WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric power grid

  1. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  2. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  3. Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, Diana Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described

  4. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  5. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  6. Digital Grid: Transforming the Electric Power Grid into an Innovation Engine for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabortty, Aranya; Huang, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The electric power grid is one of the largest and most complex infrastructures ever built by mankind. Modern civilization depends on it for industry production, human mobility, and comfortable living. However, many critical technologies such as the 60 Hz transformers were developed at the beginning of the 20th century and have changed very little since then.1 The traditional unidirectional power from the generation to the customer through the transmission-distribution grid has also changed no...

  7. Nuclear Power as an Option in Electrical Generation Planning for Small Economy and Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a NPP in countries with relatively small total GDP (small economy) and usually with small electricity grid face two major problems and constrains: the ability to obtain the considerable financial resources required on reasonable terms and to connect large NPP to small electricity grid. Nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved. The main topics covered by paper will be the: special circumstances related to the financing of NPP, costs and economic feasibility of NPP, conventional approaches for financing power generation projects in developing countries, alternative approaches for mobilizing financial resources. The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires the plant to be connected to an electrical grid system that has adequate capacity for exporting the power from the NPP, and for providing a reliable electrical supply to the NPP for safe start-up, operation and normal or emergency shut-down of the plant. Connection of any large new power plant to the electrical grid system in a country may require significant modification and strengthening of the grid system, but for NPPs there may be added requirements to the structure of the grid system and the way it is controlled and maintained to ensure adequate reliability. Paper shows the comparative assesment of differrent base load technologies as an option in electrical generation planning for small economy and electricity grid.(author).

  8. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  10. Cyber physical systems approach to smart electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar; Liu, Chen Ching

    2015-01-01

    This book documents recent advances in the field of modeling, simulation, control, security and reliability of Cyber- Physical Systems (CPS) in power grids. The aim of this book is to help the reader gain insights into working of CPSs and understand their potential in transforming the power grids of tomorrow. This book will be useful for all those who are interested in design of cyber-physical systems, be they students or researchers in power systems, CPS modeling software developers, technical marketing professionals and business policy-makers.

  11. Needs for Constructing and Possibilities of Nuclear Power Plants Interconnection to the Croatian Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeljko, M.; Bajs, D.

    1998-01-01

    Due to development of electric power system and considering an increase of electrical energy consumption, needs for larger units in new power plants are obvious. Connection of large nuclear power plants to the grid, depending on their power and location, usually requires significant investments in transmission network development and construction. Considering the capacity of the 400 kV transmission network in Croatia, this problem is evident. This paper deals with the possibilities of nuclear power plants construction, as one possible option in electric power system development, and their interconnection to the electricity grid. (author)

  12. Smart grid communication-enabled intelligence for the electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the ""traditional"" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication ne

  13. Analysis of Electric Power Board of Chattanooga Smart Grid Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ollis, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Glass, Jim [EPB Electric Power, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Melin, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Guodong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The deployment of a Smart Grid within the EPB electrical system has brought significant value to EPB customers and to EPB operations. The Smart Grid implementation has permitted the capability to automate many of the existing systems, increasing the overall efficiency and decreasing round trip time for many required operation functions. This has both reduced the cost of operations and increased the reliability of customer service. This boost in performance can be primarily linked to two main components: the communication network and the availability of data. The existence of a fiber communication backbone has opened numerous opportunities for EPB. Large data sets from remote devices can be continuously polled and used to compute numerous metrics. The speed of communication has provided a pathway to sophisticated distribution automation that would not otherwise be possible. The data have been shown to provide a much broader view of the actual electrical system that was not previously available, opening many new opportunities in data analytics. This report documents many of the existing systems and operational features of the EPB system. Many of these systems have seen significant improvement with the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. The research behind this report found that in some cases, the value was directly computable or estimable for these enhancements. Currently, several ongoing research topics are under investigation within EPB. Through a grant from TVA, EPB is currently installing a 1.3MW solar photovoltaic system, which will be the first-generation asset owned by EPB.

  14. Suburban Housing Development and Off-Grid Electric Power Supply Assessment for North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibikunle Olalekan Ogundari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructures in North-Central Nigeria are inadequate and grid electricity is unable to meet suburban housing electricity demand. The alternative power-supply options proposed by government for the region require appropriation analysis for selection. Four public housing estates in suburban Abuja are selected for electricity demand analysis under conventional and energy-efficient lighting scenarios; then techno-economic parameters of two off-grid electric power supply systems (PV and Diesel-powered generation to meet these electricity demands are evaluated. An energy techno-economic assessment methodology is used. The study determines the energy-efficient lighting system is appropriate with 40% energy savings relative to the Conventional Lighting Systems. The diesel generator alternative power-supply option has Life Cycle Costs almost 4 times those of the PV option. The study established the PV-energy-efficient lighting system as the most feasible off-grid electric power supply alternative for implementation.

  15. Grid connection rules for electric cars integrated as virtual power plant in smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the situation of V2G and proposes a solution involving a consolidating fleet manager, and a decision making process for the individual V2G electric car owner. A grid connection routine for electric vehicles is proposed. The algorithm dealing with decisions to be taken in foreseen...

  16. Technical Research on the Electric Power Big Data Platform of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiguang MA; Haiyan Wang; Quanming Zhang; Yuan Liang

    2017-01-01

    Through elaborating on the associated relationship among electric power big data, cloud computing and smart grid, this paper put forward general framework of electric power big data platform based on the smart grid. The general framework of the platform is divided into five layers, namely data source layer, data integration and storage layer, data processing and scheduling layer, data analysis layer and application layer. This paper makes in-depth exploration and studies the integrated manage...

  17. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  18. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification and formu......In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification...... and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set...

  19. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  20. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  1. Research on the impacts of large-scale electric vehicles integration into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuankun; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Because of its special energy driving mode, electric vehicles can improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the pollution to the environment, which is being paid more and more attention. But the charging behavior of electric vehicles is random and intermittent. If the electric vehicle is disordered charging in a large scale, it causes great pressure on the structure and operation of the power grid and affects the safety and economic operation of the power grid. With the development of V2G technology in electric vehicle, the study of the charging and discharging characteristics of electric vehicles is of great significance for improving the safe operation of the power grid and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  2. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  3. On feasibility boundaries of electrical power grids in steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, O.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C. [Institute of Power Systems and Power Economicy, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 70, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Lehnhoff, S.; Wedde, H.F. [Chair 3, School of Computer Science, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, August-Schmidt-Str. 12, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Both the coordination of international energy transfer and the integration of a rapidly growing number of decentralized energy resources (DER) throughout most countries cause novel problems for avoiding voltage band violations and line overloads. Traditional approaches are typically based on global off-line scheduling under globally available information and rely on iterative procedures that can guarantee neither convergence nor execution time. In this paper, we focus on operational limitation problems in power grids based on widely dispersed (renewable) energy sources. We introduce an extension to the DEZENT algorithm, a multi-agent based coordination system for DER, that allows for the feasibility verification in constant and predetermined time. We give a numerical example showing the legitimacy of our approach and mention ongoing and future work regarding its implementation and utilization. (author)

  4. Design of investment management optimization system for power grid companies under new electricity reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Su, Zhixiong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Qi, Yongwei

    2017-03-01

    The new normalization of the economic situation and the implementation of a new round of electric power system reform put forward higher requirements to the daily operation of power grid companies. As an important day-to-day operation of power grid companies, investment management is directly related to the promotion of the company's operating efficiency and management level. In this context, the establishment of power grid company investment management optimization system will help to improve the level of investment management and control the company, which is of great significance for power gird companies to adapt to market environment changing as soon as possible and meet the policy environment requirements. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct the investment management optimization system of power grid companies, which includes investment management system, investment process control system, investment structure optimization system, and investment project evaluation system and investment management information platform support system.

  5. Power quality issues into a Danish low-voltage grid with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Jensen, Morten M.; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    An increased interest on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is dealing with their introduction into low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Lately, analysis on power quality issues has received attention when considering EVs as additional load. The charging of EVs...

  6. Electrical Market Management Considering Power System Constraints in Smart Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand, climate change, growing fuel costs, outdated power system infrastructures, and new power generation technologies have made renewable distribution generators very attractive in recent years. Because of the increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources in addition to the growth of new electrical demand sectors, such as electrical vehicles, the power system may face serious problems and challenges in the near future. A revolutionary new power grid system, called smart grid, has been developed as a solution to these problems. The smart grid, equipped with modern communication and computation infrastructures, can coordinate different parts of the power system to enhance energy efficiency, reliability, and quality, while decreasing the energy cost. Since conventional distribution networks lack smart infrastructures, much research has been recently done in the distribution part of the smart grid, called smart distribution grid (SDG. This paper surveys contemporary literature in SDG from the perspective of the electricity market in addition to power system considerations. For this purpose, this paper reviews current demand side management methods, supply side management methods, and electrical vehicle charging and discharging techniques in SDG and also discusses their drawbacks. We also present future research directions to tackle new and existing challenges in the SDG.

  7. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  8. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  9. Influence of Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants under disturbances based on PSS/E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaat, M. K.; Kotb, S. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of the electrical power system in Egypt will increase rapidly in the coming twenty years. In year 2018, power generation will be connecting to the Egyptian electrical grid. Consequently, the interaction of nuclear power plants and other systems become a very important issue, and a detailed nuclear power model for the medium-term and long-term power system stability should be developed. However, there is no nuclear unit model that can describe the detailed characteristics of the nuclear unit in the available commercial power system simulation software. In this paper, a detailed pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear unit model for medium-term and long-term power system transient stability is proposed. The model is implemented by a user defined program in PSS/E through PSS/E Mat lab Seamanlike interface. Also this paper proposes a design of power plant rector controller for the nuclear power plant. This model can be used to analyze the difference influences between the Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants for examples transient fault on electrical grid and outage of nuclear power plant. The simulation results show that the proposed model is valid. (Author)

  10. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems......, especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids....

  11. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajduk, Andrej; Kocarev, Ljupco; Todorovski, Mirko; Kurths, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  12. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  13. Integrating Wind Power in Electricity Grids : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Kooten, van G.C.; Pitt, L.

    2005-01-01

    As a renewable energy source, wind power is gaining popularity as a favoured alternative to fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro power generation. In Europe, countries are required to achieve 15% of their energy consumption from wind by 2010 as the EU strives to meet its Kyoto obligations. Wind power is

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  15. Integrating Wind Power in Electricity Grids : an Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.; Kooten, van, G.C.; Pitt, L.

    2005-01-01

    As a renewable energy source, wind power is gaining popularity as a favoured alternative to fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro power generation. In Europe, countries are required to achieve 15% of their energy consumption from wind by 2010 as the EU strives to meet its Kyoto obligations. Wind power is considered to be environmentally friendly and low cost. While environmental friendliness has come under scrutiny because wind turbines continue to pose a hazard to birds, are visually unappealing, a...

  16. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  17. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  18. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  19. Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; Muttaqi, Kashem M.; Sutanto, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) as mobile storage systems are briefly discussed. • Comparative analysis on electric vehicles (EVs) and charging systems are provided. • It is necessary to coordinate the GIVs to minimize its impacts on power grid. • A proper load model of EVs that predicts the realistic system behavior is required. • Offering a dual tariff by grid utilities is needed as a way to reduce peak load. - Abstract: Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) are promising technologies for future Smart Grid (SG) and offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. The large scale deployment of GIVs without proper control of the time to charge the vehicles can result in unexpected challenges. This can lead to a disruptive impact on the current power distribution systems and in particular its substantial impacts in building power energy systems. Therefore, a proper model that predicts the realistic system behavior is required to analysis the true effects of introducing GIVs in the power grid. This paper presents a review of existing studies on GIV systems, their modeling techniques and their effects on power grids. Following a brief overview of the common types of electric vehicles (EVs) with their charging systems, a review of their impact on the low voltage distribution systems will be analyzed. The comprehensive review presented in this paper reveals that the impact of GIVs on power distribution systems can be quantified using the aspects of EVs, such as vehicle penetration, charging time, charging characteristics, driving patterns, transportation network. GIV studies are expected to be more popular in future years with the development of EV technologies and the government support to electricity utilities. Thereby, these factors will reduce the cost of energy to charge EV and enhance the practical implications of GIVs

  20. Wind Power in Ontario: Its Contribution to the Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ian H.; Jernigan, Carey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate wind turbine production, the variability of that production, and the relationship between output and system-wide demand. A review of the literature reveals that a variety of measures (and methods) to explore the variability of wind power production exist. Attention then turns to the province of Ontario…

  1. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  2. Trends of the electricity output, power conversion efficiency, and the grid emission factor in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, concerns about the atmospheric environmental problems in North Korea (NK) have been growing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), NK was the first ranked country in mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012. Reliable energy-related data in NK were needed to understand the characteristics of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government were limited. Nevertheless, we could find specific energy-related data produced by NK in the Project Design Documents (PDDs) of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). There were the 6 registered CDM projects hosted by North Korea, developed as small hydropower plants. Several data of each power plant, such as the electricity output, connected to the Eastern Power Grid (EPG) or the Western Power Grid (WPG) in North Korea were provided in the CDM PDDs. We (1) figured out the trends of the electricity output, the `power conversion efficiency' which we defined the amount of generated electricity to the supplied input primary energy for power generation, and fuel mix as grid emission factor in NK as using the data produced by NK between 2005 and 2009, (2) discussed the operating status of the thermal power plants in NK, and (3) discussed the energy/environmental-related policies and the priority issues in NK in this study.

  3. Integrating decentralized electrically powered thermal supply systems into a Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselmann, Maike; Beier, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project “Smart Region Pellworm” is the establishment and operation of a smart grid with a hybrid energy storage system on the German island of Pellworm. One part of the project is the integration of power-to-heat appliances into the smart grid for demand side management purposes. This paper deals with the prerequisites and lessons learned from the integration of electric night storage heaters into Pellworm's energy management system. Special focus lies on the development of a ...

  4. Optimization Strategies for the Vulnerability Analysis of the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, A.; Meza, J.; Donde, V.; Lesieutre, B.

    2007-11-13

    Identifying small groups of lines, whose removal would cause a severe blackout, is critical for the secure operation of the electric power grid. We show how power grid vulnerability analysis can be studied as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Our analysis reveals a special structure in the formulation that can be exploited to avoid nonlinearity and approximate the original problem as a pure combinatorial problem. The key new observation behind our analysis is the correspondence between the Jacobian matrix (a representation of the feasibility boundary of the equations that describe the flow of power in the network) and the Laplacian matrix in spectral graph theory (a representation of the graph of the power grid). The reduced combinatorial problem is known as the network inhibition problem, for which we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Our experiments on benchmark power grids show that the reduced combinatorial model provides an accurate approximation, to enable vulnerability analyses of real-sized problems with more than 10,000 power lines.

  5. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  6. Modeling and simulating an electrical grid subsystem for power balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for power balance analysis in Smart Grids where the physical behavior of different electrical devices is modeled at unit level, and the collective load and generation curves can later be obtained by aggregation. In this way, new behaviors, flexibilities and intelligent...... strategies for power consumption and generation can be easily introduced at the user-level and the system-level impact analyzed on the aggregated profiles. The future aim is to investigate bottom-up balancing strategies, where units with a flexible energy band can react independently to power balance signals...

  7. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  8. Solar fired combined RO/MED desalination plant integrated with electrical power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrobaei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include proposed scheme (solar Fired Combined Reverse Osmosis (ROY Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Seawater desalination Plant (SCDP) integrated with electrical power grid (EPG)) for repowering and modification of the conventional grid connected RO desalination plants. The model of SCDP during sunny periods may be applied to the following modes operation: *Full solar desalination (i.e. solar thermal and electrical power generation in solar plant is elivered to the desalination process and the surplus electricity is fed into EPG). *Hybrid solar desalination (I.e. a small share of the electrical power consumption for desalination process compensated by EPG). During cloudly periods and at night the SCDP operates as a conventional RO desalination plant. To establish the range, in which solar energy for seawater desalination would be competitive to fossil energy and investigates the potential effect of the proposed scheme on the repowering effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed. The repowered effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed.The repowered effectiveness in optaimizing model was characterized by the condition of attaining maximum fuel saving in the EPG. The study result shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme for modification and repowering the RO plant. For the case study. (SCDP with maual share of solar electrical power generation 67.4%) the economical effect amount 138.9 ton fuel/year for each MW design thermal energy of parabolic solar collectors array and the corresponding decrease in exhaust gases emission (Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 0.55 ton/year.MW, carbon dioxides (CO2) 434.9 ton/year.MW). Moreover, implementation of combined RO/MED design for repowering and modification of conventional grid connected RO plant will

  9. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure assignment and power grid impacts assessment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the charging demand of an early electric vehicle (EV) market in Beijing and proposes an assignment model to distribute charging infrastructure. It finds that each type of charging infrastructure has its limitation, and integration is needed to offer a reliable charging service. It also reveals that the service radius of fast charging stations directly influences the final distribution pattern and an infrastructure deployment strategy with short service radius for fast charging stations has relatively fewer disturbances on the power grid. Additionally, although the adoption of electric vehicles will cause an additional electrical load on the Beijing's power grid, this additional load can be accommodated by the current grid's capacity via the charging time management and the battery swap strategy. - Highlight: ► Charging posts, fast charging stations, and battery swap stations should be integrated. ► Charging posts at home parking places will take a major role in a charging network. ► A service radius of 2 km is proposed for fast charging stations deployment. ► The additional charging load from EVs can be accommodated by charging time management.

  10. The evolution of the electric power grid within the energy transition. Breakfast of 8 February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Katrien; ); Bendtsen, Bendt; ); Derdevet, Michel; Duerr, Matthias; Laffaye, Herve

    2017-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions, questions and answers of a meeting gathering French and Danish representatives of political parties, electric utilities and European bodies which addressed issues related to the evolution of the electric power grid within a context of energy transition. Several issues have been addressed. First, the approach adopted by institutional actors like the European Commission and Parliament with a priority given to grid infrastructures to ensure interconnection between all member States, a financial support for the associated investments, and a European governance. Second, the approach adopted by operators in charge of networks, transport and distribution to face a change in the business model, an increasing financial burden, the issue of acceptability of works, future evolutions and innovations, and a closer collaboration

  11. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...... from the grid, exposes the EV battery to these undesirable ripple current components for a longer period and discharges the battery due to power conversion losses. This paper presents a way to provide V2G reactive power compensation through a boost inverter-based single stage EV charger and a DC...

  12. Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in the Power Demand Curve in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve...... for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs...... and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32...

  13. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability

  14. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  15. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  16. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  17. Integrating wind power in electricity grids: an economic analysis. Paper no. IGEC-1-017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Van Kooten, G.C.; Pitt, L.

    2005-01-01

    As a renewable energy source, wind power is gaining popularity as a favoured alternative to fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro power generation. In Europe, countries are required to achieve 15% of their energy consumption from wind by 2010 as the EU strives to meet its Kyoto obligations. Wind power is considered to be environmentally friendly and low cost. While environmental friendliness has come under scrutiny because wind turbines continue to pose a hazard to birds, are visually unappealing, affect the uses of land and change air flows, the purpose of this paper is to examine the question of its presumed low cost and effectiveness at reducing CO 2 emissions by replacing power generated from fossil fuels. To do so, we develop a mathematical programming model of an electrical energy grid that employs power generated by a base-load nuclear power plant, a coal-fired power plant and a gas facility, with the latter used primarily to meet peak-load demand. We then introduce varying levels of wind power generating capacity into the grid. The results indicate that, at low levels of penetration, wind power can provide CO 2 mitigation benefits at low cost. However, as the degree of penetrability increases, the costs of reducing CO 2 emissions rise rapidly because of the spinning reserves required in the coal- and gas-fired power plants. Fossil fuels are consumed even though no power is generated in the eventuality that wind power is suddenly unavailable. The whimsical nature of wind energy makes it a less than desirable long-term source of energy. (author)

  18. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  19. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  20. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  1. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  2. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-10-03

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods, which combine the fidelity of hardware tests with the flexibility of computer simulation. This paper summarizes a study wherein two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models using an OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters based on characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders using physical inverters. Selected results are presented in this paper, and complete results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  3. Evaluation of the electric vehicle impact in the power demand curve in a smart grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of operation costs and load factor. • Contribution of electric vehicles to load diagram leveling. • Use of epigraph variables to transform non-convex functions in convex ones. • Evaluation of the obtained results considering different EVs penetration. - Abstract: Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32-bus distribution network in the case study section considering different scenarios of EVs penetration to analyze their impact in the network and in the other energy resources management

  4. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  5. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jingjie

    2013-01-01

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of con-sumers’ responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way com-munication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid ele...

  6. Novel wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The only wind powered EV charging station reported in the literature. • The charging station maximally converts wind energy into electric energy. • Novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique implemented in the EV charging station. • The charging station is grid-connected type with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. • The charging station balances load demand in the grid connected to it. - Abstract: In this study, a novel grid-connected wind powered electric vehicle (EV) charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is designed and constructed. The wind powered EV charging station consists of a wind energy conversion system (WECS), a unidirectional DC/DC converter connected to the WECS, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, 15 bidirectional DC/DC converters dedicated to 15 charging stations provided for charging EVs, and a three-phase bidirectional DC/AC inverter connected to the grid. The contribution of this work is that the grid-connected wind powered EV charging station presented in this work is the only constructed EV charging station reported in the literature that uses wind energy as a renewable resource to produce electric energy for charging EVs, and moreover, it maximally converts wind energy into electric energy because it uses a novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique proposed in this study. Other works are only simulated models without any new MPPT consideration. It is demonstrated that the constructed wind powered EV charging station is a perfect charging station that not only produces electric energy to charge EVs but also balances load demand in the grid connected to it.

  7. IRIS: A Comprehensive Approach to Implementing Nuclear Power in Countries with Smaller Electric Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M. D.; Sandell, L.; Storrick, G. D.; Cavlina, N.

    2008-01-01

    Many emerging markets and smaller size countries are considering the nuclear option and the deployment of their first nuclear reactor(s). However, some of their requirements and available infrastructure are quite different from those of larger countries currently employing nuclear power. Specific considerations might include: a small size electrical grid, in some cases on the order of a few GWe; limited financial resources; no nuclear experience; inadequate availability of necessary material and people infrastructure. Large nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe or greater do not provide best fit. The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor, under development by an international team of eighteen organizations from nine countries led by Westinghouse specifically addresses these needs. IRIS is an advanced PWR with integral configuration that yields a simple design with enhanced safety. The IRIS size is 335 MWe and may be deployed in single or multiple modules. It can fit almost any grid, or a small utility within a larger grid; moreover, it allows incremental power additions as needed. The capital outlay is of the order of hundreds of millions rather than a few billions dollars. Successive construction and operation of multiple modules significantly reduces the required capital resources and capital at risk with generation income from earlier plants offsetting the construction outlays of subsequent ones. This is highly desirable in both developed and emerging markets, but it may be of critical importance to the latter. IRIS safety characteristics allow for licensing with a significantly reduced size of emergency zone, a critical feature for small countries and when cogeneration is desired. In fact, IRIS is designed to produce steam for district heating, water desalination and bio-fuel generation in addition to electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced in February 2008 its intention to contribute to funding the licensing of a 'Grid

  8. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems. Towards smarter and greener electric grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingfeng Wang (ed.) [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods. (orig.)

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  10. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  11. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  12. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  13. What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Brandon; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Carvalho, Pedro M S

    2013-01-01

    Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700 MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500 MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.16–0.30 MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.07–0.13 MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity. (letter)

  14. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    project (Flex-ChEV) supported by the ERA-Net Smart Grid FP7 program. The principal asset of the proposed charging station (CS) is a dedicated Energy Storage System (ESS) to compensate for adverse effects on the grid caused by peak charging demand and which could impose severe trials for the local DSO....... Furthermore, CS of this kind could serve multiple business purposes in a smart grid. It can serve as a hub for seamless integration of local renewable and distributed energy resources, it can provide added flexibility for the local grid through different ancillary services and it can act as an efficient......This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  15. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, M.J.; van Sark, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the

  16. Guidelines for Distribution System Operators on Reactive Power Provision by Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia; Træholt, Chresten

    2017-01-01

    The increasing success of electric vehicles is bringing new technical challenges to power system operators. This work intends to provide guidelines for distribution system operators in terms of reactive power requirements when evaluating and authorizing electric vehicles supply equipment with fast...... the amount of reactive power that an individual electric vehicle is expected to provide when connected to a low voltage feeder, in order to benefit of the desired voltage rise effect in comparison to the case of unitary power factor....

