating networks of PCLF-PPy. Chemical compositions and thermal properties were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, DSC, and TGA. PCLF-PPy materials were synthesized with five different anions (naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NSA), dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS), potassium iodide (I), and lysine) to investigate effects on electrical conductivity and to optimize chemical composition for cellular compatibility. PCLF-PPy materials have variable electrical conductivity up to 6 mS cm(-1) with bulk compositions ranging from 5 to 13.5 percent polypyrrole. AFM and SEM characterization show microstructures with a root mean squared (RMS) roughness of 1195 nm and nanostructures with RMS roughness of 8 nm. In vitro studies using PC12 cells and DRG show PCLF-PPy materials synthesized with NSA or DBSA support cell attachment, proliferation, neurite extension, and are promising materials for future studies involving electrical stimulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Development of Electrically Conductive Polycaprolactone Fumarate-Polypyrrole Composite Materials for Nerve Regeneration (United States)

    Runge, M. Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Knight, Andrew M.; Ruesink, Terry; Lazcano, Eric; Lu, Lichun; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.


    Electrically conductive polymer composites composed of polycaprolactone fumarate and polypyrrole (PCLF-PPy) have been developed for nerve regeneration applications. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of PCLF-PPy and in vitro studies showing PCLF-PPy materials support both PC12 cell and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurite extension. PCLF-PPy composite materials were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole in pre-formed PCLF scaffolds (Mn 7,000 or 18,000 g mol−1) resulting in interpenetrating networks of PCLF-PPy. Chemical compositions and thermal properties were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, DSC, and TGA. PCLF-PPy materials were synthesized with five different anions (naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NSA), dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS), potassium iodide (I), and lysine) to investigate effects on electrical conductivity and to optimize chemical composition for cellular compatibility. PCLF-PPy materials have variable electrical conductivity up to 6 mS cm−1 with bulk compositions ranging from 5 to 13.5 percent polypyrrole. AFM and SEM characterization show microstructures with a root mean squared (RMS) roughness of 1195 nm and nanostructures with RMS roughness of 8 nm. In vitro studies using PC12 cells and DRG show PCLF-PPy materials synthesized with NSA or DBSA support cell attachment, proliferation, neurite extension, and are promising materials for future studies involving electrical stimulation. PMID:20483452

  17. Optimizing the electrical conductivity of marinade solution for water-holding capacity of broiler breast meat. (United States)

    Kaewthong, P; Wattanachant, S


    This study explored the possibility of forecasting the performance of marinade solutions in improving the water-holding capacity (WHC; weight gain, drip loss, cooking loss, and total yield) of marinated broiler breast meat based upon the electrical conductivity (EC) of the marinade solution. Normal- (50 ≤ L* ≤ 56) and light-colored samples (L* > 56), obtained from a production line, were marinated with 1 to 6% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), 0.5 to 3% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), 1 to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl), and 0.05 to 0.5% acetic acid (CH3COOH) solutions. EC of all solutions increased with increasing solute concentration, and high EC of any salt solution correlated with increased weight gain and decreased drip loss and cooking loss, leading to increased total yield. CH3COOH had the least effect on the WHC of marinated breast meat. The effect of increasing EC of marinade solutions on drip loss was similar in the light- and normal-colored samples, but light-colored samples consistently had higher cooking losses and lower total yields compared with the normal-colored samples. At the same EC, NaHCO3 and STPP solutions had greater abilities to improve the total yield of marinated breast meat than the NaCl solution. Therefore, the WHC of the sample did not depend on the EC of the solution alone. However, increasing EC had a high correlation with gains in WHC of marinated breast meat for all marinade solutions (r > 0.96 for total yield). The total yield of both normal- and light-colored samples of broiler breast meat could be improved to a value higher than 75% when samples were marinated in salt solutions with EC ≥ 8.79 mS/cm for NaHCO3 or ≥ 9.91 mS/cm for STPP. NaCl solutions with EC ≥70.08 and ≥44.58 mS/cm could be used to improve total yield to values higher than 75% for light- and normal-colored samples, respectively. Our results revealed that EC could be used to forecast the performance of marinade solution in improving the WHC of marinated breast

  18. Constitutive restrictions for deformable simple media that are heat conducting and electrically polarizable (United States)

    Montanaro, Adriano


    We present the constitutive restrictions for a deformable simple medium that is heat conducting, electrically polarizable and interacting with the electric field, either of elastic type or with a fading memory. The used theory is an extension of the well known Green-Naghdi thermo-mechanical theories of continua, mainly devoted to thermoelastic bodies or rigid conductors. Hence the theory that is used here is based on an entropy balance law rather than an entropy imbalance, uses the notion of thermal displacement, and predicts heat propagation by thermal waves at finite speed.

  19. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  20. Optimizing amorphous indium zinc oxide film growth for low residual stress and high electrical conductivity (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Sigdel, A. K.; Gennett, T.; Berry, J. J.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.; Packard, C. E.


    With recent advances in flexible electronics, there is a growing need for transparent conductors with optimum conductivity tailored to the application and nearly zero residual stress to ensure mechanical reliability. Within amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) systems, a variety of sputter growth parameters have been shown to separately impact film stress and optoelectronic properties due to the complex nature of the deposition process. We apply a statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach to identify growth parameter-material property relationships in amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin films and observed large, compressive residual stresses in films grown under conditions typically used for the deposition of highly conductive samples. Power, growth pressure, oxygen partial pressure, and RF power ratio (RF/(RF + DC)) were varied according to a full-factorial test matrix and each film was characterized. The resulting regression model and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant contributions to the residual stress from individual growth parameters as well as interactions of different growth parameters, but no conditions were found within the initial growth space that simultaneously produced low residual stress and high electrical conductivity. Extrapolation of the model results to lower oxygen partial pressures, combined with prior knowledge of conductivity-growth parameter relationships in the IZO system, allowed the selection of two promising growth conditions that were both empirically verified to achieve nearly zero residual stress and electrical conductivities >1480 S/cm. This work shows that a-IZO can be simultaneously optimized for high conductivity and low residual stress.

  1. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro


    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results.

  2. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  3. Modeling and Predicting the Electrical Conductivity of Composite Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Using Support Vector Regression (United States)

    Tang, J. L.; Cai, C. Z.; Xiao, T. T.; Huang, S. J.


    The electrical conductivity of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode is one of the most important indices affecting the efficiency of SOFC. In order to improve the performance of fuel cell system, it is advantageous to have accurate model with which one can predict the electrical conductivity. In this paper, a model utilizing support vector regression (SVR) approach combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for its parameter optimization was established to modeling and predicting the electrical conductivity of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2 O3-δ-xSm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (BSCF-xSSC) composite cathode under two influence factors, including operating temperature (T) and SSC content (x) in BSCF-xSSC composite cathode. The leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test result by SVR strongly supports that the generalization ability of SVR model is high enough. The absolute percentage error (APE) of 27 samples does not exceed 0.05%. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of all 30 samples is only 0.09% and the correlation coefficient (R2) as high as 0.999. This investigation suggests that the hybrid PSO-SVR approach may be not only a promising and practical methodology to simulate the properties of fuel cell system, but also a powerful tool to be used for optimal designing or controlling the operating process of a SOFC system.

  4. High-throughput search for improved transparent conducting oxides (United States)

    Miglio, Anna

    High-throughput methodologies are a very useful computational tool to explore the space of binary and ternary oxides. We use these methods to search for new and improved transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). TCOs exhibit both visible transparency and good carrier mobility and underpin many energy and electronic applications (e.g. photovoltaics, transparent transistors). We find several potential new n-type and p-type TCOs with a low effective mass. Combining different ab initio approaches, we characterize candidate oxides by their effective mass (mobility), band gap (transparency) and dopability. We present several compounds, not considered previously as TCOs, and discuss the chemical rationale for their promising properties. This analysis is useful to formulate design strategies for future high mobility oxides and has led to follow-up studies including preliminary experimental characterization of a p-type TCO candidate with unexpected chemistry. G. Hautier, A. Miglio, D. Waroquiers, G.-M. Rignanese, and X. Gonze, ``How Does Chemistry Influence Electron Effective Mass in Oxides? A High-Throughput Computational Analysis'', Chem. Mater. 26, 5447 (2014). G. Hautier, A. Miglio, G. Ceder, G.-M. Rignanese, and X. Gonze, ``Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides'', Nature Commun. 4, 2292 (2013).

  5. Coherent structures in electrokinetic instability with orthogonal conductivity gradient and electric field (United States)

    Dubey, Kaushlendra; Gupta, Amit; Bahga, Supreet Singh


    Electro-osmotic flow in a configuration with a center stream flowing between two parallel sheath streams with mismatched electrical conductivities is known to exhibit an electrokinetic instability (EKI). This flow instability, with orthogonal conductivity gradient and electric field, is characterized by either wavy or pearl-necklace type structures depending upon the relative conductivities of center and sheath streams. In this paper, we propose a physical mechanism underlying such wavy and pearl-necklace type structures of the EKI. In order to verify the proposed mechanism, we perform EKI experiments in a cross-shaped microchannel at varying electric fields and for two flow configurations wherein the center stream has either higher or lower conductivity than the sheath streams. Using dynamic mode decomposition of time-resolved experimental data, we identify the spatio-temporal coherent structures that represent the dynamics of instability. These coherent structures provide a comprehensive validation of the proposed physical mechanism. In addition, experimentally observed coherent structures provide valuable insight into the dynamics and the spatio-temporal scales of the EKI.