  17. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  18. Grid-code of Croatian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.; Mesic, M.; Kalea, M.; Koscak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Grid Rules by the Croatian Electricity Utility deal with the control and usage of the Croatian power system's transmission and distribution grid. Furthermore, these rules include obligations and permissions of power grid users and owners, with the aim of a reliable electricity supply.(author)

  19. Economic costs of managing of an electricity grid with increasing wind power penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescott, R.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of policy choices, including a carbon tax, on the optimal allocation of power across different generation sources and on future investments in generating facilities. The main focus is on the Alberta power grid, as it is heavily dependent on fossil fuels and has only limited

  20. The Development of Models for Assessment of the Geomagnetically Induced Currents Impact on Electric Power Grids during Geomagnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAKHNINA, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model and an algorithm for the calculation of the functioning of an electric power grid of arbitrary configuration and complexity during geomagnetic storms were developed. The calculations were performed in the MATLAB mathematical package and the Simulink environment. The binding of objects to geographical coordinates is realized in the model, which enables to determine the matrix of potentials of geoelectric fields in nodal points. In order to define the instantaneous magnetizing currents, the power transformers are designed on the basis of the T-shaped equivalent circuit with a nonlinear mutual inductance of magnetization branch. Calculation of RMS values of active, reactive and total power values in all the elements is done with regard to the impact of harmonic components of the current and voltage. The results of modeling of the impact of geomagnetic storms of various intensity with the west-east direction of the geoelectric field vector for Samara region electric power grid are given.

  1. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  2. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  3. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    and a heterogeneous scale-free (fractal) network. For the stylized electric power grid, our initial simulations demonstrate that the addition of geographically unrestricted random transactions can eventually push a grid to cascading failure, thus supporting the hypothesis that actions of unrestrained power markets (without proper security coordination on market actions) can undermine large scale system stability. We also find that network topology greatly influences system robustness. Homogeneous networks that are 'fish-net' like can withstand many more transaction perturbations before cascading than can scale-free networks. Interestingly, when the homogeneous network finally cascades, it tends to fail in its entirety, while the scale-free tends to compartmentalize failure and thus leads to smaller, more restricted outages. In the case of stylized Fedwire, initial simulations show that as banks adaptively set their individual reserves in response to random transactions, the ratio of the total volume of transactions to individual reserves, or 'turnover ratio', increases with increasing volume. The removal of a bank from interaction within the network then creates a cascade, its speed of propagation increasing as the turnover ratio increases. We also find that propagation is accelerated by patterned transactions (as expected to occur within real markets) and in scale-free networks, by the 'attack' of the most highly connected bank. These results suggest that the time scale for intervention by the Federal Reserve to divert a cascade in Fedwire may be quite short. Ongoing work in our cascade analysis effort is building on both these specific stylized applications to enhance their fidelity as well as embracing new applications. We are implementing markets and additional network interactions (e.g., social, telecommunication, information gathering, and control) that can impose structured drives (perturbations) comparable to those seen in real

  4. Power Flow Control through a Multi-Level H-Bridge-based Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Bifaretti, Steffano; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel power conversion system for Universal and Flexible Power Management (UNIFLEX-PM) in Future Electricity Network. The structure is based on three AC-DC converters each one connected to a different grid, (representing the main grid and/or various distributed generation...... systems) on the AC side, and linked together at DC side by suitable DC isolation modules. Each port of the UNIFLEX-PM system employs a conversion structure based on a three-phase 7-level AC-DC cascaded converter. Effective and accurate power flow control is demonstrated through simulation in Matlab...... and Simulink environment on a simplified model based on a two-port structure and using a Stationery Reference Frame based control solution. Control of different Power flow profiles has been successfully tested in numerous network conditions such as voltage unbalance, frequency excursions and harmonic...

  5. Inverter systems for feeding electrical power of fuel cells in the grid; Stromrichtersysteme zur Netzeinspeisung elektrischer Energie aus Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Malte

    2011-03-04

    Fuel cells represent an important potential alternative to conventional thermal-mechanical- electrical energy transformations due to their highly efficient direct conversion of chemical energy, i.e. hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Inverter systems that feed electrical power from fuel cells into the grid must convert the direct current of the fuel cell into the alternating current of the grid. In addition, these inverters have to adapt the different voltages of the fuel cell system to the grid. Inverter systems for fuel cells can be seen as an own field of research. Only a few results from other fields of research in power electronic circuits in the medium power range - like converters for electrical drives or power supplies - can be applied to inverter systems for fuel cells due to the different technical constraints. In this thesis, different topologies of appropriate inverter systems in the medium power range of 20 kW and higher are analyzed and compared to each other. This study includes transformerless inverters as well as two-stage inverter systems with high frequency transformers (DC/DC converter combined with an inverter). In the beginning, this thesis shows the electrical characteristics of the fuel cell and of the main inverter components like power semiconductors and passive components. In addition, the principles of power semiconductor losses and methods of the semiconductor power loss calculation are shown. This work does not focus on the dimensioning of the passive components like capacitors, chokes and transformers. The main principles of the dimensioning of the passive components are shown but are not analyzed in detail. The summary of the demands of a fuel cell inverter system is followed by the analytical analysis of the different inverter topologies. In addition, the semiconductor loss calculations for the topologies will be derived. To gain practical experience and to verify parts of the theoretical analysis, the converters

  6. Photovoltaic solar system connected to the electric power grid operating as active power generator and reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, F.L.; Moraes, A.J.; Guimaraes, G.C.; Sanhueza, S.M.R.; Vaz, A.R. [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the case of photovoltaic solar systems (PV) acting as a distributed generation (DG), the DC energy obtained is fed through the power-conditioning unit (inverter) to the grid. The majority of contemporary inverters used in DG systems are current source inverters (CSI) operating at unity power factor. If, however, we assume that voltage source inverters (VSI) can be utilized instead of CSI, we can generate reactive power commensurate with the remaining unused capacity at any given point in time. According to the theory of instantaneous power, the reactive and active power of inverter can be regulated by changing the amplitude and the phase of the output voltage of the inverter. Based on this theory, the active power output and the reactive power compensation (RPC) of the system are realized simultaneously. When the insolation is weak or the PV modules are inoperative at night, the RPC feature of PV system can still be used to improve the utilization factor of the inverter. The MATLAB simulation results validate the feasibility of the method. (author)

  7. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle

    2017-05-08

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Network Condition Based Adaptive Control and its Application to Power Balancing in Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Findrik, Mislav; Sloth, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    To maintain a reliable and stable power grid there must be balance between consumption and production. To achieve power balance in a system with high penetration of distributed renewable resources and flexible assets, these individual system can be coordinated through a control unit to become part...... of the power balancing effort. Such control strategies require communication networks for exchange of control loop information. In this work, we show how a congested communication network can have a dramatic impact on the control performance of such a power balancing controller. To alleviate potential...

  9. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    electricity market and diminish the business cases for these technologies by increasing the costs of their electricity consumption. With the present tariff structure, only a very small part of the flexibility potential is deployed or operated flexible. In this paper we compare two different grid tariff...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  10. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  11. Swiss Solutions for Providing Electrical Power in Cases of Long-Term Black-Out of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altkind, Franz; Schmid, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of nuclear power plant electrical system robustness and defence-in-depth may be derived from comparing design and operating practices in member countries. In pursuing this goal, the current paper will focus on Switzerland. It will present in general the protective measures implemented in the Swiss nuclear power plants to ensure power supply, which comply with the 'Defence-in-depth' principle by means of several layers of protection. In particular it will present the measures taken in case of a total station blackout. The different layers supplying electricity may be summed up as follows. The first layer consists of the external main grid, which the plant generators feed into. The second layer is the auxiliary power supply when the power plant is in island mode in case of a failure of the main grid. A third layer is provided by the external reserve grid in case of both a failure of the external main grid and of the auxiliary power supply in island mode. As a fourth layer there exists an emergency electrical power supply. This is supplied either from an emergency diesel generator or a direct feed from a hydroelectric power plant. In the fifth layer, the special emergency electrical power supply from bunkered emergency diesel generators power the special emergency safety system and is activated upon the loss of all external feeds. A sixth layer consists of accident management equipment. Since the Fukushima event, the sixth layer has been reinforced and a seventh layer with off-site accident management equipment has been newly added. The Swiss nuclear safety regulator has analysed the accident. It reviewed the Swiss plants' protection against earthquakes as well as flooding and demanded increased precautionary measures from the Swiss operators in the hypothetical case of a total station blackout, when all the first five layers of supply would fail. In the immediate, a centralized storage with severe accident management equipment

  12. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  13. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  14. Optimisation of maintenance in electric power grids; Optimierung der Instandhaltung in elektrischen Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeromin, Ingo [Mainova AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Balzer, Gerd [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Elektrische Energieversorgung

    2012-10-15

    During the past few years, the regulation efforts in power supply resulted in structuring of maintenance and replacement of operating facilities. Activities in this field are summarized under the heading of asset management. Investigations so far tended to focus on maintenance strategies and neglected the financial aspect, i.e. the total cost of a grid with different groups of operating facilities. The authors show strategies for solving this central problem of asset management.

  15. Power grid reliability and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anjan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hauser, Carl [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bakken, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Anderson, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhao, Chuanlin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Liu, Dong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Yang, Tao [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Meng, Ming [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Lin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Ning, Jiawei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tashman, Zaid [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  16. Power and performance. Y2K challenges for electricity grids in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossilov, A.; Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I.; Purvis, E.

    1999-01-01

    The Year 2000 problem can directly affect the safety of nuclear power plants through interfaces with electric power and telecommunication systems. Recently, probabilistic safety assessments have made it clear that a 'station blackout' at a nuclear power plant is a major contributor to the sequence of events that could cause severe accidents. Within the IAEA actions concerned with Y2K problem, particular focus was on countries in eastern Europe, where here were delays in taking Y2K corrective actions

  17. Smart Grid Operational functions and Control Challenges by Implementing SSSC Tailored to Optimize performance in between Qatar and KSA on the GCC Electrical-power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Masood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work is novel technique to control and optimize SSSC (Subsynchronous Series Controller functions with degree of precision in between Qatar and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The SSSC model developed and simulated in order to identify and determine its control and functioning parameters by introducing new tuning parameters based on that the SSSC can be adjusted stringently to witness desired results lead to address outstanding reactive power management issue. The proposed new parameters are contributing significantly to control SSSC functions in multiple directions in a power system network in between QATAR and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different time-based transmission contingencies on the GCC Electrical-power grid. Strategically, the SSSC capacity and capability can be utilized fully in between Qatar and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by introducing and optimizing its control and tuning parameters more tangibly under both steady and dynamic states.

  18. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  19. A flexible control strategy of plug-in electric vehicles operating in seven modes for smoothing load power curves in smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemakhem, Siwar; Rekik, Mouna; Krichen, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) seem to be an interesting new electrical load for improving the reliability of smart grid. The purpose of this work is to investigate a supervision strategy based on regulated charging of PEVs in order to guarantee an optimized power management of the system and consequently a flatter power demand curve. The system mainly includes PEVs powered by a Lithium-ion battery ensuring the charging and discharging operations of these PEVs at home and a daily load power demanded by home appliances. The purpose of the considered strategy is to detect the connection status of each PEV and to establish the priority order between these PEVs with certain flexibility which results in managing the PEVs through seven operating modes. The response of the control algorithm enables to ensure the power flow exchange between the PEVs and the electrical grid, especially at rush hours, and to minimize load power variance aiming to achieve the smoothness for the power demand curve and to reduce the stress of the electrical grid. The simulation results are presented in order to illustrate the efficiency of this power control approach. - Highlights: • A flexible power management algorithm of Plug-in electric vehicle is proposed. • This control can be applied for any home equipped with two PEVs. • The response is to ensure the power flow exchange between PEVs and power grid. • The main contribution is to achieve the smoothness for the daily power demand curve.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chinarro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of today’s society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc. have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid applications.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  2. Active power reference tracking in electricity distribution grids over non-ideal communication networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    the distributed implementation in the testbed show the effectiveness of the controller and that the considered scenario of the reference tracking application is not significantly affected by delays and losses as originating from PLC communication in good conditions. The subsequent simulation experiments show......Distribution system operators may in the future control active power of selected consumers and generators in order to achieve a desired grid behavior. For cost efficient deployment, this control application may use existing communication infrastructure with non-ideal properties, i.e. imposing...... the resilience of the reference tracking control application to end-to-end message delays up to the order of 3 control periods and to message loss up to approximately 70%....

  3. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  4. Power Line Communications for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Torsten Berger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication, that is, using the electricity infrastructure for data transmission, is experiencing a renaissance in the context of Smart Grid. Smart Grid objectives include the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the electricity supply chain, securing reliable electricity delivery, and using the existing electrical infrastructure more efficiently. This paper surveys power line communications (PLCs in the context of Smart Grid. The specifications G3-PLC, PRIME, HomePlug Green PHY, and HomePlug AV2, and the standards IEEE 1901/1901.2 and ITU-T G.hn/G.hnem are discussed.

  5. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented.

  6. Competitive electric power markets and grid reliability : something has changed during the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluckiger, K.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper reviewed some of the fundamental changes in the way in which electricity is provided to customers. Previously, electricity was delivered by integrated electric utilities that owned both generation and transmission and directly served their customers. Restructuring altered the rules that govern control, operation, ownership and regulation of the industry. The traditional integrated utility has been disaggregated. Wholesale electricity costs are no longer regulated and prices are now set by supply and demand in a market context. Generation investment decisions are based on future expectations of market performance. It was suggested that transmission should become a facilitator of the competitive market. Inter-ties are an essential part of a competitive market, as a means to import power when needed and to export surplus energy. The role of transmission in facilitating new generation by providing non-discriminatory and efficient transport to the market was discussed. It was noted that the lack of transmission investment is resulting in economic penalties, rising losses and constraints on more economic generators. Transmission congestion is counterproductive to the interests of customers. A move away from regional planning to a recognition of the wider interconnectedness of the system was recommended. The current practice of deferring necessary maintenance as a way to generate short-term profit was examined. It was noted that despite the need for new transmission infrastructure, investment in merchant alternating current projects has been slow to materialize. Other challenges to transmission included the uncertainty of regulatory processes and investment recovery as well as the unpredictability of flow patterns in the bulk power system. It was concluded that competitive generation markets will not work with an inadequate transmission infrastructure. Transmission enables new generation by ensuring non-discriminatory and efficient transport to market

  7. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - General requirements; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the third part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The first part of this second appendix to the main report examines the electrical conditions and requirements that have to be met by distributed production facilities. These include limits for voltage and frequency, synchronisation aspects, protection, reactive power questions and islanding. Also, recommendations are made on the assessment of grid reactions and on the avoidance of non-permissible effects on the grid's audio-frequency remote control apparatus. A second part examines the situation concerning the connection of distributed power units to the grid and grid topologies. The last chapter lists relevant standards and guidelines.

  8. Legal aspects of electric power supply. Grid operator obligations between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control; Das Recht der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsnetze. Netzbetreiberpflichten zwischen unternehmerischer Eigenverantwortung und staatlicher Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetzig, Karoline

    2012-07-01

    The publication provides a systematic outline of the legal boundary conditions governing the operation of electric power supply grids. It goes beyond mere regulatory aspects, covering also the projecting and construction of grids, the acquisition or leasing of land for power transmission line construction, operating licenses and utility certification, the organisational structure and purpose of electric utilities, as well as the operating, servicing and enhancement of electricity grids including calculation of electricity rates. In addition to this systematic outline of legal aspects, it is investigated how the balance between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control was defined in the EnWG 2011, and it is discussed if the law provides sufficient room for entrepreneurial decisions.

  9. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  10. Superconductors in the power grid materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Superconductors offer high throughput with low electric losses and have the potential to transform the electric power grid. Transmission networks incorporating cables of this type could, for example, deliver more power and enable substantial energy savings. Superconductors in the Power Grid: Materials and Applications provides an overview of superconductors and their applications in power grids. Sections address the design and engineering of cable systems and fault current limiters and other emerging applications for superconductors in the power grid, as well as case studies of industrial applications of superconductors in the power grid. Expert editor from highly respected US government-funded research centre Unique focus on superconductors in the power grid Comprehensive coverage

  11. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  12. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  13. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    essentially means it is applicable to any EV complying with IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 standards. The field test validation is conducted in a real Danish distribution grid with a Nissan Leaf providing three ancillary services through unidirectional AC charging, namely congestion management, local voltage support...

  14. BECCS Market Launch Strategy Aiming to Help Ensure Reliable Grid Power at High Penetrations of IRE (Intermittent Renewable Electricity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIlliams, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its recognized importance for carbon (C)-mitigation, progress in advancing biomass energy with CO2 capture and sequestration (BECCS) has been slow. A BECCS market launch strategy based on technologies ready for commercial-scale demonstration is discussed—based on co-gasification of coal and biomass to make H2 with CCS. H2 so produced would be a key element of a H2 balancing capacity (H2-BC) strategy for ensuring reliable grid power at high IRE penetrations. High grid penetrations of IRE must be complemented by fast-ramping balancing (backup and/or storage) capacity (BC) to ensure reliable grid power. BC provided now by natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle and combustion turbine units would eventually have to be decarbonized to realize C-mitigation goals, via CCS or other means. Capital-intensive CCS energy systems require baseload operation to realize favourable economics, but at high IRE penetrations, BC plants must be operated at low capacity factors. A H2-BC strategy is a promising way to address this challenge. The elements of a H2-BC system are: (a) H2 production from carbonaceous feedstocks in baseload plants with CCS; (b) H2 consumption in fast-ramping BC units that operate at low capacity factors; (c) Buffer underground H2 storage to enable decoupling baseload H2 production from highly variable H2 consumption by BC units. The concept is likely to "work" because underground H2 storage is expected to be inexpensive. A H2 production analysis is presented for a negative GHG-emitting H2-BC system based on cogasification of corn stover and coal, with captured CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery. The technical readiness of each system component is discussed, and preliminary insights are offered as to the conditions under which the corresponding H2-BC system might compete with natural gas in providing backup for IRE on US electric grids. Public policy to help advance this strategy might be forthcoming, because 2 US Senate bills with broad

  15. Increased Observability in Electric Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

    infrastructure in distribution grids. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental verifications of the investigated concepts wherever applicable. Electric grids are changing, and so are the roles of system operators. The interest in sustainable energy and the rapidly increasing number of Distributed Energy...... that DSO areas are not necessarily self-sufficient. Missing power is covered by neighbouring areas to confine problems in a small region, which is demonstrated in SYSLAB on a two-area, grid-connected setup. The results highlight the advantages of harnessing the information obtained directly from...

  16. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  17. Energy Management and Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in a Grid-Connected Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The charging infrastructure plays a key role in the healthy and rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. This paper presents an energy management and control system of an electric vehicle charging station. The charging station (CS is integrated to a grid-connected hybrid power system having a wind turbine maximum power point tracking (MPPT controlled subsystem, photovoltaic (PV MPPT controlled subsystem and a controlled solid oxide fuel cell with electrolyzer subsystem which are characterized as renewable energy sources. In this article, an energy management system is designed for charging and discharging of five different plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs simultaneously to fulfil the grid-to-vehicle (G2V, vehicle-to-grid (V2G, grid-to-battery storage system (G2BSS, battery storage system-to-grid (BSS2G, battery storage system-to-vehicle (BSS2V, vehicle-to-battery storage system (V2BSS and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V charging and discharging requirements of the charging station. A simulation test-bed in Matlab/Simulink is developed to evaluate and control adaptively the AC-DC-AC converter of non-renewable energy source, DC-DC converters of the storage system, DC-AC grid side inverter and the converters of the CS using adaptive proportional-integral-derivate (AdapPID control paradigm. The effectiveness of the AdapPID control strategy is validated through simulation results by comparing with conventional PID control scheme.

  18. Models for the modern power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Pedro H. J.; Rubido, Nicolas; Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S.; Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos; Cardieri, Paulo; Latva-aho, Matti

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews different kinds of models for the electric power grid that can be used to understand the modern power system, the smart grid. From the physical network to abstract energy markets, we identify in the literature different aspects that co-determine the spatio-temporal multilayer dynamics of power system. We start our review by showing how the generation, transmission and distribution characteristics of the traditional power grids are already subject to complex behaviour appearing as a result of the the interplay between dynamics of the nodes and topology, namely synchronisation and cascade effects. When dealing with smart grids, the system complexity increases even more: on top of the physical network of power lines and controllable sources of electricity, the modernisation brings information networks, renewable intermittent generation, market liberalisation, prosumers, among other aspects. In this case, we forecast a dynamical co-evolution of the smart grid and other kind of networked systems that cannot be understood isolated. This review compiles recent results that model electric power grids as complex systems, going beyond pure technological aspects. From this perspective, we then indicate possible ways to incorporate the diverse co-evolving systems into the smart grid model using, for example, network theory and multi-agent simulation.

  19. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  20. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Literature; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Literatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsponer, O.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the tenth and last part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This ninth appendix to the main report presents an overview and details of the literature and internet sources used in the project. Also, similar projects that discuss the problem area dealt with are briefly described. These include the Dispower, EDIson, DEMS, AMOEVES and ELSAD projects.

  1. The impact of the year 2000 issue on electricity grid performance and nuclear power plant operation in Bulgaria, the Russian Federation and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Y2K date conversion is a potential source of problems to the operation of nuclear power plants through external events and interfaces with electrical power systems, telecommunication systems, and other supporting infrastructures, even if diagnostic and corrective actions within the plant itself, both planned or implemented, are successful. At the end of 1998 there were 425 nuclear power plants in operation in 31 Member States. Most countries and regions are conducting intensive diagnostic and corrective activities to 'find and fix' Y2K software (including embedded software) and equipment problems in their nuclear power plants. These efforts are supplemented by contingency plans. Other countries and regions have not been making comparable efforts and are relying mainly on contingency planning and preparedness. Results of diagnostic and corrective activities can be of benefit to all Member States. Activities on 'find and fix' Y2K problems in electricity grid control systems and computer related technology in national and regional dispatch centers could be of considerable benefit due to the widespread use of the same components, equipment, and software. Consistent with the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Y2K program, an experts meeting was convened to collect information on Y2K activities related to grid operation in countries that operate nuclear power plants and also to identify specific actions to be taken and issues to be addressed in connection with expected grid disturbances. The countries of eastern Europe and the Russian Federation were considered to be a very important region due to delays in taking Y2K corrective actions but also due to the similarity of their electricity grid systems both in components and design but also in mode of operation. Most of these countries either operate their own nuclear power plants or are linked through their electricity grid interconnections to a neighboring country that operates nuclear power

  2. An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ludois

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of high voltage dc (HVDC transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV ac transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of classical current sourced converters (CSC using thyristors is well established for realization of large HVDC systems, the technology of voltage sourced converters (VSC is emerging to be an alternative approach, particularly suitable for multi-terminal interconnections. More recently, a more modular scheme that may be termed ‘bridge of bridge’ converters (BoBC has been introduced to realize HVDC systems. While all these three approaches are functionally capable of realizing HVDC systems, the converter power circuit design trade-offs between these alternatives are not readily apparent. This paper presents an examination of these topologies from the point of view of power semiconductor requirements, reactive component requirements, operating losses, fault tolerance, multi-terminal operation, modularity, complexity, etc. Detailed analytical models will be used along with a benchmark application to develop a comparative evaluation of the alternatives that maybe used by wind energy/bulk transmission developers for performing engineering trade-off studies.

  3. New Modeling of Steady-State Modes of Complex Electrical Grids of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmetbayev Arman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical methods for modeling the steady-state modes of complex electrical networks and systems are based on the application of nonlinear node equations. Nonlinear equations are solved by iterative methods, which are connected by known difficulties. To a certain extent, these difficulties can be weakened by applying topological methods. In this paper, we outline the theoretical foundations for the formation of the inverse form of nodal stress equations based on the topology of electrical networks and systems. A new topological method for calculating the distribution coefficients of node currents is proposed based on all possible trees of a directed graph of a complex electrical network. A complex program for calculating current distribution coefficients and forming steady-state parameters in the MATLAB environment has been developed.