  6. Stability and electrical conductivity of water-base Al2O3 nanofluids for different applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zawrah


    Full Text Available In this study, Al2O3–H2O nanofluids were synthesized using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS dispersant agent by ultra-sonication method. Different amounts of SDBS i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 wt.% were tested to stabilize the prepared nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids was verified using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and Zeta potential. After selecting the suitable amount of dispersant, nanofluids with different volume fractions of Al2O3 were prepared. Zeta potential measurement of nanofluids with low alumina and intermediate fractions showed good dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water, but nanofluids with high mass fraction were easier to aggregate. The stabilized nanofluids were subjected for measuring of rheological behavior and electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity was correlated to the thermal conductivity according to Wiedemann–Franz law. The results revealed that the nanofluid containing 1% SDBS was the most stable one and settling was observed for the fluid contained 0.75 vol.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles which gave higher viscosity. The rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of nanofluids decreased firstly with increasing shear rate (shear thinning behavior. Addition of nanoparticles into the base liquid enhanced the electrical conductivity up to 0.2 vol.% of Al2O3 nano-particles after which it decreased.

  7. Electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation of 2-(antipyrin-4-ylhydrazono)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Menyawy, E.M., E-mail: [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, Solid State Physics Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Zedan, I.T. [Basic Science Department, High Institute of Engineering and Technology, El-Arish, North Sinai (Egypt); Nawar, H.H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Al Jabal Al Gharbi University (Libya)


    The electrical and dielectric properties of the synthesized 2-(antipyrin-4-ylhydrazono)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (AHNA) have been studied. The direct and alternating current (DC and AC) conductivities and complex dielectric constant were investigated in temperature range 303–403 K. The AC conductivity and dielectric properties of AHNA were investigated over frequency range 100 Hz–5 MHz. From DC and AC measurements, electrical conduction is found to be a thermally activated process. The frequency-dependent AC conductivity obeys Jonscher's universal power law in which the frequency exponent decreases with increasing temperature. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) is the predominant model for describing the charge carrier transport in which the electrical parameters are evaluated. The activation energy is found to decrease with increasing frequency. The behaviors of dielectric and dielectric loss are discussed in terms of a polarization mechanism. The dielectric loss shows frequency power law from which the maximum barrier height is determined as 0.19 eV in terms of the Guintini model.

  8. Electrically and thermally conductive underwater acoustically absorptive graphene/rubber nanocomposites for multifunctional applications. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Fan; Lin, Zaishan; Sun, Xianxian; Peng, Qingyu; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Shasha; Yang, Zhiyu; He, Xiaodong; Li, Yibin


    Graphene is ideal filler in nanocomposites due to its unique mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. However, it is challenging to uniformly distribute the large fraction of graphene fillers into a polymer matrix because graphene is not easily functionalized. We report a novel method to introduce a large fraction of graphene into a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix. The obtained graphene/rubber nanocomposites were mechanically enhanced, acoustically absorptive under water, and electrically and thermally conductive. The Young's modulus of the nanocomposites was enhanced by over 30 times over that for rubber. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was ≤219 S m-1 with 15% volume fraction of graphene content, and exhibited remarkable electromagnetic shielding efficiency of 45 dB at 8-12 GHz. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites was ≤2.922 W m-1 k-1, which was superior to the values of thermally conductive silicone rubber thermal interface materials. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited excellent underwater sound absorption (average absorption coefficient >0.8 at 6-30 kHz). Notably, the absorption performance of graphene/SBR nanocomposites increased with increasing water pressure. These multifunctional graphene/SBR nanocomposites have promising applications in electronics, thermal management and marine engineering.

  9. Electric Field Analysis of Space Charge Injection from a Conductive Nano-Filler Electrode (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ye-Wen; Zheng, Fei-Hu; Wei, Wen-Jie; An, Zhen-Lian


    A simulation on the electric field distribution near the electrode is proposed to explain the reason for using nanosized carbon black mixed with ethylene vinyl acetate, as the electrode could lead to more charge injection into the polymer than using a deposited metal electrode. The electrode is simplified to a layer of conductive semi-spheres with fixed size and constant electric potential. By using the finite element method, it is found that both the size of the semi-spheres and the distance between adjacent semi-spheres could dramatically influence the electric field near the surface of the spheres; these are considered to be the two decisive factors for the charge injecting rate at electrodes of various materials.

  10. Electric conduction in semiconductors: a pedagogical model based on the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capizzo, M C; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M; Zarcone, M [UoP-PERG, University of Palermo Physics Education Research Group and Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo (Italy)], E-mail:


    We present a pedagogic approach aimed at modelling electric conduction in semiconductors in order to describe and explain some macroscopic properties, such as the characteristic behaviour of resistance as a function of temperature. A simple model of the band structure is adopted for the generation of electron-hole pairs as well as for the carrier transport in moderate electric fields. The semiconductor behaviour is described by substituting the traditional statistical approach (requiring a deep mathematical background) with microscopic models, based on the Monte Carlo method, in which simple rules applied to microscopic particles and quasi-particles determine the macroscopic properties. We compare measurements of electric properties of matter with 'virtual experiments' built by using some models where the physical concepts can be presented at different formalization levels.