  4. Power grid control in retreat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2000-01-01

    Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe

  5. Wind power plant in grid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, S.

    1993-01-01

    There are new prospects for electrical energy supply in coastal regions and on islands if one succeeds in integrating the available wind energy, dependent on the weather, into existing and to be developed supply structures. Apart from the supply of energy, effects on the grid and on the electrical consumer are gaining in importance. For wind power plants, the operating behaviour is appreciably determined by the electro-technical concept. The mechanical/electrical energy conversion with the corresponding grid connection and plant control play an important part here. Results of measurements and computer simulation make the differences in the behaviour of wind power plants clear. (orig.) [de

  6. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  7. An electric-powered vehicle with contactless battery loading from the grid; Un vehicule electrique alimente sans contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this short article the prototype of a 3.5 t pick-up vehicle with an electric drive by Numexia is described. Its unique feature is the contactless battery loading from the grid, by means of an electromagnetic coil located in the ground under the vehicle at the loading station. This technology has been developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland in the framework of an abandoned project named Swissmetro. (The aim of this project was to connect the main Swiss cities of Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Lucerne, Zurich and St-Gallen by an underground fast train that would have needed about 12 minutes from one city to the next, i.e. for a distance of 60 to 100 km. Several innovative technologies were developed in the preliminary phase of the project.) The pick-up vehicle, a modified Renault Maxity, reaches 100 km/h. The electric motor power is 100 kW. LiFePO{sub 4} batteries are used to store energy. Reloading takes 30 minutes under optimum conditions. An energy management unit and a 33 kW auxiliary diesel-engine-powered generator are integrated. The pick-up is able to carry a useful load up to 1557 kg and to cover a distance of 100 km with one battery load, without using the auxiliary generator. This new propulsion system is thought to become a frequently used device in vehicles for urban transportation. Numexia intends to cooperate with big car manufacturers to build in its new drive into their vehicles.

  8. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  9. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  10. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, P.F.; Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Cerqueira, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power

  11. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  12. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  13. Regression and kriging analysis for grid power factor estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Guntaka; Harley R. Myler

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of power factor (PF) in electrical utility grids is a mainstay of load balancing and is also a critical element of transmission and distribution efficiency. The measurement of PF dates back to the earliest periods of electrical power distribution to public grids. In the wide-area distribution grid, measurement of current waveforms is trivial and may be accomplished at any point in the grid using a current tap transformer. However, voltage measurement requires reference to grou...

  14. Control of Power and Voltage of Solar Grid Connected

    OpenAIRE

    Allah, Boucetta Abd; Djamel, Labed

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy is high on International agendas. Currently, grid-connected photovoltaic systems are a popular technology to convert solar energy into electricity. Control of power injected into the grid, maximum power point, high efficiency, and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid are the requirements for inverter connection into the grid. Consequently, the performance of the inverters connected to the grid depends largely on the control strategy applied. In...

  15. Development of V2G and G2V Power Profiles and Their Implications on Grid Under Varying Equilibrium of Aggregated Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Jain, Trapti

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power capability of aggregated electric vehicles (EV) in the manner that they are being adopted by the consumers with their growing infiltration in the vehicles market. The proposed modeling of V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) energy profiles blends the heterogeneous attributes namely, driven mileages, arrival and departure times, travel and parking durations, and speed dependent energy consumption of mobility trends. Three penetration percentages of 25 %, 50 % and 100 % resulting in varied compositions of battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) in the system, as determined by the consumers' acceptance, have been considered to evaluate the grid capacity for V2G. Distinct charge-discharge powers have been selected as per charging standards to match contemporary vehicles and infrastructure requirements. Charging and discharging approaches have been devised to replicate non-linear characteristics of Li-ion battery. Effects of simultaneous conjunction of V2G and G2V power curves with daily conventional load profile are quantified drawn upon workplace-discharging home-charging scheme. Results demonstrated a marked drop in load and hence in market price during morning hours which is hurriedly overcompensated by the hike during evening hours with rising penetration level and charge-discharge power.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  17. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Storage technologies; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Grundlagen der Speicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luechinger, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the fifth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fourth appendix to the main report describes six ways of storing electricity, including accumulators, super caps, super-conducting magnetic and flywheel energy storage units. The accumulator technologies discussed include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and sodium-sulphur batteries. Each of these types of power storage technologies is briefly described. The characteristics of these various types of storage are compared.

  18. Evaluation of the Photovoltaic System Installation Impact to an Electric Power Grid Part 1: Simulation of photovoltaic generation by applying a meteorological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ernesto Wyss Porras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the installation of a large-scale photovoltaic (PV system to the electric power grid management is analyzed numerically in this series of works. In this part 1, the solar irradiance at the target country, Guatemala, is evaluated with a weather forecasting model, and PV energy potential is estimated. From the computed potential distribution, the appropriate area for installation of a large-scale PV system is selected. This area is where the solar irradiance is large and the energy consumption regions are close by. The optimal tilted angle of the PV panels is proposed as well from the PV output simulation. The time series data of the PV output is also evaluated in this part, and it will be applied to the analysis of the impact of the PV installation to the electric power grid management in the following part of this series of works.

  19. Interdicting Electrical Power Grids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, Rogelio

    2004-01-01

    ... and extend some existing optimization models and algorithms and demonstrate the value of our techniques using standard reliability test networks from IEEE Our implementation of Benders decomposition...

  20. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  1. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  2. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  3. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  4. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers....

  5. Electric vehicles’ influence on Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta R. Jabłońska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to demonstrate evolution of Electric Vehicles (EV and their infl uence on the Smart Grid (SG. Starting from USA defi nition of the SG considering the fi fth- and sixth- properties of the SG: It accommodates all generation and storage options and it enables new products, services and markets. We can determine EV role in the SG operation. Contemporary we can distinguish following types of the EV: HEVS – hybrid electric vehicles with motor and use batteries with no using electricity from external source, Pure EVs – running on electric motor powered by batteries that are recharged by plugging in the vehicle, Plug-in PHEVs – can be charged with electricity like engine power EVs and run under engine like HEVs. The most interesting for electric power there are Pure EVs and PHEVs that are consumers and also kind of electricity storage devices (very important in SG. These types may be charged “in home”, using special station with diff erent time of charging; there is also considered charging during the time waiting for change of lights on road nodes (junctions. It is important to mention that EV development infl uence not only on SG, social- and climate- environment but also on development of new branch of industries producing equipment necessary for EV operation.

  6. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  7. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  8. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stuart M; Webber, Michael E; Chalmers, Hannah L; King, Carey W

    2011-01-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO 2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO 2 (USD/tCO 2 ). CO 2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO 2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO 2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO 2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO 2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO 2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO 2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO 2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO 2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO 2 capture is economical, operating CO 2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO 2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  9. Nuclear Power in Countries with Limited Electrical Grid Capacities: The Case of Armenia. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication addresses issues relating to nuclear power deployment faced by countries with electrical grids of limited capacity and stability. In particular, technology issues and related institutional measures as well as some technical and economic options for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste applicable in these circumstances are addressed. It aims to assist States implementing a nuclear power programme in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste that is technically sound, environmentally responsible, economically feasible and acceptable to all stakeholders. Armenia was selected as a case study and the data obtained from the studies performed led to general recommendations which could be applicable to some other countries with similar economies and grid characteristics

  10. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  11. A Design of a 345-kV Electric Power Transmission Line Interlinking Ramu and Rouna Grids in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakato Francis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to PNG Power Limited (PPL, Papua New Guinea’s peak power demand is expected to increase from 210 MW in 2012 to 347 MW in 2026. Under the current state of the power sector in Papua New Guinea (PNG, it is critical to implement measures to cope with the increasing power demand to promote investment, economic growth, and ultimately to achieve poverty reduction through economic growth. One of the solutions identified to improve the reliability of PNG power systems and thus to meet the demand is to interconnect the major grids in the country so that the loads could be shared among them. This project embarks in designing a 345-kV electric power transmission line to interlink the Ramu and Rouna power grids of Papua New Guinea. The design is done by analysing all the necessary aspects of the transmission lines with in-depth calculations performed using MATHCAD software. This design is the basis for extra-high voltage (EHV transmission network in anticipation for the power generation and demand growth in PNG.

  12. Integrating a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle with vehicle-to-grid technology, photovoltaic power and a residential building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robledo, C.B.; Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Abbruzzese, F.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building

  13. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  14. Cyber security and vulnerability of 'smart' power grids

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Smart power grids deliver electric energy from generation to consumers using two-way Smart Meter technology (smart meters), enabling remote control of consumer energy use. However, smart power grids are increasingly very attractive targets for hackers and terrorists. This paper discusses the key characteristics of cyber security/vulnerability of smart power grids, and their communication architecture, and their vulnerability points. Then, it describes guidelines which are needed to be impleme...

  15. Analysis of the influences of grid-connected PV power system on distribution grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Popandron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of producing an electric power of 2.8 MW using a solar photovoltaic plant. The PV will be grid connected to the distribution network. The study is focused on the influences of connecting to the grid of a photovoltaic system, using modern software for analysis, modeling and simulation in power systems.

  16. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  17. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  18. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  19. National power grid simulation capability : need and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Mark C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-06-02

    On December 9 and 10, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate sponsored a national workshop at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the need for a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability for the national electric power grid system. The workshop brought together leading electric power grid experts from federal agencies, the national laboratories, and academia to discuss the current state of power grid science and engineering and to assess if important challenges are being met. The workshop helped delineate gaps between grid needs and current capabilities and identify issues that must be addressed if a solution is to be implemented. This report is a result of the workshop and highlights power grid modeling and simulation needs, the barriers that must be overcome to address them, and the benefits of a national power grid simulation capability.

  20. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  1. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  2. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  3. Solar activity and economic fundamentals: Evidence from 12 geographically disparate power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2008-10-01

    This study uses local (ground-based) magnetometer data as a proxy for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) to address whether there is a space weather/electricity market relationship in 12 geographically disparate power grids: Eirgrid, the power grid that serves the Republic of Ireland; Scottish and Southern Electricity, the power grid that served northern Scotland until April 2005; Scottish Power, the power grid that served southern Scotland until April 2005; the power grid that serves the Czech Republic; E.ON Netz, the transmission system operator in central Germany; the power grid in England and Wales; the power grid in New Zealand; the power grid that serves the vast proportion of the population in Australia; ISO New England, the power grid that serves New England; PJM, a power grid that over the sample period served all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia; NYISO, the power grid that serves New York State; and the power grid in the Netherlands. This study tests the hypothesis that GIC levels (proxied by the time variation of local magnetic field measurements (dH/dt)) and electricity grid conditions are related using Pearson's chi-squared statistic. The metrics of power grid conditions include measures of electricity market imbalances, energy losses, congestion costs, and actions by system operators to restore grid stability. The results of the analysis indicate that real-time market conditions in these power grids are statistically related with the GIC proxy.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  5. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  6. Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids brings together leading experts in power, control and communication systems,and consolidates some of the most promising recent research in smart grid modeling,control and optimization in hopes of laying the foundation for future advances in this critical field of study. The contents comprise eighteen essays addressing wide varieties of control-theoretic problems for tomorrow’s power grid. Topics covered include: Control architectures for power system networks with large-scale penetration of renewable energy and plug-in vehicles Optimal demand response New modeling methods for electricity markets Control strategies for data centers Cyber-security Wide-area monitoring and control using synchronized phasor measurements. The authors present theoretical results supported by illustrative examples and practical case studies, making the material comprehensible to a wide audience. The results reflect the exponential transformation that today’s grid is going...

  7. Abruptness of Cascade Failures in Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into “super-grids”. PMID:24424239

  8. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  9. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  10. The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.; Warnier, M.; Mieghem, P. van; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for large scale blackouts in power transmission grids. Secure electrical power supply requires, together with careful operation, a robust design of the electrical power grid topology. Currently, the impact of the topology on grid robustness is mainly

  11. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  12. Sandia and NJ TRANSIT Authority Developing Resilient Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Through the memorandum of understanding between the Depratment of Energy (DOE), the New Jersey Transit Authority (NJ Transit), and the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, Sandia National Labs is assisting NJ Transit in developing NJ TransitGrid: an electric microgrid that will include a large-scale gas-fired generation facility and distributed energy resources (photovoltaics [PV], energy storage, electric vehicles, combined heat and power [CHP]) to supply reliable power during storms or other times of significant power failure. The NJ TransitGrid was awarded $410M from the Department of Transportation to develop a first-of-its-kind electric microgrid capable of supplying highly-reliable power.

  13. Coupling mechanism of electric vehicle and grid under the background of smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingyu; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Rongjun; Shu, Han; He, Yongxiu

    2018-02-01

    With the development of smart distribution technology in the future, electric vehicle users can not only charge reasonably based on peak-valley price, they can also discharge electricity into the power grid to realize their economic benefit when it’s necessary and thus promote peak load shifting. According to the characteristic that future electric vehicles can discharge, this paper studies the interaction effect between electric vehicles and the grid based on TOU (time of use) Price Strategy. In this paper, four scenarios are used to compare the change of grid load after implementing TOU Price Strategy. The results show that the wide access of electric vehicles can effectively reduce peak and valley difference.

  14. European electricity grid. Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt about the need to expand and modernize the European electricity grid, especially in order to allow renewable energies to be fed stochastically into existing systems. As it is hardly possible at the present time and also in the near future to store electricity on a major scale and at adequate prices, electricity must be transmitted from the point of generation to the point of consumption directly and in real time. The development of grid systems, including cross-border transmission systems, is still behind expectations. This is not due to a shortage of projects or a lack of interest on the part of grid operators; the necessary political support is available as well, and investments at present are covered by the feed tariffs. The problem is the lack of acceptance. It is difficult to obtain new permits or commission new grids. This problem of the licensing authorities often results in considerable delays. Consequently, it is up to the grid operators to handle this situation and promote new, intelligent grid systems in an effort to achieve acceptance of a technical-scale infrastructure. This includes transparency in grid expansion, exchange with the public in order to reach mutual understanding and trust and also find compromises as well as the willingness to discuss various approaches to solutions (underground routing, upgrading of existing grid systems, smart systems, and intelligent designs) so as to optimize the use of the existing infrastructure. (orig.)

  15. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a

  16. Y2K lessons learned for electric grid stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I. L.; Purvis, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Y2K was an example of a worldwide infrastructure threat. Actions to understand infrastructure risks and mitigate infrastructure threats are a continuing and increasing part of the worlds corporate, government, and international organizations systems, and the severe implications of infrastructure failures to the health, safety, and financial well being of people and organizations are the deriving force. The IAEA conducted a number of Y2K related activities in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities. A set of these activities address the interface between electric power generation facilities and electric power grids in the region of Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. This addressed a continuing infrastructure risks and actions to mitigate these risk. The results were shown by events to have made positive contributions. The potential loss of nuclear power plant generation is a significant risk to electric power grids, an important critical infrastructure. Not only does the threat constitute a problem with the potential loss of the grid, loss of the electric power grid increases the probability of accidents in nuclear power plants. Recognizing that these activities addressed only one area of infrastructure risk in one region, there are some key lessons that were learned that could have general applicability

  17. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  18. Innovative technologies for sustainable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagana-Hammer, B.

    2016-01-01

    This year's Energy Day is under the motto "Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Energy Networks". According to the ideas of the European Commission, a sustainable, secure, efficient, affordable and competitive energy supply with particular attention to the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is to be created. In future, energy should flow freely through Europe without technical barriers in an integrated internal market. For the power supply, this means a renewal and consolidation of the 50-year-old and largely isolated national distribution networks. In addition, the decentralized power plants, which are often remote from the consumers and dependent on the whims of the sun or the wind, are also to be integrated into this network. The fact that electricity can only be saved insufficiently is a further hurdle. In this light, the target of a minimum degree of synchronisation in the European grid of 10% to 2020 and 15% to 2030 seems ambitious. According to the European Commission, the construction of new infrastructure is to be given priority, but there are considerable difficulties with implementation. In addition to the technical barriers, the barriers to the expansion of the energy market and the protracted licensing procedures, the lack of confidence on the part of the citizens question the realization of the plans for a European Supergrid. Today's event attempts to illuminate the large-scale technical possibilities for the exchange of fluctuating renewable energies over long distances as well as the regional grids, which are of interest to the private consumer. The question of the sustainability and expediency of the planned European internal electricity market completes the 2016 Energy Day program. (rössner) [de

  19. Wind power within European grid codes: Evolution, status and outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrana, Til Kristian; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind...... power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO-E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication...... is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO-E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC-connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants...

  20. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  1. European wind integration study (EWIS). Towards a successful integration of large scale wind power into European electricity grids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, W.

    2010-03-15

    Large capacities of wind generators have already been installed and are operating in Germany (26GW) and Spain (16GW). Installations which are as significant in terms of proportion to system size are also established in Denmark (3.3GW), the All Island Power System of Ireland and Northern Ireland (1.5GW), and Portugal (3.4GW). Many other countries expect significant growth in wind generation such that the total currently installed capacity in Europe of 68GW is expected to at least double by 2015. Yet further increases can be expected in order to achieve Europe's 2020 targets for renewable energy. The scale of this development poses big challenges for wind generation developers in terms of obtaining suitable sites, delivering large construction projects, and financing the associated investments from their operations. Such developments also impact the networks and it was to address the immediate transmission related challenges that the European Wind Integration Study (EWIS) was initiated by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) with the objective of ensuring the most effective integration of large scale wind generation into Europe's transmission networks and electricity system. The challenges anticipated and addressed include: 1) How to efficiently accommodate wind generation when markets and transmission access arrangements have evolved for the needs of traditional controllable generation. 2) How to ensure supplies remain secure as wind varies (establishing the required backup/reserves for low wind days and wind forecast errors as well as managing network congestion in windy conditions). 3) How to maintain the quality and reliability of supplies given the new generation characteristics. 4) How to achieve efficient network costs by suitable design and operation of network connections, the deeper infrastructure including offshore connections, and crossborder interconnections. EWIS has focused on the immediate network related challenges by analysing detailed

  2. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  3. Virtual laboratory of electrical mini-grids with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Ramos, Vanessa; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Oliveira Barbosa, Claudomiro Fábio de; Tavares Pinho, João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computing tool called Virtual Laboratory de Minirredes (Virtual Laboratory of Mini-grids). Using the virtual environment of the developed tool, it is possible to make remote connection/disconnection of switches and loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive and non-linear) at strategic points of the electric mini-grid with hybrid distributed generation systems (solar photovoltaic-diesel). The mini-grid has a length of about 1 km and is installed in the test area of the Grupo de Estudios e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Exergética (GEDAE) of the Universidade Federal do Pará, located in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The developed tool has communication functions with electric parameters transducers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This communication enables the opening and closing of contactors, resulting in different settings for the mini-grid. In addition to that, based on the proposed configuration by the user, the real-time operation status of mini-grid is presented in a graphic interface (for example, monitored electric parameters, distributed generators connected, status of disconnected switches, etc.) and the acquired data is stored. The use of the computing tool also focuses on the construction of a database, in order to obtain knowledge about the mini-grid performance under various conditions that can be set, depending on the operational strategy adopted, based on the choice of the layout, loads and power sources used in the mini-grid. (full text)

  4. Economic MPC for Power Management in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Edlund, Kristian; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    To increase the amount of green energy (e.g. solar and wind) significantly a new intelligent electrical infrastructure is needed. We must not only control the production of electricity but also the consumption in an efficient and proactive manner. This future intelligent grid is in Europe known...... as the SmartGrid. In this paper we demonstrate the use of Economic Model Predictive Control to operate a portfolio of power generators and consumers such that the cost of producing the required power is minimized. With conventional coal and gas fired power generators representing the controllable power...

  5. How to Integrate Variable Power Source into a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses how to integrate variable power source such as wind power and photovoltaic generation into a power grid. The intermittent renewable generation is expected to penetrate for less carbon intensive power supply system, but it causes voltage control problem in the distribution system, and supply-demand imbalance problem in a whole power system. Cooperative control of customers' energy storage equipment such as water heater with storage tank for reducing inverse power flow from the roof-top PV system, the operation technique using a battery system and the solar radiation forecast for stabilizing output of variable generation, smart charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for load frequency control (LFC), and other methods to integrate variable power source with improving social benefits are surveyed.

  6. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  7. Risk analysis local grids. Mapping and reduction of risks in electric power grids; Riskanalysmetod lokalnaet. Kartlaeggning och reduktion av risker i elnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylefors, Martin; Fredholm, Lotta; Sandstroem, Cecilia

    2007-11-15

    The objective of the project has been to contribute to development of risk analysis applications that correspond to the need of investments as an effect of new regulation. The aim has been to develop a method for screening and assessing risks, and for ranking risk reducing measures in order of priority. Phase 1 has consisted of an overview of methods, selection of appropriate methods, and development of principles regarding application suitable for power distribution companies. Phase 2 has consisted of adjustments and tests of the method. The method focuses on risks associated with power failures, with a duration exceeding 12 hours, in medium voltage local networks. Stations are excluded. The suggested method is based on principles of Preliminary Hazard Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Risks are suggested to be assessed based on three main factors (load, exposure and alternative supply). The quota between the highest and lowest value is 20 for each factor. Each factor is assessed by underlying factors such as type of cable/wire, number of customers and average power consumption. By multiplying the factors a resulting risk level is obtained in the range of 0.05 to 400. The level determines the need for further investments. Appropriate risk reducing measure is selected by putting the risk reduction (benefit) in relation to the total costs for investment and maintenance, for each alternative measure. There is a further need for development of a method for stations. There is also a further need for development of a priority model in city networks where power failures less than 12 hours are taken into account. Finally there is a need to turn the functional requirement (no power failures exceeding 24 hours) into an acceptable risk level

  8. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  9. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  10. Analysis and Design of Notch Filter-Based PLLs for Grid-Connected Applications Electric Power Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Using multiple notch filters (NFs) inside the control loop of a standard PLL is a basic strategy to improve its filtering capability. Often, adaptive NFs (ANFs) are employed for this purpose as they can block the disturbance components even under off-nominal grid frequencies. This advantage...... is at the cost of a rather considerable increase in the PLL implementation complexity and computational effort, particularly when ANFs have their own frequency estimation mechanism. The non-adaptive NFs (NNFs), contrary to ANFs, are easy to implement. They, however, have received a little attention in PLL...... applications. Therefore, their performance characteristics are rather unclear. To gain insight about the advantages and disadvantages of NNF-based PLLs (NNF-PLLs), analysis and design of these PLLs is conducted in this paper. This procedure includes: (1) selecting the appropriate number of NNFs inside the PLL...

  11. Grid synchronization for advanced power processing and FACTS in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, A.; Rocabert, J.; Vazquez, G.

    2010-01-01

    The high penetration of wind power systems in the electrical network has introduced new issues in the stability and transient operation of the grid. By means of providing advanced functionalities to the existing power converters of such power plants it is possible to enhance their performance...... and also to support the grid operation, as the new grid codes demand. The connection of FACTS based on power converters, such as STATCOMs, are also contributing to the integration of renewable energies improving their behavior under contingencies. However, in both cases it is needed to have a grid voltage...

  12. Improving Power Quality in AC Supply Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Fabijański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a digital and actual model of the UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated system for power quality improvement. The UPQC’s design and its connection to an AC supply grid, 1-phase and 3-phase alike, provide effective compensation of unwanted interferences in the waveforms of load supply voltages and non-linear load currents. This article presents an overview of topologies and control strategies. The study of the UPQC confirmed its positive impact on the power quality. The electricity parameters were significantly improved. Total harmonic distortion in supply voltage THDu decreased six-fold to 1.89%, and total harmonic distortion in load current THDi decreased more than ten-fold to 2.38% for a non-linear load (uncontrolled bridge rectifier with load L. Additionally, symmetrisation of supply voltages and reactive power compensation Q of linear load was obtained. The UPQC integrated system for power quality improvement can be used wherever high-quality and PN-EN 50160 standard – compliant electricity is required.

  13. Occurrence and countermeasures of urban power grid accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    With the advance of technology, the development of network communication and the extensive use of power grids, people can get to know power grid accidents around the world through the network timely. Power grid accidents occur frequently. Large-scale power system blackout and casualty accidents caused by electric shock are also fairly commonplace. All of those accidents have seriously endangered the property and personal safety of the country and people, and the development of society and economy is severely affected by power grid accidents. Through the researches on several typical cases of power grid accidents at home and abroad in recent years and taking these accident cases as the research object, this paper will analyze the three major factors that cause power grid accidents at present. At the same time, combining with various factors and impacts caused by power grid accidents, the paper will put forward corresponding solutions and suggestions to prevent the occurrence of the accident and lower the impact of the accident.

  14. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  15. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    years, with each year simulated with five random seeds, leading to a total of 25 annual wind power time series for six large offshore wind farms, summing up to a little over 330 wind turbines. Two storm control strategies were used. The analysis involved several aspects inspired from reliability studies....... The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production......Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five...

  16. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  17. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors: Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of the 'Greening the Grid - Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions'. Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro generators that have historically provided a majority of grid-supplied electricity. The unique characteristics of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources have resulted in many misperceptions regarding their contribution to a low-cost and reliable power grid. Common areas of concern include: 1) The potential need for increased operating reserves, 2) The impact of variability and uncertainty on operating costs and pollutant emissions of thermal plants, and 3) The technical limits of VRE penetration rates to maintain grid stability and reliability. This fact sheet corrects misperceptions in these areas.