  11. Novel Electrically Conductive Porous PDMS/Carbon Nanofiber Composites for Deformable Strain Sensors and Conductors. (United States)

    Wu, Shuying; Zhang, Jin; Ladani, Raj B; Ravindran, Anil R; Mouritz, Adrian P; Kinloch, Anthony J; Wang, Chun H


    Highly flexible and deformable electrically conductive materials are vital for the emerging field of wearable electronics. To address the challenge of flexible materials with a relatively high electrical conductivity and a high elastic limit, we report a new and facile method to prepare porous polydimethylsiloxane/carbon nanofiber composites (denoted by p-PDMS/CNF). This method involves using sugar particles coated with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as the templates. The resulting three-dimensional porous nanocomposites, with the CNFs embedded in the PDMS pore walls, exhibit a greatly increased failure strain (up to ∼94%) compared to that of the solid, neat PDMS (∼48%). The piezoresistive response observed under cyclic tension indicates that the unique microstructure provides the new nanocomposites with excellent durability. The electrical conductivity and the gauge factor of this new nanocomposite can be tuned by changing the content of the CNFs. The electrical conductivity increases, while the gauge factor decreases, upon increasing the content of CNFs. The gauge factor of the newly developed sensors can be adjusted from approximately 1.0 to 6.5, and the nanocomposites show stable piezoresistive performance with fast response time and good linearity in ln(R/R0) versus ln(L/L0) up to ∼70% strain. The tunable sensitivity and conductivity endow these highly stretchable nanocomposites with considerable potential for use as flexible strain sensors for monitoring the movement of human joints (where a relatively high gauge factor is needed) and also as flexible conductors for wearable electronics (where a relatively low gauge factor is required).

  12. Synergistically improved thermal conductivity of polyamide-6 with low melting temperature metal and graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Jia


    Full Text Available Low melting temperature metal (LMTM-tin (Sn was introduced into polyamide-6 (PA6 and PA6/graphite composites respectively to improve the thermal conductivity of PA6 by melt processing (extruding and injection molding. After introducing Sn, the thermal conductivity of PA6/Sn was nearly constant because of the serious agglomeration of Sn. However, when 20 wt% (5.4 vol% of Sn was added into PA6 containing 50 wt% (33.3 vol% of graphite, the thermal conductivity of the composite was dramatically increased to 5.364 versus 1.852 W·(m·K–1 for the PA6/graphite composite, which suggests that the incorporation of graphite and Sn have a significant synergistic effect on the thermal conductivity improvement of PA6. What is more, the electrical conductivity of the composite increased nearly 8 orders of magnitudes after introducing both graphite and Sn. Characterization of microstructure and energy dispersive spectrum analysis (EDS indicates that the dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn was much more uniform than that of PA6/Sn composite. According to Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurement and EDS, the uniform dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn and the high thermal conductivity of PA6/graphite/Sn are speculated to be related with the electron transfer between graphite and Sn, which makes Sn distribute evenly around the graphite layers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  14. Electrical conductivity of mantle peridotite at the uppermost lower mantle condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, T; Katsura, T; Yamazaki, D; Ito, E, E-mail: [Institute for Study of the Earth' s Interior, Okayama University, 827 Yamada, Misasa, Tottori 682-1093 (Japan)


    Electrical conductivity of mantle peridotite was measured at 25 GPa and temperature up to 1800 K in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. The starting material was gel with a composition of fertile spinel lherzolite (KLB1). After the conductivity measurement, mineral phases of run products are composed of magnesium silicate perovskite, ferro-periclase and Ca perovskite. The conductivity value of the peridotite is distinctly higher than those of post-spinel and magnesian silicate perovskite with a composition of (Mg{sub 0.9},Fe{sub 0.1})SiO{sub 3}, but lower than that of ferro-periclase. Both absolute values and change in activation enthalpy for the conductivity of the mantle peridotite are similar to those for the silicate perovskite. A presence of aluminous perovskite with substantial amount of ferric iron in crystal structure would enhance bulk conductivity of the lower mantle.

  15. Influence of matching solubility parameter of polymer matrix and CNT on electrical conductivity of CNT/rubber composite


    Seisuke Ata; Takaaki Mizuno; Ayumi Nishizawa; Chandramouli Subramaniam; Futaba, Don N.; Kenji Hata


    We report a general approach to fabricate elastomeric composites possessing high electrical conductivity for applications ranging from wireless charging interfaces to stretchable electronics. By using arbitrary nine kinds of rubbers as matrices, we experimentally demonstrate that the matching the solubility parameter of CNTs and the rubber matrix is important to achieve higher electrical conductivity in CNT/rubber composite, resulting in continuous conductive pathways leading to electrical co...