  18. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  19. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  20. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  1. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  2. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Miao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of electric vehicles into the transportation sector helps reduce global warming and carbon emissions. The interaction between electric vehicles and the power grid has spurred the emergence of a smart grid technology, denoted as vehicle-to grid-technology. Vehicle-to-grid technology manages the energy exchange between a large fleet of electric vehicles and the power grid to accomplish shared advantages for the vehicle owners and the power utility. This paper presents an optimal scheduling of vehicle-to-grid using the genetic algorithm to minimize the power grid load variance. This is achieved by allowing electric vehicles charging (grid-to-vehicle whenever the actual power grid loading is lower than the target loading, while conducting electric vehicle discharging (vehicle-to-grid whenever the actual power grid loading is higher than the target loading. The vehicle-to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various simulation investigations. This research proposal also recommends an appropriate setting for the power utility in terms of the selection of the target load based on the electric vehicle historical data.

  3. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Simulation in a 16 kV medium-voltage network; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Simulationen im 16 kV Mittelspannungsnetz des AEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Luechinger, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the seventh part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This sixth appendix to the main report presents and discusses the results of simulations made on the basis of the real-life 16 kV medium-voltage distribution network operated by the Aargovian electricity utility AEW. This appendix describes the simulation methods used and the basic characteristics of medium-voltage networks and distributed generation facilities. Different types of load profiles, including domestic and industrial loads, are discussed. The results of the simulations are presented in graphical form and provide profiles of voltage and current, active and reactive power and further mains characteristics for varying load conditions. Also, daily profiles for situations with and without distributed generation are presented and short-circuit simulations and grid dynamics are discussed.

  4. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  5. From electric networks to 'Smart grids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, Nourredine; Sabonnadiere, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    After decades of slow evolutions, and because of the emergence of renewable energies and of a multiplication of actors due to the liberalisation of energy markets, electric networks are entering a phase of large and complex development which will lead to a massive introduction of intelligence and to the building up of the 'smart grid' concept. The authors first identify the characteristics of the new energetic paradigm. The present operation of electric grids is based on four components: production by means of high power units installed in strategic locations, transport to consumption centres by means of a highly instrumented transport network which has highly centralised and hierarchical management, and consumers who are passive actors. They comment the implications of recent development for these three components. They describe how information and communication technologies (ICT) are used at the service of the grid, and how new technologies are integrated in different instruments (smart counter, actuators, fast cut devices, sensors, advanced supervision and control functions). Then they discuss the definition of a smart network or smart grid, the objectives it allows to be reached for energy transport as well as energy distribution. They discuss the desirable evolution of distribution networks and their technical objectives. Then, they give an overview of the various involved actors (consumers, network managers, electric equipment manufacturers, energy producers, and so on), evokes bodies and institutions involved in research on smart grids (notably in Grenoble within the INPG), give some examples of innovative concepts which are now being developed (intelligence distribution, virtual central station, grid monitoring, re-configurable grid, smart building). They also identify scientific and technological deadlocks, and outline the challenge of preparing the needed abilities for the development of smart grids

  6. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  7. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    to validate the performance of the frequency support functions, a flexible grid model with IEEE 12 bus system characteristics has been developed and implemented in RTDS. A power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) system composed by 20 kW plant (2 x 10 kW inverters and PV linear simulator) and grid simulator (RTDS......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply....... As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downward regulation procedures have forced European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity...

  8. Electric power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, Y.N.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of electric power in the USSR is based on the Unified Electric Power System (UEPS) whose network cover most of the habitable territory of the country. Therefore, the development of the UEPS governs the overall evolution of the electric power generation in the country. At present, eleven out of thirteen joint electric power systems, which supply electricity to most of the USSR, are operating within the UEPS. The total electric power generation in the country reached 1728 billion kWh in 1990, of which the UEPS supplied approximately 90%. About 70% of installed capacity of the UEPS is fossil-fuelled power plants, about 12 % is nuclear power plants, and about 18% is hydroelectric power plants. The system-forming grid of the UEPS is made up of transmission lines of 220, 330, 500 and 750 kV. The on-line supervisory control of the UEPS is achieved by four-level automated system of dispatch control (UEPS, joint electric power systems, regional electric power systems, electric power plants, substations,electric grid regions). The development and extension of the UEPS in the USSR ensure higher reliability and quality of electric power supply to end-users, combined with higher efficiency. The principal problem facing the UEPS are as follows: the need to ensure environmental protection and efficiency of the steam power plants; to improve the safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants. The solution to these problems will define the conditions of the UEPS development, as well as electric power systems of other countries, at least for the coming two decades. This paper characterizes the peculiarities of the UEPS development over the last 20 years, including the installed capacity structure and the system-forming electric power grid. Special attention is paid to the environmental problems related to functioning and development of the UEPS and to the means of their solution. (author)

  9. Power Grid:Connecting the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liang; Zhu Li

    2012-01-01

    With the acceleration of global economic integration,the trend has been towards opening up markets.Large enterprises in countries around the world,the developed countries in particular,attach great importance to going abroad,with the aim to optimally allocate energy resources in a wider range.Actively responding to the "going out" strategy of the State,the two giant power grid enterprises in China,State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) and China Southern Power Grid (CSG),have made plans for grid development in line with the State's energy strategy and global resources allocation.

  10. Use of power system stabilizers for damping inter-area oscillations in the south systems of the Mexican electrical grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos B., R.; Calderon G., J.G.; Sarmiento U., H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, IIE,Cuernavaca, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Olguin S., D. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper documents research conducted to investigate the use and tuning of power system stabilizers (PSSs) to improve small-signal dynamic performance of the Mexican interconnected system (MIS). The analysis focuses on the control of a critical inter-area mode associated with the interaction between the southeastern and western regions of the system and a critical local mode. Study results include the determination of critical system modes more controllable by existing PSSs and the use of supplementary control actions to damp low-frequency inter-area modes of oscillation. Results for both, small and large perturbations are presented to illustrate the placement and tuning of PSSs at several appropriate locations throughout the system. (author)

  11. Electric Vehicle Grid Experiments and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This project developed a low cost building energy management system (EMS) and conducted vehicle-to-grid (V2G) experiments on a commercial office building. The V2G effort included theinstallation and operation of a Princeton Power System CA-30 bi-dire...

  12. Environmental report 2001 - Verbund Austria Power Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A balance of the environmental activities performed by Verbund Austria Power Grid during 2001 is presented. It comprises which measures were taken to reach their environmental objectives: certification of an environmental management system according to ISO 14001 and EMAS, environmental protection, policies, water and thermoelectric power generation status ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x emission monitoring, energy efficiency, replacement of old equipment), reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions and nature conservation. The report is divided in 8 sections: power grid, environmental policy, environmental management, power grid layout, environmental status of the system, introduction of new technologies for environmental monitoring, environmental objectives 2001 - 2002, and data and facts 2001. (nevyjel)

  13. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles....... The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle...

  14. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  15. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  16. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...... offshore wind farms are shown together with simulation results. Switching operations in offshore wind power grids can be simulated with different electromagnetic transient programs. Different programs were used in the project and compared results are included in Chapter 4. Also in Chapter 4 different......Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...

  17. Power grid, mains filtering and power line communications ... a root cause for incompatibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Mart

    2013-01-01

    The power grid is intentionally meant to distribute electrical energy at the mains frequency, as produced by the electricity generating plants, towards the end-users. The three-phase low-voltage distribution network can be utilized more efficiently when a power factor of 1 is achieved and no

  18. Electric grids and energy transition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Focussing on electricity, this report proposes an analysis of the main elements in favour of large investments in electric grids, while notably outlining technical or economic uncertainties as well as possible political consequences such as compatibility of a largely interconnected European network with a free choice of energy sources (as specified in the Lisbon Treaty), and responsibility for the States in terms of supply security. The author first describes the present situation: overview of the regulatory framework of the liberalization process. The second part addresses challenges which emerged with the European commitment in favour of renewable sources of electricity and the emergence of new needs, notably regarding electric vehicles. It also presents measures aimed at supporting the development of networks. The third part introduces a discussion about the relevancy of this development by highlighting, on the one hand, the fragility of economic perspectives, and on the other hand, the necessity to address future consequences of a major increase of interconnections within the European electric grid. Some recommendations are finally proposed. Examples and specific analysis more particularly concern Germany, Spain, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom

  19. GRID : unlimited computing power on your desktop Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Computational GRID is an analogy to the electrical power grid for computing resources. It decouples the provision of computing, data, and networking from its use, it allows large-scale pooling and sharing of resources distributed world-wide. Every computer, from a desktop to a mainframe or supercomputer, can provide computing power or data for the GRID. The final objective is to plug your computer into the wall and have direct access to huge computing resources immediately, just like plugging-in a lamp to get instant light. The GRID will facilitate world-wide scientific collaborations on an unprecedented scale. It will provide transparent access to major distributed resources of computer power, data, information, and collaborations.

  20. Simulation of wind power with front-end converter into interconnected grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad W. Mohod

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the growing electricity supply industry and open access market for electricity worldwide, renewable sources are getting added into the grid system. This affects the grid power quality. To assess the impact on grid due to wind energy integration, the knowledge of electrical characteristic of wind turbine and associated control equipments are required. The paper presents a simulation set-up for wind turbine in MATLAB / SIMULINK, with front end converter and interconnected system. The presented control scheme provides the wind power flow to the grid through a converter. The injected power in the system at the point of common coupling is ensured within the power quality norms.

  1. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  2. Protecting Intelligent Distributed Power Grids against Cyber Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei; Yan Lu; Mohsen Jafari; Paul Skare; Kenneth Rohde

    2010-12-31

    Like other industrial sectors, the electrical power industry is facing challenges involved with the increasing demand for interconnected operations and control. The electrical industry has largely been restructured due to deregulation of the electrical market and the trend of the Smart Grid. This moves new automation systems from being proprietary and closed to the current state of Information Technology (IT) being highly interconnected and open. However, while gaining all of the scale and performance benefits of IT, existing IT security challenges are acquired as well. The power grid automation network has inherent security risks due to the fact that the systems and applications for the power grid were not originally designed for the general IT environment. In this paper, we propose a conceptual layered framework for protecting power grid automation systems against cyber attacks. The following factors are taken into account: (1) integration with existing, legacy systems in a non-intrusive fashion; (2) desirable performance in terms of modularity, scalability, extendibility, and manageability; (3) alignment to the 'Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector' and the future smart grid. The on-site system test of the developed prototype security system is briefly presented as well.

  3. Grid Code Requirements for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reviews the grid code requirements for integration of wind power plants (WPPs). The grid codes reviewed are from the UK, Ireland, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, the USA, and Canada. Transmission system operators (TSOs) around the world have specified requirements for WPPs under...

  4. Exact Power Constraints in Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The objective is to accommodate load variations on the grid, arising from varying consumption and natural variations in the power production e.g. from wind turbines. This balancing between supply and demand...

  5. Predictive Smart Grid Control with Exact Aggregated Power Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2012-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The load variations on the grid arise on one hand from varying......This chapter deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high-level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators,which reduces the computational and communication related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... consumption, and on the other hand from natural variations in power production from e.g. wind turbines. The consumers represent energy-consuming units such as heat pumps, car batteries etc. These units obviously have limits on how much power and energy they can consume at any given time, which impose...

  6. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greacen, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Engel, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quetchenbach, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW is intended to help meet the widespread need for guidance, standards, and procedures for interconnecting mini-grids with the central electric grid as rural electrification advances in developing countries, bringing these once separate power systems together. The guidebook aims to help owners and operators of renewable energy mini-grids understand the technical options available, safety and reliability issues, and engineering and administrative costs of different choices for grid interconnection. The guidebook is intentionally brief but includes a number of appendices that point the reader to additional resources for indepth information. Not included in the scope of the guidebook are policy concerns about “who pays for what,” how tariffs should be set, or other financial issues that are also paramount when “the little grid connects to the big grid.”

  7. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  8. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  9. Power to gas to relieve the electricity distribution networks. Continuation of the study ''Benefit of smart grid concepts taking into account the PtG technology''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettenrauch, Jens; Zoellner, Sylvana; Mueller-Syring, Gert

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the energy transition is to integrate the increasing based on volatile renewable energy generated power in market and network. Based on actual distribution networks in Emsland in the study presented below was investigated, what contribution an intelligent coupling of electricity and gas distribution networks by means of power to gas (PtG) systems can do to solve this challenge. The investigations have shown, among other things, that the network expansion costs in particular can be significantly reduced by the coupling when otherwise an oversizing would be done by discrete power grid expansion measures. [de

  10. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  11. Impact of external grid disturbances on nuclear power plants; Rueckwirkungen von Netzstoerungen auf Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arains, Robert; Arnold, Simone; Brueck, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Quester, Claudia; Sommer, Dagmar

    2017-06-15

    The electrical design of nuclear power plants and the reliability of their electrical power supply including the offsite power supply are of high importance for the safe operation of the plants. The operating experience of recent years has shown that disturbances in the external grid can have impact on the electrical equipment of nuclear power plants. In the course of this project, possible causes and types of grid disturbances were identified. Based on these, scenarios of grid disturbances were developed. In order to investigate the impact of the developed scenarios of grid disturbances on the electrical equipment of nuclear power plants, the auxiliary power supply of a German pressurized water reactor of type Konvoi was simulated using the simulation tool NEPLAN. On the basis of the results of the analyses, it was identified whether there are possible measures to prevent the spread of grid disturbances in the plants which have not been implemented in the nuclear power plants today.

  12. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Linni; Zheng, Yanchong; Xiao, Xinping; Chan, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  13. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  14. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  15. Smart Grid Communication Technologies in the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Philipp; Hauer, Ines; Styczynski, Zbigniew A.; Fernandes, Rubipiara; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent electrical grids can be considered as the next generation of electrical energy transportation. The enormous potential leads to worldwide focus of research on the technology of smart grids. This paper aims to present a review of the Brazilian electricity sector in context with the integration of communication technologies for smart grids. The work gives an overview of the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy in the Brazil and a brief summary ...

  16. Research on wind power grid-connected operation and dispatching strategies of Liaoning power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiu; Qu, Zhi; Zhou, Zhi; He, Xiaoyang; Li, Tie; Jin, Xiaoming; Li, Jinze; Ling, Zhaowei

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of clean energy, wind power has gained rapid development in recent years. Liaoning Province has abundant wind resources and the total installed capacity of wind power is in the forefront. With the large-scale wind power grid-connected operation, the contradiction between wind power utilization and peak load regulation of power grid has been more prominent. To this point, starting with the power structure and power grid installation situation of Liaoning power grid, the distribution and the space-time output characteristics of wind farm, the prediction accuracy, the curtailment and the off-grid situation of wind power are analyzed. Based on the deep analysis of the seasonal characteristics of power network load, the composition and distribution of main load are presented. Aiming at the problem between the acceptance of wind power and power grid adjustment, the scheduling strategies are given, including unit maintenance scheduling, spinning reserve, energy storage equipment settings by the analysis of the operation characteristics and the response time of thermal power units and hydroelectric units, which can meet the demand of wind power acceptance and provide a solution to improve the level of power grid dispatching.

  17. Understanding the Perils of our Power Grid Security

    OpenAIRE

    Unton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Our nation depends on electric power to support daily conveniences as well as critical functions like street lights, hospitals, and 911 phone calls. As the equipment to operate the bulk electric system becomes increasingly computerized and connected, we face an increasing risk of Cyber Security breach disabling or damaging the grid. Regulators have devised Critical Infrastructure Protection standards to enforce a minimum level of Cyber Security protection at utilities and other companies resp...

  18. Balancing services in smart electricity grids enabled by market-driven software agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Hermans, R.M.; Frunt, J.; Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    An important prerequisite for reliable and stable operation of electrical power grids is that supply and demand of power are balanced at all times. In traditional, centrally-controlled electrical power networks, real-time balancing is usually implemented by adjusting large-scale generation to

  19. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  20. Conference on renewable energies integration to power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Bischoff, Torsten; Merkel, Marcus; Rohrig, Kurt; Glatigny, Alain; Quitmann, Eckard; Lehec, Guillaume; Teirlynck, Thierry; Stahl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on renewable energies integration to power grids. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 150 participants exchanged views on the perspectives and possible solutions of this integration in order to warrant the security of supplies and the grid stability in a context of increasing injection and decentralization of renewable power sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French distribution grids - Overview and perspectives (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Distribution Grids in Germany - Overview and Perspective (Torsten Bischoff); 3 - Integration of renewable energies into distribution grids - a case example from Germany (Marcus Merkel); 4 - Regeneratives Kombikraftwerk Deutschland: System Services with 100 % Renewable energies (Kurt Rohrig); 5 - Overview of the different grid instrumentation-control and automation tools (Alain Glatigny); 6 - Which Ancillary Services needs the Power System? The contribution from Wind Power Plants (Eckard Quitmann); 7 - The Flexibility Aggregator - the example of the GreenLys Project (Guillaume Lehec); 8 - Energy Pool - Providing flexibility to the electric system. Consumption cut-off solutions in France (Thierry Teirlynck); 9 - Demand Response experiences from Germany (Oliver Stahl)

  1. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Simulation in a 400 V low-voltage network; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Simulationen im 400 V Niederspannungsnetz des ewz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Luechinger, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the sixth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fifth appendix to the main report presents and discusses the results of simulations made on the basis of the real-life 400 V low-voltage distribution network operated by the public utilities of the City of Zurich, Switzerland. This comprehensive appendix describes the simulation methods used and the basic characteristics of low-voltage networks and distributed generation facilities. The 6 simulation variants used are also described. The results of the simulations are presented in graphical form and provide profiles of voltage and current, active and reactive power and further mains characteristics for varying load conditions. Also, short-circuit simulations and harmonics analysis are discussed.

  2. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  3. An AC/AC Direct Power Conversion Topology Having Multiple Power Grid Connections with Adjustable Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    independent producers/consumers to connect to multiple distribution grids in order to optimise the electricity price, as this will vary during the day from one power distribution company to another one. It will be needed to have a load that can smoothly adjust the power consumed from each power grid in order......Normally, a power converter has one supply port to connect to the power grid and one or multiple output ports to connect to AC loads that require variable voltage and variable frequency. As the trend on the energy market is towards deregulation, new converter topologies are needed to allow...... to minimize the overall energy cost or in case of special applications, to improve the system redundancy. Also, having a generator that can simultaneously feed fractions of its power into multiple grids which are not coupled (different voltage, frequency, displacement angle) and continuously adjust...

  4. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  5. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  6. Smart Power Grid : A Holonic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negeri, E.O.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power system provides vital support for the functioning of modern so- cieties. Driven by the growing interest in clean, reliable and affordable energy, the electrical power system is facing transitions. The share of renewable energy sources in electricity supply is growing. In

  7. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  8. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2000-01-01

    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid...

  9. Regression and kriging analysis for grid power factor estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Guntaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of power factor (PF in electrical utility grids is a mainstay of load balancing and is also a critical element of transmission and distribution efficiency. The measurement of PF dates back to the earliest periods of electrical power distribution to public grids. In the wide-area distribution grid, measurement of current waveforms is trivial and may be accomplished at any point in the grid using a current tap transformer. However, voltage measurement requires reference to ground and so is more problematic and measurements are normally constrained to points that have ready and easy access to a ground source. We present two mathematical analysis methods based on kriging and linear least square estimation (LLSE (regression to derive PF at nodes with unknown voltages that are within a perimeter of sample nodes with ground reference across a selected power grid. Our results indicate an error average of 1.884% that is within acceptable tolerances for PF measurements that are used in load balancing tasks.

  10. Power Talk in DC Micro Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Power talk is a novel concept for communication among units in a Micro Grid (MG), where information is sent by using power electronics as modems and the common bus of the MG as a communication medium. The technique is implemented by modifying the droop control parameters from the primary control...

  11. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  12. Low-voltage grid-connection of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A.; Thornycroft, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project aimed at developing technical guidelines concerning grid connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter generators which are to be published in draft form as the {sup U}K Technical Guidelines for Inverter Connected Single Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Generators up to 5kVA{sup .} The background to the use of PV in the UK is traced, and the technical criteria for electrical integration of PV systems, and UK guidelines for grid connected PV systems are examined. The findings of the working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems are also presented in this report. Appendices discuss the UK technical guidelines, the IEA Task V activities,, utility aspects of grid-connected PV systems, and demonstration tests on grid-connected PV systems, and lists Task V reports.

  13. Smart Power Grid: A Holonic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Negeri, E.O.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power system provides vital support for the functioning of modern so- cieties. Driven by the growing interest in clean, reliable and affordable energy, the electrical power system is facing transitions. The share of renewable energy sources in electricity supply is growing. In addition, the end customers of electricity, such as households, are transforming into “prosumers” that can generate, store, and export elec- tricity. Moreover, the demand for active participation of the e...

  14. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  15. Structural Emergency Control for Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a structural emergency control to render post-fault dynamics of power systems from the critical fault-cleared state to a stable equilibrium point (EP). Theoretically, this is a new control paradigm that does not rely on any continuous measurement or load shedding......, as in the classical setup. Instead, the grid is made stable by intentionally changing the power network structure, and thereby, discretely relocating the EP and its stability region such that the system is consecutively driven from fault-cleared state through a set of EPs to the desired EP. The proposed control...... is designed by solving convex optimization problems, making it possibly scalable to large-scale power grids. In the practical side, the proposed control can be implemented by exploiting the FACTS devices that will be widely available on the grids, and hence, requiring minor investment....

  16. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    With the growing demand for a reliable electrical grid, backup power supplies and energy management systems are a necessity. Systems such as server...ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER

  17. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...

  18. Method for controlling power flow between an electrochemical cell and a power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for controlling a force-commutated inverter coupled between an electrochemical cell and a power grid for adjusting the magnitude and direction of the electrical energy flowing therebetween. Both the real power component and the reactive power component of ac electrical energy flow can be independently VARied through the switching waveform presented to the intermediately coupled inverter. A VAR error signal is derived from a comparison of a var command signal with a signal proportional to the actual reactive power circulating between the inverter and the power grid. This signal is presented to a voltage controller which essentially varies only the effective magnitude of the fundamental voltage waveform out of the inverter , thereby leaving the real power component substantially unaffected. In a similar manner, a power error signal is derived by a comparison of a power command signal with a signal proportional to the actual real power flowing between the electrochemical cell and the power grid. This signal is presented to a phase controller which varies only the phase of the fundamental component of the voltage waveform out of the inverter relative to that of the power grid and changes only the real power in proportion thereto, thus leaving the reactive power component substantially unaffected

  19. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using Three-Phase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Ullah Khan Tareen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes an analytical review on the comparison of three-phase static compensator (STATCOM and active power filter (APF inverter topologies and their control schemes using industrial standards and advanced high-power configurations. Transformerless and reduced switch count topologies are the leading technologies in power electronics that aim to reduce system cost and offer the additional benefits of small volumetric size, lightweight and compact structure, and high reliability. A detailed comparison of the topologies, control strategies and implementation structures of grid-connected high-power converters is presented. However, reducing the number of power semiconductor devices, sensors, and control circuits requires complex control strategies. This study focuses on different topological devices, namely, passive filters, shunt and hybrid filters, and STATCOMs, which are typically used for power quality improvement. Additionally, appropriate control schemes, such as sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and space vector PWM techniques, are selected. According to recent developments in shunt APF/STATCOM inverters, simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of APF/STATCOM systems for harmonic mitigation based on the defined limit in IEEE-519.