  16. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Molecularly p-Doped Poly(3-hexylthiophene) through Understanding the Correlation with Solid-State Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hynynen, Jonna


    Molecular p-doping of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is a widely studied model system. Underlying structure–property relationships are poorly understood because processing and doping are often carried out simultaneously. Here, we exploit doping from the vapor phase, which allows us to disentangle the influence of processing and doping. Through this approach, we are able to establish how the electrical conductivity varies with regard to a series of predefined structural parameters. We demonstrate that improving the degree of solid-state order, which we control through the choice of processing solvent and regioregularity, strongly increases the electrical conductivity. As a result, we achieve a value of up to 12.7 S cm–1 for P3HT:F4TCNQ. We determine the F4TCNQ anion concentration and find that the number of (bound + mobile) charge carriers of about 10–4 mol cm–3 is not influenced by the degree of solid-state order. Thus, the observed increase in electrical conductivity by almost 2 orders of magnitude can be attributed to an increase in charge-carrier mobility to more than 10–1 cm2 V–1 s–1. Surprisingly, in contrast to charge transport in undoped P3HT, we find that the molecular weight of the polymer does not strongly influence the electrical conductivity, which highlights the need for studies that elucidate structure–property relationships of strongly doped conjugated polymers.

  17. Electrical conduction noise and its correlation with structural properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films (United States)

    Zubair Ansari, Mohd; Munjal, Sandeep; Kumar, Vikram; Khare, Neeraj


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films have been deposited by ultrasonic assisted chemical vapor deposition in a single step process at different substrate temperatures and structural, morphological, electrical and conduction noise characteristics of the CZTS thin films have been studied. Single phase CZTS thin films are formed at 275 °C and 325 °C deposition temperatures, whereas the CZTS thin film deposited at 375 °C showed secondary phase also. The crystallinity of the films improves and resistivity decreases with the increases of the deposition temperature. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the films reveals that in the temperature range 300-250 K, thermally activated conduction is observed. The conduction noise in the CZTS thin films, exhibits 1/f noise in the low frequency region and found to be strongly dependent on the film deposition temperatures. The film deposited at 275 °C and 375 °C shows larger conduction noise, whereas the film deposited at 325 °C shows smaller noise. For the low frequency 1/f noise, the value of α is also found to be the minimum for the film deposited at 325 °C. The higher value of conduction noise in the film deposited at 275 °C is related to poor crystallinity and less compact morphology. For the film deposited at 375 °C, crystallinity and compactness improves, but the presence of the secondary phases seems to be responsible for generating higher noise. The smallest conduction noise of the film deposited at 325 °C is due to single phase film with better crystallinity and smaller trap density ˜5.1 × 1015 cm-2 eV-1.

  18. Electrical conductance of a sandstone partially saturated with varying concentrations of NaCl solutions (United States)

    Umezawa, R.; Nishiyama, N.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.


    Electrical conductance G at 100 kHz of Berea sandstone initially saturated with varying NaCl concentrations was measured by an impedance meter at decreasing water saturation. The obtained conductance G values can be well simulated by the model equation composed of conductance of bulk pore water and that of mineral surfaces by introducing both tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs. The surface conductivity Σs = 2.1 × 10- 10 S and the tortuosity of mineral surfaces τs = 2.6 in this equation can be valid for most of the data at varying water saturation except for the lowest water saturation (Sw = 0.05). The tortuosity of pore water τb increased from 1.7 at Sw = 1.0 to 15 at Sw = 0.05 with a power law relationship. The present electrical conduction model with double tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs can be considered as an alternative expression of the combined Archie's first and second laws in terms of tortuosities and would be useful for describing conductance of electrolyte containing partially saturated rocks including very low water saturation.

  19. Sensing of electrically conductive textiles and capacitance sensor-embedded fabrics for parachutes (United States)

    Damplo, Mark; Niezrecki, Christopher; Willis, David; Chen, Julie; Niemi, Eugene; Agnihotra, Srikanthrao; Manohar, Sanjeev K.; Desabrais, Kenneth; Charette, Christine


    This paper evaluates the conductive properties and sensing capabilities of various smart materials being considered for enhancing parachute performance. In a previous review of sensing technologies, several materials showed potential for parachute implementation - specifically, electrically conductive textiles and dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs). Past efforts have been focused on mechanically testing and evaluating the sensing performance of conductive fabrics (coated with carbon nanotubes, polypyrrole and polyaniline) and DEAPs. While some of the conductive fabrics demonstrated sufficient sensing capability, they were not conductive enough to implement into an intelligent parachute sensor network for transmitting power or data. Also, attaching or stitching DEAPs to the parachute fabric has proven to be a challenge. The primary goal of this paper is to investigate the use of highly-conductive textiles in an intelligent textile sensor network for sensing and as a means to transmit power or electrical signals. The applications of the materials investigated in this paper may also extend beyond parachutes to any large-scale textile structure.