  20. Topologically protected loop flows in high voltage AC power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, T; Delabays, R; Jacquod, Ph; Adagideli, I

    2016-01-01

    Geographical features such as mountain ranges or big lakes and inland seas often result in large closed loops in high voltage AC power grids. Sizable circulating power flows have been recorded around such loops, which take up transmission line capacity and dissipate but do not deliver electric power. Power flows in high voltage AC transmission grids are dominantly governed by voltage angle differences between connected buses, much in the same way as Josephson currents depend on phase differences between tunnel-coupled superconductors. From this previously overlooked similarity we argue here that circulating power flows in AC power grids are analogous to supercurrents flowing in superconducting rings and in rings of Josephson junctions. We investigate how circulating power flows can be created and how they behave in the presence of ohmic dissipation. We show how changing operating conditions may generate them, how significantly more power is ohmically dissipated in their presence and how they are topologically protected, even in the presence of dissipation, so that they persist when operating conditions are returned to their original values. We identify three mechanisms for creating circulating power flows, (i) by loss of stability of the equilibrium state carrying no circulating loop flow, (ii) by tripping of a line traversing a large loop in the network and (iii) by reclosing a loop that tripped or was open earlier. Because voltages are uniquely defined, circulating power flows can take on only discrete values, much in the same way as circulation around vortices is quantized in superfluids. (paper)

  1. The importance of nuclear energy for the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ricardo Luis Pereira dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Arouca, Maurício Cardoso; Ribeiro, Alan Emanuel Duailibe

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the thermal energy options available in the country to support the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid capacity. The country's electricity mix consists primarily of renewable sources of energy and this configuration will be maintained throughout the 21st century. However, grid expansion can no longer benefit from hydroelectric power plants with large reservoirs leading to a greater participation of thermal power plants. Among the thermal sources available in the country, nuclear power has important comparative advantages. Recognizing these benefits, the Brazilian government has established that expanding electricity grid capacity will amount to up to 8000 MW through nuclear energy by 2030. The use of nuclear technology for electricity generation has historically been a controversial issue worldwide and some countries have decided to review their nuclear programs in the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This article shows that increasing the participation of nuclear energy in Brazil's electricity grid will provide important benefits for the country by ensuring energy security, keeping Brazil's electricity mix as one of the cleanest in the world, securing electricity grid reliability and safety and reducing operating costs. - Highlights: • The expansion of the power capacity is essential to support the economic growth. • The increase through hydropower cannot benefit from storage reservoirs. • It will be necessary to increase the capacity thermal power. • Nuclear power has significant comparative advantages in Brazil. • Brazil has institutional base, uranium reserves and nuclear technology

  2. Intelligence by design in an entropic power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Pincetic, Matias Alejandro

    In this work, the term Entropic Grid is coined to describe a power grid with increased levels of uncertainty and dynamics. These new features will require the reconsideration of well-established paradigms in the way of planning and operating the grid and its associated markets. New tools and models able to handle uncertainty and dynamics will form the required scaffolding to properly capture the behavior of the physical system, along with the value of new technologies and policies. The leverage of this knowledge will facilitate the design of new architectures to organize power and energy systems and their associated markets. This work presents several results, tools and models with the goal of contributing to that design objective. A central idea of this thesis is that the definition of products is critical in electricity markets. When markets are constructed with appropriate product definitions in mind, the interference between the physical and the market/financial systems seen in today's markets can be reduced. A key element of evaluating market designs is understanding the impact that salient features of an entropic grid---uncertainty, dynamics, constraints---can have on the electricity markets. Dynamic electricity market models tailored to capture such features are developed in this work. Using a multi-settlement dynamic electricity market, the impact of volatility is investigated. The results show the need to implement policies and technologies able to cope with the volatility of renewable sources. Similarly, using a dynamic electricity market model in which ramping costs are considered, the impacts of those costs on electricity markets are investigated. The key conclusion is that those additional ramping costs, in average terms, are not reflected in electricity prices. These results reveal several difficulties with today's real-time markets. Elements of an alternative architecture to organize these markets are also discussed.

  3. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  4. A study on the characteristics, predictions and policies of China’s eight main power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianzhou; Dong, Yao; Jiang, He

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian blackout is analyzed as a warning for China’s power system. • Issues and recommendations of China’s eight power grids are presented. • Five models are employed for scenario analysis on power generation and consumption. • The optimized combined model outperforms other models. • Methods towards balancing power generation and environmental impacts are proposed. - Abstract: Electricity is an indispensable energy source for modern social and economic development. However, large-scale blackouts can cause incalculable loss to society. In 2012, three major Indian power grids collapsed, resulting in the interruption of the electricity supply to over 600 million people. To avoid an event like that, China needs to forecast the power generation and consumption of eight power grids effectively. This paper first analyzes the characteristics of eight power grids and then proposes a combined model based on three improved grey models optimized by a differential evolution algorithm to predict electricity production and consumption of each power grid. The optimized combined forecasting model provides a better prediction than other models, and it is also the most workable and satisfactory model. Experiment results show electricity production and consumption would increase. In consideration of the real situation and existing problems, some suggestions are proposed. The government could decrease thermal power and exploit renewable energy power, like hydroelectric power, wind power and solar power, to ensure the safe and reliable operation of China’s major power grids and protect environment

  5. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  6. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  7. Sensor Transmission Power Schedule for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Huang, Y. H.; Li, J.; Liu, X. D.

    2017-11-01

    Smart grid has attracted much attention by the requirement of new generation renewable energy. Nowadays, the real-time state estimation, with the help of phasor measurement unit, plays an important role to keep smart grid stable and efficient. However, the limitation of the communication channel is not considered by related work. Considering the familiar limited on-board batteries wireless sensor in smart grid, transmission power schedule is designed in this paper, which minimizes energy consumption with proper EKF filtering performance requirement constrain. Based on the event-triggered estimation theory, the filtering algorithm is also provided to utilize the information contained in the power schedule. Finally, its feasibility and performance is demonstrated using the standard IEEE 39-bus system with phasor measurement units (PMUs).

  8. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  9. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...

  10. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  11. All concerned large electricity power enterprises merged into the hand of one owner?: The electricity producers, the government and the national power grid 1936-1946; Samtliga beroerda stora kraftfoeretag sammanfoerda i en aegares hand?: Elproducenterna, staten och det nationella kraftoeverfoeringssystemet 1936-1946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Martin

    2011-07-01

    In the latter part of the 1930s, the direction of Swedish transport and communications policy changed. The policies which had been formed during the industrialization process, which began in the 1850s, had been characterized by dual regimes. Even if the State-owned public utility enterprises (affaersverken) had the largest market shares within these dual regimes, they coexisted with private enterprises. However, during the 1930s and 40s the segments within the Swedish transport and communication infrastructure which were controlled by the private enterprises were nationalized. Against this background, this paper examines how this relation between the Swedish National Power Board (Vattenfall) and the private electricity enterprises unfolded with regard to the control and ownership of the national power grid. The national power grid is the infrastructure which provides the transmission of power between the power plants and industries and households. During the examined time period, many hydro power plants were constructed in the northern part of Sweden, which was sparsely-populated and agrarian. Consequently, the electricity they produced had to be transmitted to the industrialized and urban parts in the middle and southern parts of Sweden. This situation actualized the need for an expansion of the national power grid. Consequently, new power transmission lines had to be constructed. At first, this situation produced a conflict of interest between the Swedish National Power Board on the one hand and the private electricity enterprises on the other hand as they could not agree upon their respective roles in the process. However, after mediation efforts from the government, the previous cooperation within the dual regime was reestablished. As a result, the Swedish National Power Board and the private electricity enterprises would cooperate regarding the construction of the power transmission lines within the national power grid. Over time, this cooperation was

  12. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kang Miao; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Yong, Jia Ying

    2017-01-01

    -to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance...... of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various...

  13. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  14. "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    OpenAIRE

    George R. Parsons; Michael K. Hidrue; Willett Kempton; Meryl P. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 responden...

  15. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  16. Case study : power distribution PBR plans of National Grid USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation described the progressive approach taken by the Northeastern United States towards electric power restructuring and performance based ratemaking (PBR) with reference to National Grid USA and the NEES tradition of pursuing regulatory matters. The catalyst for change was the NEES acquisition of EUA (and National Grid USA acquisition of NEES). Another catalyst for change was the desire to merge operating companies and consolidate rates. This paper described the settlement negotiations of the New England Process with reference to meeting the customer's desire for lower electricity prices and rate stability.The paper also described a multi-year PBR-based plan proposed for Niagara Mohawk which offers incentives for both cost efficiency and service quality. It was concluded that PBR is a sound basis for optimizing customer and shareholder benefits. It was emphasized that while PBR has universal application, detailed implementation must be sensitive to local issues and priorities. tabs., figs

  17. A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, V. [Energinet.dk, Fjordvejen 1-11, DK-7000 Fredericia (Denmark); Lund, T.; Hansen, A.D.; Sorensen, P.E. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, A.H. [Centre for Electric Technology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by Energinet.dk, Transmission System Operator of Denmark (TSO) for Natural Gas and Electricity, to the Danish Universities and the Risoe National Laboratory. Its intended usage is education and studying of interaction between electricity-producing wind turbines and a realistic transmission system. Focus in these studies is on voltage stability issues and on the ride-through capability of different wind turbine concepts, equipped with advanced controllers, developed by the Risoe National Laboratory.

  18. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  19. Distributed Supply Coordination for Power-to-Gas Facilities Embedded in Energy Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    This paper considers hydrogen and renewable electricity from power-to-gas (PtG) facilities supplied to a gas grid, a mobility sector, and a power grid. The PtG facilities are equipped with hydrogen buffers and fuel cells. The goal is to maximize the expected profit of PtG facilities without

  20. Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jie Shao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications.

  1. Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs

  2. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... in countries like Denmark, is widely discussed and promoted. However, the wide-spread adoption of EVs requires the provision of intelligent grid and EV charging infrastructure. To analyse and understand the amount of EVs that could be integrated in the local distribution grids, within its existing capabilities......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  3. Market aspects of smart power grids development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Makowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids herald a revolution in the power sector. The centralized and passive power grid model known for over a century is before our very eyes assuming a completely brand new shape: of an active and dynamic network with an increasingly relevant role of consumers – prosumers, who are offered brand new products and services. Such an active development is possible due to a number of factors, such as: 1. Synergy of ICT with power engineering – these disciplines are becoming an indispensable element of the modern power grid’s operation, 2. The European Union’s regulations in the area of reduction of CO2 emission and improved energy efficiency, as well as identification of Smart Grids as one of the optimum tools, 3. Growth, thanks to continuously increasing expenditures, public awareness of the purchase and rational use of energy. However, the Smart Grid development and ICT implementation in the power sector also carry a risk in the matter of setting up system and process links between the systems of concerned energy market players, which should be mitigated by development of technical standards, methods and principles of good cooperation between the concerned parties. Mitigation of the risk, and as a consequence, effective Smart Grids development will provide conditions for dynamic development of new roles and mechanisms on the energy market. Offering modern products and services to consumers and prosumers, and effective implementation on a national scale of demand management mechanisms will be a source of multidimensional benefits of a functional and financial nature, and will also have a positive impact on the National Lower Grid’s security.

  4. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  5. The smart alternative : securing and strengthening our nation's vulnerable electric grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahigian, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    This article explained the concept of the next generation of electrical power grids known as the Smart Grid, which allows the possibility to either reallocate electricity during times of crisis or peak demand or prevent power disruptions through proactive diagnosis. The author examined the security, economic and environmental benefits of implementing the Smart Grid during a time of rising energy prices and desire for energy independence. The Smart Grid uses advanced communications and information technologies to create a modern transmission and distribution network that facilitates the integration of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power, as well as energy-efficient technologies such as plug-in hybrid vehicles. The author emphasized that implementing the Smart Grid grid is also vital to strengthening America's resilience and security since a more robust energy infrastructure will ensure the reliable flow of electricity in the event of a crisis. In addition to promoting energy efficiency, the Smart Grid offers economic benefits, such as reducing the billions of dollars lost each year by American businesses on power outages. A Smart Grid could also open lucrative new markets for smart technologies. 2 figs

  6. Intelligent sensor and controller framework for the power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme Nathan; Craig, Jr., Philip Allen; Tews, Cody William; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Maiden, Wendy M.; Ciraci, Selim

    2018-03-20

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring and using data in an electric power grid. For example, one disclosed embodiment comprises a sensor for measuring an electrical characteristic of a power line, electrical generator, or electrical device; a network interface; a processor; and one or more computer-readable storage media storing computer-executable instructions. In this embodiment, the computer-executable instructions include instructions for implementing an authorization and authentication module for validating a software agent received at the network interface; instructions for implementing one or more agent execution environments for executing agent code that is included with the software agent and that causes data from the sensor to be collected; and instructions for implementing an agent packaging and instantiation module for storing the collected data in a data container of the software agent and for transmitting the software agent, along with the stored data, to a next destination.

  7. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  8. Swiss electrical power association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Milestones of electrical power development in Switzerland during 1982 are quoted. An energy balance is shown for the utilisation of 864,630 terajoules of primary energy. This is related to global data on per capita power consumption. In the electricity generation section, annual load factors are given for the four nuclear stations. A brief review is made of hydro potential and monthly export/import figures for power to other countries (mostly export, especially in summer). Total electrical power output grew about 1.3% in the last year. Recent transmission line developments are noted, mostly 2x380kV, and including a link with Austria. In the financial section, consumer price indices are quoted for liquid and solid fuel, gas and electricity since 1966. Under administration, details are listed of the main and about 18 supporting Committees and working groups with special functions (e.g. tariffs, electrical vehicles). Public relations have included nuclear power press conferences, a mobile video unit, information leaflets for the media and a teaching seminar. (G.C.)

  9. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  10. Evolutions of the power grid: vector of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croguennoc, Alain; Dalle, Bernard; Archambault, R.; Bony, P.E.; Bouneau, C.; Bourguignon, B.; Bouvier, D.; Beltran, A.; Chauvancy, A.; Chevassus-au-Louis, B.; Citi, S.; Claverie, B.; Colomb, B.; Dallet, M.; Deveaux, L.; Dubus, D.; Fresnedo, S.; Herreros, J.; Herz, O.; Isoard, J.; Jaussaud, E.; Laffaye, H.; Laroche, J.P.; Lasserre, D.; Lebas, N.; Lebranchu, D.; Leclerc, F.; Lemoine, D.; Leydier, C.; Malique, F.; Mazoyer, F.; Meudic, M.A.; Nguefeu, S.; Pajot, S.; Pilate, J.M.; Real, G.; Rosso, F.; Waeraas de Saint Martin, G.; Schwartzmann, S.; Serres, E.

    2011-01-01

    The abatement of energy consumption and the mass production of renewable energy are the main actions implemented to meet the climate challenge. In this context, the share of electric power in the final consumption is continuously growing up. Adapting the power transportation grid is necessary if we want to take up the challenge of the new paradigm 'new power generation sites, fatal and intermittent energy'. If this grid is the symbol of a modern and well-equipped France, it is also the revealer of our society antagonisms: change without disruption, progress without sacrifice of heritage and natural landscapes. Industries and grid operators will have to show some innovation and anticipation if they want this deep change to be a success. The French power grid has permitted the regional development in the past and will allow to take up the climate challenge in the future. Its inevitable position in the success of past transformations makes it an essential vector of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  11. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements......, wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...

  12. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinlong

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: → Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. → Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. → Further market-oriented reforms are needed. → Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  13. Operation of Power Grids with High Penetration of Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali Taleb

    The integration of wind power into the power grid poses many challenges due to its highly uncertain nature. This dissertation involves two main components related to the operation of power grids with high penetration of wind energy: wind-thermal stochastic dispatch and wind-thermal coordinated bidding in short-term electricity markets. In the first part, a stochastic dispatch (SD) algorithm is proposed that takes into account the stochastic nature of the wind power output. The uncertainty associated with wind power output given the forecast is characterized using conditional probability density functions (CPDF). Several functions are examined to characterize wind uncertainty including Beta, Weibull, Extreme Value, Generalized Extreme Value, and Mixed Gaussian distributions. The unique characteristics of the Mixed Gaussian distribution are then utilized to facilitate the speed of convergence of the SD algorithm. A case study is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Then, the SD algorithm is extended to simultaneously optimize the system operating costs and emissions. A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is suggested to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions defined by the two conflicting objectives. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changing load level and imbalance cost factors on the Pareto front. In the second part of this dissertation, coordinated trading of wind and thermal energy is proposed to mitigate risks due to those uncertainties. The problem of wind-thermal coordinated trading is formulated as a mixed-integer stochastic linear program. The objective is to obtain the optimal tradeoff bidding strategy that maximizes the total expected profits while controlling trading risks. For risk control, a weighted term of the conditional value at risk (CVaR) is included in the objective function. The CVaR aims to maximize the expected profits of the least profitable scenarios, thus

  14. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  16. Actual issues concerning nuclear power plants and interconnected grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.; Brkic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and transmission grid have always been mutually of special relevance. In countries and/or regions where nuclear power plants are located they are almost as a rule counted among strongest nodes of the grid. Hence, they are treated as such from grid point of view in various aspects (operational, planning). In interconnected high-voltage transmission grid of European mainland, usually called UCTE interconnected system, this importance could be shown in a range of issues and several cases, particularly under present situation in which there are numerous demanding and challenging tasks put on transmission system operators, largely due to the opening of electricity markets in the most of European countries. Among these issues definitely worth of mentioning is relevant influence to both commercial paths and physical power flows, and also to exchange programmes between control areas and blocks. In this context there is also relation to cross-border transactions and mechanism applied to them. In respect to security of supply issues and future of nuclear power generation under present regulative framework of most European countries it is needed to comply with connecting conditions (and other stipulations) from national grid codes where different approaches could be observed. Furthermore, nuclear issues significantly influence approach to extension of UCTE system. In certain extent this also applies to pending re-connection of present two synchronous zones of UCTE, particularly to area of broader region directly affected with this complex process. Some of these also reflect to Croatian high-voltage transmission grid as a part of UCTE interconnected system with certain peculiarities.(author)

  17. Power system SCADA and smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Mini S

    2015-01-01

    Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as:Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systemsOf

  18. New electric power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    In a trend analysis of methods of energy production and use, this paper cites forecasted significant gains in efficiency through the use of combined cycles for heat and power production, and rapidly falling costs of solar and wind power plants. A technical/economic feasibility analysis is then performed on the future use of electric vehicles in Italy. Here, the paper cites the possible benefits in terms of energy conservation and air pollution abatement. A review is made of current progress in research efforts aimed at reducing electric battery sizing, weight and recharging constraints

  19. Grid integration of electric-powered vehicles in existing and future energy supply structures. Advances in systems analyses 1. Final report; Netzintegration von Fahrzeugen mit elektrifizierten Antriebssystemen in bestehende und zukuenftige Energieversorgungsstrukturen. Advances in System Analyses 1. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen; Bickert, Stefan; Hennings, Wilfried [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE); and others

    2012-07-01

    The research project examines whether a fleet of vehicles with electric propulsion system (xEV) can be integrated into existing and future energy supply systems for effective integration of fluctuating power production as well as for energy storage. A multi-sectoral, system-wide scenario analysis is performed to evaluate the grid integration of electric vehicles. The effect of an xEV fleet and the impacts of various battery charging scenarios, including the option of feeding power back into the grid, are addressed by detailed technical and economic models and summarized by an energy system model. The suitability of different powertrain concepts is analysed, giving consideration to their individual applications by users. Based on the results of a German nationwide survey of mobility patterns and analyses of 47 test subjects, individual driving profiles for private cars are drawn up and stored in a database. They are used as input for the vehicle energy model. This model calculates the energy requirements of different xEV concepts and facilitates optimized powertrain design and battery sizing for the respective applications. The results show that if the batteries are charged overnight it is possible to cover a major fraction of daily driving distances by electric power. Additional charging during the day does not significantly improve this fraction. The auxiliaries have a greater influence on the vehicle's energy demand than individual driving patterns. Battery lifetime is extended by recharging the battery as required and preferably as late as possible before the next trip. In most cases, using the batteries for grid services reduces battery lifetime and leads to higher specific costs. Models of the transmission grid and typical distribution grids are developed. It is shown that charging one million xEV in 2020 and six million in 2030 (as envisaged by the German Federal Government) is technically feasible without major structural modifications of the transmission

  20. Grid integration of electric-powered vehicles in existing and future energy supply structures. Advances in systems analyses 1. Final report; Netzintegration von Fahrzeugen mit elektrifizierten Antriebssystemen in bestehende und zukuenftige Energieversorgungsstrukturen. Advances in System Analyses 1. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen; Bickert, Stefan; Hennings, Wilfried [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The research project examines whether a fleet of vehicles with electric propulsion system (xEV) can be integrated into existing and future energy supply systems for effective integration of fluctuating power production as well as for energy storage. A multi-sectoral, system-wide scenario analysis is performed to evaluate the grid integration of electric vehicles. The effect of an xEV fleet and the impacts of various battery charging scenarios, including the option of feeding power back into the grid, are addressed by detailed technical and economic models and summarized by an energy system model. The suitability of different powertrain concepts is analysed, giving consideration to their individual applications by users. Based on the results of a German nationwide survey of mobility patterns and analyses of 47 test subjects, individual driving profiles for private cars are drawn up and stored in a database. They are used as input for the vehicle energy model. This model calculates the energy requirements of different xEV concepts and facilitates optimized powertrain design and battery sizing for the respective applications. The results show that if the batteries are charged overnight it is possible to cover a major fraction of daily driving distances by electric power. Additional charging during the day does not significantly improve this fraction. The auxiliaries have a greater influence on the vehicle's energy demand than individual driving patterns. Battery lifetime is extended by recharging the battery as required and preferably as late as possible before the next trip. In most cases, using the batteries for grid services reduces battery lifetime and leads to higher specific costs. Models of the transmission grid and typical distribution grids are developed. It is shown that charging one million xEV in 2020 and six million in 2030 (as envisaged by the German Federal Government) is technically feasible without major structural modifications of the

  1. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  2. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  3. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  4. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  5. Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid in Western Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    capabilities of large power plants in the future, demands for new balancing solutions like Vehicle-to-Grid systems. In this article, aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage representing a Vehicle-to-Grid system is modelled for the use in long term dynamic power system simulations. Further...... Transmission) control areas are significantly minimized by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the electric vehicle battery storage....

  6. Getting Smart? Climate Change and the Electric Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Meadowcroft

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential of smart grid to transform the way societies generate, distribute, and use electricity has increased dramatically over the past decade. A smarter grid could contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation by increasing low-carbon electricity production and enhancing system reliability and resilience. However, climate goals are not necessarily essential for smart grid. Climate change is only one of many considerations motivating innovation in electricity systems, and depending on the path of grid modernization, a future smart grid might do little to reduce, or could even exacerbate, risks associated with climate change. This paper identifies tensions within a shared smart grid vision and illustrates how competing societal priorities are influencing electricity system innovation. Co-existing but divergent priorities among key actors’ are mapped across two critical dimensions: centralized versus decentralized energy systems and radical versus incremental change. Understanding these tensions provides insights on how climate change objectives can be integrated to shape smart grid development. Electricity system change is context-specific and path-dependent, so specific strategies linking smart grid and climate change need to be developed at local, regional, and national levels. And while incremental improvements may bring short term gains, a radical transformation is needed to realize climate objectives.

  7. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  8. Distributed Optimization of Sustainable Power Dispatch and Flexible Consumer Loads for Resilient Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Pirathayini

    Today's electric grid is rapidly evolving to provision for heterogeneous system components (e.g. intermittent generation, electric vehicles, storage devices, etc.) while catering to diverse consumer power demand patterns. In order to accommodate this changing landscape, the widespread integration of cyber communication with physical components can be witnessed in all tenets of the modern power grid. This ubiquitous connectivity provides an elevated level of awareness and decision-making ability to system operators. Moreover, devices that were typically passive in the traditional grid are now `smarter' as these can respond to remote signals, learn about local conditions and even make their own actuation decisions if necessary. These advantages can be leveraged to reap unprecedented long-term benefits that include sustainable, efficient and economical power grid operations. Furthermore, challenges introduced by emerging trends in the grid such as high penetration of distributed energy sources, rising power demands, deregulations and cyber-security concerns due to vulnerabilities in standard communication protocols can be overcome by tapping onto the active nature of modern power grid components. In this thesis, distributed constructs in optimization and game theory are utilized to design the seamless real-time integration of a large number of heterogeneous power components such as distributed energy sources with highly fluctuating generation capacities and flexible power consumers with varying demand patterns to achieve optimal operations across multiple levels of hierarchy in the power grid. Specifically, advanced data acquisition, cloud analytics (such as prediction), control and storage systems are leveraged to promote sustainable and economical grid operations while ensuring that physical network, generation and consumer comfort requirements are met. Moreover, privacy and security considerations are incorporated into the core of the proposed designs and these

  9. Optimal design for an electrical hybrid micro grid in Colombia under fuel price variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-álvarez, Semaria; Patiño, Julián; Márquez, Alejandro; Espinosa, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    In many ways, the availability of electrical energy is associated with the degree of development of a society. In spite of the recent technological advancements, many Latin-American countries remain with a wide number of towns isolated from the main grid of their electrical power systems. Colombia

  10. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  11. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  12. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  13. Power to gas to relieve the electricity distribution networks. Continuation of the study ''Benefit of smart grid concepts taking into account the PtG technology''; Power-to-Gas zur Entlastung der Stromverteilungsnetze. Fortsetzung der Studie ''Nutzen von Smart-Grid-Konzepten unter Beruecksichtigung der PtG-Technologie''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenrauch, Jens; Zoellner, Sylvana; Mueller-Syring, Gert [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany); and others

    2015-07-01

    One of the main challenges in the energy transition is to integrate the increasing based on volatile renewable energy generated power in market and network. Based on actual distribution networks in Emsland in the study presented below was investigated, what contribution an intelligent coupling of electricity and gas distribution networks by means of power to gas (PtG) systems can do to solve this challenge. The investigations have shown, among other things, that the network expansion costs in particular can be significantly reduced by the coupling when otherwise an oversizing would be done by discrete power grid expansion measures. [German] Eine der wesentlichen Herausforderung bei der Energiewende besteht darin, die zunehmend auf volatilen erneuerbaren Energien basierende Stromerzeugung in Markt und Netz zu integrieren. Anhand realer Verteilungsnetze im Emsland wurde in der im Folgenden vorgestellten Studie untersucht, welchen Beitrag eine intelligente Kopplung von Strom- und Gasverteilungsnetzen mittels Power-to-Gas (PtG)-Anlagen zur Loesung dieser Herausforderung leisten kann. Die Untersuchungen haben unter anderem gezeigt, dass durch die Kopplung die Netzausbaukosten insbesondere dann signifikant reduziert werden koennen, wenn andernfalls eine Ueberdimensionierung durch diskrete Stromnetzausbaumassnahmen erfolgen wuerde.