  20. Electrical conductivity and magnetic field dependent current-voltage characteristics of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Das, M. R.; Mitra, P.


    We have studied the grain size dependent electrical conductivity, dielectric relaxation and magnetic field dependent current voltage (I - V) characteristics of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) . The material has been synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion technique, followed by ball milling at room temperature in air environment to control the grain size. The material has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (refined with MAUD software analysis) and Transmission electron microscopy. Impedance spectroscopy and I - V characteristics in the presence of variable magnetic fields have confirmed the increase of resistivity for the fine powdered samples (grain size 5.17±0.6 nm), resulted from ball milling of the chemical routed sample. Activation energy of the material for electrical charge hopping process has increased with the decrease of grain size by mechanical milling of chemical routed sample. The I - V curves showed many highly non-linear and irreversible electrical features, e.g., I - V loop and bi-stable electronic states (low resistance state-LRS and high resistance state-HRS) on cycling the electrical bias voltage direction during I-V curve measurement. The electrical dc resistance for the chemically routed (without milled) sample in HRS (∼3.4876×104 Ω) at 20 V in presence of magnetic field 10 kOe has enhanced to ∼3.4152×105 Ω for the 10 h milled sample. The samples exhibited an unusual negative differential resistance (NDR) effect that gradually decreased on decreasing the grain size of the material. The magneto-resistance of the samples at room temperature has been found substantially large (∼25-65%). The control of electrical charge transport properties under magnetic field, as observed in the present ferrimagnetic material, indicate the magneto-electric coupling in the materials and the results could be useful in spintronics applications.

  1. Electrical Conductivity of the Bishop Tuff, Bishop, CA: Implications for Ground-Penetrating Radar Performance (United States)

    Gonzalez, S. H.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Grimm, R. E.; Heggy, E.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.; Clifford, S. M.


    Ideal terrestrial analogues to Mars combine known features such as an arid environment, cold climate, deep water table, saline pore waters, and bedrock dominated by igneous or clastic sedimentary units. Terrestrial analogues best suited for calibrating a suite of planetary geophysical instruments, especially radar sounders, need to be sufficiently characterized to provide an accurate understanding of the local geologic context. The Bishop Tuff, Bishop, California is one of a number of recommended Mars analogue sites (National Research Council Decadal Study report on Terrestrial Analogues to Mars, 2001). While not cold, the Volcanic Tableland is situated in an arid environment, and is underlain by a relatively deep water table (100 to 180 m). These factors, combined with availability of detailed characterization data, made this a potentially appealing location in east-central California for testing the performance of existing and planned radar sounders for future Mars exploration. To take advantage of potential synergies that support improved subsurface resolution when applying multiple geophysical techniques, we developed a collaboration to mutually benefit from coordination of field and laboratory activities. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings at several locations on the Volcanic Tableland were performed in preparation for potential ground-penetrating radar (GPR) investigations, and are documented in this paper. Laboratory data from Bishop Tuff samples, determined using capacitive cells in the frequency range of 1 to 1000 MHz, are also presented to assess the dielectric behavior of the local geologic units. Interpretation of geophysical data resulting from this field study is aided significantly by the wide range of geological, structural, and hydrogeological data collected by our team over the last 8 years. Knowledge about the subsurface electrical conductivity structure, determined through application of TEM, is used to quantify the expected magnitude of

  2. Effect of electrical conductivity and magnetization on the biomagnetic fluid flow over a stretching sheet (United States)

    Murtaza, M. G.; Tzirtzilakis, E. E.; Ferdows, M.


    The biomagnetic fluid flow (blood) over a stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field is studied. For the mathematical formulation of the problem both magnetization and electrical conductivity of blood are taken into account and consequently both principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) are adopted. The physical problem is described by a coupled, nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions. This solution is obtained numerically by applying an efficient numerical technique based on finite differences method. The obtained results are presented graphically for different values of the parameters entering into the problem under consideration. Emphasis is given to the study of the effect of the MHD and FHD interaction parameters on the flow field. It is apparent that both parameters effect significantly on various characteristics of the flow and consequently neither electrical conductivity nor magnetization of blood could be neglected.

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Jabbar [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Yarmohammadi, Zahra [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures. - Highlights: • Electronic properties of graphene, silicon boron, and boron nitride planes are compared. • Tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism are implemented. • This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  4. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@ polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akherul Islam


    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite nanofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy; UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  5. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd


    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  6. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.


    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004–0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0–95 °C), pH (1–10), and conductivity (30–70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4- substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  7. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack (United States)

    Carter, J David [Bolingbrook, IL; Mawdsley, Jennifer R [Woodridge, IL; Niyogi, Suhas [Woodridge, IL; Wang, Xiaoping [Naperville, IL; Cruse, Terry [Lisle, IL; Santos, Lilia [Lombard, IL


    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  8. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui


    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  9. Graphene as membrane for encapsulation of yeast cells: protective and electrically conducting. (United States)

    Kempaiah, Ravindra; Salgado, Shehan; Chung, Wai L; Maheshwari, Vivek


    Graphene sheets (chemically reduced), a high modulus and high thermal and electrically conductive material are coupled with yeast cells to form an encapsulating inorganic functional layer. The coupling of the high modulus sheets with the cells increases their stability to osmotic stresses. The sheets also allow the direct visualization of the cells in an electron microscope. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Page 1 Flow and heat transfer for an electrically conducting fluid 199 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow and heat transfer for an electrically conducting fluid 199 ... 2 Os. His 10, Br is 10, Ks 0, ReP = -100. O-9. O O.3 O4. O6 O 8 O g. Figure 8. Bulk temperature an Nusselt number versus axial distance (constant wall tempe- rature. 2-S Sa O. 2.O n = 0.5, Br = 10, Rap s -10-0. O O.2 O. 4 O.6 O-8 d. Figure 9. Bulk temperature ...

  11. Resolving electrical conductivities from collisionally damped plasmons in isochorically heated warm dense aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chung, H. -K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gamboa, E. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Omarbakiyeva, Y. [International IT Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Univ. Rostock (Germany); Reinholz, H. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); ; Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley, WA (Australia); Ropke, G. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); Rosmej, S. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); Zastrau, U. [European XFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    We measure the highly-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering spectrum of isochorically ultrafast heated aluminum. In the x-ray forward scattering spectra the electron temperature could be measured from the down- and upshifted plasmon, where the electron density of ne = 1:8 1023 cm3 is known a priori. We have studied the plasmon damping by applying electron-particle collision models beyond the Born approximation determining the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum.

  12. The role of electric charge in microdroplets impacting on conducting surfaces (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Gomez, Alessandro


    A rich phenomenology is revealed by temporally resolved image sequences of electrically charged ethanol microdroplets impacting on a conductive surface at temperatures bracketing the liquid boiling point. Notable phenomena include the flattening of the sessile droplets with reduced contact angle, increased evaporation rates for substrate temperatures below the fluid boiling point, and the hindrance of droplet rebound at the Leidenfrost temperature. Scaling considerations are presented to rationalize the observed behavior and to generalize conclusions to a broader droplet size range.

  13. Influence of equation of state on interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled tungsten plasma


    Tkachenko, S. I.; Levashov, P. R.; Khishchenko, K. V.


    We study the influence of equation-of-state (EOS) model on the interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled plasma of tungsten by Korobenko et al. (2002 Plasma Physics Reports 28(12) 1008--1016). Three different semiempirical EOS models for tungsten are used. Discrepancies in obtained thermodynamic parameters and specific resistivity values as compared with calculation results of Korobenko et al. are analysed.

  14. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baei, Payam [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Bioengineeringand IBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad [Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser, E-mail: [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m{sup −1} was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  15. Analysis of conductive target influence in plasma jet experiments through helium metastable and electric field measurements (United States)

    Darny, T.; Pouvesle, J.-M.; Puech, V.; Douat, C.; Dozias, S.; Robert, Eric


    The use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets for in vivo treatments implies most of the time plasma interaction with conductive targets. The effect of conductive target contact on the discharge behavior is studied here for a grounded metallic target and compared to the free jet configuration. In this work, realized with a plasma gun, we measured helium metastable HeM (23S1) concentration (by laser absorption spectroscopy) and electric field (EF) longitudinal and radial components (by electro-optic probe). Both diagnostics were temporally and spatially resolved. Mechanisms after ionization front impact on the target surface have been identified. The remnant conductive ionized channel behind the ionization front electrically transiently connects the inner high voltage electrode to the target. Due to impedance mismatching between the ionized channel and the target, a secondary ionization front is initiated and rapidly propagates from the target surface to the inner electrode through this ionized channel. This leads to a greatly enhanced HeM production inside the plasma plume and the capillary. Forward and reverse dynamics occur with further multi reflections of more or less damped ionization fronts between the inner electrode and the target as long as the ionized channel is persisting. This phenomenon is very sensitive to parameters such as target distance and ionized channel conductivity affecting electrical coupling between these two and evidenced using positive or negative voltage polarity and nitrogen admixture. In typical operating conditions for the plasma gun used in this work, it has been found that after the secondary ionization front propagation, when the ionized channel is conductive enough, a glow like discharge occurs with strong conduction current. HeM production and all species excitation, especially reactive ones, are then driven by high voltage pulse evolution. The control of forward and reverse dynamics, impacting on the production of the glow

  16. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction (United States)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo


    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  17. Effects of conducting media and gender on an electric pulp test. (United States)

    Chunhacheevachaloke, E; Ajcharanukul, O


    (1) To determine the pulpal sensory thresholds in human teeth obtained from using various EPT conducting media and (2) to determine whether there are gender differences. One intact maxillary central incisor was randomly selected from each of 40 participants (20 male, 20 female) aged 19-24 year. A constant-current electrical stimulator (University of Bristol, UK) was used to apply electrical stimuli with different conducting media at intervals of 1 min on the middle of the crown to evaluate the sensory threshold of the tooth. The tip of the electrode was coated with a thin layer of test media. The sensory thresholds and the pain scores were measured simultaneously after applying stimuli twice a second and gradually increasing the intensity until felt by the participants. Test media included water-based gels (K-Y UltraGel; Xylocaine 2% Jelly, electrode gel, fluoride gel) and toothpastes (Colgate Total; Sensodyne Repair & Protect; Dentiste' Plus White; Sparkle White). The sensory threshold data were evaluated using two-way anova followed by the Tukey test. Xylocaine 2% Jelly and fluoride gel evoked significantly lower threshold values when compared with Sensodyne Repair & Protect (P media, the mean sensory threshold from the female group was significantly lower than that of the male group (P electrical stimuli in human teeth was influenced by the type of conducting media and gender. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Edge magnetism impact on electrical conductance and thermoelectric properties of graphenelike nanoribbons (United States)

    Krompiewski, Stefan; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio


    Edge states in narrow quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures determine, to a large extent, their electric, thermoelectric, and magnetic properties. Nonmagnetic edge states may quite often lead to topological-insulator-type behavior. However, another scenario develops when the zigzag edges are magnetic and the time reversal symmetry is broken. In this work we report on the electronic band structure modifications, electrical conductance, and thermoelectric properties of narrow zigzag nanoribbons with spontaneously magnetized edges. Theoretical studies based on the Kane-Mele-Hubbard tight-binding model show that for silicene, germanene, and stanene both the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric power factor are strongly enhanced for energies close to the charge neutrality point. A perpendicular gate voltage lifts the spin degeneracy of energy bands in the ground state with antiparallel magnetized zigzag edges and makes the electrical conductance significantly spin polarized. Simultaneously the gate voltage worsens the thermoelectric performance. Estimated room-temperature figures of merit for the aforementioned nanoribbons can exceed a value of 3 if phonon thermal conductances are adequately reduced.

  19. Effect of silicates and electrical conductivity on Fusarium wilt of hydroponically grown lettuce. (United States)

    Chitarra, W; Pugliese, M; Gilardi, G; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A


    Silicon can stimulate natural defense mechanisms in plants, reducing foliar diseases like powdery arid downy mildew on several crops, including lettuce. The effect of silicate on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions on lettuce grown in soilless systems. Silicon, as potassium silicate, was added at 100 mg L(-1) of nutrient solution at three levels of electrical conductivity; 1.5-1.6 mS cm(-1) (E.C.1), 3.0-3.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.2) and 4-4.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.3). Pots containing lettuce plants were first inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (3x10(5) chlamidospores ml(-1)) 15-20 days before transplanting. Disease severity and physiological parameters, including chlorophyll content, were analyzed weekly after transplanting. The addition of potassium silicate slightly reduced Fusarium wilt, at all levels of electrical conductivity under study, compared to the control. On the contrary, the increase of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution showed no effect on the disease. The use of silicon was previously demonstrated to significantly reduce downy mildew on lettuce in soilless systems, and in this trial it demonstrated to slightly reduce disease severity of an important soil-borne pathogen like F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, suggesting the possibility to apply it successfully in soilless crops.

  20. Concept for a MEMS-type vacuum sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Giebel


    Full Text Available The concept of the micro-structured vacuum sensor presented in this article is the measurement of the electrical conductivity of thinned gases in order to develop a small, economical and quite a simple type of vacuum sensor. There are already some approaches for small vacuum sensors. Most of them are based on conservative measurement principles similar to those used in macroscopic vacuum gauges. Ionization gauges use additional sources of energy, like hot cathodes, ultraviolet radiation or high voltage for example, for ionizing gas molecules and thereby increasing the number of charge carriers for measuring low pressures. In contrast, the concept discussed here cannot be found in macroscopic sensor systems because it depends on the microscopic dimension of a gas volume defined by two electrodes. Here we present the concept and the production of a micro-structured vacuum sensor chip, followed by the electrical characterization. Reference measurements with electrodes at a distance of about 1 mm showed currents in the size of picoampere and a conductivity depending on ambient pressure. In comparison with these preliminary measurements, fundamental differences regarding pressure dependence of the conductivity are monitored in the electrical characterization of the micro-structured sensor chip. Finally the future perspectives of this sensor concept are discussed.