  14. Implementation and Demonstration of Grid Frequency Support by V2G Enabled Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Safe operation of the electric power system relies on conventional power stations. In addition to providing electrical energy to the network, some power stations also provide a number of ancillary services for the grid stability. These services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... Frequency Regulation. The service is implemented following the technical conditions for ancillary services in the Danish grid. The real life system is developed using web-centric communication technologies between the components. Communication and control functions of the system are validated through...

  15. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  16. Multiport power router and its impact on future smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shichijo, Daiki; Wada, Keiji; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a Y configuration power router as a unit cell to easily construct a power delivery system that can meet many types of user requirements. The Y configuration power router controls the direction and magnitude of power flows between three ports regardless of DC or AC. We constructed a prototype three-way isolated DC/DC converter that is the core unit of the Y configuration power router. The electrical insulation between three ports assures safety and reliability for power network systems. We then tested the operation of power flow control. The experimental results revealed that our methodology based on a governing equation was appropriate to control the power flow of the three-way DC/DC converter. In addition, a distribution network composed of power routers had the ability to easily enable interchanges of electrical power between autonomous microgrid cells. We also explored the requirements for communication between energy routers to achieve dynamic adjustments of energy flows in a coordinated manner and their impact on resilient power grid systems.

  17. The System of Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles with Minimal Impact on the Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching and utilization of new energy sources and technologies is a current trend. The effort to increase the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources is characteristic for economically developed countries. The use of accumulation of electrical energy with a large number of decentralized storage units is most preferred, as well as the focus on the production of energy at the point of its consumption. Modern cogeneration units are a good example. This paper describes the accumulation of electrical energy for equalizing the power balance of electric charging stations with high instantaneous power. The possibility of re-utilization of electrical energy from the charged vehicle in the case of lack of electricity in the power grid is solved at the same time. This paper also deals with the selection of appropriate concept of accumulation system and its cooperation with both renewable and distribution networks. Details of the main power components including the results obtained from the system implementation are also described in this paper.

  18. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  19. 78 FR 12042 - Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops AGENCY: Grid Tech Team, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that two documents are publicly available and the Department of Energy is requesting public comments...

  20. Communication solutions for intelligent electricity grid; Kommunikationsloesungen fuer intelligente Stromnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielhauer, Jochen; Wieserner, Gerhard [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Business Unit Sensors and Communication

    2013-06-01

    A central role in the construction of power transmission and power distribution systems are solutions that withstand even the harsh environmental conditions and meet performance-critical applications reliably and without interference. This also applies to all ethernet networks in the power generation and power distribution. Secure and robust communication solutions for smart grids which enable a cost-effective remote monitoring and control of smart grids are decisive.

  1. Grid requirements applicable to future NPPs in the new European Electricity Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Padill, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    With a view to keeping nuclear energy as an option for future power generation in a competitive market and taking advantage of the current operating experience, a group of European electric utilities have come together to define common requirements for the design and supply of future Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants connected to the electrical system. These requirements, defined with the aim of standardizing and adapting design to the conditions of the new electricity framework, are being included in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) document. Although there are different types of power plants operating appropriately in large electrical systems, the idea is to find the minimum requirements that will allow growth of this type of energy in the European electricity industry without reducing quality, safety and reliability of interconnected electrical systems. It is therefore necessary to take into account the features of the existing power systems and the operating characteristics and design of nuclear power plants so as to harmonize their respective technical peculiarities in the framework of the deregulated electricity sector. The definition of these grid requirements is based primarily on the operating conditions of the Union pour la Coordination de la Production et le Transport de L'Electricite (UCPTE) grid and takes into account the current Grid Code of the main European countries, for the forthcoming Issue C. This paper sets outs the most relevant aspects of the grid requirements, included in Chapter 2.3 of the EUR document Grid Requirements, Issue B, for the connection of future nuclear power plants in the European electricity system, and others that are being considered in the preparation of the new issue of the document that will take into account the deregulated electricity market situation and deal with the following aspects: General characteristics. Operation of a plant under normal grid conditions. Operation of a plant under disturbed grid

  2. Economic aspects of grid connected solar electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, F.

    1993-01-01

    Experience gained with available solar thermal technologies enlighten on options for research and development on solar electricity generation. The proposed analysis of new solar technologies concerns market, costs and profit viewpoint: - Systems under development have to fit with consumers' needs and utilities' specifications, technology is not the only item to study. - Expense headings depend on technological options and operation procedures such as size of the plant, solar only or hybrid concept. - Anticipation of revenues highly depends on direct insolation quality and on local conditions for introducing the electric power generated into the network: daily direct insolation measurements and annual local load curve are prerequisite data. Strategic advantages regarding environment and sustainable development are to be pointed out, specially in industrialized countries or for projects including financing institutions. As far as generating electric power on the grid is a major challenge in the development of a number of countries in the sun belt, cooperation between industrialized and developing countries, under the auspices of international organization, has to be promoted. (Author) 12 refs

  3. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  4. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  5. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  6. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  7. Modelling Load Shifing Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) represent both a new demand for electricity and a possible storage medium that could supply power to utilities. The 'load shifting' and 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts could help cut electricity demand during peak periods and prove especially helpful in smoothing variations in power generation introduced to the grid by variable renewable resources such as wind and solar power. This paper proposes a method for simulating the potential benefits of using EVs in load shifting and 'vehicle-to-grid' applications for four different regions -- the United States, Western Europe, China and Japan -- that are expected to have large numbers of EVs by 2050.

  8. Electrolyzers Enhancing Flexibility in Electric Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mohanpurkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time simulation with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL-based approach for verifying the performance of electrolyzer systems in providing grid support. Hydrogen refueling stations may use electrolyzer systems to generate hydrogen and are proposed to have the potential of becoming smarter loads that can proactively provide grid services. On the basis of experimental findings, electrolyzer systems with balance of plant are observed to have a high level of controllability and hence can add flexibility to the grid from the demand side. A generic front end controller (FEC is proposed, which enables an optimal operation of the load on the basis of market and grid conditions. This controller has been simulated and tested in a real-time environment with electrolyzer hardware for a performance assessment. It can optimize the operation of electrolyzer systems on the basis of the information collected by a communication module. Real-time simulation tests are performed to verify the performance of the FEC-driven electrolyzers to provide grid support that enables flexibility, greater economic revenue, and grid support for hydrogen producers under dynamic conditions. The FEC proposed in this paper is tested with electrolyzers, however, it is proposed as a generic control topology that is applicable to any load.

  9. A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Cheol-Hee; Chung, Il-Yop; Yoo, Hyun-Jae; Hong, Sung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (P...

  10. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  11. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  12. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  13. Power grid operation risk management: V2G deployment for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadian, Ghazale J.

    The production, transmission, and delivery of cost--efficient energy to supply ever-increasing peak loads along with a quest for developing a low-carbon economy require significant evolutions in the power grid operations. Lower prices of vast natural gas resources in the United States, Fukushima nuclear disaster, higher and more intense energy consumptions in China and India, issues related to energy security, and recent Middle East conflicts, have urged decisions makers throughout the world to look into other means of generating electricity locally. As the world look to combat climate changes, a shift from carbon-based fuels to non-carbon based fuels is inevitable. However, the variability of distributed generation assets in the electricity grid has introduced major reliability challenges for power grid operators. While spearheading sustainable and reliable power grid operations, this dissertation develops a multi-stakeholder approach to power grid operation design; aiming to address economic, security, and environmental challenges of the constrained electricity generation. It investigates the role of Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets integration, as distributed and mobile storage assets to support high penetrations of renewable energy sources, in the power grid. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept is considered to demonstrate the bidirectional role of EV fleets both as a provider and consumer of energy in securing a sustainable power grid operation. The proposed optimization modeling is the application of Mixed-Integer Linear Programing (MILP) to large-scale systems to solve the hourly security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) -- an optimal scheduling concept in the economic operation of electric power systems. The Monte Carlo scenario-based approach is utilized to evaluate different scenarios concerning the uncertainties in the operation of power grid system. Further, in order to expedite the real-time solution of the proposed approach for large-scale power systems

  14. Fuel Cell Backup Power System for Grid Service and Micro-Grid in Telecommunication Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-22

    This paper presents the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in telecommunication cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., ancillary services, demand response). The fuel cells are able to provide power for the cell tower during emergency conditions. This study evaluates the strategic integration of clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems with the grid for improved economic benefits. The backup systems have potential as enhanced capability through information exchanges with the power grid to add value as grid services that depend on location and time. The economic analysis has been focused on the potential revenue for distributed telecommunications fuel cell backup units to provide value-added power supply. This paper shows case studies on current fuel cell backup power locations and regional grid service programs. The grid service benefits and system configurations for different operation modes provide opportunities for expanding backup fuel cell applications responsive to grid needs.

  15. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  16. Power control and management of the grid containing largescale wind power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil Toufick

    The ever increasing demand for electricity has driven many countries toward the installation of new generation facilities. However, concerns such as environmental pollution and global warming issues, clean energy sources, high costs associated with installation of new conventional power plants, and fossil fuels depletion have created many interests in finding alternatives to conventional fossil fuels for generating electricity. Wind energy is one of the most rapidly growing renewable power sources and wind power generations have been increasingly demanded as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed. Therefore, large-scale integration of wind energy conversion systems is a threat to the stability and reliability of utility grids containing these systems. They disturb the balance between power generation and consumption, affect the quality of the electricity, and complicate load sharing and load distribution managing and planning. Overall, wind power systems do not help in providing any services such as operating and regulating reserves to the power grid. In order to resolve these issues, research has been conducted in utilizing weather forecasting data to improve the performance of the wind power system, reduce the influence of the fluctuations, and plan power management of the grid containing large-scale wind power systems which consist of doubly-fed induction generator based energy conversion system. The aims of this research, my dissertation, are to provide new methods for: smoothing the output power of the wind power systems and reducing the influence of their fluctuations, power managing and planning of a grid containing these systems and other conventional power plants, and providing a new structure of implementing of latest microprocessor technology for controlling and managing the operation of the wind power system. In this research, in order to reduce and smooth the fluctuations, two

  17. Economics of Wind Power when National Grids are Unreliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2010-01-01

    Power interruptions are a typical characteristic of national grids in developing countries. Manufacturing, processing, refrigeration and other facilities that require a dependable supply of power, and might be considered a small grid within the larger national grid, employ diesel generators for

  18. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t

  19. Analysis of a power grid using a Kuramoto-like model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2008-01-01

    We show that there is a link between the Kuramoto paradigm and another system of synchronized oscillators, namely an electrical power distribution grid of generators and consumers. The purpose of this work is to show both the formal analogy and some practical consequences. The mapping can be made...... quantitative, and under some necessary approximations a class of Kuramoto-like models, those with bimodal distribution of the frequencies, is most appropriate for the power-grid. In fact in the power-grid there are two kinds of oscillators: the “sources" delivering power to the “consumers"....

  20. Research on the effects of wind power grid to the distribution network of Henan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    With the draining of traditional energy, all parts of nation implement policies to develop new energy to generate electricity under the favorable national policy. The wind has no pollution, Renewable and other advantages. It has become the most popular energy among the new energy power generation. The development of wind power in Henan province started relatively late, but the speed of the development is fast. The wind power of Henan province has broad development prospects. Wind power has the characteristics of volatility and randomness. The wind power access to power grids will cause much influence on the power stability and the power quality of distribution network, and some areas have appeared abandon the wind phenomenon. So the study of wind power access to power grids and find out improvement measures is very urgent. Energy storage has the properties of the space transfer energy can stabilize the operation of power grid and improve the power quality.

  1. Nationwide impact and vehicle to grid application of electric vehicles mobility using an activity based model

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Roberto; González, Jairo; Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of electric mobility on the transmission grid in Flanders region (Belgium), using a micro-simulation activity based models. These models are used to provide temporal and spatial estimation of energy and power demanded by electric vehicles (EVs) in different mobility zones. The increment in the load demand due to electric mobility is added to the background load demand in these mobility areas and the effects over the transmission substations are analyzed. From t...

  2. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  3. Electric power: the liberalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nine months after the beginning of the deregulation of electric power markets in Europe, the first effects are being felt: fall of prices, amalgamation of electric power companies, development of new technologies and unemployment. (O.M.)

  4. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  5. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  6. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  7. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel; Usatorre, Karine de

    2007-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  8. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  9. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  10. Comparison and Evaluation of the Performance of Various Types of Neural Networks for Planning Issues Related to Optimal Management of Charging and Discharging Electric Cars in Intelligent Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Moradzaeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric vehicles in addition to reducing environmental concerns can play a significant role in reducing the peak and filling the characteristic valleys of the daily network load. In other words, in the context of smart grids, it is possible to improve the battery of electric vehicles by scheduling charging and discharging processes. In this research, the issue of controlling the charge and discharge of electric vehicles was evaluated using a variety of neural models, until the by examining the effect of the growth rate of the penetration level of electric vehicles of the hybrid type that can be connected to the distribution network, the results of the charge management and discharge model of the proposed response are examined. The results indicate that due to increased penetration of these cars is increased the amount of responses to charge and discharge management. In this research, a variety of neural network methods, a neural network method using Multilayer Perceptron Training (MLP, b neural network method using Jordan Education (RNN, c neural network method using training (RBF Was evaluated based on parameters such as reduction of training error, reduction of network testing error, duration of run and number of replications for each one. The final results indicate that electric vehicles can be used as scattered power plants, and can be useful for regulating the frequency and regulation of network voltages and the supply of peak traffic. This also reduces peak charges and incidental costs, which ultimately helps to further network stability. Finally, the charge and discharge management response reflects the fact that intelligent network-based models have the ability to manage the charge and discharge of electric vehicles, and among the models the amount of error reduction training and testing is very favourable for both RNN, MLP.

  11. Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...

  12. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Oodo, S O; He, H; Qiu, G Y

    2013-01-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  13. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  14. Electric vehicles to support large wind power penetration in future danish power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) could play major role in the future intelligent grids to support a large penetration of renewable energy in Denmark, especially electricity production from wind turbines. The future power systems aims to phase-out big conventional fossil-fueled generators with large number...... on low voltage residential networks. Significant amount of EVs could be integrated in local distribution grids with the support of intelligent grid and smart charging strategies....

  15. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  16. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  17. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  18. Multi-port power router and its impact on resilient power grid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Wada, Keiji

    2016-02-01

    We propose a Y-configuration power router as a unit cell to easily construct a power delivery system that can meet many types of user requirements. The Y-configuration power router controls the direction and magnitude of power flow among three ports regardless of DC and AC. We constructed a prototype three-way isolated DC/DC converter that is the core unit of the Y-configuration power router and tested the power flow control operation. Experimental results revealed that our methodology based on the governing equation was appropriate for the power flow control of the three-way DC/DC converter. In addition, the hexagonal distribution network composed of the power routers has the ability to easily interchange electric power between autonomous microgrid cells. We also explored the requirements for communication between energy routers to achieve dynamic adjustments of energy flow in a coordinated manner and its impact on resilient power grid systems.

  19. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  20. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of substations, from the initial concept to design, automation, operation, and physical and cyber security. Written by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Power Engineering Society (PES) Substations Committee, each section provides a tutorial and includes references for further reading and study. The authors use photographs and graphics to help the reader understand the material. Exploring the most recent technological developments regarding industry practice and standards, the book provides an extensive overview of substations th

  1. Concentrated solar power plants impact on PV penetration level and grid flexibility under Egyptian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Ibrahim; Elbaset, Adel A.; El Dein, Adel Z.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system integration in the electric grid has been increasing over the past decades. However, the impact of PV penetration on the electric grid, especially during the periods of higher and lower generation for the solar system at the middle of the day and during cloudy weather or at night respectively, limit the high penetration of solar PV system. In this research, a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been aggregated with PV system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. This paper analyzes the impacts of CSP on the grid-connected PV considering high penetration of PV system, particularly when no energy storages in the form of batteries are used. Two cases have been studied, the first when only PV system is integrated into the electric grid and the second when two types of solar energy (PV and CSP) are integrated. The System Advisor Model (SAM) software is used to simulate the output power of renewable energy. Simulation results show that the performance of CSP has a great impact on the penetration level of PV system and on the flexibility of the electric grid. The overall grid flexibility increases due to the ability of CSP to store and dispatch the generated power. In addition, CSP/TES itself has inherent flexibility. Therefore, CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.

  2. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  3. Machine learning for the New York City power grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Cynthia; Waltz, David; Anderson, Roger N; Boulanger, Albert; Salleb-Aouissi, Ansaf; Chow, Maggie; Dutta, Haimonti; Gross, Philip N; Huang, Bert; Ierome, Steve; Isaac, Delfina F; Kressner, Arthur; Passonneau, Rebecca J; Radeva, Axinia; Wu, Leon

    2012-02-01

    Power companies can benefit from the use of knowledge discovery methods and statistical machine learning for preventive maintenance. We introduce a general process for transforming historical electrical grid data into models that aim to predict the risk of failures for components and systems. These models can be used directly by power companies to assist with prioritization of maintenance and repair work. Specialized versions of this process are used to produce 1) feeder failure rankings, 2) cable, joint, terminator, and transformer rankings, 3) feeder Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) estimates, and 4) manhole events vulnerability rankings. The process in its most general form can handle diverse, noisy, sources that are historical (static), semi-real-time, or realtime, incorporates state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for prioritization (supervised ranking or MTBF), and includes an evaluation of results via cross-validation and blind test. Above and beyond the ranked lists and MTBF estimates are business management interfaces that allow the prediction capability to be integrated directly into corporate planning and decision support; such interfaces rely on several important properties of our general modeling approach: that machine learning features are meaningful to domain experts, that the processing of data is transparent, and that prediction results are accurate enough to support sound decision making. We discuss the challenges in working with historical electrical grid data that were not designed for predictive purposes. The “rawness” of these data contrasts with the accuracy of the statistical models that can be obtained from the process; these models are sufficiently accurate to assist in maintaining New York City’s electrical grid.

  4. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  5. Electricity distribution management Smart Grid system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues concerning the implementation of Smart Grid solutions in a real distribution network. The main components possible to quick implementation were presented. Realization of these ideas should bring tangible benefi ts to both customers and distribution system operators. Moreover the paper shows selected research results which examine proposed solutions in area of improving supply reliability and reducing energy losses in analysed network.

  6. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  7. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averous, Nurhan Rizqy; Berthold, Anica; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids. (paper)

  8. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqy Averous, Nurhan; Berthold, Anica; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.

    2016-09-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids.

  9. Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smart grids with renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandoman, Foad H.; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has created new challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface...... the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role in improving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energy utilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a literature survey of FACTS...... technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energy system utilization....

  10. A Stationary Reference Frame Grid Synchronization System for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, P.; Luna, A.; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    synchronization method for three-phase three-wire networks, namely dual second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) frequency-locked loop. The method is based on two adaptive filters, implemented by using a SOGI on the stationary αβ reference frame, and it is able to perform an excellent estimation......Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid...

  11. Power Loss Analysis for Wind Power Grid Integration Based on Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Ameri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of electrical demand increases the need of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, to meet that need. Electrical power losses are an important factor when wind farm location and size are selected. The capitalized cost of constant power losses during the life of a wind farm will continue to high levels. During the operation period, a method to determine if the losses meet the requirements of the design is significantly needed. This article presents a Simulink simulation of wind farm integration into the grid; the aim is to achieve a better understanding of wind variation impact on grid losses. The real power losses are set as a function of the annual variation, considering a Weibull distribution. An analytical method has been used to select the size and placement of a wind farm, taking into account active power loss reduction. It proposes a fast linear model estimation to find the optimal capacity of a wind farm based on DC power flow and graph theory. The results show that the analytical approach is capable of predicting the optimal size and location of wind turbines. Furthermore, it revealed that the annual variation of wind speed could have a strong effect on real power loss calculations. In addition to helping to improve utility efficiency, the proposed method can develop specific designs to speeding up integration of wind farms into grids.

  12. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  13. Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.

  14. Market partner orientation in power grid operation; Marktpartnerorientierung im Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Claudia; Gebhardt, Andreas [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Customer orientation is often neglected in power grid operation. Power grid owners have natural monopolies and defined territories and so far had little reason to consider their customers' needs. This is changing with changed boundary conditions. In the competition for concessions and customers for non-regulated services, those grid owners will prevail in the long run wo are aware of their market partners, their power and expectations, and wo are prepared to implement profit-oriented customer orientation measures. (orig.)

  15. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  16. A Survey on Next-generation Power Grid Data Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shutang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Dr. Lin [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yong [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Robertson, Russell [Grid Protection Alliance; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The operation and control of power grids will increasingly rely on data. A high-speed, reliable, flexible and secure data architecture is the prerequisite of the next-generation power grid. This paper summarizes the challenges in collecting and utilizing power grid data, and then provides reference data architecture for future power grids. Based on the data architecture deployment, related research on data architecture is reviewed and summarized in several categories including data measurement/actuation, data transmission, data service layer, data utilization, as well as two cross-cutting issues, interoperability and cyber security. Research gaps and future work are also presented.

  17. Local load management system and intermittent power on the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project relates to the UK's obligations on renewable energy sources. The objectives were (i) to identify contractual requirements and commercial benefits of load management under the UK's Renewable Obligation and electric power trading arrangements (ii) through modelling, demonstrate the benefits of load management to major customers operating on-site wind generators; (iii) to develop a low-cost load management system incorporating communication technologies and switching devices and (iv) to identify the social and psychological aspects of load management. The demonstration of the load management system was conducted on the Findhorn Foundation's low voltage electric power distribution network and a 75kw wind turbine. The project demonstrated suitable technology for distributed load management on a grid-connected system in order to optimize the renewable energy generated on site, and the analyses identified several areas where grid-connected management can provide financial benefits. There is much scope for exploitation of commercial opportunities. The work was conducted by Econnect Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  18. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  19. 78 FR 35539 - Transforming Our Nation's Electric Grid Through Improved Siting, Permitting, and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... key factor in future economic growth, and a critical component of our energy security. Countries that... manage cyber-security threats. By diversifying power sources and reducing congestion, a modernized grid will also create cost savings for consumers and spur economic growth. Modernizing our Nation's electric...

  20. The Most Economical Mode of Power Supply for Remote and Less Developed Areas in China: Power Grid Extension or Micro-Grid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are still residents without access to electricity in some remote and less developed areas of China, which lead to low living standards and hinder sustainable development for these residents. In order to achieve the strategic targets of solving China’s energy poverty, realizing basic energy service equalization, and comprehensively building up a moderately prosperous society, several policies have been successively promulgated in recent years, which aim to solve the electricity access issue for residents living in remote and less developed areas. It is of great importance to determine the most economical mode of power supply in remote and less developed areas, which directly affects the economic efficiency of public investment projects. Therefore, this paper focuses on how to select the most economical power supply mode for rural electrification in China. Firstly, the primary modes to supply electricity for residents living in the remote and less developed areas are discussed, which include power grid extension mode and micro-grid mode. Secondly, based on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE technique, the life cycle economic cost accounting model for different power supply modes are built. Finally, taking a minority nationality village in Yunnan province as an example, the empirical analysis is performed, and the LCOEs of various possible modes for rural electrification are accounted. The results show that the photovoltaic (PV-based independent micro-grid system is the most economical due to the minimum LCOE, namely 0.658 RMB/kWh. However, other power supply modes have much higher LCOEs. The LCOEs of power grid extension model, wind-based independent micro-grid system and biomass-based independent micro-grid system are 1.078 RMB/kWh, 0.704 RMB/kWh and 0.885 RMB/kWh, respectively. The proposed approach is effective and practical, which can provide reference for rural electrification in China.

  1. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  2. Coordinated Charging of Electric Vehicles for Congestion Prevention in the Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Lind, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs), like electric vehicles (EVs), can offer valuable services to power systems, such as enabling renewable energy to the electricity producer and providing ancillary services to the system operator. However, these new DERs may challenge the distribution grid due...... limits of cables and transformers in a distribution grid capacity market framework. Firstly, a theoretical market framework is described. Within this framework, FOs who represent their customer’s (EV owners) interests will centrally guarantee the EV owners’ driving requirements and procure the energy...

  3. Drought and Heat Wave Impacts on Electricity Grid Reliability in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Lubega, W. N.

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of thermal power plants in the United States use cooling systems that discharge large volumes of heated water into rivers and cooling ponds. To minimize thermal pollution from these discharges, restrictions are placed on temperatures at the edge of defined mixing zones in the receiving waters. However, during extended hydrological droughts and heat waves, power plants are often granted thermal variances permitting them to exceed these temperature restrictions. These thermal variances are often deemed necessary for maintaining electricity reliability, particularly as heat waves cause increased electricity demand. Current practice, however, lacks tools for the development of grid-scale operational policies specifying generator output levels that ensure reliable electricity supply while minimizing thermal variances. Such policies must take into consideration characteristics of individual power plants, topology and characteristics of the electricity grid, and locations of power plants within the river basin. In this work, we develop a methodology for the development of these operational policies that captures necessary factors. We develop optimal rules for different hydrological and meteorological conditions, serving as rule curves for thermal power plants. The rules are conditioned on leading modes of the ambient hydrological and meteorological conditions at the different power plant locations, as the locations are geographically close and hydrologically connected. Heat dissipation in the rivers and cooling ponds is modeled using the equilibrium temperature concept. Optimal rules are determined through a Monte Carlo sampling optimization framework. The methodology is applied to a case study of eight power plants in Illinois that were granted thermal variances in the summer of 2012, with a representative electricity grid model used in place of the actual electricity grid.

  4. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  5. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    . As an example, the latest published grid codes stress the ability of distributed generators, especially wind turbines, to stay connected during short grid disturbances and in addition to provide active/reactive power control at the point of common coupling. Based on the above facts, the need for improving...... reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power and an enhanced contribution of distributed power generation systems to power system stability...... and adding more features to the control of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) arises. As a consequence, this thesis focuses on grid monitoring methods and possible approaches in control in order to obtain a more reliable and  exible power generation system during normal and faulty grid conditions...

  6. AEP smart grid demo : virtual power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, M.

    2010-01-01

    This power point presentation described a virtual power plant simulation study conducted by American Electric Power (AEP), a utility with over 5.4 million customers. The simulation study was conducted in order to enable the installation of smart meters as well as to ensure remote monitoring and control of distribution line devices and energy resources. The simulation study assessed the functionality and performance of a fully integrated smart grid using real system and device information and data. The simulations were also used to optimize power costs and plant efficiency. Energy resources simulated in the study included battery installations, photovoltaic (PV) systems, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines, hybrid electric vehicles, community energy storage systems, and wind turbines. The study also assessed the regional market structure. The impacts of various protocols and standards were assessed in order to determine control system requirement and evaluate constraints and energy efficiency targets. The simulation included regional power system, station transformers, and distribution circuit breakers. Various automation schemes were considered, as well as an integrated VAR control concept. Community energy storage unit specifications were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  7. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  8. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The energy flow decision is changed by peak and off peak hours to shorten the functional cost of the grid associated PV framework with storage. Naturally, the quantities of electric vehicles that can be associated are resolved.

  9. Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

  10. Optimal Coordinated EV Charging with Reactive Power Support in Constrained Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyal, Sumit; Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-07-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging can take place in any P-Q quadrants, which means EVs could support reactive power to the grid while charging the battery. In controlled charging schemes, distribution system operator (DSO) coordinates with the charging of EV fleets to ensure grid’s operating constraints are not violated. In fact, this refers to DSO setting upper bounds on power limits for EV charging. In this work, we demonstrate that if EVs inject reactive power into the grid while charging, DSO could issue higher upper bounds on the active power limits for the EVs for the same set of grid constraints. We demonstrate the concept in an 33-node test feeder with 1,500 EVs. Case studies show that in constrained distribution grids in coordinated charging, average costs of EV charging could be reduced if the charging takes place in the fourth P-Q quadrant compared to charging with unity power factor.

  11. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  12. Impact of network topology on synchrony of oscillatory power grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohden, Martin; Sorge, Andreas; Witthaut, Dirk [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Faculty of Physics, Georg August Universität Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Replacing conventional power sources by renewable sources in current power grids drastically alters their structure and functionality. In particular, power generation in the resulting grid will be far more decentralized, with a distinctly different topology. Here, we analyze the impact of grid topologies on spontaneous synchronization, considering regular, random, and small-world topologies and focusing on the influence of decentralization. We model the consumers and sources of the power grid as second order oscillators. First, we analyze the global dynamics of the simplest non-trivial (two-node) network that exhibit a synchronous (normal operation) state, a limit cycle (power outage), and coexistence of both. Second, we estimate stability thresholds for the collective dynamics of small network motifs, in particular, star-like networks and regular grid motifs. For larger networks, we numerically investigate decentralization scenarios finding that decentralization itself may support power grids in exhibiting a stable state for lower transmission line capacities. Decentralization may thus be beneficial for power grids, regardless of the details of their resulting topology. Regular grids show a specific sharper transition not found for random or small-world grids.

  13. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...

  14. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  15. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  16. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  17. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  18. The footprint of atmospheric turbulence in power grid frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehne, H.; Schottler, J.; Waechter, M.; Peinke, J.; Kamps, O.

    2018-02-01

    Fluctuating wind energy makes a stable grid operation challenging. Due to the direct contact with atmospheric turbulence, intermittent short-term variations in the wind speed are converted to power fluctuations that cause transient imbalances in the grid. We investigate the impact of wind energy feed-in on short-term fluctuations in the frequency of the public power grid, which we have measured in our local distribution grid. By conditioning on wind power production data, provided by the ENTSO-E transparency platform, we demonstrate that wind energy feed-in has a measurable effect on frequency increment statistics for short time scales (renewable generation.

  19. Building Automation and Control Systems and Electrical Distribution Grids: A Study on the Effects of Loads Control Logics on Power Losses and Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Favuzza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing home comfort is causing increasing energy consumption in residential buildings and a consequent stress in urban medium and low voltage distribution networks. Therefore, distribution system operators are obliged to manage problems related to the reliability of the electricity system and, above all, they must consider investments for enhancing the electrical infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess how the reduction of building electricity consumption and the modification of the building load profile, due to load automation, combined with suitable load control programs, can improve network reliability and distribution efficiency. This paper proposes an extensive study on this issue, considering various operating scenarios with four load control programs with different purposes, the presence/absence of local generation connected to the buildings and different external thermal conditions. The study also highlights how different climatic conditions can influence the effects of the load control logics.

  20. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  1. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  2. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  3. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  4. AstroGrid: AstroGrid: Powering the virtual universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2002-02-01

    Nic Walton describes a programme to break down wavelength barriers and empower astronomers, as well as making full use of astronomical archives. The full potential of the data from the major new observational facilities (e.g. VISTA) available to the community will only be realized if inclusive, rich, data access and manipulation mechanisms are provided. Astronomical endeavour will be further leveraged if these mechanisms enable ``science-driven'' research programmes benefiting from access to multiple data sources. I describe here the reasons and resources behind AstroGrid.

  5. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  6. Measurement of power loss during electric vehicle charging and discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolaki-Iosifidou, Elpiniki; Codani, Paul; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    When charging or discharging electric vehicles, power losses occur in the vehicle and the building systems supplying the vehicle. A new use case for electric vehicles, grid services, has recently begun commercial operation. Vehicles capable of such application, called Grid-Integrated Vehicles, may have use cases with charging and discharging summing up to much more energy transfer than the charging only use case, so measuring and reducing electrical losses is even more important. In this study, the authors experimentally measure and analyze the power losses of a Grid-Integrated Vehicle system, via detailed measurement of the building circuits, power feed components, and of sample electric vehicle components. Under the conditions studied, measured total one-way losses vary from 12% to 36%, so understanding loss factors is important to efficient design and use. Predominant losses occur in the power electronics used for AC-DC conversion. The electronics efficiency is lowest at low power transfer and low state-of-charge, and is lower during discharging than charging. Based on these findings, two engineering design approaches are proposed. First, optimal sizing of charging stations is analyzed. Second, a dispatch algorithm for grid services operating at highest efficiency is developed, showing 7.0% to 9.7% less losses than the simple equal dispatch algorithm. - Highlights: • Grid-to-battery-to-grid comprehensive power loss measurement and analysis. • No previous experimental measurements of Grid-Integrated Vehicle system power loss. • Electric vehicle loss analyzed as a factor of state of charge and charging rate. • Power loss in the building components less than 3%. • Largest losses found in Power Electronics (typical round-trip loss 20%).

  7. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  8. A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Lund, Torsten; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2007-01-01

    A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by Energinet.dk, Transmission...

  9. Stability assessment of a multi-port power electronic interface for hybrid micro-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Pourya

    Migration to an industrial society increases the demand for electrical energy. Meanwhile, social causes for preserving the environment and reducing pollutions seek cleaner forms of energy sources. Therefore, there has been a growth in distributed generation from renewable sources in the past decade. Existing regulations and power system coordination does not allow for massive integration of distributed generation throughout the grid. Moreover, the current infrastructures are not designed for interfacing distributed and deregulated generation. In order to remedy this problem, a hybrid micro-grid based on nano-grids is introduced. This system consists of a reliable micro-grid structure that provides a smooth transition from the current distribution networks to smart micro-grid systems. Multi-port power electronic interfaces are introduced to manage the local generation, storage, and consumption. Afterwards, a model for this micro-grid is derived. Using this model, the stability of the system under a variety of source and load induced disturbances is studied. Moreover, pole-zero study of the micro-grid is performed under various loading conditions. An experimental setup of this micro-grid is developed, and the validity of the model in emulating the dynamic behavior of the system is verified. This study provides a theory for a novel hybrid micro-grid as well as models for stability assessment of the proposed micro-grid.

  10. Modeling Of Components Of A Photovoltaic System With Voltage Inverter For Connection To The Electrical Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Andreza C.; Blasques, Luis C. M.; Galhardo, Marcos A. B.; Pinho, João T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of the electrical equipment and control mechanisms used in the power conditioning system of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS), such as the photovoltaic generator, the DC/DC converter, the voltage inverter with PWM control, its output filter, as well as the converter controls and their functionalities, and the interconnection of the system with the distribution grid and load. In addition to the modeling of the grid-tie inverter, the main equipment of the power conditioning system, this paper describes the synchronization form of the photovoltaic (PV) generation with the electricity distribution grid, considering the power injection control method, the maximum power point tracking technique for maximizing the energy supplied by the photovoltaic generator, and the complete topology of the proposed PV system. The main objective is to provide a computational model capable of simulating the behavior of the GCPVS elements, varying the climatic conditions and the power demand on the AC side, presenting consistent results for different operating conditions, such as variations of climatic parameters (solar irradiance, wind speed, and ambient temperature) and load. In these cases, it is possible to evaluate the behavior of the system, sometimes supplying both the active and reactive power of the load, according to the need. (author)

  11. Integrated Electrical and Thermal Grid Facility - Testing of Future Microgrid Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Raj Thangavelu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Experimental Power Grid Centre (EPGC microgrid test facility, which was developed to enable research, development and testing for a wide range of distributed generation and microgrid technologies. The EPGC microgrid facility comprises a integrated electrical and thermal grid with a flexible and configurable architecture, and includes various distributed energy resources and emulators, such as generators, renewable, energy storage technologies and programmable load banks. The integrated thermal grid provides an opportunity to harness waste heat produced by the generators for combined heat, power and cooling applications, and support research in optimization of combined electrical-thermal systems. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate the testing of different control and operation strategies for storage systems in grid-connected and islanded microgrids. One of the case studies also demonstrates an integrated thermal grid to convert waste heat to useful energy, which thus far resulted in a higher combined energy efficiency. Experiment results confirm that the facility enables testing and evaluation of grid technologies and practical problems that may not be apparent in a computer simulated environment.

  12. Grid Integration Science, NREL Power Systems Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-25

    This report highlights journal articles published in 2016 by researchers in the Power Systems Engineering Center. NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center published 47 journal and magazine articles in the past year, highlighting recent research in grid modernization.

  13. Operation Performance Evaluation of Power Grid Enterprise Using a Hybrid BWM-TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity market reform is in progress in China, and the operational performance of power grid enterprises are vital for its healthy and sustainable development in the current electricity market environment. In this paper, a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM framework for operational performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is proposed from the perspective of sustainability. The latest MCDM method, namely the best-worst method (BWM was employed to determine the weights of all criteria, and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS was applied to rank the operation performance of a power grid enterprise. The evaluation index system was built based on the concept of sustainability, which includes three criteria (namely economy, society, and environment and seven sub-criteria. Four power grid enterprises were selected to perform the empirical analysis, and the results indicate that power grid enterprise A1 has the best operation performance. The proposed hybrid BWM-TOPSIS-based framework for operation performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is effective and practical.

  14. ASP - Grid connections of large power generating units; ASP - Anslutning av stoerre produktionsanlaeggningar till elnaetet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Aake; Larsson, Richard [Vattenfall Power Consultants, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Grid connections of large power generating units normally require more detailed studies compared to small single units. The required R and D-level depends on the specific characteristics of the production units and the connecting grid. An inquiry for a grid connection will raise questions for the grid owner regarding transmission capability, losses, fault currents, relay protection, dynamic stability etc. Then only a few larger wind farms have been built, the experiences from these types of grid connections are limited and for that reason it can be difficult to identify issues appropriate for further studies. To ensure that electric power generating units do not have unacceptable impact on the grid, directions from the Swedish TSO (Svenska Kraftnaet) have been stated. The directions deal, for example, with power generation in specific ranges of voltage level and frequency and the possibility to remain connected to the grid when different faults occur. The requirements and the consequences of these directions are illustrated. There are three main issues that should be considered: Influence on the power flow from generating units regarding voltage level, currents, losses etc.; Different types of electric systems in generating units contribute to different levels of fault currents. For that reason the resulting fault current levels have to be studied; It is required that generating units should remain connected to the grid at different modes of operation and faults. These modes have to be verified. Load flow and dynamic studies normally demand computer models. Comprehensive models, for instance of wind farms, can bee difficult to design and normally large computer capacity is required. Therefore simplified methods to perform relevant studies are described. How to model an electric power generating unit regarding fault currents and dynamic stability is described. An inquiry for a grid connection normally brings about a discussion concerning administration. To make it

  15. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  16. Transient Control of Synchronous Machine Active and Reactive Power in Micro-grid Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Luke G.

    There are two main topics associated with this dissertation. The first is to investigate phase-to-neutral fault current magnitude occurring in generators with multiple zero-sequence current sources. The second is to design, model, and tune a linear control system for operating a micro-grid in the event of a separation from the electric power system. In the former case, detailed generator, AC8B excitation system, and four-wire electric power system models are constructed. Where available, manufacturers data is used to validate the generator and exciter models. A gain-delay with frequency droop control is used to model an internal combustion engine and governor. The four wire system is connected through a transformer impedance to an infinite bus. Phase-to-neutral faults are imposed on the system, and fault magnitudes analyzed against three-phase faults to gauge their severity. In the latter case, a balanced three-phase system is assumed. The model structure from the former case - but using data for a different generator - is incorporated with a model for an energy storage device and a net load model to form a micro-grid. The primary control model for the energy storage device has a high level of detail, as does the energy storage device plant model in describing the LC filter and transformer. A gain-delay battery and inverter model is used at the front end. The net load model is intended to be the difference between renewable energy sources and load within a micro-grid system that has separated from the grid. Given the variability of both renewable generation and load, frequency and voltage stability are not guaranteed. This work is an attempt to model components of a proposed micro-grid system at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, and design, model, and tune a linear control system for operation in the event of a separation from the electric power system. The control module is responsible for management of frequency and active power, and voltage and reactive

  17. The eGo grid model: An open source approach towards a model of German high and extra-high voltage power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulf Philipp; Wienholt, Lukas; Kleinhans, David; Cussmann, Ilka; Bunke, Wolf-Dieter; Pleßmann, Guido; Wendiggensen, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    There are several power grid modelling approaches suitable for simulations in the field of power grid planning. The restrictive policies of grid operators, regulators and research institutes concerning their original data and models lead to an increased interest in open source approaches of grid models based on open data. By including all voltage levels between 60 kV (high voltage) and 380kV (extra high voltage), we dissolve the common distinction between transmission and distribution grid in energy system models and utilize a single, integrated model instead. An open data set for primarily Germany, which can be used for non-linear, linear and linear-optimal power flow methods, was developed. This data set consists of an electrically parameterised grid topology as well as allocated generation and demand characteristics for present and future scenarios at high spatial and temporal resolution. The usability of the grid model was demonstrated by the performance of exemplary power flow optimizations. Based on a marginal cost driven power plant dispatch, being subject to grid restrictions, congested power lines were identified. Continuous validation of the model is nescessary in order to reliably model storage and grid expansion in progressing research.

  18. Modeling and Economic Analysis of Power Grid Operations in a Water Constrained System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Xia, Y.; Veselka, T.; Yan, E.; Betrie, G.; Qiu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The power sector is the largest water user in the United States. Depending on the cooling technology employed at a facility, steam-electric power stations withdrawal and consume large amounts of water for each megawatt hour of electricity generated. The amounts are dependent on many factors, including ambient air and water temperatures, cooling technology, etc. Water demands from most economic sectors are typically highest during summertime. For most systems, this coincides with peak electricity demand and consequently a high demand for thermal power plant cooling water. Supplies however are sometimes limited due to seasonal precipitation fluctuations including sporadic droughts that lead to water scarcity. When this occurs there is an impact on both unit commitments and the real-time dispatch. In this work, we model the cooling efficiency of several different types of thermal power generation technologies as a function of power output level and daily temperature profiles. Unit specific relationships are then integrated in a power grid operational model that minimizes total grid production cost while reliably meeting hourly loads. Grid operation is subject to power plant physical constraints, transmission limitations, water availability and environmental constraints such as power plant water exit temperature limits. The model is applied to a standard IEEE-118 bus system under various water availability scenarios. Results show that water availability has a significant impact on power grid economics.

  19. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.

    2007-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power......More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...

  20. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Tomić, Jasna

    Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

  1. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible e...

  2. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  3. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  4. Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid : role of hydropower in existing markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences - the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Ling, Yunpeng

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the Central Office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (Zhong Fa No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price to improve the investment efficiency of power grid projects after the power reform in China.

  6. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Grid Support Function Laboratory Validation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kubojiri, Kandice [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ceria, Riley [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective for this test plan was to better understand how to utilize the performance capabilities of advanced inverter functions to allow the interconnection of distributed energy resource (DER) systems to support the new Customer Self-Supply, Customer Grid-Supply, and other future DER programs. The purpose of this project was: 1) to characterize how the tested grid supportive inverters performed the functions of interest, 2) to evaluate the grid supportive inverters in an environment that emulates the dynamics of O'ahu's electrical distribution system, and 3) to gain insight into the benefits of the grid support functions on selected O'ahu island distribution feeders. These goals were achieved through laboratory testing of photovoltaic inverters, including power hardware-in-the-loop testing.

  7. Distribution Grid Services and Flexibility Provision by Electric Vehicles: a Review of Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Codani, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation and new high-power consumption loads – such as electric vehicles (EVs) – distribution system operators (DSO) are facing new grid security challenges. DSOs have historically dealt with such issues by making investments in grid reinforcement...... on current grid conditions. In return, flexibility provision should be remunerated accordingly. In this paper, the authors are interested in making an accurate description of the flexibility services at the distribution level which could be provided by EVs as well as their requirements, e.g. location......, activation time and duration. Market design recommendations for enhancing the provision of DSO grid services by EVs are derived from the conducted analysis....

  8. No energy transition without a change of paradigm for electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors first indicate the three main levels of the French electric grid operation (a national transmission grid, regional distribution grids, and distribution to the final user) with their radial or tree-like structure. They briefly analyse the characteristics and impact of the integration of renewable energies: low power installations, wind and solar farms, strengths (close to consumption locations, reduction of grid losses, free primary energy) and raised problems (sizing of distribution networks, intermittency, and influence on conventional production planning). They discuss the implementation of new tools and devices such as the smart meter which can transmit various technical data, or a local steering of distribution networks. Renewable energies could then become a regulating element when they have been considered until now as a disturbing element. The authors finally evoke solutions aimed at reducing the use of peak means: a smoothed consumption, and the use of other production sources

  9. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  10. Power quality and integration of wind farms in weak grids in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hauge Madsen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept.; Vikkelsoe, A.; Koelbaek Jensen, K. [Danske Elvaerkers Forening Udredningsafdelingen (DEFU), Lyngby (Denmark); Fathima, K.A.; Unnikrishnan, A.K.

    2000-04-01

    This is the final report of a joint Danish and Indian project' Power Quality and Integration of Wind Farms in Weak Grids'. The power quality issues have been studied and analysed with the Indian conditions as a case. On the basis of meetings with Danish wind turbine industry, Indian electricity boards, nodal agencies, wind turbine industry and authorities, the critical power quality as-pects in India have been identified. Measurements on selected wind farms and wind turbines have quantified the power quality, and analyses of power quality issues, especially reactive power compensation, have been performed. Based on measurements and analyses, preliminary recommendations for grid integration of wind turbines in weak grids have been formulated. (au)

  11. IT-Enabled Integration of Renewables: A Concept for the Smart Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilisation of information and communication technologies is hoped to enable a more efficient and sustainable operation of electric power grids. This paper analyses the benefits of smart power grids for the integration of renewable energy resources into the existing grid infrastructure. Therefore, the concept of a smart power grid is analysed, and it is shown that it covers more than for example, time-of-use energy tariffs. Further, the communication technologies used for smart grids are discussed, and the challenge of interoperability between the smart grid itself and its active contributors such as functional buildings is shown. A significant share of electrical energy demand is and will be constituted by large functional buildings that are mostly equipped with automation systems and therefore enable a relatively simple IT integration into smart grids. This large potential of thermal storages and flexible consumption processes might be a future key to match demand and supply under the presence of a high share of fluctuating generation from renewables.

  12. Coordinated parallel and series flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) to support a power grid with a large amount of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Cantallops, Marcal; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas; Rull-Duran, Joan [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES). Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC)

    2009-07-01

    Wind power constitutes one of the more viable alternatives to conventional power generation technology. In the previous years, wind power penetration on electric grids has grown notably, and has brought several new issues related to its integration into power grids. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) installed in the right place and controlled conveniently are able to mitigate and solve many of these issues. In the present work, a STATCOM and a SSSC are used coordinately to fully support an electric grid. Simulations include normal and fault operation. (orig.)

  13. The electric power engineering handbook electric power transformer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, James H

    2012-01-01

    Electric Power Transformer Engineering, Third Edition expounds the latest information and developments to engineers who are familiar with basic principles and applications, perhaps including a hands-on working knowledge of power transformers. Targeting all from the merely curious to seasoned professionals and acknowledged experts, its content is structured to enable readers to easily access essential material in order to appreciate the many facets of an electric power transformer.Topically structured in three parts, the book: * Illustrates for electrical engineers the relevant theories and pri

  14. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses...... of the ii market. To build a complete solution for integration of EVs into the distribution network, a price coordinated hierarchical scheduling system is proposed which can well characterize the involved actors in the smart grid. With this system, we demonstrate that it is possible to schedule the charging......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...

  15. A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Yoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind power systems. Fast fault detection can help the wind power systems maintain the DC-link voltage in a safe region. The proposed fault detection method is based on on-line adaptive parameter estimation. The performance of the proposed method is verified in comparison to the conventional voltage measurement method defined in the IEC 61400-21 standard.

  16. Smart Grid Innovation Management for SME Electricity Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    innovation process lies ahead for utility companies in screening, testing, maturing, implementing and operating smart grids. This process is expected to follow the political targets for CO2 reduction stretching forward until 2050. As no proven concepts exists, and as the process is expected to progress many...... years ahead, smart grid represents an excellent case of continuous innovation. The current study use a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid related technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight critical issues in this innovation process. Major findings...... are that the companies have limited innovation capabilities, they are presented with plenty of technological offerings that eventually have to be rejected, and they suffer from absence of clear objectives....

  17. Strategic Energy Management (SEM) in a micro grid with modern grid interactive electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B.K.; Vyas, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • System: Modelling of energy and storage systems for micro grid. • Target: Co-ordination of unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). • Energy management strategies: Only URFC, URFC–EV charging, URFC-V2G with enabled. • Multi-objective approach: loss, cost minimization, maximization of stored energy. • Proposed Solution: Intelligent co-ordination of URFC and EV with V2G with most effective strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, strategic energy management in a micro grid is proposed incorporating two types of storage elements viz. unitised regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). Rather than a simple approach of optimizing micro grid operation to minimize line loss in the micro grid, this paper deals with multi objective optimization to minimize line loss, operational cost and maximize the value of stored energy of URFC and EV simultaneously. Apart from URFC, two operation strategies are proposed for EV enabling V2G operation to reduce overall system cost of operation. To address the complexity, non-linearity and multi dimensionality of the objective function, particle swarm optimization-a heuristic approach based solution methodology along with forward and back sweep algorithm based load flow solution technique is developed. Combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), forward and backward sweep algorithm resolves the complexity and multi dimensionality of the load flow analysis and optimizes the operational cost of micro grid. The simulation results are presented and discussed which are promising with regard to reduction in line loss as well as cost of operation. Scheduling strategy of the micro grid with both URFC and EV enabling V2G operation presents a promising approach to minimize line loss and cost of operation.

  18. Distributed Optimal Control of Smart Electricity Grids With Congestion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Bliek, F

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the balancing problem in a hierarchical market-based structure for smart energy grids that is based on the Universal Smart Energy Framework. The large-scale introduction of renewable, intermittent energy sources in the power system can create a mismatch between the

  19. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  20. Nanosolar: Delivering Grid-Parity Solar Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, Brian [Nanosolar, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Nanosolar has developed proprietary technology based on Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS) absorber technology that allows the printing of this semiconductor material using a high-speed, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing process. A central challenge in cost-effectively constructing a large-area CIGS-based solar cell or module is that the elements of the CIGS layer must be within a narrow stoichiometric ratio on nano-, meso-, and macroscopic length scale in all three dimensions in order for the resulting cell or module to be highly efficient. Achieving precise stoichiometric composition over relatively large substrate areas is however difficult using traditional vacuum-based deposition processes. For example, it is difficult to uniformly deposit compounds and/or alloys containing more than one element by sputtering or evaporation. Both techniques rely on deposition approaches that are limited to line-of-sight and limited-area sources, tending to result in poor surface coverage. Line-of-sight trajectories and limited-area sources can result in non-uniform three-dimensional distribution of the elements in all three dimensions and/or poor film-thickness uniformity over large areas. These non-uniformities can occur over the nano-, meso-, and/or macroscopic scales. Such non-uniformity also alters the local stoichiometric ratios of the absorber layer, decreasing the potential power conversion efficiency of the complete cell or module. Nanosolar has overcome these challenges by printing nanoparticulate CIGS precursor materials onto low-cost metal foil substrates, and performing a rapid thermal processing to convert the nanoparticulate coating into a CIGS absorber layer By locking in the appropriate stochiometry into the nanoparticulate precursor material, spatial uniformity is ensured in the coated layers, while printing at high speed and throughput minimizes solar cell cost.

  1. Grid-connected inverter for wind power generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; RUAN Yi; SHEN Huan-qing; TANG Yan-yan; YANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    In wind power generation system the grid-connected inverter is an important section for energy conversion and transmission, of which the performance has a direct influence on the entire wind power generation system. The mathematical model of the grid-connected inverter is deduced firstly. Then, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is analyzed. The power factor can be controlled close to unity, leading or lagging, which is realized based on PI-type current controller and grid voltage vector-oriented control. The control strategy is verified by the simulation and experimental results with a good sinusoidal current, a small harmonic component and a fast dynamic response.

  2. Grid Integration Issues for Large Scale Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    transmission system operators (TSOs) over the world have come up the grid codes to request the wind power plants (WPPs) to have more or less the same operating capability as the conventional power plants. The grid codes requirements from other TSOs are under development. This paper covers the steady state......The penetration level of wind power into the power system over the world have been increasing very fast in the last few years and is still keeping the fast growth rate. It is just a matter of time that the wind power will be comparable to the conventional power generation. Therefore, many...

  3. Optimal sizing of grid-independent hybrid photovoltaic–battery power systems for household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; Ferrari, C.; Melino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A feasibility study on a stand-alone solar–battery power generation system is carried out. • An in-house developed calculation code able to estimate photovoltaic panels behaviour is described. • The feasibility of replacing grid electricity with hybrid system is examined. • Guidelines for optimal photovoltaic design are given. • Guidelines for optimal storage sizing in terms of batteries number and capacity are given. - Abstract: The penetration of renewable sources into the grid, particularly wind and solar, have been increasing in recent years. As a consequence, there have been serious concerns over reliable and safety operation of power systems. One possible solution, to improve grid stability, is to integrate energy storage devices into power system network: storing energy produced in periods of low demand to later use, ensuring full exploitation of intermittent available sources. Focusing on stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) energy system, energy storage is needed with the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow, to minimize or, if anything, to neglect electrical grid supply. A comprehensive study on a hybrid stand-alone photovoltaic power system using two different energy storage technologies has been performed. The study examines the feasibility of replacing electricity provided by the grid with hybrid system to meet household demand. In particular, this paper presents first results for photovoltaic (PV)/battery (B) hybrid configuration. The main objective of this paper is focused on PV/B system, to recommend hybrid system optimal design in terms of PV module number, PV module tilt, number and capacity of batteries to minimize or, if possible, to neglect grid supply. This paper is the early stage of a theoretical and experimental study in which two different hybrid power system configurations will be evaluated and compared: (i) PV/B system and (ii) PV/B/fuel cell (FC) system. The aim of the overall study will be the definition of the

  4. The eGo grid model: An open-source and open-data based synthetic medium-voltage grid model for distribution power supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amme, J.; Pleßmann, G.; Bühler, J.; Hülk, L.; Kötter, E.; Schwaegerl, P.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing integration of renewable energy into the electricity supply system creates new challenges for distribution grids. The planning and operation of distribution systems requires appropriate grid models that consider the heterogeneity of existing grids. In this paper, we describe a novel method to generate synthetic medium-voltage (MV) grids, which we applied in our DIstribution Network GeneratOr (DINGO). DINGO is open-source software and uses freely available data. Medium-voltage grid topologies are synthesized based on location and electricity demand in defined demand areas. For this purpose, we use GIS data containing demand areas with high-resolution spatial data on physical properties, land use, energy, and demography. The grid topology is treated as a capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) combined with a local search metaheuristics. We also consider the current planning principles for MV distribution networks, paying special attention to line congestion and voltage limit violations. In the modelling process, we included power flow calculations for validation. The resulting grid model datasets contain 3608 synthetic MV grids in high resolution, covering all of Germany and taking local characteristics into account. We compared the modelled networks with real network data. In terms of number of transformers and total cable length, we conclude that the method presented in this paper generates realistic grids that could be used to implement a cost-optimised electrical energy system.

  5. Coordinated control of wind power plants in offshore HVDC grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2017-01-01

    power between different countries, and different synchronous areas. It is very likely that they will then be combined with offshore wind power plant (OWPP) connections in the North Sea, transforming it in a multi terminal DC (MTDC) grid and, therefore, in a fully meshed offshore DC grid in near future......During the recent years, there has been a significant penetration of offshore wind power into the power system and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The North Sea in Europe has higher potential for offshore wind power; therefore, the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid initiative....... However, increased penetration of offshore wind power into the power system poses several challenges to its security. This thesis deals with two main research challenges, (1) Develop, and analyze the coordinated control strategies for AC voltage and reactive power control in the cluster of OWPPs connected...

  6. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  7. Reconfiguring grid-interfacing converters for power quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Encica, L.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Jansen, J.W.; Krop, D.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper reconfiguration of grid-interfacing converters is proposed for power quality improvement. In addition to the traditional function of delivering energy between distributed sources and the utility grid, more flexible ancillary functions can be integrated into the control of

  8. Improving Photovoltaic and Electric Vehicle Penetration in Distribution Grids with Smart Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of electrical vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaics (PVs) can cause significant voltage issues in low voltage distribution grids. To certain extent, the transformer with on-load tap changers can regulate its output voltage, thus relieving the voltage issues and improve the hosting...... capacity of the grid. Smart transformer (ST) is a more powerful component providing faster and superior voltage regulation, as it can regulate the voltage, the frequency and the harmonic behavior of each feeder. This paper will discuss the benefit of this new feature offered by ST through simulation......, analysis and comparison with traditional transformer, where load flow analysis, optimization and multiple line drop compensation (MLDC) methods are involved....

  9. Output Control Technologies for a Large-scale PV System Considering Impacts on a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Akira

    The mega-solar demonstration project named “Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale PV Power Generation systems” had been completed in March 2011 at Wakkanai, the northernmost city of Japan. The major objectives of this project were to evaluate adverse impacts of large-scale PV power generation systems connected to the power grid and develop output control technologies with integrated battery storage system. This paper describes the outline and results of this project. These results show the effectiveness of battery storage system and also proposed output control methods for a large-scale PV system to ensure stable operation of power grids. NEDO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan conducted this project and HEPCO, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc managed the overall project.

  10. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    human infrastructure are examined, particularly in how they generate geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in electric grids. The solar origins of...capacitors and AC and HVDC transmission lines all have tripped in prior storms due to relay mis-operations’ (J. Kappenman, Jason Presentation 2011). Over...called quasi-satellite orbits because many large bodies , including the Earth have small "companion" objects in quasi-spacecraft orbits around them

  13. Creating a Smarter U.S. Electricity Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Paul L. Joskow

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on efforts to build what policymakers call the "smart grid," involving 1) improved remote monitoring and automatic and remote control of facilities in high-voltage electricity transmission networks; 2) improved remote monitoring, two-way communications, and automatic and remote control of local distribution networks; and 3) installation of "smart" metering and associated communications capabilities on customer premises so that customers can receive real-time price informati...

  14. The advanced smart grid edge power driving sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Carvallo, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Placing emphasis on practical ""how-to"" guidance, this cutting-edge resource provides you with a first-hand, insider's perspective on the advent and evolution of smart grids in the 21st century (smart grid 1.0). You gain a thorough understanding of the building blocks that comprise basic smart grids, including power plant, transmission substation, distribution, and meter automation. Moreover, this forward-looking volume explores the next step of this technology's evolution. It provides a detailed explanation of how an advanced smart grid incorporates demand response with smart appliances and

  15. Investigation of the attenuation properties of the HV board grid of electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchung der Daempfungseigenschaften des Hochvoltbordnetzes in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obholz, Martin; Baerenfaenger, Joerg [EMC Test NRW GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Maarleveld, Marc; Hirsch, Holger [Duisburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energietransport und -speicherung

    2012-11-01

    Power electronics components with transient switching processes cause AC components in the HV on-board supply system, with current and voltage harmonics with frequencies in the two-digit MHz range. Depending on their length and design, the HV lines can act as effective antenna structures. It is already common to shield HV lines for better EMP but the shield should be continued also in the connected casings. Material characteristics must be considered for weight and cost optimisation. For this reason, shield attenuation dimensions are calculated for exemplary casings for the frequency ranges that are relevant in electromobility. Afater this, the intrinsic sheild attenuation values of three different materials are measured in the frequency range of 10 - 100 MHz, and their relevance for applications in electormobility is assessed. The coaxial HV lines differ from other coaxial lines in their system characteristics; coupling attenuation and transfer impedance are important characteristics. To measure these characteristics, measuring tools must be adapted to the concrete applications. The methodology and the identified characteristics are discussed in detail. [German] Baugruppen der Leistungselektronik mit transienten Schaltvorgaengen verursachen Wechselspannungsanteile im Hochvoltbordnetz, die Strom- und Spannungsoberschwingungen mit Frequenzauspraegungen bis in den zweistelligen MHz-Bereich zeigen. Die Hochvoltleitungen koennen dann abhaengig von Laenge und Ausfuehrung als effektive Antennenstrukturen agieren. Zur Einhaltung der elektromagnetischen Vertraeglichkeit, werden bereits Schirmungen der Hochvoltleitungen eingesetzt. Jedoch muss fuer eine effektive elektromagnetische Entkopplung die Schirmung auch in den angeschlossenen Gehaeusen konsequent weitergefuehrt werden. Hierbei sind materialspezifische Anforderungen zu beachten, die Gewichts- und Kostenoptimierungen unterliegen. Daher wird fuer die in der Elektromobilitaet relevanten Frequenzbereiche eine

  16. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  17. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  18. From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, Anders N.; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    , electricitysmartgrids must be coordinated with the utilisation of renewable energy being converted into other forms of carriers than electricity including heat and biofuels as well as energy conservation and efficiency improvements, such as CHP and improved efficiencies e.g. in the form of fuel cells. All such measures...... such measures are combined with energy conservation and system efficiency improvements. This article illustrates why electricitysmartgrids should be seen as part of overall smartenergysystems and emphasises the inclusion of flexible CHP production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilisation. Furthermore...

  19. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  20. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. А. Fursanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of prospective operation of the city electric networks in the conditions of the MART GRID, which will be quite different as compared to the traditional understanding and approaches, are under consideration. This requires the selection and application of appropriate analytical criteria and approaches to assessment, analysis and control of the networks. With this regard the following criteria are recommended: in a particular case – the optimal (minimal technological electric power consumption (losses, while in general – economically reasonable (minimal cost value of electric power transmission. It should be also borne in mind that contemporary urban networks are actively saturated with distributed sources of small generation that have radically changed the structure of electrical networks; therefore, account for such sources is an absolutely necessary objective of management regimes of urban electric networks, both traditional and in associated with the SMART GRID. A case of the analysis and control of urban electric 10 kV networks with distributed small sources of generation has been developed and presented according to the theoretical criterion of minimum relative active power losses in the circuit as a control case. The conducted research makes it possible to determine the magnitude of the tolerance network mode from the point of the theoretical minimum. 

  1. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  2. Use of railway power-grid routes to supply electricity to the whole of Germany. How realistic are the proposals?; Bahnstromtrassen fuer die Landesenergieversorgung. Wie realistisch sind die Vorschlaege?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stephan, Arnd [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The realisation that there is a shortage of available routes for new overhead national-grid lines in Germany has led interested parties to consider the possibility of making and additional use out of the federally owned routes occupied by the 2 AC 110 kV network operated by DB Energie to transport electricity needed by the railway. Proposals have been published. The author comments on these from the technical and operational viewpoints. (orig.)

  3. Power Control at Grid Connected Converters and Analytical Solution of Steady States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor; Škramlík, Jiří; Muller, Z.; Švec, J.; Tlustý, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, September (2015), s. 1-12 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : power control * converter * grid Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2015 http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/601916.pdf

  4. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  5. Electric power in Canada, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This annual review surveys Canadian electrical power production and consumption, exports and imports, and developments in the fields of energy policy, electric space heating, and alternate energy sources. Total Canadian capacity at Dec. 31 1982 was 84 777 MW, 6 280 MW from nuclear sources. Of 1 469 MW capacity added during 1982, 680 MW were nuclear. The demand for electricity dropped to 344 083 GWh in 1982 from 346 333 GWh in 1981

  6. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  7. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  8. Understanding the Benefits of Dispersed Grid-Connected Photovoltaics: From Avoiding the Next Major Outage to Taming Wholesale Power Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letendre, Steven E.; Perez, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to new solar resource assessment techniques using cloud cover data available from geostationary satellites, it is apparent that grid-connected PV installations can serve to enhance electric grid reliability, preventing or hastening recovery from major power outages and serving to mitigate extreme price spikes in wholesale energy markets. (author)

  9. Constructing low emitting power systems through grid extension in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Y. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Ogimoto Lab. 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Department of Advanced Energy, The University of Tokyo, 5-4-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277-8561 (Japan); Yamaji, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The effective rural electrification method varies with economic status and geographical location, and the benefits of decentralized generation differ for each energy system depending on its characteristics. This paper evaluates the most effective generation strategies with rural electrification in an optimized power system of Papua New Guinea (PNG) using a linear programming model. The energy system model developed for the study includes decentralized generation, centralized generation, and grid systems of electricity and gas with consideration for the current energy system and infrastructure. Two methods of rural electrification, decentralized generation and grid extension, are compared with and without the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results of simulations show that extending the power grid that allows economical generation such as coal-fired power and hydropower to supply rural electricity is a more cost effective way for rural electrification. Although grid extension is more capital intensive than decentralized generation, the former reduces the total system cost through reduction of the fossil fuel use. Extending the power grid is also effective at attracting CDM investments, since it makes the power system flexible and provides opportunities to advance low emitting energy such as hydropower. (author)

  10. SmartGrid: Future networks for New Zealand power systems incorporating distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Zhang Lixi

    2009-01-01

    The concept of intelligent electricity grids, which primarily involves the integration of new information and communication technologies with power transmission lines and distribution cables, is being actively explored in the European Union and the United States. Both developments share common technological developmental goals but also differ distinctly towards the role of distributed generation for their future electrical energy security. This paper looks at options that could find relevance to New Zealand (NZ), in the context of its aspiration of achieving 90% renewable energy electricity generation portfolio by 2025. It also identifies developments in technical standardization and industry investments that facilitate a pathway towards an intelligent or smart grid development for NZ. Some areas where policy can support research in NZ being a 'fast adapter' to future grid development are also listed. This paper will help policy makers quickly review developments surrounding SmartGrid and also identify its potential to support NZ Energy Strategy in the electricity infrastructure. This paper will also help researchers and power system stakeholders for identifying international standardization, projects and potential partners in the area of future grid technologies.

  11. Energy Efficient Refrigeration and Flexible Power Consumption in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Halvgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Lars F.S.

    2011-01-01

    . With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices...... are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus...... is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation...

  12. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Campíñez-Romero, Severo; Pérez-Molina, Clara; Castro-Gil, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  13. Power Quality of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG and Their Interaction with the Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao

    quality issues of grid-connected wind turbines and the interaction between wind turbines and the grid. The specific goal of the research has been to investigate flicker emission and mitigation of grid-connected wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) during continuous operation...... measures are proposed to mitigate the flicker levels produced by grid-connected wind turbines with DFIG, respectively by wind turbine output reactive power control and using STATCOM. Simulation results demonstrate that these two measures are effective for flicker mitigation regardless of mean wind speed....... To evaluate the flicker levels produced by grid-connected wind turbines with DFIG, a flickermeter model is developed according to the IEC standard IEC 61000-4-15, which simulates the response of the lamp-eye-brain chain and provides on-line statistical analysis ofthe flicker signal and the final results...

  14. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  15. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  16. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    As wind power penetration level increases, power system operators are challenged by the penetration impacts to maintain reliability and stability of power system. Therefore, grid codes are being published and continuously updated by transmission system operators of the countries. In this paper...

  17. PowerMatching City : A unique smart grid project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. C.J. Wiekens

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, the smart grid project 'PowerMatching City' is introduced. PowerMatching City is a living lab demonstration of the future energy system. In PowerMatching City the connected households are equipped with a mix of decentralized energy sources, hybrid heat pumps, smart appliances,

  18. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  19. Scaling Off Grid Power In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    storage, digital revolution and especially, the current job deficit in Nigeria led by ... or is self-employed. .... (RESIP), so from that perspective the legal ... and solar home systems or stand-alone grids ... REAN is also driving self-regulatory.

  20. Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Molzahn, Daniel K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-10-17

    The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.

  1. Phase-wise enhanced voltage support from electric vehicles in a Danish low-voltage distribution grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    High deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) imposes great challenges for the distribution grids, especially in unbalanced systems with notable voltage variations which detrimentally affect security of supply. On the other hand, with development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs may be able...... to provide numerous services for grid support, e.g., voltage control. Implemented electronic equipment will allow them to exchange reactive power for autonomous voltage support without communicating with the distribution system operator or influencing the available active power for primary transportation...

  2. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  3. Critical Infrastructure Protection: EMP Impacts on the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Edwin J., Jr.

    The purpose of this research is to identify the United States electric grid infrastructure systems vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse attacks and the cyber-based impacts of those vulnerabilities to the electric grid. Additionally, the research identifies multiple defensive strategies designed to harden the electric grid against electromagnetic pulse attack that include prevention, mitigation and recovery postures. Research results confirm the importance of the electric grid to the United States critical infrastructures system and that an electromagnetic pulse attack against the electric grid could result in electric grid degradation, critical infrastructure(s) damage and the potential for societal collapse. The conclusions of this research indicate that while an electromagnetic pulse attack against the United States electric grid could have catastrophic impacts on American society, there are currently many defensive strategies under consideration designed to prevent, mitigate and or recover from an electromagnetic pulse attack. However, additional research is essential to further identify future target hardening opportunities, efficient implementation strategies and funding resources.

  4. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  5. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  7. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  8. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  9. Multiresonant Frequency-Locked Loop for Grid Synchronization of Power Converters Under Distorted Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, Alvaro; Candela, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new multiresonant frequency-adaptive synchronization method for grid-connected power converters that allows estimating not only the positive- and negative-sequence components of the power signal at the fundamental frequency but also other sequence components at other harmoni...

  10. The role of domestic biomass in electricity, heat and grid balancing markets in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panos, Evangelos; Kannan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss Energy Strategy targets to reduce per capita energy consumption, to decrease the share of fossil energy and to replace nuclear electricity generation by gains in efficiency and renewable energy sources. In view of the above objectives, we evaluated the prospects of biomass in stationary applications and grid balancing from an energy system perspective. We quantify a number of “what-if” scenarios using a cost-optimisation bottom-up model, with detailed representation of biomass production and use pathways, electricity and heat sectors, and grid ancillary services markets. The scenario analysis shows that domestic biomass can contribute 5–7% in electricity and 14–21% in heat production by 2050, depending on natural gas prices and climate policy intensity. Pooling of biogenic driven cogeneration plants can provide about 22–44% of the total secondary control power in 2050. Generally, biogenic technologies complement other assets in heat, electricity and ancillary services markets such as heat pumps, new renewable sources and hydropower. - Highlights: • Development and application of the Swiss TIMES electricity and heat system model. • Bioenergy supplies 5–7% of electricity and 14–21% of heat by 2050. • Biogenic gas driven CHP can provide 22–44% of secondary control power in 2050.

  11. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  12. Technical and Economic Assessment of Storage Technologies for Power-Supply Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meiwes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating power generation from renewable energies such as wind and photovoltaic are a technical challenge for grid stability. Storage systems are an option to stabilise the grid and to maximise the utilisation factors of renewable power generators. This paper analyses the state of the art of storage technologies, including a detailed life cycle cost comparison. Beside this, benefits of using storage systems in electric vehicles are analysed and quantified. A comprehensive overview of storage technologies as well as possible applications and business cases for storage systems is presented. 

  13. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Concepts development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    will make wind power more firm and possible to connect to weaker grids. So, when the concept is matured, theexpectation is that for certain wind power installations, the cost of the power control is paid back as added wind power capacity value and saved grid reinforcement costs. Different systems...... and analyze methods and technologies for making it viable to utilize more of the wind potential in remote areas. The suggestion is to develop a power control concept for wind turbines which will even out thepower fluctuations and make it possible to increase the wind energy penetration. The main options...... are to combine wind power with a pumped hydro power storage or with an AC/DC converter and battery storage. The AC/DC converter can either be an "add-on" typeor it can be designed as an integrated part of a variable speed wind turbine. The idea is that combining wind power with the power control concept...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... MINES Electricity § 56.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be guarded, unless protection...

  16. International energy technology collaboration: wind power integration into electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, D.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid growth of wind power since the 1990s has led to notable market shares in some electricity markets. This growth is concentrated in a few countries with effective Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programmes and with policies that support its diffusion into the market place. The speed and depth of its penetration in these electricity markets have amplified the need to address grid integration concerns, so as not to impede the further penetration of wind power. Research on technologies, tools and practices for integrating large amounts of wind power into electricity supply systems is attempting to respond to this need. In recent years, existing international collaborative research efforts have expanded their focus to include grid integration of wind power and new consortia have been formed to pool knowledge and resources. Effective results benefit a few countries that already have a significant amount of wind in their electricity supply fuel mix, as well as to the potential large markets worldwide. This paper focuses on the challenge of bringing significant amounts of intermittent generating sources into grids dominated by large central generating units. It provides a brief overview of the growth of wind power, mainly since 1990, the technical and operational issues related to integration and selected collaborative programmes underway to address grid integration concerns. (author)

  17. Utilization of graph theory in security analysis of power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Válek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes way how to use graph theory in security analysis. As an environment is used network of power lines and devices which are included here. Power grid is considered as a system of nodes which make together graph (network. On the simple example is applied Fiedler´s theory which is able to select the most important power lines of whole network. Components related to these lines are logicly ordered and considered by author´s modified analysis. This method has been improved and optimalized for risks related with illegal acts. Each power grid component has been connected with possible kind of attack and every of this device was gradually evaluated by five coefficients which takes values from 1 to 10. On the coefficient basis was assessed the level of risk. In the last phase the most risky power grid components have been selected. On the selected devices have been proposed security measures.

  18. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  19. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  20. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs