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Sample records for electric plant unit

  1. 76 FR 66333 - Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity or the plant, or to..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and 10 CFR...

  2. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  3. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  4. 77 FR 11171 - License Renewal Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 1, Union Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Intent to prepare environmental impact statement and conduct scoping process. SUMMARY: Union Electric Company, a subsidiary of Ameren Corporation and doing business as Ameren Missouri... environmental impact statement (EIS) related to the review of the license renewal application and to provide the...

  5. 77 FR 31402 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., Plant Licensing Branch II-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... Plugging Degraded PWR Steam Generator Tubes,'' (Reference 10) are maintained for both normal and postulated... affected by the primary-to secondary leakage flow during the event. However, primary-to-secondary leakage...

  6. Creation of teaching and training systems for operators of the power units of thermal and nuclear electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murabyan, S.G.; Samoylov, V.D.; Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The issues of building effective systems for teaching and training operational personnel for modular electric power plants on the basis of computer systems are presented. The necessity is noted for creating technological methods for automating the design of equipment models for simulators.

  7. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  8. The renewable electric plant information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  9. Electric Vehicle Control Units Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Slivka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Article handles with control units cooperation, which is usable in drive control application especially in electric vehicle. Control unit with Freescale Digital Signal Controller 56F8037 is used as main subject of this research. CAN bus has been selected for control units communication. This bus demonstrates the performance of selected controller.  At the end of this article measurement has been performed to prove usability in electric vehicle. DSC debugging is possible with Freemaster software through JTAG interface.

  10. Unit 6. Electric field (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Summary of the "Unit 6. Electric field" of course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image Engineering, in Telecommunications. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Resumen del "Tema 6. Campo eléctrico" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I". Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen en Telecomunicaciones. Escuela Politécnica Superior. Universidad de Alicante.

  11. 75 FR 8410 - Carolina Power & Light Company: H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... significantly affect plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the probability or... and Management System (ADAMS) Public Electronic Reading Room on the Internet at the NRC Web site, http...

  12. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  13. 75 FR 82414 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... information and, accordingly, a redacted version of this letter is available for public review in the ADAMS No... Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) part 73, ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' Section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power...

  14. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  15. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  16. Thermal-Electricity Power Plants in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat; Neslihan Acici

    2004-01-01

    .... In 2003, its share is about 74.78% (104,898 GWh/year) of total production (140,283 GWh) of the country. Turkey is mainly focused on increased natural gas use for Thermal Electric Power Plant production...

  17. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  18. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  19. A CALCULATION METHOD OF TRANSIENT MODES OF ELECTRIC SHIPS’ PROPELLING ELECTRIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yarovenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to develop the method for calculating the transient modes of electric ships’ propelling electric plants during maneuver. This will allow us to evaluate and improve the maneuverability of vessels with electric motion. Methodology. The solution to the problems is proposed to be carried out on the basis of mathematical modeling of maneuvering modes. The duration of transient modes in an electric power plant at electric ships’ maneuvers is commensurable with the transient operation modes of the vessel itself. Therefore, the analysis of the electric power plants’ maneuvering modes should be made in unity with all the components of the ship’s propulsion complex. Results. A specified mathematical model of transient regimes of electric ship’s propulsion complex, including thermal motors, synchronous generators, electric power converters, propulsion motors, propellers, rudder, ship’s hull is developed. The model is universal. It covers the vast majority of modern and promising electric ships with a traditional type of propulsors. It allows calculating the current values of the basic mode indicators and assessing the quality indicators of maneuvering. The model is made in relative units. Dimensionless parameters of the complex are obtained. These parameters influence the main indicators of the quality of maneuvering. The adequacy of the suggested specified mathematical model and the developed computation method based on it were confirmed. To do this, the results of mathematical modeling for a real electric ship were compared with the data obtained in the course of field experiments conducted by other researchers. Originality. The mathematical description of a generator unit, as an integral part of an indivisible ship’s propulsion complex, makes it possible to calculate the dynamic operation modes of electric power sources during electric vessels’ maneuvering. There is an opportunity to design the electric ships

  20. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  1. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  2. Insuring unit failures in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, S.; Conejo, A.J.; Carrion, M. [Univ. Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    An electric energy producer participates in futures markets in the hope of hedging the risk of trading in the pool. However, this producer is required to supply the energy associated with all its signed forward contracts even if some of its units are forced out due to unexpected failures. In this case, the producer must purchase some of the energy needed to meet its futures market commitments in the pool, which may result in high losses if the pool prices happen to be higher than the forward contract prices. To mitigate these losses, the producer can take out insurance against the forced outages of its units. Using a stochastic programming model, this paper analyzes the convenience of signing an insurance against unit failure by an electric energy producer and its impact on forward contracting decisions. Results from a realistic case study are provided and analyzed. (author)

  3. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  5. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.; Fagan, Jr., Thomas J.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Humphrey, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  6. Industrial Electricity. In-Plant Distribution. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of industrial electricity curriculum guides, consists of materials for use in teaching a course on the in-plant distribution of electricity. Discussed in the introductory lessons are the National Electrical Code, power equipment, and blueprint reading. The next section, a series of units on branch-circuit…

  7. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3 in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  8. 75 FR 10838 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas... DPR-82, which authorize operation of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units Nos. 1 and 2 (DCPP). The... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms for...

  9. A solar thermal electric power plant for small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A solar power plant has been designed with a rating of 1000-kW electric and a 0.4 annual capacity factor. It was configured as a prototype for plants in the 1000 to 10,000-kWe size range for application to small communities or industrial users either grid-connected or isolated from a utility grid. A small central receiver was selected for solar energy collection after being compared with alternative distributed collectors. Further trade studies resulted in the selection of Hitec (heat transfer salt composed of 53 percent KNO3, 40 percent NaNO2, 7 percent NaNO3) as both the receiver coolant and the sensible heat thermal stroage medium and the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The plant is configured with road-transportable units to accommodate remote sites and minimize site assembly requirements. Results of the analyses indicate that busbar energy costs are competitive with diesel-electric plants in certain situations, e.g., off-grid, remote regions with high insolation. Sensitivity of energy costs to plant power rating and system capacity factor are given.

  10. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  11. Tree planting in the United States - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Moulton; G. Hernandez

    2000-01-01

    This annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement, and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. As far as we know, it...

  12. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  13. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Lubośny; Krzysztof Dobrzyński; Jacek Klucznik

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown) is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high ca...

  14. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  15. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  16. Ion channels in mechanosensing and electrical signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frachisse Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The second example concerns the role of mechano-gated and voltage-gated channels in the generation and long distance propagation of electrical signal in plant. More precisely, it illustrate how Action Potential and Slow Wave of depolarization are generated and propagate along plant tissues. Eventually the relevance of such electrical signals in plant is illustrated by two examples.

  17. Communicating with residential electrical devices via a vehicle telematics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rebecca C.; Pebbles, Paul H.

    2016-11-15

    A method of communicating with residential electrical devices using a vehicle telematics unit includes receiving information identifying a residential electrical device to control; displaying in a vehicle one or more controlled features of the identified residential electrical device; receiving from a vehicle occupant a selection of the displayed controlled features of the residential electrical device; sending an instruction from the vehicle telematics unit to the residential electrical device via a wireless carrier system in response to the received selection; and controlling the residential electrical device using the sent instruction.

  18. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  19. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  20. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  1. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  2. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  3. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum Hollis, S. [Duane Morris LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  4. Development of Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Curtis J., Jr

    2013-01-01

    With NASA's current goals and resources moving forward to bring the idea of Manned Deep-Space missions from a long-thought concept to a reality, innovative research methods and expertise are being utilized for studies that integrate human needs with that of technology to make for the most efficient operations possible. Through the capability to supply food, provide oxygen from what was once carbon dioxide, and various others which help to make plant research one of the prime factors of future long-duration mission, the Advanced Plant Habitat will be the largest microgravity plant growth chamber on the International Space Station when it is launched in the near future (2014- 2015). Soon, the Advanced Plant Habitat unit will continue on and enrich the discoveries and studies on the long-term effects of microgravity on plants.

  5. Unit membrane parameters of electrically syncytial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D N

    1981-07-01

    A change in the holding voltage, exposure to channel-blocking agents, and similar interventions will induce changes in the membrane properties of electrically syncytial tissues. The altered membrane characteristics will produce changes in the input resistance (RIN) and the phase angle (phi) of the complex admittance of the whole preparation. Exact geometry-independent formulas are derived that give the intervention-induced changes in the membrane capacitance and conductance in terms of the measured changes in RIN and phi. The formulas automatically account for the effects of extracellular resistance in tissues such as skeletal muscle fibers, cardiac Purkinje fibers, and small cardiac "aggregates." The size, shape, and resistance of the extracellular space may be arbitrary and need not be measured. The surface (invaginated) membranes, which face the bath (extracellular space), are assumed to be characterized by an RC circuit with specific capacity Cme (Cmi) and specific conductivity gme (gmi). It is assumed that the intracellular voltage gradient between the electrodes and the membranes is negligible or reliably calculable. The intervention is assumed to leave the geometry and resistivity of the extracellular space unchanged. Under these circumstances the intervention-induced changes in Cme, Cmi, gme, and gmi are determined exactly in terms of the corresponding changes in RIN and certain frequency domain integrals over phi. The technique is illustrated by synthetic data for RIN and phi generated by the "disk" model of a skeletal muscle fiber in which Cme and Cmi depend upon holding voltage. The corresponding voltage dependence of RIN and phi is successfully "inverted" to expose the underlying voltage dependence of Cme and Cmi. These computations suggest that the formulas for Cme and Cmi will be useful in realistic situations, since they are not too sensitive to experimental error in the data for RIN and phi. This method makes it possible to detect voltage

  6. Electricity: From Tabletop to Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    While electricity is central to our daily lives, it remains "black box" technology to most students. They know that electricity is produced somewhere and that it costs money, but they do not have personal experience with the operation and scale of the machines that provide it. Fortunately, electricity generation can be added to the more basic…

  7. Flexible use of electricity in heat-only district heating plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trømborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European energy systems are in a period of significant transition, with the increasing shares of variable renewable energy (VRE and less flexible fossil-based generation units as predominant factors. The supply-side changes are expected to cause large short-term electricity price volatility. More frequent periods of low electricity prices may mean that electric use in flexible heating systems will become more profitable, and such flexible heating systems may, in turn, improve the integration of increasing shares of VRE. The objective of this study is to analyze the likely future of Nordic electricity price levels and variations and how the expected prices might affect the use of electricity and thermal storage in heat-only district heating plants. We apply the North European energy market model Balmorel to provide scenarios for future hourly electricity prices in years with normal, high, and low inflow levels to the hydro power system. The simulation tool energyPRO is subsequently applied to quantify how these electricity price scenarios affect the hourly use of thermal storage and individual boilers in heat-only district heating plants located in Norway. The two studied example plants use wood chips or heat pump as base load representing common technologies for district heating in Norway. The Balmorel results show that annual differences in inflow is still a decisive factor for Norwegian and Nordic electricity prices in year 2030 and that short-term (daily price variability is expected to increase. In the plant-level simulations, we find that tank storage, which is currently installed in only a few district heating plants in Norway, is a profitable flexibility option that will significantly reduce the use of fossil peak load in both biomass and heat-pump-based systems. Installation of an electric boiler in addition to tank storage is profitable in the heat pump system due to the limited capacity of the heat pump. Electricity will hence, to a

  8. Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array packing density data to develop a range of estimates of the solar electric footprint. We find that the solar electric footprint, defined as the land area required to supply all end-use electricity from solar photovoltaics, is about 181 m2 per person in the United States. Two key factors that influence the magnitude of the state-level solar electric footprint include how industrial energy is allocated (based on location of use vs. where goods are consumed) and the assumed distribution of PV configurations (flat rooftop vs. fixed tilt vs. tracking). The solar electric footprint is about 0.6% of the total land area of the United States with state-level estimates ranging from less than 0.1% for Wyoming to about 9% for New Jersey. We also compare the solar electric footprint to a number of other land uses. For example, we find that the solar electric footprint is equal to less than 2% of the land dedicated to cropland and grazing in the United States.

  9. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  10. Microbial fuel cells generating electricity from rhizodeposits of rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Van den Bossche, Leen; Dang, Hai Son; Höfte, Monica; Boon, Nico; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-04-15

    Living plants transport substantial amounts of organic material into the soil. This process, called rhizodeposition, provides the substrate for the rhizospheric microbial community. In this study, a laboratory-scale sediment microbial fuel cell, of which the anode is positioned in the rhizosphere of the rice plants, is used to microbially oxidize the plant-derived organics. An electrical current was generated through the in situ oxidation of rhizodeposits from living rice plants. The electrical power output of a sediment microbial fuel cell was found to be a factor 7 higher in the presence of actively growing plants. This process offers the potential of light-driven power generation from living plants in a nondestructive way. Sustainable power productions up to 330 W ha(-1) could be attributed to the oxidation of the plant-derived compounds.

  11. Solar repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company Permian Basin Steam Electric Station Unit No. 5. Final report, executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-15

    The conceptual design and economic assessment of a sodium-cooled, solar central receiver repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company's Permian Basin Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 5 are described. As expected, the economic assessment of the specific concept for that site indicates that the cost of energy is greater than that resulting from the burning of natural gas alone in the existing plant (principally as a result of the current cost of heliostats and the scheduled retirement date of Unit No. 5), Favorable economics for similar types of plants can be projected for the future. The annual fuel savings are equivalent to 218,500 barrels of crude oil, with a total dollar value of $21.5 M and $93.6 M for a 7-year life and a 25-year life, respectively. However, it has also been found, from separate studies, that favorable interpretations of the Fuel Use Act and an improved regulatory climate will be necessary for this economic viability to be reached. In particular, a subsidized program to reduce the cost of heliostats to less than $100/m/sup 2/ will be needed. All sodium components, except the receiver, are available on the basis of similar-sized or larger components that have been designed, fabricated, tested and operated in power plants for hundred of thousands of hours. Liquid sodium has been demonstrated for use as a stable, safe, and easily contained heat transfer fluid up to temperature exceeding those required for modern steam plants. (WHK)

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF THE MAIN ELECTRIC CONNECTION CIRCUITS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the main circuit of electrical connections at a nuclear electric power plant that has two units with a capacity of 1,200 MW each has been determined. Reliability, economical, maneuverable properties of the atomic power plant under study are largely determined by its main circuit, so the choice of the circuit for the design and its status in the process of operation occur to be critical objectives. Main electrical connection circuits in nuclear electric power plants are selected on the basis of the schematic networks of the energy system and the land attached to the plant. The circuit of the connection of a nuclear power plant to the grid in the original normal operating modes at all stages of the construction of such a plant should provide the outcome of the full added capacity of a nuclear power plant and the preservation of its stability in the power system without the influence of the emergency system automatics when any outgoing transmission line is disabled. When selecting the main circuit the individual capacity of the installed units and their number are taken into account as well as the order of development of the plant and power supply system; the voltage on which the power of a plant is delivered; a shortcircuit current for switchgear high voltage and the need for their limitation by circuit means; the most power that can be lost when damage to any switch. A model of reliability of the main circuit of electrical connections is designed to detect all types of accidents that are possible at the coincidence of failures of elements with the repair and operational modes that differs in composition and damageability of the equipment, as well as under conditions of the development of accidents due to failure of operation of devices of relay protection and automation.

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Electric Transmission Capacity and Peak Electricity Load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M. D.; Eisenberg, D. A.; Gorman, B.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change may hinder future electricity reliability by reducing electric transmission capacity while simultaneously increasing electricity demand. This study estimates potential climate impacts to electric transmission capacity and peak electricity load in the United States. Electric power cables suffer decreased transmission capacity as they get hotter; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity demand typically increases with hotter ambient air temperatures due to increased cooling loads. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity loads. Taken together, these coincident impacts may have unpredictable consequences for electric power reliability. We estimate the effects of climate change on both the rated capacity of transmission infrastructure and expected electricity demand for 120 electrical utilities across the United States. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with downscaled CMIP5 temperature projections to determine the relative change in rated ampacity over the twenty-first century. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity demand by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We use downscaled temperature projections from 11 CMIP5 GCM models under 3 atmospheric carbon scenarios. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), climate change may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 4-6% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak summertime loads may rise by roughly 2-12% on average due to increases in daily maximum air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs

  16. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  17. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  18. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion 10 containing propeller fan means 14 for drawing air through the lower portion 12 containing refrigerant coil means 16 in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs 64 which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed.

  19. 78 FR 1252 - Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Subsidiary of Schneider Electric, Power Business Unit, Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Subsidiary of Schneider Electric, Power... Electric, Power Business Unit, Power Solutions Division, including on-site leased workers from Volt... location of Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Power Business Unit, Power Solutions Division. The Department has...

  20. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  1. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, A.B.; Roy, C. [Faculty of Maine Dartmouth Family Medical Residency, Fairfield, ME (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  2. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  3. Performance improvement in thermal power plants. ; Design of 700MW coal-fired boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co. Ltd. Karyoku hatsudensho no seino kojo taisaku. ; Chubu denryoku (kabu) Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho 3 go unit muke koon sainetsu joki ondo (596 degree C)saiyo boiler no keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M.; Kajigaya, I.; Umaki, H.; Kunihiro, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-15

    The 700 MW coal fired super critical boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for variable pressure operation was outlined which is under development for the Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Its steam temperature was designed to be 596{degree}C at a reheater outlet and 593{degree}C at an intermediate pressure turbine inlet in the range from 35 to 100% of maximum continuous evaporation. For such high temperature steam conditions, the arrangement of reheater heating surfaces was optimized by examining both static and dynamic characteristics. Tubing materials for the reheater outlet were carefully selected in consideration of coal ash corrosion and steam side oxidation, and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was widely adopted for high temperature parts. The seam-welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe was, in particular, adopted for hot reheat pipes, and the bending fabricability and weldability of such steel plate were tested extensively on a full-scale mock-up model to ensure a plant reliability. 1 ref., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power system networks incorporated with FACTS controllers. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this ...

  5. Circadian rhythms in biologically closed electrical circuits of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander; Waite, Astian J; Wooten, Joseph D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2012-02-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. Here, we discuss the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. Plants are able to memorize daytime and nighttime. Even at continuous light or darkness, plants recognize nighttime or daytime and change the input resistance. The circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge, and the speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to plants.

  6. Rapid, Long-Distance Electrical and Calcium Signaling in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Gyu; Hilleary, Richard; Swanson, Sarah J; Kim, Su-Hwa; Gilroy, Simon

    2016-04-29

    Plants integrate activities throughout their bodies using long-range signaling systems in which stimuli sensed by just a few cells are translated into mobile signals that can influence the activities in distant tissues. Such signaling can travel at speeds well in excess of millimeters per second and can trigger responses as diverse as changes in transcription and translation levels, posttranslational regulation, alterations in metabolite levels, and even wholesale reprogramming of development. In addition to the use of mobile small molecules and hormones, electrical signals have long been known to propagate throughout the plant. This electrical signaling network has now been linked to waves of Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species that traverse the plant and trigger systemic responses. Analysis of cell type specificity in signal propagation has revealed the movement of systemic signals through specific cell types, suggesting that a rapid signaling network may be hardwired into the architecture of the plant.

  7. Identifying Electricity Capacity at Risk to Changes in Climate and Water Resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Cohen, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric plants supply 85% of electricity generation in the United States. Under a warming climate, the performance of these power plants may be reduced, as thermoelectric generation is dependent upon cool ambient temperatures and sufficient water supplies at adequate temperatures. In this study, we assess the vulnerability and reliability of 1,100 operational power plants (2015) across the contiguous United States under a comprehensive set of climate scenarios (five Global Circulation Models each with four Representative Concentration Pathways). We model individual power plant capacities using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution model (TP2M) coupled with the Water Balance Model (WBM) at a daily temporal resolution and 5x5 km spatial resolution. Together, these models calculate power plant capacity losses that account for geophysical constraints and river network dynamics. Potential losses at the single-plant level are put into a regional energy security context by assessing the collective system-level reliability at the North-American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) regions. Results show that the thermoelectric sector at the national level has low vulnerability under the contemporary climate and that system-level reliability in terms of available thermoelectric resources relative to thermoelectric demand is sufficient. Under future climates scenarios, changes in water availability and warm ambient temperatures lead to constraints on operational capacity and increased vulnerability at individual power plant sites across all regions in the United States. However, there is a strong disparity in regional vulnerability trends and magnitudes that arise from each region's climate, hydrology and technology mix. Despite increases in vulnerabilities at the individual power plant level, regional energy systems may still be reliable (with no system failures) due to sufficient back-up reserve capacities.

  8. Motor unit recruitment during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental differences between voluntary- and artificial-activation of motor units that need to be appreciated before NMES protocol design can be most effective. The unique effects of NMES have been attributed to several mechanisms, most notably, a reversal of the voluntary recruitment pattern that is known to occur during voluntary muscle contractions. This review outlines the assertion that electrical stimulation recruits motor units in a nonselective, spatially fixed, and temporally synchronous pattern. Additionally, it synthesizes the evidence that supports the contention that this recruitment pattern contributes to increased muscle fatigue when compared with voluntary actions and provides some commentary on the parameters of electrical stimulation as well as emerging technologies being developed to facilitate NMES implementation. A greater understanding of how electrical stimulation recruits motor units, as well as the benefits and limitations of its use, is highly relevant when using this tool for testing and training in rehabilitation, exercise, and/or research.

  9. Countries: General, Electricity, Geography, Health, Literature: Children's, Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of Web site educational resources kindergarten through eighth grade. The Web sites this month cover the following subjects: countries (general); electricity; geography; health; children's literature; and plants. Includes a list of "Calendar Connections" to Web site sources of information on Earth Day in April…

  10. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    , and they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the peak hour...... characteristics of the electricity and gas systems will be investigated. The point is here that the two systems will tend to have peak demand during the same hours. This is the typical situation, since load is high during the same hours of the day and of the year. Moreover, the random variations in the load...... will be correlated between the systems, because both demands in part depend on the climate. The analysis in the paper is based on a numerical model which simulates the operation of a CHP plant with heat storage. The conditions for the operation of the plant are assumed to be consistent with the conditions...

  11. Simulaton of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 Cogeneration Plant with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The simulator contest proposed for the ECOS 2003 conference has been solved using the DNA energy system simulator. The contest concerns the steam process of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 (AVV1) power plant. The plant is a 250 MWCHP plant with a maximum district heat production of 330 MJ/s. The plant has...... a net electric efficiency of 42% and a maximum energy utilization of 92%. In this paper it is demonstrated, that the DNA model of AVV1 can calculate the whole flow sheet balance at any load point, i.e., any possible combination of power production and district heat production. The paper also contains...

  12. Optimal Solutions for Load Sharing between Units of a Combined Heat and Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchinnikov P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the optimization method of load division between combined heat and power plant units. The method used the power unit division into functioning parts and the differential-exergy method. This method allowed presenting the unit as a structural diagram where exergetic subsystems are fuel supply, steam generator, turbine, generator and electrical equipment, water supply and regeneration, heat supply to the consumer. The differential-exergy method was based on a combination of exergy analysis and optimization method of economic efficiency criteria using uncertain Lagrange multipliers. The use of the exergy function of goal allowed avoiding the problem of division of fuel costs for each type of product that was important at optimization. The optimization criterion, its parameters and limitations were developed as well. These parameters can extend traditional technical and economic analysis of the combined heat and power plants operating mode, as they take into account thermodynamically rigorous division of fuel costs between heat and electric power at their complex production on the combined heat and power plants. The use of the differential-exergy method in optimizing the load distribution of the power units of the combined heat and power plants makes possible obtaining of fuel savings of 1.5 to 3%. It has been shown that if the parameters of power units deteriorate, the application of the method makes it possible to have the best performance of the power plant when it is compared with functioning of combined heat and power units at proportional loading.

  13. Emissions implications of downscaled electricity generation scenarios for the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsanzineza, Rene; O’Connell, Matthew; Brinkman, Gregory; Milford, Jana B.

    2017-10-01

    This study explores how emissions from electricity generation in the Western Interconnection region of the U.S. might respond in circa 2030 to contrasting scenarios for fuel prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fees. We examine spatial and temporal variations in generation mix across the region and year using the PLEXOS unit commitment and dispatch model with a production cost model database adapted from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. Emissions estimates are computed by combining the dispatch model results with unit-specific, emissions-load relationships. Wind energy displaces natural gas and coal in scenarios with relatively expensive natural gas or with GHG fees. Correspondingly, annual emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO2 are reduced by 20-40% in these cases. NOx emissions, which are a concern as a precursor of ground-level ozone, are relatively high and consistent across scenarios during summer, when peak electricity loads occur and wind resources in the region are comparatively weak. Accounting for the difference in start-up versus stabilized NOx emissions rates for natural gas plants had little impact on region-wide emissions estimates due to the dominant contribution from coal-fired plants, but would be more important in the vicinity of the natural gas units.

  14. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  15. 75 FR 13798 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 Environmental Assessment and... Operations, Inc. (Entergy, the licensee), for operation of the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3...

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants...

  18. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  19. Plant conservation progress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri Havens; Andrea Kramer; Ed. Guerrant

    2017-01-01

    Effective national plant conservation has several basic needs, including: 1) accessible, up-to-date information on species distribution and rarity; 2) research and management capacity to mitigate the impact of threats that make plants rare; 3) effective networks for conserving species in situ and ex situ; 4) education and training to make sure the right people are...

  20. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  1. Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection.

  2. Rejecting renewables. The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection. (author)

  3. Electric Energy Consumption of the Full Scale Research Biogas Plant “Unterer Lindenhof”: Results of Longterm and Full Detail Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work thoroughly evaluates the electric power consumption of a full scale, 3 × 923 m3 complete stirred tank reactor (CSTR research biogas plant with a production capacity of 186 kW of electric power. The plant was fed with a mixture of livestock manure and renewable energy crops and was operated under mesophilic conditions. This paper will provide an insight into precise electric energy consumption measurements of a full scale biogas plant over a period of two years. The results showed that a percentage of 8.5% (in 2010 and 8.7% (in 2011 of the produced electric energy was consumed by the combined heat and power unit (CHP, which was required to operate the biogas plant. The consumer unit agitators with 4.3% (in 2010 and 4.0% (in 2011 and CHP unit with 2.5% (in 2010 and 2011 accounted for the highest electrical power demand, in relation to the electric energy produced by the CHP unit. Calculations show that 51% (in 2010 and 46% (in 2011 of the total electric energy demand was due to the agitators. The results finally showed the need for permanent measurements to identify and quantify the electric energy saving potentials of full scale biogas plants.

  4. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Rivers and Implications for Electricity Generation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Corsi, F.; Cohen, S. M.; Tidwell, V. C.; Newmark, R. L.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The contemporary power sector in the United States is heavily reliant on water resources to provide cooling water for thermoelectric generation. Efficient thermoelectric plant operations require large volumes of water at sufficiently cool temperatures for their cooling process. The total amount of water that is withdrawn or consumed for cooling and any potential declines in efficiencies are determined by the sector's fuel mix and cooling technologies. As such, the impact of climate change, and the extent of impact, on the power sector is shaped by the choice of electricity generation technologies that will be built over the coming decades. In this study, we model potential changes in river discharge and temperature in the contiguous US under a set of climate scenarios to year 2050 using the Water Balance Model-Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution Model (WBM-TP2M). Together, these models quantify, in high-resolution (3-min), river temperatures, discharge and power plant efficiency losses associated with changes in available cooling water that incorporates climate, hydrology, river network dynamics and multi-plant impacts, on both single power plant and regional scales. Results are used to assess the aptness and vulnerability of contemporary and alternative electricity generation pathways to changes in climate and water availability for cooling purposes, and the concomitant impacts on power plant operating efficiencies. We assess the potential impacts by comparing six regions (Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Great Plains, Southwest, Northwest as in the National Climate Assessment (2014)) across the US. These experiments allow us to assess tradeoffs among electricity-water-climate to provide useful insight for decision-makers managing regional power production and aquatic environments.

  6. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  7. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  8. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  9. Public health hazards from electricity-producing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyman, J

    1977-02-25

    When a new electricity-producing plant is to be built in a given locality it is natural to take into account the public health consequences of the normal operation of each type of plant contemplated. Here, the fossil-burning plants and nuclear facilities come under consideration. I have attempted to show that, in spite of the many important studies performed, there is currently no reliable methodology to estimate how many more cancer cases, and how many more heart attacks and other diseases have to be anticipated as a consequence of the normal operation of this or that type of electric generator. In part, this is because the currently available estimates of radiation effects on humans are based on extrapolations from studies of two kinds. Those of one kind may be exemplified by studies of atomic bomb casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other kind are laboratory experiments with lower animals, frequently mice. The unreliability of both kinds of extrapolations is connected with the following circumstances: (i) The omnipresent troublesome phenomenon of competing risks. (ii) The dependence of health effects of a given noxious agent on the preexisting local pollution. (iii) The dependence of health effects not only on the "dose" of an agent, but also on the rate at which the agent is administered. (iv) The noted difficulties of making extrapolations from one mammal to another. Our obtaining reliable estimates of the public health effects of extra pollution from new industrial plants would seem to depend on a large multipollutant and multilocality epidemiological study being conducted--one requiring the cooperative effort of several governmental agencies. However, a much easier study of certain developments in the vicinity of Rocky Flats, Colorado, might provide important direct information on health phenomena as they occur in real life.

  10. Multifunctional backup electricity supply for NPP auxiliary needs based on combined-cycle power plant with hydrogen overheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Yurin

    2016-12-01

    The proposed system allows ensuring supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP during more than 72h. Use of the steam turbine plant included in the composition of the combined cycle gas turbine unit is possible for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in case of failure of gas turbine plants. Steam turbine can be operated due to the generation of additional steam during incineration of hydrogen in oxygen. With appropriate modernization the system allows using decay heat released in the nuclear reactor core. It was established that the proposed option of combining NPP with combined cycle gas turbine unit in combination with hydrogen generating complex allows enhancing reliability of supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in emergency conditions accompanied with loss of electric power supply.

  11. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Electricity Generation Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-08-29

    To address industry challenges in attaining operational excellence for electricity generation plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM). This presentation will highlight the AVESTARTM Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission electricity generation plants. The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with full-scope operator training systems (OTSs) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITSs) into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. AVESTAR’s initial offering combines--for the first time--a “gasification with CO2 capture” process simulator with a “combined-cycle” power simulator together in a single OTS/ITS solution for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option for power generation, especially when capturing and storing CO2 is necessary to satisfy emission targets. The AVESTAR training program offers a variety of courses that merge classroom learning, simulator-based OTS learning in a control-room operations environment, and immersive learning in the interactive 3D virtual plant environment or ITS. All of the courses introduce trainees to base-load plant operation, control, startups, and shutdowns. Advanced courses require participants to become familiar with coordinated control, fuel switching, power-demand load shedding, and load following, as well as to problem solve equipment and process malfunctions. Designed to ensure work force development, training is offered for control room and plant field operators, as well as engineers and managers. Such comprehensive simulator-based instruction allows

  12. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  14. Projections of cost, duration, and on-site manual labor requirements for constructing electric generating plants, 1979-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Ray; Duncan, Charles W.

    1979-09-01

    The study provides a consistent set of base-line estimates of future capital costs and labor requirements for power plant construction that can be used by the government, utilities, constructors, labor organizations, industry vendors, and the general public for policy making and planning purposes. Separate projections for nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil-fueled generating facilities are included. Within each category, estimates of on-site labor requirements are provided for 14 separate craft classifications. Projections also are presented for each of 10 geographical regions of the United States. It should be noted that the estimates are based upon power plants already under construction as well as those in advanced planning stages which are expected to be under construction during the 1979-1983 interval. Part I presents forecasts of work-hour requirements per kilowatt of installed capacity, detailed by type of power plant. Part II provides the forecast of work-year requirements, by craft. Within Part III are presented regional requirements of construction labor. Part IV discusses the forecasts of costs for constructing electric power plants. Appendix A contains information on the conceptual framework of the forecasting model and the econometric procedures used to estimate trend functions. Appendix B provides tabular information on unit work-hour requirements for constructing electric power plants. Appendix C presents tabular information on forecasted unit plant costs. Appendix D discusses methods for converting constant dollars to current dollars for nuclear power plant construction. Appendix E provides a listing of data sources and references.

  15. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

  16. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  17. Electrical signals as mechanism of photosynthesis regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    This review summarizes current works concerning the effects of electrical signals (ESs) on photosynthesis, the mechanisms of the effects, and its physiological role in plants. Local irritations of plants induce various photosynthetic responses in intact leaves, including fast and long-term inactivation of photosynthesis, and its activation. Irritation-induced ESs, including action potential, variation potential, and system potential, probably causes the photosynthetic responses in intact leaves. Probable mechanisms of induction of fast inactivation of photosynthesis are associated with Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes during ESs generation; long-term inactivation of photosynthesis might be caused by Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes, production of abscisic and jasmonic acids, and inactivation of phloem H(+)-sucrose symporters. It is probable that subsequent development of inactivation of photosynthesis is mainly associated with decreased CO2 influx and inactivation of the photosynthetic dark reactions, which induces decreased photochemical quantum yields of photosystems I and II and increased non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II fluorescence and cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. However, other pathways of the ESs influence on the photosynthetic light reactions are also possible. One of them might be associated with ES-connected acidification of chloroplast stroma inducing ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase accumulation at the thylakoids in Tic62 and TROL complexes. Mechanisms of ES-induced activation of photosynthesis require further investigation. The probable ultimate effect of ES-induced photosynthetic responses in plant life is the increased photosynthetic machinery resistance to stressors, including high and low temperatures, and enhanced whole-plant resistance to environmental factors at least during 1 h after irritation.

  18. Global Freshwater Thermal Pollution from Steam-Electric Power Plants with Once-Through Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, C. E.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric power generation requires large amounts of cooling water. In facilities employing once-through cooling systems the heat removed in the power cycle is rejected directly into a water body. Several studies have focused on the impacts of power-related thermal emissions in Europe and the U.S., in terms of river temperature increase and the capacity for power production, especially in the light of legislative measures designed to protect freshwater bodies from excessive temperature. In this work we present a comprehensive, global analysis of current freshwater thermal pollution by thermoelectric facilities. The Platts World Electric Power Plant (WEPP) database was the principal data source. Data gaps in the principal parameters of the steam-electric power cycle were filled in by regression relationships developed in this work. Some 2400 steam-electric units using once-through freshwater cooling systems, amounting to 19% of the global installed capacity of thermoelectric units, were identified and georeferenced, and a global view of thermal emission rates was achieved by systematically solving the Rankine cycle on a power generating unit level. The rejected heat rates are linearly proportional to the steam flow rate, which in turn is directly proportional to the power produced. By applying the appropriate capacity factors, the rejected heat rate can be estimated for each unit or agglomeration of units at the desired temporal resolution. We coupled mean annual emission rates with the global gridded hydrological-river temperature model VIC-RBM to obtain a first view of river temperature increases resulting from power generation. The results show that in many cases, even on a mean annual emission rate basis and a relatively large spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degrees, the local limits for temperature increase are often exceeded, especially in the U.S. and Europe.

  19. Capabilities of the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit to support plant research conducted on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Durst, S.; Meyers, R.; Tellez, G.; Demars, M.; Sandstrom, P.

    Since 1990, WCSAR has developed a number of technologies for plant-based space life support systems, with a goal of providing robust and capable facilities suitable for conducting quality plant research in microgravity environment. These technologies have been substantially validated using the Astroculture payload through a series of space shuttle flights. Advanced ASTROCULTURETM (ADVASC), a space-based plant growth unit, has been developed to take advantage of plant research opportunities during the early assembly phase of the International Space Station (ISS) when ISS resources and up/down mass availability are limited. ADVASC provides an enclosed, environmentally controlled plant growth chamber with controlled parameters of temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, fluid nutrient delivery, and CO2 and hydrocarbon (ethylene) concentrations. Auto-prime technology eliminates the need for electrical power during launch vehicle ascent/descent, and therefore greatly relieves the shortage of launch vehicle resources and ISS crew time. State-of-the-art control software combined with fault tolerance and recovery technology significantly increases overall system robustness and efficiency. Tele-science features allow engineers and scientists to remotely receive telemetry data and video images, send remote commands, monitor plant development status, and troubleshoot subsystems if any unexpected behavior occurs. ADVASC is configured as two single-Middeck-Locker inserts installed in a standard EXPRESS Rack, with one insert containing the support systems and the other containing a large plant growth chamber. Thus, the insert with the support systems can remain on the ISS and only the insert containing the plant chamber needs to be transported to and from the ISS to accommodate different experiments. ADVASC has been used to successfully conduct three plant life cycle studies on board the ISS, two for Arabidopsis seed-to-seed growth and one for soybean seed-to-seed growth

  20. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  1. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  2. Proposed Minor NSR Permit: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative - Bonanza Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed minor NSR permit, technical support document, public notice bulletin, and supporting documentation for the Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant, Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation, Utah.

  3. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  4. Demands on project management of comprehensive modernization projects in the electrical systems area. Example of modernization of electrical systems of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinshoff, Helmut; Weber, Patrick [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, Freyeslebenstrasse 1, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear power plants, station supply with electric energy must be guaranteed any time. This applies in particular also during the implementation of complex electrical systems modernization projects. Highest demands on the project management, extensive experience and system knowledge are required. In the frame of the Modernization Program for the nuclear power plant Kozloduy unit 5 and 6 in Bulgaria Framatome ANP has approved its ability to implement a large scope of modernization measures during the refueling outages of the years 2003 to 2005. The Contract of the Modernization Program for the European Consortium Kozloduy (Framatome ANP, Atomenergoexport) was signed in July 1999 and became effective in June 2001. The project will be finished by May 2006, with the approval of the Updated Final Safety Analysis Report. The scope of hardware work has been implemented within 6 plant outages during the years 2002 to 2005. The focus of the Modernization Program is mainly oriented to nuclear safety aspects, with the aim of upgrading of the Units to a high safety level in compliance with international practice. A further section of the project is dedicated to upgrading of operational equipment. Framatome ANP personnel have shown that besides the technical challenges which had to be faced, also the intercultural and language barriers were successfully overcome. The good teamwork between the partners of the Consortium ECK, its Bulgarian subcontractors and with Kozloduy plant personnel has been an important success factor. (authors)

  5. ECONOMIC IMPACTS RESULTING FROM CO-FIRING BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES COAL-FIRED PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    English, Burton C.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Menard, R. Jamey; Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, Daniel de la; Brandt, Craig; Van Dyke, Jim; Hadley, Stanton

    2004-01-01

    Economic impacts of using biomass in Southeast United States coal-fired plants are estimated using a county-level biomass database; ORCED, a dynamic electricity distribution model that estimates feedstock value; ORIBAS, a GIS model that estimates feedstock transportation costs; and IMPLAN, an input-output model that determines the impacts of co-firing on economic activity.

  6. Green electricity production with living plants and bacteria in a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Snel, J.F.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The world needs sustainable, efficient, and renewable energy production. We present the plant microbial fuel cell (plant-MFC), a concept that exploits a bioenergy source in situ. In the plant-MFC, plants and bacteria were present to convert solar energy into green electricity. The principal idea is

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  9. 78 FR 28000 - Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Louisiana, LLC and Entergy Operations, Inc.; Waterford Stream Electric Station, Unit No. 3... Operations, Inc. (EOI) (the licensees), are co-holders of Facility Operating License No. NPF- 38. The ELL is the owner and EOI is authorized to possess, use, and operate Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No...

  10. Marginal cost pricing for coal fired electricity in coastal cities of China: the case of Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Qiu; Duan, Yan-Xin

    2003-05-01

    By developing a GDMOD model to estimate the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation, this project provides a detailed analysis of the damages and costs caused by different pollutants at varying distances from the Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen, China. The major findings of this study can be summarized that (1) environmental damages caused by electricity production are large and are mainly imposed on regions far away from the electricity plant; (2) air pollution is the most significant contributor to the total damages, and SO2, NO(x), and particulate matter are the three major pollutants with highest damages; (3) the damages caused per unit of particulate,NO(x), and SO2 emissions are much higher than pollution treatment and prevention costs. The research results of this project showed that China needs to have a more effective levy system on SO2, and a more manageable electricity tariff mechanism to internalize the environmental externalities. The results have also implications for pollution control strategies, compensation schemes as well an emission trading arrangements.

  11. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  12. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed operator...

  13. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options.

  14. Evolutions in Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the water withdrawal and consumption rates by thermoelectric power plants is important for water resources management, planning of new electricity generation capacity additions, and understanding potential water stress on agricultural systems. But estimates of water demand by power plants are limited by the availability of temporally resolved and high quality data and are influenced by numerous aspects of the climate, cooling technology, and energy technology. In 2010, the U.S. thermoelectric power sector accounted for about 45% of the total water withdrawal—the largest end-use sector for water withdrawal in the country—but withdrawal and consumption rates are evolving with the popularity of recirculating cooling systems and fuel switching from coal to natural gas. We used data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration to derive monthly water withdrawal and consumption factors for thermoelectric power plants across the United States from 2010 to 2014 and combined that data with information on power plant design, location, and cooling systems from various sources and previous annual datasets. We developed and applied a model that relates the water use factors to cooling system designs, intake water sources, power generation technologies, boiler efficiencies, and weather conditions. We present our analysis of the factors that influence the inter-power plant, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in water-use factors and provide lessons for electricity capacity planning and regional water availability for other uses, including agriculture.

  15. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  16. FEATURES OF ELECTRIC MOTOR CHOICE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shevchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants remain the basic power generating enterprises for Ukraine. Execution of works on their reliability control and operating conditions optimization is therefore of current importance. Trouble-free nuclear power plant operation is a vital technical, economical, and ecological problem, a solution to which is largely specified by reliable operation of electric equipment, namely, electric motors of nuclear power plant technological process drives.

  17. Progress in developing tidal electric power plants reported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhnin, A.

    1984-12-01

    The natural energy potential of tides on the shores of the U.S.S.R. is equal to about a third of the world's total. The Achilles heel of tidal power plants is their pulsating operation. One solution to this problem was to build a hydroelectric power plant for use in tandem with the tidal power plant. During lulls in the tidal plant, the hydraulic power plant switches on at full power. Possible sites for dual plants were discussed.

  18. Coal-Powered Electric Generating Unit Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Coal continues to play a critical role in powering the Nation’s electricity generation, especially for baseload power plants. With aging coal generation assets facing decreased performance due to the state of the equipment, and with challenges exacerbated by the current market pressures on the coal sector, there are opportunities to advance early-stage technologies that can retrofit or replace equipment components. These changes will eventually result in significant improvements in plant performance once further developed and deployed by industry. Research and development in areas such as materials, fluid dynamics, fuel properties and preparation characteristics, and a new generation of plant controls can lead to new components and systems that can help improve the efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants significantly, allowing these assets to continue to provide baseload power. Coal stockpiles at electricity generation plants are typically large enough to provide 30 to 60 days of power prior to resupply—significantly enhancing the stability and reliability of the U.S. electricity sector. Falling prices for non-dispatchable renewable energy and mounting environmental regulations, among other factors, have stimulated efforts to improve the efficiency of these coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). In addition, increased reliance on natural gas and non-dispatchable energy sources has spurred efforts to further increase the reliability of coal EGUs. The Coal Powered EGU Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue brought together stakeholders from across the coal EGU industry to discuss methods for improvement. Participants at the event reviewed performance-enhancing innovations in coal EGUs, discussed the potential for data-driven management practices to increase efficiency and reliability, investigated the impacts of regulatory compliance on coal EGU performance, and discussed upcoming challenges for the coal industry. This report documents the key

  19. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kotowicz Janusz; Bartela Łukasz; Mikosz Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by...

  20. The metre-kilogram-second system of electrical units

    CERN Document Server

    Sas, R K

    1947-01-01

    Introduction ; electrostatic units, electromagnetic units, and practical units ; magnetic intensity and flux density ; rationalization ; tribulations of the student ; metres and kilograms in general and in mechanics ; pulse and aperture ; magnetostatics ; steady currents ; electrostatics ; resistance ; electromagnetic induction ; determination of Eo. capacity formulae ; field ; electrons and moving charges ; quantum theory ; memory assisted by the M.K.S. system ; short account of M.K.S. units ; list of formulae

  1. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters can be operated over a wide range of specific impulse while maintaining high efficiency. However S/C power system constraints on electric propulsion...

  2. Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Rogers, J.; Madden, N.; Fisher, J.; Meldrum, J.; Newmark, R.

    2013-03-01

    Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges.

  3. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  4. Strategy of investment in electricity sources--Market value of a power plant and the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, R.; Hnydiuk-Stefan, A.; Buryn, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of the investment strategy analysis in different electricity sources. New methodology and theory of calculating the market value of the power plant and value of the electricity market supplied by it are presented. The financial gain forms the most important criteria in the assessment of an investment by an investor. An investment strategy has to involve a careful analysis of each considered project in order that the right decision and selection will be made while various components of the projects will be considered. The latter primarily includes the aspects of risk and uncertainty. Profitability of an investment in the electricity sources (as well as others) is offered by the measures applicable for the assessment of the economic effectiveness of an investment based on calculations e.g. power plant market value and the value of the electricity that is supplied by a power plant. The values of such measures decide on an investment strategy in the energy sources. This paper contains analysis of exemplary calculations results of power plant market value and the electricity market value supplied by it.

  5. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  6. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  7. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  8. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  9. 75 FR 11920 - General Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration General Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division... Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division, including on-site leased workers from DeVore... Electric Lighting-Ravenna Lamp Plant, Lighting Division, including on-site leased workers from DeVore...

  10. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander, which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  11. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna; Składzień, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  12. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric...

  13. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  14. Dynamic analysis of sulfur dioxide monthly emissions in United States power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 marked a moving away from command-and-control air quality regulations towards a market-based approach, whereby polluters are assigned annual emission allowances, and are free to select the minimum-cost approach that will keep their actual annual emissions within this allowance limit. Within this context, the objectives of this research are to better understand (1) the temporal patterns of SO 2 emissions from power plants, and (2) the factors affecting fuel choice and SO2 emissions. Large power plant-related datasets from various sources are collected, processed, and combined for empirical analyses, to explain monthly fuel shipments, fuel consumptions, sulfur shipments, gross and net SO 2 emissions, and fuel choices. Because of the interdependency of these various sulfur dioxide, simultaneous equations estimation techniques are used. The empirical findings are as follows. First, forecasts of electricity demand and fuel prices are the main determinants of the amounts and types of fuel shipments. The relationship between fuel shipments and forecasted fuel needs is very strong for the current month, and gradually weakens over future months, due to forecasting difficulties and the costs of fuel inventories. Second, net SO2 emissions increase with allowances, although not proportionately, because of the likely effects of allowance banking and trading. Third, each plant reduces SO2 emissions gradually over time, to account for the future more stringent Phase II emissions constraints. Fourth, plants emit less in winter, possibly because higher electricity leads to reduced unit SO2 emission abatement costs. Finally, plants with an FGD usually consume more high-sulfur fuels due to their potential abatement capability. An integrated analysis of the effects of changing emission allowances and installing FGD is conducted through a simulation. Reducing allowances by 1% leads to an emissions reduction of 0.15% at the plant level

  15. Increased electrical efficiency in biofueled CHP plants by biomass drying; Oekat elutbyte i biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar med hjaelp av foertorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Mikael; Thorson, Ola; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    In this report, integrated biofuel drying has been studied for two cases. One is the existing CHP plant at ENA Energi AB in Enkoeping and the other is a theoretical case. The thought plant is assumed to have a steam generating performance that is probable for a future CHP plant optimised for power production. The CHP plant at ENA Energi with its integrated bed drying system has been used as a model in this study. The plant has a grate fired boiler with the capacity to co-produce 24 MW electricity and 55 MW heat. It is designed to use biofuel with moisture content between 40 and 55 %. However, the boiler is able to manage even dryer fuels with the moisture content of about 35 % without complications. Since the boiler operates on part load during most of the season, there are free capacity which can be used for delivering heat to the drying system. The increased power production is a result of mainly two factors: Increased demand of heat as the dryer uses district heating and thus improved possibility to produce steam; and, The season of operation can be extended, since the point where the minimum load of the boiler occurs can be pushed forward as a result of increased demand of heat. For future CHP plants, an optimised plant has been used as a model. The steam data is assumed to be 170 bar and 540 deg C with reheating. For this plant, both on-site and offsite drying have been studied. The case study comprises a whole season of operation and the fuel is assumed to be dried from 50 to 10 %. The size of the optimised plant is as to fit the dimension of a main production unit in a district heating net equal to the tenth largest in Sweden. Heat delivery is assumed to be 896 GWh/year and the maximum heat delivery of district heating is 250 MW. The sizing of the boiler is made to maximise the production of electricity, and thus dependent of the drying strategy used. Flue gas condensation is assumed to be used as much as possible. It decreases the basis for power production

  16. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  17. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment...-4, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna... changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no significant...

  18. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    researchers for finding out the relevant references in the field of the applications of PMUs in electric power system networks ..... time standard known as the IRIG-B standard is currently being used by the power industry for time-tagging digital fault recorders and other substation ..... neural network to estimate the fault location.

  19. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  20. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Mikosz, Dorota

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  1. 76 FR 62457 - Tennessee Valley Authority (Bellefonte Nuclear Plant, Unit 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority (Bellefonte Nuclear Plant, Unit 1) Order I. The Tennessee Valley.... ML090680334) for construction of the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant (BLN), Units 1 and 2, respectively. The CPs for... ``Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site...

  2. 78 FR 35989 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Statement, Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN), Unit 2'' (SFES). ADDRESSES... option of issuing the operating license for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2. This recommendation is based...

  3. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).'' Agencies...

  4. 76 FR 52356 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... to Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit... Statement for Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, or the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for...

  5. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  6. Electrical efficiency in waste incineration plants - Turgi case study; Elektrizitaetseffizienz in Kehrichtverwertungsanlagen - Fallbeispiel KVA Turgi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenny, D.; Schnyder, G.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the more efficient use of electricity in the waste incineration plant in Turgi, Switzerland. Using this plant as a model, an evaluation of the potential for increasing efficiencies in the area of electricity consumption was carried out. All energy-relevant processes and technologies were analysed on site in order to draw up a catalogue of optimisation measures. The measures described were evaluated and classified, whereby their feasibility and economic viability were taken into account. The electricity savings potential for the Turgi plant was extrapolated: the potential increase in efficiency in all thermal waste treatment plants in Switzerland indicates annual savings of around 38 GWh, which is equivalent to the electricity consumption of around 10,000 private households.

  7. Draft Title V Permit to Operate: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft operating permit, Statement of Basis, public notice, and supporting documentation for the Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant located within the exterior boundaries of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  8. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: General Electric – Main Plant Site in Schenectady, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    GE purchased the property at Genesee Street in 1951 and constructed a manufacturing plant that produced a variety of electrical components including radar equipment, printed circuit boards and high voltage semiconductors. In January 1986, Powerex, Inc., ac

  9. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: General Electric - Auburn Plant in Auburn, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    GE purchased the property at Genesee Street in 1951 and constructed a manufacturing plant that produced a variety of electrical components including radar equipment, printed circuit boards and high voltage semiconductors. In January 1986, Powerex, Inc.,

  10. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core cooling...

  11. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) report...

  12. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability... Plants and Public Meetings for the License Renewal of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published a draft plant...

  13. Weijia Zhou Inspects the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Weijia Zhou, director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects the Advanced Astroculture(tm) plant growth unit before its first flight last spring. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Product Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  14. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  15. Selected Aspects Of Building, Operation And Environmental Impact Of Offshore Wind Power Electric Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroziński Adam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes essence of work of offshore wind power electric plants and crucial aspects of their building and operating. Prospects for development of global, European and domestic markets of offshore wind power industry have been delineated. A comparative analysis of environmental impact of an offshore and land-based 2MW wind power electric plant has been performed by using LCA method and Ecoindex – 99 (Ekowskaźnik 99 modelling.

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  17. Validation of a methodology for the study of generation cost of electric power for nuclear power plants; Validacion de una metodologia para el estudio de costos de generacion de electricidad de plantas nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfortega@mexis.com

    2004-07-01

    It was developed a model for the calculation of costs of electric generation of nuclear plants. The developed pattern was validated with the one used by the United States Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in studies of comparison of alternatives for electric generation of nuclear plants and fossil plants with base of gas and of coal in the United States described in the guides calls Technical Assessment Guides of EPRI. They are mentioned in qualitative form some changes in the technology of nucleo electric generation that could be included in the annual publication of Costs and Parameters of Reference for the Formulation of Projects of Investment in the Electric Sector of the Federal Commission of Electricity. These changes are in relation to the advances in the technology, in the licensing, in the construction and in the operation of the reactors called advanced as the A BWR built recently in Japan. (Author)

  18. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  19. The Integration of Electrical Signals Originating in the Root of Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Canales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed different signaling systems allowing for the integration of environmental cues to coordinate molecular processes associated to both early development and the physiology of the adult plant. Research on systemic signaling in plants has traditionally focused on the role of phytohormones as long-distance signaling molecules, and more recently the importance of peptides and miRNAs in building up this communication process has also been described. However, it is well-known that plants have the ability to generate different types of long-range electrical signals in response to different stimuli such as light, temperature variations, wounding, salt stress, or gravitropic stimulation. Presently, it is unclear whether short or long-distance electrical communication in plants is linked to nutrient uptake. This review deals with aspects of sensory input in plant roots and the propagation of discrete signals to the plant body. We discuss the physiological role of electrical signaling in nutrient uptake and how nutrient variations may become an electrical signal propagating along the plant.

  20. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  1. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  2. Advisory system for the diagnosis of lost electric output in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyunyoung Heo; Soon Heung Chang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea). Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering; Seong Soo Choi [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea); Gwang Hee Choi; Moon Hak Jee [Korea Power Electric Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2005-11-15

    The enhancement of efficiency is world-wide trend to survive under intense competition. In recent years, the efficiency in the power industry is also one of the important topics. In case of nuclear power plants(NPPs), the period and quality of maintenance is an especially important factor to increase efficiency as well as availability. Therefore, the accurate identification of the root causes for lost electric output is indispensable to decrease the period and to increase quality of maintenance. The diagnosis in NPPs is more difficult because the turbine cycle of NPPs uses saturated steam as working fluid. In this study, authors tried to develop an advisory system with the quantitative diagnosis model consisting of statistical regression analysis and Bayesian network for the support of nuclear turbine cycle diagnosis. The proposed advisory system includes the knowledge-base representing the normal or abnormal behavior of nuclear turbine cycle. Authors selected 34 boundary parameters that independently influence to electric output. Using the data collected from a turbine cycle simulation tool, the statistical correlation between a boundary parameter and electric output was analyzed. To give the belief, that is the degree of accuracy, of root causes under various uncertainty sources, belief module for the boundary parameters is developed on the basis of Bayesian network. In conclusion, this diagnosis module can give the impacts of the root causes and their uncertainty simultaneously, so we call it 'Lost MW calculator'. After the validation using simulated data and actual performance data, this module was installed in Younggwang NPP units 3 and 4 in Korea. (author)

  3. CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF WIND UNIT WITH HELICOID VERTICALLY AXIAL WINDMILL AND SYNCHRONOUS MAGNETO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Оlеshkеvich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a helicoid vertically axial windmill geared to synchronous magneto-electric generator which operates for a power system or an independent resistive load. In order to optimize operational modes of a wind power unit a mathematical model and software have been developed and a number of calculative experiments have been carried out. The obtained law of wind unit control makes it possible to ensure maximum power output and stability in a wind unit operation.

  4. The Plant Research Unit: Long-Term Plant Growth Support for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, C. S.; Goins, G. D.; Kliss, M.; Levine, H.; Lomax, P. A.; Porter, R. L.; Wheeler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The specifications of the plant research unit (PRU) plant habitat, designed for space station operations, are presented. A prototype brassboard model of the PRU is described, and the results of the subsystems tests are outlined. The effects of the long term red light emitting diode (LED) illumination as the sole source for plant development were compared with red LEDs supplemented with blue wavelengths, and white fluorescent sources. It was found that wheat and Arabidopsis were able to complete a life cycle under red LEDs alone, but with differences in physiology and morphology. The differences noted were greatest for the Arabidopsis, where the time to flowering was increased under red illumination. The addition of 10 percent of blue light was effective in eliminating the observed differences. The results of the comparative testing of three nutrient delivery systems for the PRU are discussed.

  5. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  6. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material

  7. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-03-06

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli--sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and ozone (O₃). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The United Kingdom demand for renewable electricity in a liberalised market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1998-03-01

    This paper analyses how the liberalisation of the UK electricity market in 1998 may encourage demand for renewable electricity through pricing and informational incentives. The analysis argues that prices and beliefs will be crucial for influencing customers` willingness to pay for environmental costs associated with electricity generation, as well as their decision to not just buy the cheapest electricity. In 1998, when UK electricity markets are liberated, a small price differential between renewable and standard electricity - certainly less than 20% - and clear, credible and captivating information about the external costs of electricity generation could create a considerable demand for renewable electricity. But, because renewable generating capacity will initially be small and slow to adjust to incentives, initially high demand may drive up prices, discouraging customers from wanting to buy renewable electricity. Low demand, on the other hand, will not provide the incentives to invest new capacity, which probably means that renewable technology will not be able to reduce its unit costs of electricity generation and compete in a liberalised market without continued financial support. To avoid either scenario, this paper recommends that Government should extend the non-fossil fuel obligation (NFFO) to promote investment in renewable technology, provide tax incentives to minimise the price differential between renewable and standard electricity, encourage non-governmental organisations to develop schemes for providing customers with clear, consistent and reliable information about sources of renewable electricity, and stagger the introduction of electricity liberalisation. While the analysis is of a speculative nature, such policies may create incentives for markets to reduce environmental damage associated with electricity generation. (Author)

  9. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous

  10. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  11. 75 FR 65558 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site... Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site (final SEIS) on September 9, 2010. The location of the proposed nuclear plant site was stated incorrectly in the heading of the ROD. TVA prepared the final SEIS to update...

  12. 75 FR 5354 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental Assessment... Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 (BFN), located in Limestone County, Alabama. In accordance with 10 CFR 51... Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch II-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  13. 78 FR 52571 - Tennessee Valley Authority, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Applications and Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Applications and Amendments to... (TVA or the licensee), for operation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) Unit 1, located in Alabama... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Siva P. Lingam, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch 2-2, Division of...

  14. 75 FR 13327 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption 1.0... DPR-33, DPR-52 and DPR-68, which authorize operation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2... industry requests to extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted...

  15. 76 FR 55723 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License Renewal... (NEPA). TVA prepared the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units... existing environmental information and analyses for the continued operation of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant...

  16. 75 FR 12314 - Tennessee Valley Authority: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Exemption 1.0 Background..., which authorizes operation of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN), Unit 1. TVA obtained construction... the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  18. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  19. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  20. Control Algorithms of Propulsion Unit with Induction Motors for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACKY, P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of algorithms for controlling electronic differential and differential lock of an electrically driven vehicle. The simulation part addresses the development of algorithms suitable for the implementation into a real system of a road vehicle. The algorithms are then implemented into a vehicle, a propulsion unit of which is consists of two separate electric drives with induction motors fed by voltage inverters with own control units using advanced signal processors. Communication among control units is provided by means of SPI interface. A method of vector control is used for the control of induction motors. The developed algorithms are experimentally verified for correct function in a laboratory using a roll test stand and while driving an electrically driven vehicle on the road.

  1. Improved Methodology for Sizing of Naval Electrical Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    and H. Beaty, Standard Handbook f&r Eletic Engjn 12th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1987. [7] Billinton , Roy and Ronald N. Allan, Lliabily Assesmnt gf Lag...Electric PoSwer Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988. [8] Billinton , Roy and Ronald N. Allan, RliabiliIX Evaluation of EUSUgindg sxm6 an wd Ighnig Plenum...Press, 1983. [9] Billinton , Roy and Ronald N. Allan, kijailil Evaluation of Power Sxuma Plenum Press, 1984. [10] Kelley, K., "Some Economic Principles

  2. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper p...... the spot prices of the years 2001-2003, both with and without the immersion heater included in the model, and the results are compared to the full information case.......Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...... presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...

  3. Freshwater Vulnerability beyond Local Water Stress: Heterogeneous Effects of Water-Electricity Nexus Across the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B; Wang, Chunyan; Font Vivanco, David; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2017-09-05

    Human health and economic prosperity are vulnerable to freshwater shortage in many parts of the world. Despite a growing literature that examines the freshwater vulnerability in various spatiotemporal contexts, existing knowledge has been conventionally constrained by a territorial perspective. On the basis of spatial analyses of monthly water and electricity flows across 2110 watersheds and three interconnected power systems, this study investigates the water-electricity nexus (WEN)'s transboundary effects on freshwater vulnerability in the continental United States in 2014. The effects are shown to be considerable and heterogeneous across time and space. For at least one month a year, 58 million people living in water-abundant watersheds were exposed to additional freshwater vulnerability by relying on electricity generated by freshwater-cooled thermal energy conversion cycles in highly stressed watersheds; for 72 million people living in highly stressed watersheds, their freshwater vulnerability was mitigated by using imported electricity generated in water-abundant watersheds or power plants running dry cooling or using nonfreshwater for cooling purposes. On the country scale, the mitigation effects were the most significant during September and October, while the additional freshwater vulnerability was more significant in February, March, and December. Due to the WEN's transboundary effects, overall, the freshwater vulnerability was slightly worsened within the Eastern Interconnection, substantially improved within the Western Interconnection, and least affected within the ERCOT Interconnection.

  4. Electricity Generation, Electricity Consumption, and Energy Efficiency in the United States: A Dual Climatic-Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christopher Alan

    Much of the United States (US) has seen an increase in warm days, decrease in cool days, and increase in extreme weather events. These trends are projected to continue across much of the US and in turn increase the demand for electricity and subsequent greenhouse gas emissions. Ambitious energy efficiency (EE) programs are used across the US by energy utility organizations to reduce electricity demand and emissions. This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity consumption, as well as how pro-conservation interventions such as EE programs and experiential learning can be utilized to mitigate residential electricity consumption and emissions. Chapter 2 of this study examined the impact of EE programs on residential electricity consumption taking into account climatic indicators across the contiguous US. A state-by-state analysis suggested that climatic indicators were more explanatory of residential consumption than energy utility organization EE efforts at the state-level. Chapter 3 examined residential electricity consumption for heating and cooling applications explained by energy utility organization EE efforts and climatic indicators in the Southeast US. Indirect spending on EE programs was significantly related to heating and cooling applications and heating degree days, a climatic indicator for number of days over a certain temperature, were significantly related to cooling equipment applications. A survey of 2,450 residential electricity consumers was analyzed. Residents who were aware of EE programs and participated in EE programs were significantly more likely than those who were not to support energy utility organization use of clean energy and government subsidies for EE programs. Chapter 4 provided case study in a Southeast US state where a pro-conservation behavioral intervention was deployed in an elementary school. This chapter utilized a longitudinal design and mixed methodology to assess the effect of curriculum

  5. Model Thermoelectric Generator TEG Small Modular As Micro Electricity Plant At Indonesia Part 1 Design And Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kisman M. Mahmud; Sri Anastasia Yudistirani; Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan

    2015-01-01

    .... By using these principles this study was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two Peltier modules which would be an alternative source for micro electricity plant using...

  6. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  7. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  8. Modernization of electric power systems of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant; Modernizacion de los sistemas electricos de potencia de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, M. A.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Prieto, I.

    2011-07-01

    The Power Increase Project of Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant has entailed the replacement, in one unique outage, of the main power electrical systems of the Plant (Isolated Phase Bars, Generator Circuit Breaker and Main Transformer) as well as the replacement of the Turbo-group. The simultaneous substitution of these entire system has never been done by any other Plant in the world, representing an engineering challenge that embraced the design of the new equipment up to the planning, coordination and management of the construction and commissioning works, which were successfully carried out by Iberdrola within the established outage period /47 days) for both units. (Author)

  9. Effects of radioactive fallout from a nuclear power plant accident on electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, S.; Knudsen, E.

    1986-10-01

    Continuous recordings of atmospheric electric parameters were carried out in Uppsala, Sweden. Because of the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, a rainfall on April 27, 1986, caused a considerable increase of the radioactive background radiation in the surroundings of the recording station. A pronounced influence on the atmospheric electric field, the conductivity of the air, and the space charge density is reported.

  10. Sub-lethal levels of electric current elicit the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoyo, Evans; Farag, Mohamed A; Sumner, Lloyd W; Wasmann, Catherine; Cuello, Joel L; VanEtten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research.

  11. The PBMR electric power generation plant; La planta de generacion de energia electrica PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: gabriela_perez@engineer.com

    2003-07-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  12. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  13. Water Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  14. Plant/microbe cooperation for electricity generation in a rice paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Natsuki; Kodama, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Soils are rich in organics, particularly those that support growth of plants. These organics are possible sources of sustainable energy, and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) system can potentially be used for this purpose. Here, we report the application of an MFC system to electricity generation in a rice paddy field. In our system, graphite felt electrodes were used; an anode was set in the rice rhizosphere, and a cathode was in the flooded water above the rhizosphere. It was observed that electricity generation (as high as 6 mW/m(2), normalized to the anode projection area) was sunlight dependent and exhibited circadian oscillation. Artificial shading of rice plants in the daytime inhibited the electricity generation. In the rhizosphere, rice roots penetrated the anode graphite felt where specific bacterial populations occurred. Supplementation to the anode region with acetate (one of the major root-exhausted organic compounds) enhanced the electricity generation in the dark. These results suggest that the paddy-field electricity-generation system was an ecological solar cell in which the plant photosynthesis was coupled to the microbial conversion of organics to electricity.

  15. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  16. Heavy metal multilayers for switching of magnetic unit via electrical current without magnetic field, method and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Chien, Chia-ling

    2018-02-20

    Provided is an electric-current-controllable magnetic unit, including: a substrate, an electric-current channel disposed on the substrate, the electric-current channel including a composite heavy-metal multilayer comprising at least one heavy-metal; a capping layer disposed over the electric-current channel; and at least one ferromagnetic layer disposed between the electric-current channel and the capping layer.

  17. REDUNDANT ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROL UNIT DESIGN USING AUTOMATA-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yu. Yankin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.

  18. Projection of distributed-collector solar-thermal electric power plant economics to years 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Elgabalawi, N.; Herrera, G.; Turner, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal power plants was undertaken by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990 to 2000 time frame. The selected systems include: (1) fixed orientation collectors with concentrating reflectors and vacuum tube absorbers, (2) one axis tracking linear concentrator including parabolic trough and variable slat designs, and (3) two axis tracking parabolic dish systems including concepts with small heat engine-electric generator assemblies at each focal point as well as approaches having steam generators at the focal point with pipeline collection to a central power conversion unit. Comparisons are presented primarily in terms of energy cost and capital cost over a wide range of operating load factors. Sensitvity of energy costs for a range of efficiency and cost of major subsystems/components is presented to delineate critical technological development needs.

  19. More Electricity. Methodical survey of existing plants; Mer El. Metodisk genomgaang av befintliga anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Baafaelt, Martin [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Ifwer, Karin; Svensson, Niclas; Oehrstroem, Anna [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The interest in production of electricity has increased the last years as a consequence of the increased price. A high production of electricity is of interest for all kinds of CHP-plants. For large biofuel fired CHP-plants typical electrical efficiency is 35 %, for incineration plants the electrical efficiency is about 28 %. A number of reasons why it is not higher, for example corrosion, fouling, erosion, limited and varying need for heat, flue gas condensation etc, exist. A number of these reasons have earlier been studied in different Vaermeforsk reports. The results from these studies give to some extent solutions and understanding for how the production of electricity can be increased. There is however no report that has the overall picture of what actions are realistic, most cost effective, what areas need more research and gives the most benefit of allocated funds. The aim of this report is to identify the technical limitations and propose measures for increased electricity production at CHP-plants using biofuel and waste. A method for identification of the most suitable actions for each plant is also presented. The idea is to take every conceivable factor that affects electricity production into consideration and to be able to make a relevant comparison of the factors. This report doesn't take new solutions/measures and means of control into consideration. The method used is called 'Weighted Sum Method'. Every action is assessed in the means of different criteria as for example how it affects the environment, if it is profitable, if it means more maintenance etc. An extensive checklist for different conceivable measures for increased electricity production has been created. The checklist includes measures from the fuel storage to the chimney and makes a good guidance when making a review of a biofuel or incineration CHP-plant. Some of the measures can be eliminated immediately at review since they not are applicable or have already been done

  20. 78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... dated April 2, 2013, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) submitted its Application for...

  1. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  2. United States-Mexico electricity transfers: Of alien electrons and the migration of undocumented environmental burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article intends to set forth the necessity for reform in the United States policy and procedures regarding approval of power transfers between the United States and Mexico. In order to do this, the article will review the history of electrical power transfers between the United States and Mexico (Part II), analyze recent regulatory changes in the United States and Mexico which may result in increased power exports to Mexico (Part III), evaluate the extent to which the present permit and authorization system in the United States considers the increased environmental burden of such power transfers (Part IV), and, where appropriate, propose some procedural and policy reforms that could take into account the environmental burdens generated by the production of power destined for transfer across the United States-Mexico border (Part V).

  3. CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kvitko A. V.; Goncharov A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

  4. Comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G. G.; Caputo, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Distributed-collector solar thermal-electric power plants are compared by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990-2000 timeframe. The approach taken is to evaluate the performance of the selected systems under the same weather conditions. Capital and operational costs are estimated for each system. Energy costs are calculated for different plant sizes based on the plant performance and the corresponding capital and maintenance costs. Optimum systems are then determined as the systems with the minimum energy costs for a given load factor. The optimum system is comprised of the best combination of subsystems which give the minimum energy cost for every plant size. Sensitivity analysis is done around the optimum point for various plant parameters.

  5. Thermal, high pressure, and electric field processing effects on plant cell membrane integrity and relevance to fruit and vegetable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    Advanced food processing methods that accomplish inactivation of microorganisms but minimize adverse thermal exposure are of great interest to the food industry. High pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing are commercially applied to produce high quality fruit and vegetable products in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Both microbial and plant cell membranes are significantly altered following exposure to heat, HP, or PEF. Our research group sought to quantify the degree of damage to plant cell membranes that occurs as a result of exposure to heat, HP, or PEF, using the same analytical methods. In order to evaluate whether new advanced processing methods are superior to traditional thermal processing methods, it is necessary to compare them. In this review, we describe the existing state of knowledge related to effects of heat, HP, and PEF on both microbial and plant cells. The importance and relevance of compartmentalization in plant cells as it relates to fruit and vegetable quality is described and various methods for quantification of plant cell membrane integrity are discussed. These include electrolyte leakage, cell viability, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR).

  6. Comparing parallel working conditions of steam superheater-separators in fourth and fifth generating facilities of Novovoronezhskiy nuclear electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.N.; Kreydin, I.L.; Kreydin, B.L.

    1984-05-01

    An intermediate steam superheating and separation (ISSS) system is used to improve reliability and economy of operation in most saturated-steam turbine units of nuclear electric power plants. Steam superheater-separators (SSS) are the principal components of these systems. The purpose of these devices is to dry and superheat the main flow of steam prior to delivery to the low-pressure or intermediate-pressure cylinder after it has left the high-pressure cylinder. A characteristic fracture of the SSS that distinguishes this piece of equipment from other heat exchangers of the regenerative cycle is that the SSS, being an integral part of the turbine unit, operates almost continuously. This places stringent demands on reliability of the ISSS system as a whole, and on the technical level of its operation. The operation of the ISSS system is described.

  7. Application of a Microcomputer to a Mobile Electric Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-28

    chRadFf’Dn S. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUM§ER(0) .PeRFORMING ORGANIZTO NAM AN DRES9. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKORGAIZAIONNAMEANDADDESSAREA & WORK UNIT...system works very well. The * voltage and frequency characteristics obtained by the breadboard microcomputer system met both the steady-state and...111114 II 1.6 Mi .R),OfY P[’S )I l(N 1’l HAPI ca t By VTIVC k5;~ FdG I + wK s-- -]i OOCUMM Il VATS.--- NAC- 92-139 FMG MEN aT N~I1 POWET K5 5 kj ks 3

  8. Optimal Sizing and Sitting of Smart Microgrid Units under Pool Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakimi, Seyed Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    different optimization tools are considered. First, a game-theoretical (GT) model has been used for bidding strategy of smart microgrid as a price-maker, in a long-term electricity market. Secondly, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to obtain the best cost value of smart microgrids......This paper presents an approach for optimal sizing and sitting of distribution generation units in smart microgrid under pool electricity market to reduce total cost and power loss of whole smart microgrid. The costs comprise capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost......, reliability cost, power loss cost and selling and buying electricity cost. The new idea of this paper is the investigation of pool electricity market aspects in optimization of smart microgrid. On the other hand, cost minimization of smart microgrid is related to their bidding strategies. Therefore two...

  9. Technology data for electricity and heat generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The Danish Energy Authority and the two Danish electricity transmission and system operators, Elkraft System and Eltra, initiated updating of current technology catalogues in 2003. The first updated catalogue was published in March 2004. This report presents the results of the second phase of updating. The primary objective has been to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses. The catalogue may furthermore be used as reference for evaluations of the development perspectives for the numerous technologies available for energy generation in relation to the programming of funding schemes for research, development and demonstration of emerging technologies. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiates aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to primarily rely on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesses. (au)

  10. Nuclear plants in the expansion of the Mexican electrical system;Plantas nucleares en la expansion del sistema electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada S, G. J.; Martin del Campo M, C., E-mail: gestradas@yahoo.co [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    In this work the results of four studies appear that were realized to analyze plans of long term expansion of Mexican electrical system of generation for the study period 2005-2025. The objective is to identify between the two third generation reactors with greater maturity at present which is it is that it can be integrated better in the expansion of the Mexican electrical system of generation. It was analyzed which of the four cases represents the best expansion plan in terms of two only parameters that are: 1) total cost of generation and, 2) the diversity of generated energy in all the period. In all studies candidates three different units of combined cycle were considered (802, 583 and 291 MW), a turbo gas unit of 267 MW, units of 700 MW with coal base and integrated de sulphur, geo thermo electrical units of 26.95 MW and two different types of nuclear units. In both first studies the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR) for the nuclear units is considered, considering that is technology with more maturity of all the third generation reactors. In the following two studies were considered the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), also of third generation, that uses in essence technology more spread to world-wide level. For this task was used the uni nodal planning model WASP-IV, developed by the IAEA to find the expansion configuration with less generation cost for each study. Considering the present situation of the generation system, the capacity additions begin starting from the year 2012 for the four studies. It is not considered the installation of nuclear plants before 2016 considering that its planning period takes 3 years, and the construction period requires at least of 5 years. In order to evaluate the diversity of each study it was used the Stirling Index or of Shannon-Weiner. In order to classify the studies in cost terms and diversity it was used like decision tool the Savage criterion, called also of minimal repentance. With this data, taking

  11. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  12. Assessment of Drought Stress and Planting Date Effects Applied on Original Plant, on its Seed Electrical Conductivity Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hi Atarod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess drought stress and planting date effects applied on original plant, on the electrical conductivity rate of the subsequent seeds, this research was performed in two parts at the Research Field and Laboratory during spring 2008. The field experiment was performed as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with 20 treatments and three replications. Treatments included the seeds of five cultivars of canola, two planting dates and two levels of irrigation, which in previous year (2006-2007 had been cultivated as a factorial split plot based on CRBD. In the field experiment the characteristics measured including: Final Emergence Percentage (FEP, Mean Time of Emerging (MTE, Mean Daily Emerging (MDE, Daily Emerging Speed (DES, and at the laboratory Electrical Conductivity (EC of the seed leakages was measured. Results indicated that there is no correlation between FEP and EC and so EC test cannot be used for predication the number of emerging plants in the field. In the results of variance analysis laboratory, the cultivar of Modena due to high level of EC had the lowest quality and other cultivars had no significant difference. The interaction between the time of exertion the stress × canola cultivars two cultivars, Opera and Modena had the lowest and the highest in after cutting off the irrigation during stem elongation and in normal irrigation, Sarigol had the lowest EC. The interaction between planting date × Canola cultivars, Modena cultivar in planting date two had highest EC and other cultivars had no significant difference with each other. Based on variance analysis field data planting date and drought stress had no significant effect on measured characteristics.

  13. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  14. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  15. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  16. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  17. EPA Announces National Limits to Reduce Toxic Pollutants Discharged into Waterways by Steam Electric Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today finalized a rule that will reduce the discharge of toxic pollutants into America's waterways from steam electric power plants by 1.4 billion pounds annually, as well as reduce water w

  18. Electricity generation costs of concentrated solar power technologies in China based on operational plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhao; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    CSP experts. On this basis, this study analyzes and benchmarks the costs of parabolic trough CSP, tower CSP, and dish CSP technologies in China by applying an LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) model. The current LCOE for the different CSP plants falls in a range of 1.2-2.7 RMB/kWh (0.19-0.43 US...

  19. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  20. Exotic Plant Invasion Risk in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This model was constructed to model the risk of invasion by exotic plant species. Roads may directly influence exotic plant dispersal via disturbance during road...

  1. Optimal Strategy of Efficiency Power Plant with Battery Electric Vehicle in Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Su, Su; Li, Shunxin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Tiantian; Li, Mengjuan; Ota, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    With the popularity of electric vehicles (EVs), such as plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), an optimal strategy for the coordination of BEVs charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach incorporates the random behaviours and regular behaviours of BEV drivers in urban environment. These behaviours lead to the stochastic nature of the charging demand. The optimal strategy is used to guide the coordinated charging at different time to maximize the efficiency of virtual power plant (VPP). An innovative peer-to-peer system is used with BEVs to achieve the goals. The actual behaviours of vehicles in a campus is used to validate the proposed approach, and the simulation results show that the optimal strategy can not only maximize the utilization ratio of efficiency power plant, but also do not need additional energies from distribution grid.

  2. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants.

  3. 75 FR 13609 - Tennessee Valley Authority Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Exemption 1.0 Background... and DPR-79, which authorize operation of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (SQN). The licenses...

  4. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and... Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2 (CNP... exemption, these proposed actions do not result in changes to land use or water use, or result in changes to...

  5. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, (Fermi-1) located in Monroe County, Michigan. Environmental Assessment Identification of...

  6. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage...

  7. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear power...

  8. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published as a final rule in the Federal Register...

  9. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  10. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  11. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  12. Increase in NOx emissions from Indian thermal power plants during 1996-2010: unit-based inventories and multisatellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G

    2012-07-17

    Driven by rapid economic development and growing electricity demand, NO(x) emissions (E) from the power sector in India have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. In this study, we present the NO(x) emissions from Indian public thermal power plants for the period 1996-2010 using a unit-based methodology and compare the emission estimates with the satellite observations of NO(2) tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) from four spaceborne instruments: GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2. Results show that NO(x) emissions from Indian power plants increased by at least 70% during 1996-2010. Coal-fired power plants, NO(x) emissions from which are not regulated in India, contribute ∼96% to the total power sector emissions, followed by gas-fired (∼4%) and oil-fired (<1%) ones. A number of isolated NO(2) hot spots are observed over the power plant areas, and good agreement between NO(2) TVCDs and NO(x) emissions is found for areas dominated by power plant emissions. Average NO(2) TVCDs over power plant areas were continuously increasing during the study period. We find that the ratio of ΔE/E to ΔTVCD/TVCD changed from greater than one to less than one around 2005-2008, implying that a transition of the overall NO(x) chemistry occurred over the power plant areas, which may cause significant impact on the atmospheric environment.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  14. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (HNP), located in Appling County, Georgia. In... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2--Final Report...

  15. 75 FR 3762 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and..., issued to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, the licensee), for operation of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant... 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Siva P. Lingam, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch...

  16. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment... plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the probability of an accident occurring..., ``Physical Protection of Plants and Materials,'' for Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-63, issued to...

  17. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  18. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity methods have been widely used for the last 40 years in many fields: groundwater investigation, soil and water pollution, engineering application for subsurface surveys, etc. Many factors can influence the electrical resistivity of a media, and thus influence the ERT measurements. Among those factors, it is known that plant roots affect bulk electrical resistivity. However, this impact is not yet well understood. The goals of this experiment are to quantify the effect of plant roots on electrical resistivity of the soil subsurface and to map a plant roots system in space and time with ERT technique in a soil column. For this research, it is assumed that roots system affect the electrical properties of the rhizosphere. Indeed the root activity (by transporting ions, releasing exudates, changing the soil structure,…) will modify the rhizosphere electrical conductivity (Lobet G. et al, 2013). This experiment is included in a bigger research project about the influence of roots system on geophysics measurements. Measurements are made on cylinders of 45 cm high and a diameter of 20 cm, filled with saturated loam on which seeds of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. are sowed. Columns are equipped with electrodes, TDR probes and temperature sensors. Experiments are conducted at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, in a growing chamber with controlled conditions: temperature of the air is fixed to 20° C, photoperiod is equal to 14 hours, photosynthetically active radiation is equal to 200 μmol m-2s-1, and air relative humidity is fixed to 80 %. Columns are fully saturated the first day of the measurements duration then no more irrigation is done till the end of the experiment. The poster will report the first results analysis of the electrical resistivity distribution in the soil columns through space and time. These results will be discussed according to the plant development and other controlled factors. Water content of the soil will also be detailed

  19. Evaluation of a sulfur oxide chemical heat storage process for a steam solar electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, J.; Lynn, S.; Foss, A.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate technically feasible process configurations for the use of the sulfur oxide system, 2 SO/sub 3/ reversible 2 SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/, in energy storage. The storage system is coupled with a conventional steam-cycle power plant. Heat for both the power plant and the storage system is supplied during sunlit hours by a field of heliostats focussed on a central solar receiver. When sunlight is not available, the storage system supplies the heat to operate the power plant. A technically feasible, relatively efficient configuration is proposed for incorporating this type of energy storage system into a solar power plant. Complete material and energy balances are presented for a base case that represents a middle range of expected operating conditions. Equipment sizes and costs were estimated for the base case to obtain an approximate value for the cost of the electricity that would be produced from such an installation. In addition, the sensitivity of the efficiency of the system to variations in design and operating conditions was determined for the most important parameters and design details. In the base case the solar tower receives heat at a net rate of 230 MW(t) for a period of eight hours. Daytime electricity is about 30 MW(e). Nighttime generation is at a rate of about 15 MW(e) for a period of sixteen hours. The overall efficiency of converting heat into electricity is about 26%. The total capital cost for the base case is estimated at about $68 million, of which about 67% is for the tower and heliostats, 11% is for the daytime power plant, and 22% is for the storage system. The average cost of the electricity produced for the base case is estimated to be about 11 cents/kW(e)-hr.

  20. 76 FR 53494 - In the Matter of United States Enrichment Corporation; Paducah Gaseous Enrichment Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of United States Enrichment Corporation; Paducah Gaseous Enrichment Plant; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) I The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a subsidiary of USEC Inc., is the holder of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission...

  1. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  2. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  3. Drift Removal in Plant Electrical Signals via IIR Filtering Using Wavelet Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi; Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Ghosh, Sanmitra; Maharatna, Koushik; Dasmahapatra, Srinandan; Vitaletti, Andrea; Masi, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Plant electrical signals often contains low frequency drifts with or without the application of external stimuli. Quantification of the randomness in plant signals in a stimulus-specific way is hindered because the knowledge of vital frequency information in the actual biological response is not known yet. Here we design an optimum Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter which removes the low frequency drifts and preserves the frequency spectrum corresponding to the random component of the unstimulated plant signals by bringing the bias due to unknown artifacts and drifts to a minimum. We use energy criteria of wavelet packet transform (WPT) for optimization based tuning of the IIR filter parameters. Such an optimum filter enforces that the energy distribution of the pre-stimulus parts in different experiments are almost overlapped but under different stimuli the distributions of the energy get changed. The reported research may popularize plant signal processing, as a separate field, besides other conventiona...

  4. Staff report on monthly report cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants. FPC form No. 423. Data for November 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    Electric generating plants with a total combined capacity of 25 MW or greater purchased fossil fuel equivalent to 1.5 quadrillion Btu's in Nov. 98.9% of which was for steam-electric generation. Measured by their total heat content, fossil fuel purchases for steam-electric generation were up 1.7% from last month and up 11.6% from Nov. 1976. Deliveries of coal totaled 48.3 million tons, an increase of 8.2 million tons above shipments made during Nov. 1976. Oil purchases for steam-electric generation reached 39.6 million barrels this month, a decrease of 5.6 million barrels below shipments made in Nov. of last year. Gas deliveries to steam-electric units total 219.2 billion ft/sup 3/ up 6.6% from last year's level. In Nov., the price of coal averaged 101.7 cents per millin Btu, a rise of 17.4% over the average price of a year ago. The average price of all oil delivered to steam plants was 219.3, a rise of 6.2% compared to Nov. 1976. Steam gas purchases averaged 134.9 cents per million Btu, an increase of 19.3% over the Nov. 1976 level. The following tabulations highlight the relative changes in deliveries and prices of fossil fuels for steam-electric generation for Nov. 1976 and Nov. 1977.

  5. MCFC compact unit and system improvements for 100 kW-2 MW dual-fuel demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, A.; Torazza, A.; Regis, V. [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy); Rocchini, G. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Hermana, E. [Tecnologia y gestion de la innovacion, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-05-01

    Some basic aspects concerning the electrode materials and processes, fuel and oxidant and energy-producing capacity of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells are examined. A brief description, illustrating the main goals, economic efforts and complexity of the technological developments, of the joint Italian-Spanish MOLCARE programme is given. One of the most important points of this programme is the design, development and size optimization of the pressurized basic compact module to be used in the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell plants of the MW class. The main characteristics of the prototype cogenerative plant, based on the original concept of Compact Unit, which integrates the stack, the sensible heat reformer and the catalytic burners, and having an electrical power of 100 kW, are described. It is expected that the operation of this plant will start by 1996. The fuel will be mainly natural gas even if some runs using synthetic coal gas will be made. At last, some results concerning a conceptual study of a 2 MW MFCF (molten carbonate fuel cells) plant, operating at a pressure ranging from 1 to 7 atm and having also a bottoming cycle, are discussed. The results show that the increase of the operating pressure from 3.4 to 7 atm improves the stack performance, even if the plant efficiency, based on the fuel HHV, keeps at a constant value. It is important to stress that the plant efficiency at half load decreases as the pressure increases.

  6. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NO x emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NO x emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NO x rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NO x emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NO x reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NO x originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone

  7. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... safety for the operating units resulting from construction activities. DATES: The effective date of this...

  8. Flexibility in the Production of Hydrogen and Electricity from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Frederick; STEEN MARC; PETEVES ESTATHIOS

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have led to the formulation of a number of fossil fuel power plant concepts, which are intended to capture the carbon dioxide produced, so that it can be stored in geological structures. In the medium and long-term future, these plants will have to operate in a market where a large fraction of the electricity that is produced will come from wind and solar power. Because these renewables are intermittent sources of energy, it is likely that the main use of ...

  9. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 million kWh annually in the United States. In Texas, anaerobic digestion could save 40.2 to 460 million kWh annually and biosolids incineration could save 51.9 to 1,030 million kWh annually.

  10. Renewable Electric Plant Information System user interface manual: Paradox 7 Runtime for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) is a comprehensive database with detailed information on grid-connected renewable electric plants in the US. The current version, REPiS3 beta, was developed in Paradox for Windows. The user interface (UI) was developed to facilitate easy access to information in the database, without the need to have, or know how to use, Paradox for Windows. The UI is designed to provide quick responses to commonly requested sorts of the database. A quick perusal of this manual will familiarize one with the functions of the UI and will make use of the system easier. There are six parts to this manual: (1) Quick Start: Instructions for Users Familiar with Database Applications; (2) Getting Started: The Installation Process; (3) Choosing the Appropriate Report; (4) Using the User Interface; (5) Troubleshooting; (6) Appendices A and B.

  11. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  12. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  13. ORC case studies. Electricity production in biomass fired district heating plant or from waste heat in pulp mill; ORC-fallstudier. Elproduktion i biobraensleeldat vaermeverk eller fraan spillvaerme i massabruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2009-11-15

    In this report electricity yields and costs of electricity production is discussed two case studies. The first case is a district heating application with an ORC connected to a biomass fuelled oven. The second case is a waste heat application an ORC module connected to waste water from a pulp and paper plant. In the case study an ORC based biomass fuelled cogeneration plant is installed in the district heating net of a medium size Swedish municipality, Aelmhult. The plant consists of a biomass fuelled oven, a thermal oil boiler for heat transfer from flue gas to ORC cycle, and an ORC unit which is cooled by the district heating net. At full load the plant produces 9,6 MW heat and 2,2 MW (net) electricity. The plant has a split cycle ORC system. In the split cycle heat is transferred in two separate thermal oil circuits. In the main thermal oil circuit, operating at 250-3000 C, heat is transferred from the flue gas to the ORC unit. The second thermal oil circuit, operating at 130-250 deg C, transferers additional heat to the ORC unit. This heat is utilised for pre-heating in the ORC cycle, thus increasing the electricity yield by 10% compared to the yield of a single cycle system. The ORC unit has a maximum electricity yield of 2,3 MW gross and 2,2 MW net, based on district heating temperatures of 600 C for district heating return flow and 900 C for forward flow. The plant will be in operation 8300 h per year. Of this 3000 h is full load and the remaining time part load. The yearly heat production will be 53 GWh. The yearly electricity production will be 12 GWh net, which corresponds to a mean electricity yield of 1,4 MW net. With a yearly electricity production of 12 GWh net, the cost of produced electricity is 1,04 SEK/kWh. When the income from sold green certificates for biomass based electricity is deducted, the cost is reduced by circa 0,30 SEK/kWh.Normally, a biomass fuelled cogeneration plant, using wet biomass, would be equipped with flue gas condensation

  14. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  15. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  16. Recent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electric generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The most effective control technology available for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired boilers is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Installation of SCR on coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) has grown substantially since the onset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) first cap and trade program for oxides of nitrogen in 1999, the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program. Installations have increased from 6 units present in 1998 in the states that encompass the current Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) ozone season program to 250 in 2014. In recent years, however, the degree of usage of installed SCR technology has been dropping significantly at individual plants. Average seasonal NOx emission rates increased substantially during the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) program. These increases coincided with a collapse in the cost of CAIR allowances, which declined to less than the cost of the reagent required to operate installed SCR equipment, and was accompanied by a 77% decline in delivered natural gas prices from their peak in June of 2008 to April 2012, which in turn coincided with a 390% increase in shale gas production between 2008 and 2012. These years also witnessed a decline in national electric generation which, after peaking in 2007, declined through 2013 at an annualized rate of -0.3%. Scaling back the use of installed SCR on coal-fired plants has resulted in the release of over 290,000 tons of avoidable NOx during the past five ozone seasons in the states that participated in the CAIR program. To function as designed, a cap and trade program must maintain allowance costs that function as a disincentive for the release of the air pollutants that the program seeks to control. If the principle incentive for reducing NOx emissions is the avoidance of allowance costs, emissions may be expected to increase if costs fall below a critical value, in the absence of additional state or federal

  17. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions.

  18. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  19. 78 FR 34639 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restart of Healy Power Plant Unit #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Healy Power Plant's Unit 2 in Healy, Alaska. The (SFEIS) supplements a Final Environmental Impact... human environment from DOE's proposal to partially fund construction of Unit 2 of the Healy Power Plant... was constructed as a major modification to the existing Healy Power Plant's Unit 1, using funding from...

  20. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  1. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION NORTHERN STATES POWER COMPANY Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Plants Regarding the License Renewal of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plants, Units 1 and 2 Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published a final plant...

  2. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  3. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  4. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    OpenAIRE

    Škobalj Predrag D.; Kijevčanin Mirjana Lj.; Jovanović Marina P.; Afgan Naim H.; Erić Milić D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for soci...

  5. Development of electrical conductivity measurement technology for key plant physiological information using microneedle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunyong; Choi, Seungyul; Yeo, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Kyoung Sub; Rathod, Mitesh L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-08-01

    Impedance measurement is a widely used technique for monitoring ion species in various applications. In plant cultivation, the impedance system is used to measure the electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions. Recent research has shown that the quality and quantity of horticultural crops, e.g. tomato, can be optimized by controlling the salinity of nutrient solutions. However, understanding the detailed response of a plant to a nutrient solution is not possible until the fruit is fully grown or by sacrificing the stem. To overcome this issue, horticultural crop cultivation requires real-time monitoring of the EC inside the stem. Using this data, the growth model of a plant could be constructed, and the response of the plant to external environment determined. In this paper, we propose an implantable microneedle device equipped with a micro-patterned impedance measurement system for direct measurement of the EC inside the tomato stem. The fabrication process includes silicon-based steps such as microscale deposition, photolithography, and a deep etching process. Further, microscale fabrication enables all functional elements to fulfill the area budget and be very accurate with minimal plant invasion. A two-electrode geometry is used to match the measurement condition of the tomato stem. Real-time measurement of local sap condition inside the plant in which real-time data for tomato sap EC is obtained after calibration at various concentrations of standard solution demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device.

  6. Exploring and Contextualizing Public Opposition to Renewable Electricity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Sovacool

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores public opposition to renewable power technologies in the United States. It begins by discussing the genesis of environmental ethics, or how some Americans have come to place importance on the protection of the environment and preservation of species, ecosystems, and the biosphere. As result, renewable power systems have become challenged on ethical and environmental grounds and are occasionally opposed by local communities and environmentalists. The article finds that, however, such concern may be misplaced. Renewable electricity resources have many environmental benefits compared to power stations fueled by coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium. Opposition towards renewable resources can at times obscure the true costs and risks associated with electricity use and entrench potential racial and class-based inequalities within the current energy system.

  7. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  8. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity or the plant, or to..., for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-31 and DPR-41, issued to Florida Power & Light Company (the...

  9. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED...

  10. Ways of signal transmission and physiological role of electrical potentials in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Dziubińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are subject to stimuli from the environment on which they strongly depend and in contrast to animals, they are unable to escape harmful influences. Therefore, being able to receive stimuli they have developed adequate responses to them. Such a reaction can occur in the area of a stimulus action or cover the whole plant or its parts. In the latter case, it is a systemic reaction. The plant reaction is expressed by various intensity, rate and kind of response. It is interesting to know the character of the signal informing about a stimulus, the routes of its propagation and the transmission mechanism. Three conceptions of excitation are distinguished: 1 propagation of chemical agents formed at the site of a stimulus action with the flow of the phloem sap or through the atmosphere (in the case of volatile substances to other plant parts, 2 a very fast transmission by the xylem in the wave of hydraulic pressure formed after a plant damage. From combining the "hydraulic" and "chemical" hypothesis a conception of hydraulic dispersion has been formulated which assumes that chemical substances synthetized after an injury can be transferred very fast with the wave of hydraulic pressure changes in the whole plant, 3 a stimulus evokes the action potential (AP, and its transmission along the whole plant, plant organ or specialized tissue, by local circuits from cell to cell. Strong, damaging stimuli can evoke variation potentials (VPs, the character of which differs from APs. It is postulated that transmission of VP occurs by a hydraulic dispersion and electrical changes seem to be secondary phenomena.

  11. Generation and export of electric energy by sugar and alcohol plants; Geracao e exportacao de energia eletrica por usinas sucroalcooleiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Gil Mesquita de Oliveira Rabello; Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio; Faria Junior, Max Jose de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Fontes Alternativas e Aproveitamento de Energia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents technical aspects necessary to allow a sugar-cane mill, which promotes cogeneration, to operate as an electrical energy producer. Changes and optimization in the process to produce alcohol and sugar-cane, which results in the increase of electrical energy to export are discussed. A case of a sugarcane mill, working as a thermoelectric power plant is presented. The necessary components to generate energy and to connect the thermoelectric plant to the main transmission system are described. (author)

  12. New power plant units in Russia; Neue Kraftwerksbloecke fuer Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Horst; Kraemer, Ralph [TETRA ENERGIE GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Bull, Thomas; Sperling, Dietmar [EON Russian Power (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the privatisation of the Russian electricity industry, the power stations were liberated from the power supply company RAO EES ROSSII. Six power station combinations and ten power station federations were created. In order to ensure a fair competition between the power station combinations, special attention was given to a comparable priority with respect to age, fuel fundamentals and efficiency. This principle resulted in a technical differentiation and in a territorially scattered situation of the individual power stations. The individual power stations are described in the contribution under consideration.

  13. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1979-01-01

    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique. PMID:378128

  14. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel Beryl; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-11-01

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the US and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.26 billion USD in 2012, with 83% of these damages attributed to electricity consumption by treatment processes. An additional 9.8 million tons of biogenic CO2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.8% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $205 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially-resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  15. The national picture of nonnative plants in the United States according to FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2012-01-01

    Data collected by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program was assembled from each region of the United States. Occurrence, measured as the percentage of forested subplots within a county with observed nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species, was calculated across the continental United States and Hawaii. Each region, and in some cases each state,...

  16. Electrical systems at the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde after the event in Fukushima; Sistemas electricos en la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde despues del evento de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez J, J. F., E-mail: jflopez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    During the event at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichii (Japan), the electrical systems were affected both Onsite and Offsite, which were lost for a long time with irreversible consequences. Therefore, the Mexican Regulatory Body known as the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) has taken various actions to review the current capacity of the electrical systems at the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) before an event beyond the design bases. The CNSNS made special inspections to the NPP-LV to verify the current capacity of the electrical systems of Ac and Dc; as a result of the inspections, requirements were generated that must be met to demonstrate that has the capacity to deal with events beyond the design bases. In addition, CNSNS has participated in the Ibero-American Forum to deal with resistance testing. Is important to note that prior to the event at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima, the NPP-LV had implemented 1) the project Extended Power Increase in both Units of the NPP-LV, and 2) the Generic Charter 2006-02, both issues are considered contributions in the robustness of electrical systems. But it is also important to mention that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission will soon issue mitigation strategies for a Station Blackout event, which could involve new actions at nuclear power plants. Based on the aforementioned, the CNSNS concludes that all the actions being taken contribute to the strengthening of the NPP-LV electrical systems, in order to increase their reliability, safety and operation when these are required to deal with events beyond the design bases as the event occurred in Fukushima Daichii and avoid as far as possible, damage in the reactor cores of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  17. A study on electric power management for power producer-suppliers utilizing output of megawatt-solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in penetration of photovoltaic generation units (PVs has brought new power management ideas, which achieve more profitable operation, to Power Producer-Suppliers (PPSs. The expected profit for the PPSs will improve if they appropriately operate their controllable generators and sell the generated electricity to contracted customers and Power Exchanges together with the output of Megawatt-Solar Power Plants (MSPPs. Moreover, we can expect that the profitable cooperation between the PPSs and the MSPPs decreases difficulties in the supply-demand balancing operation for the main power grids. However, it is necessary that the PPSs treat the uncertainty in output prediction of PVs carefully. This is because there is a risk for them to pay a heavy imbalance penalty. This paper presents a problem framework and its solution to make the optimal power management plan for the PPSs in consideration with the electricity procurement from the MSPPs. The validity of the authors’ proposal is verified through numerical simulations and discussions of their results.

  18. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, L.; Mathieu, O.; Bois, B.; van Leeuwen, C.; Lévêque, J.

    2015-03-01

    Soil water availability deeply affects plant physiology. In viticulture it is considered a major contributor to the "terroir" effect. The assessment of soil water in field conditions is a difficult task, especially over large surfaces. New techniques are therefore required in order to better explore variations of soil water content in space and time with low disturbance and with great precision. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) meets these requirements for applications in plant sciences, agriculture and ecology. In this paper, possible techniques to develop models that allow the use of ERT to spatialise soil water available to plants are reviewed. An application of soil water monitoring using ERT in a grapevine plot in Burgundy (north-east France) during the vintage 2013 is presented. We observed the lateral heterogeneity of ERT-derived fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) variations, and differences in water uptake depend on grapevine water status (leaf water potentials measured both at predawn and at solar noon and contemporary to ERT monitoring). Active zones in soils for water movements were identified. The use of ERT in ecophysiological studies, with parallel monitoring of plant water status, is still rare. These methods are promising because they have the potential to reveal a hidden part of a major function of plant development: the capacity to extract water from the soil.

  19. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  20. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation; master control subsystems; balance of plant CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell electrical power generation subsystem centers on a General Electric dual admission, triple extraction turbine generator sized to the output requirements of the Pilot Plant. The turbine receives steam from the receiver subsystem and/or the thermal storage subsystem and supplies those subsystems with feedwater. The turbine condensor is wet cooled. The plant control system consists of a coordinated digital master and subsystem digital/analog controls. The remainder of the plant, work spaces, maintenance areas, roads, and reception area are laid out to provide maximum convenience compatible with utility and safety. Most of the activities are housed in a complex around the base of the receiver tower. This volume contains a description of the relationship of the electrical power generation subsystem to the rest of the plant, the design methodology and evolution, the interface integration and control, and the operation and maintenance procedures.

  1. Review of nuclear electricity generation and desalination plants and evaluation of SMART application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Joo Pyung; Lee, Doo Jeong; Chang, Moon Hee

    1998-03-01

    KAERI are developing a new advanced integral reactor named SMART for dual application purpose of the electric power generation and seawater desalination. This report are describing the general desalting methods with its technology development and the coupling schemes between electricity generation system and desalting system. Though MSF takes the most part of currently operating seawater desalination plants, MED and RO has been preferred in the past decade. MED has a advantage over MSF with the view to investment costs and energy efficiency. The coupling between electricity generation system and desalination system can be realized by using one of back pressure cycle, extraction cycle, and multi-shaft cycle. New design and operating strategy has to be established for various environment and load conditions. To evaluate the candidate desalination systems of SMART and the coupling method of it with other secondary systems, the desalted water and electricity were calculated through the several options. The result shows that back pressure cycle is preferred at the high water/power ratio and extraction cycle at the low value. If energy efficiency are only considered, RO will be best choice. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs., 31 figs

  2. Emissions from cycling of thermal power plants in electricity systems with high penetration of wind power: Life cycle assessment for Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O'Dwyer, C.; Flynn, D.

    2014-01-01

    demand. The environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Ireland for 2025 with high shares of wind power were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA), focusing on cycling emissions (due to part-load operation and start-ups) from dispatchable generators. Part-load operations......-load electricity production shifts to a cleaner source than coal. Finally, the present study indicates that, in terms of emission reductions, the priority for Ireland is to phase out coal-based power plants. While investing in new storage capacity reduces system operating costs at high wind penetrations and limits...... significantly affect the average power plant efficiency, with all units seeing an average yearly efficiency noticeably less than optimal. In particular, load following units, on average, saw an 11% reduction. Given that production technologies are typically modeled assuming steady-state operation at full load...

  3. Technical process automatic control system programs for large substations and the electrical part of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Salamatova, V.P.; Shandura, Z.A.

    1981-04-01

    Technical process automatic control systems (TPACS) for large substations and the electrical part of power plants are created in order to increase operating reliability, decrease the cost of their operation, increasing work capacity, decreasing losses and increasing electrical energy quality. The use of TPACs will also provide a savings in capital outlay as a result of a decrease in reserve coefficients in selection of power equipment, an increase in industrialization of installation and a decrease in the amount of space occupied by control equipment. In order to obtain the maximum savings from the use of the TPACS, certain problems must be solved which cannot be solved using tradition automation means, or are not solved with sufficient accuracy using them or, finally, the solution of which, using TPACS, decrease the overall dimensions and the cost of control equipment. In this article, the authors describe methods for solving these problems. (JMT)

  4. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU

  5. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  6. Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from the cooling pond of an electric power plant in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dive, D.G.; Leclerc, H.; De Jonckheere, J.; Delattre, J.M.

    Eleven strains of Naegleria have been isolated from 126 samples of the cooling pond of an electric power plant near Metz, France. Three strains showed specific characters of N. fowleri (pathogenicity for mice after intranasal instillation, immunofluorescence with anti N. fowleri serum and non-agglutination with ConA up to 1 mg/ml. Some particular characteristics were noted; the cysts showed a high number of pores and the pathogenicity was is lower using Swiss mice than using NMRI mice. The need for a standardization of methods for isolation and characterization are discussed as well as the occurrence of N. fowleri at the site.

  7. Electricity generation of Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC using Cyperus Involucratus R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttawut Klaisongkram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is a study of microbial fuel cells produce electricity from plants using Cyperus involucratus R. called Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC. As a result of the polarization curve, by adjusting the external resistance between 10 to 12,000 ohms, it was found that the internal resistance of PMFC1 , PMFC2 , MFC1 and MFC2 was 9.78, 11.06, 9.47 and 11.92 ohms respectively. The results showed that the optimum size of the anode electrode is 242 square centimeters and adding soil by using the external resistance 100 ohms. The highest average power density equaled to 5.99 milliwatts per square meter of the anode electrode. Finally the wastewater in PMFC was reduced 53.5 percent in the period of 5 days compared with un-treated wastewater.

  8. Microbial community structure accompanied with electricity production in a constructed wetland plant microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    This study reveals the complex structure of bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a Canna indica plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) and its electricity production. The PMFC produced a maximum current of 105 mA/m(2) by utilizing rhizodeposits as the sole electron donor without any external nutrient or buffer supplements, which demonstrates the feasibility of PMFCs in practical oligotrophic conditions with low solution conductivity. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the PMFC than non-plant controls or sediment-only controls, and pyrosequencing and clone library reveal that rhizodeposits conversion to current were carried out by syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineaceae) and electrochemically active bacteria (e.g., Geobacter). Denitrifying bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens play a minor role in organics degradation, but abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and thermophilic archaea are likely main electron donor competitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Guinea_WADC00321_ADBG_Guinea_Power_Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    United Nations Cartographic Section — Data for power plants with total installed generating capacity > 10 mw from the Platts World Electric Power Plants Database (WEPP 2006). Plants were georeferenced...

  10. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Luke McCormack, M.; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1-2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5-2 years and represented 62-87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%-81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  11. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; McCormack, M Luke; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-21

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1-2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5-2 years and represented 62-87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%-81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  12. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine; Fofrich, Robert; Davis, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    With its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves, India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions. Here, we assess proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future emissions and energy production in the country. As of mid-2016, 243 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired generating capacity are under development in India, including 65 GW under construction and an additional 178 GW proposed. These under-development plants would increase the coal capacity of India's power sector by 123% and, when combined with the country's goal to produce at least 40% of its power from non-fossil sources by 2030, exceed the country's projected future electricity demand. The current proposals for new coal-fired plants could therefore either "strand" fossil energy assets (i.e., force them to retire early or else operate at very low capacity factors) and/or ensure that the goal is not met by "locking-out" new, low-carbon energy infrastructure. Similarly, future emissions from the proposed coal plants would also exceed the country's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% to 35% by 2030, which—when combined with the commitments of all other countries—is itself not yet ambitious enough to meet the international goal of holding warming well below 2°C relative to the pre-industrial era.

  13. Portable meters for nutritional assessment in plants of gerbera fertigated with electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D'A. Mota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid tests to assess the nutritional status of plants gerbera can make easier the decision of any adjustments in the fertilization of the substrate. The study was conducted to evaluate nutritionally fertigated gerbera plants with increasing levels of electrical conductivity (EC, using portable meters nitrate and potassium, and chlorophyll. For this, two experiments were conducted. A randomized block design with five levels of EC (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1 and four replications was used. Cherry cultivar was used in the first experiment. In the second experiment, two cultivars (Cherry and Salmon Rose were used. In the first experiment, the sap of the leaves was subjected to rapid testing of N-NO3- (equipment Cardy Horiba C -141. N-NO3- and K+ (C-131 were determined in the substrate solution. The intensity of the green leaf, in the second experiment was evaluated with portable Chlorophyll Meter. The N content in the indicator leaf in the first and N and K contents in the plant in the second experiment were determined. Rapid tests are presented as good indicators of the level of N-NO3- and K+ in plant tissue, with the advantages of convenience and speed of determination, facilitating monitoring of fertilization of the substrate by producers and technicians.

  14. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  15. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  16. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  17. 78 FR 15055 - License Renewal Application for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority... Licenses DPR-77 and DPR-79 for an additional 20 years of operation at Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (SQN). Sequoyah Nuclear Plant is located in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. The current operating license for...

  18. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1... Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (HNP). The licenses provide, among other things, that the facility is subject... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's...

  19. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...), Subpart C of part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (CCNPP3) and located at a site in...

  20. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Mörsdorf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in

  1. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  2. Savannah River Plant, Project 8980: Engineering and design history of power and electrical facilities. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This section of the Engineering-and Design History presents a comprehensive account of the planning and extensive evaluation of the problems involved in reaching basic decisions for the design and installation of power facilities at the Savannah River Plant. The problems were complicated by the urgency of Pro. viding early start-up of facilities at a time when critical material shortages were acute, combined with basic requirements for reliable operation and unusual degrees of flexibility to meet a variety of production demands. Part I describes in detail the steam and water facilities, alternative schemes, and other considerations which were evaluated as a prelude to the final design of equipment and facilities. Included are discussions relating to steam boiler installations, electric power generation, diesel engine plants, mater supply for cooling, process and domestic use, and the numerous water treatment procedures employed for specific application. A comprehensive description of the development and design of electric power facilities is presented in Part II of this volume.

  3. Mobile test stand for evaluation of electric power plants for unmanned aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbezov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of accurate performance data is a common problem with most civilian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV power plant producers. The reasons for this are the small size of most of the manufacturers and the high price of precise wind tunnel testing and computer simulations. To overcome this problem at Dronamics Ltd., with support from the Department of Aeronautics of TU-Sofia, a mobile test stand for evaluation of electric power plants for unmanned aircraft was developed. The stand may be used statically, or may be installed on the roof of an automobile. The measurement system of the stand is based on popular hardware that is used in radio controlled models and in general automation. The verification of the measurement system is performed by comparing static test results with data published by the manufacturer of the tested electric motor. Tests were carried out with 2 different types of propellers and the results were compared with published results for common propellers as well as with results of theoretical studies. The results are satisfactory for practical applications. The use of this type of test stands can be a cheap and effective alternative for research and development start-up companies like Dronamics.

  4. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  5. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... (ANSI/IEEE) Standard (Std.) 1008-1987, ``IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing'' with the...

  6. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  7. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  8. Global Thermal Power Plants Database: Unit-Based CO2, SO2, NOX and PM2.5 Emissions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Qiang, Z.; Davis, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 30,000 thermal power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure that includes units burning oil, natural gas, coal and biomass and ranging in capacity from 1GW. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activities across the world, it also produces more CO2 and air pollution emissions than any other industry sector. Here we present a new database of global thermal power-generating units and their emissions as of 2010, GPED (Global Power Emissions Database), including the detailed unit information of installed capacity, operation year, geographic location, fuel type and control measures for more than 70000 units. In this study, we have compiled, combined, and harmonized the available underlying data related to thermal power-generating units (e.g. eGRID of USA, CPED of China and published Indian power plants database), and then analyzed the generating capacity, capacity factor, fuel type, age, location, and installed pollution-control technology in order to determine those units with disproportionately high levels of emissions. In total, this work is of great importance for improving spatial distribution of global thermal power plants emissions and exploring their environmental impacts at global scale.

  9. Experience with the dismantling of the Gundremingen unit A and the VAK plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N.

    1995-12-31

    The Gundremmingen Unit A plant (KRB A) and the VAK plant are BWR`s and represent the first generation of nuclear reactors in Germany. KRB A is under dismantling since 1983, VAK since 1988. The actual work is the dismantling of high contaminated components inside the reactor buildings and the underwater cutting of activated internals of the rpv`s. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  11. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality.

  12. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    constructed for 15 single motor units following electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract and for 11 units following electrical stimulation of large diameter afferents at the brachial plexus. Responses were assessed during weak voluntary contraction. Both types of stimulation produced a single peak...... at short latency in the PSTH (mean 8.5 and 8.7 ms, respectively) and of short duration (responses to electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract in the relaxed muscle with that in the contracting muscle. The latency was the same......In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were...

  13. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  14. The Dynamic Analysis of Hydropower House and Unit System in Coupled Hydraulic-mechanical-electric Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, Z. Y.; Wu, Q. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A hydraulic-mechanical-electric and structures coupled model of hydropower station system including subsystem models of the penstock, hydro-turbine model, speed governor, synchronous generator as well as grid, rotor-bearing system and powerhouse structure is established. This model is used to simulate the small fluctuation transient process of 10% load-up in the part load condition for hydropower station. Mechanical eccentric force, unbalanced magnetic pull and vortex pressure fluctuation at inlet of draft tube are considered in the numerical calculation. The interaction between hydraulic-mechanical-electric coupled factors and structural vibration properties during the small fluctuation transient process is studied. The results indicate that the speed regulation for turbine has very litter impact on the transient process of generator. In the process of small fluctuation with loading method in this paper, structure of powerhouse is greatly influenced by vortex pressure pulse in the draft tube, and the vibration of unit is excited by loads which caused by itself rotating.

  15. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  16. Enhanced electroporation in plant tissues via low frequency pulsed electric fields: influence of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M; Jernstedt, Judith A; Ristenpart, William D

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known to be effective at permeabilizing plant tissues. Prior research has demonstrated that lower pulse frequencies induce higher rates of permeabilization, but the underlying reason for this response is unclear. Intriguingly, recent microscopic observations with onion tissues have also revealed a correlation between PEF frequency and the subsequent speed of intracellular convective motion, i.e., cytoplasmic streaming. In this paper, we investigate the effect of cytoplasmic streaming on the efficacy of plant tissue permeabilization via PEF. Onion tissue samples were treated with Cytochalasin B, a known inhibitor of cytoplasmic streaming, and changes in cellular integrity and viability were measured over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. We find that at low frequencies (f streaming results in a 19% decrease in the conductivity disintegration index compared with control samples. Qualitatively, similar results were observed using a microscopic cell viability assay. The results suggest that at low frequencies convection plays a statistically significant role in distributing more conductive fluid throughout the tissue, making subsequent pulses more efficacious. The key practical implication is that PEF pretreatment at low frequency can increase the rate of tissue permeabilization in dehydration or extraction processes, and that the treatment will be most effective when cytoplasmic streaming is most active, i.e., with freshly prepared plant tissues. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  19. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating PV Power Plant on the Skadar Lake for Electricity Supply of Aluminium Plant in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Durković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a conceptual solution for the supply of a part of electrical energy for the needs of Aluminium Plant Podgorica (KAP in Montenegro from a large Floating Photovoltaic Power Plant (FPPP, that would be installed on the nearby lake. The recommended FPPP, with an innovative azimuth angle control method and total installed power of 90 MWp, would consist of 18 power plants having an installed power of 5 MWp each. An analysis using the NREL solar insolation database ascertained that the recommended FPPP power plant can achieve a significantly higher production in comparison with previous solutions. An economic analysis has shown that the recommended power plant would yield positive economic indicators. Additionally, such a power plant would significantly contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions.

  20. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of 13.1 billion (95% CI: 0.6 billion, 43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  1. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of $13.1 billion (95% CI: $0.6 billion, $43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  2. Unit-based emission inventory and uncertainty assessment of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghong; Sun, Yangyang; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2014-12-01

    A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired power plants in China was developed which contains unit capacity, coal consumption, emission control technology and geographical location. Estimated total emissions of SO2, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and PM2.5 in 2011 were 7251 kt, 8067 kt, 1433 kt and 622 kt, respectively. Units larger than 300 MW consumed 75% coal, while emitting 46% SO2, 58% NOx, 55% PM and 63.2% PM2.5. Emission comparisons between key regions such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Shandong Province showed a general downward trend from 2005 to 2011, mainly because of the growing application ratio of desulphurisation, LNBs, denitration and dust-removal facilities. The uncertainties at unit level of SO2, NOx, PM and PM2.5 were estimated to be -10.1% ∼ +5.4%, -2.1% ∼ +4.6%, -5.7% ∼ +6.9% and -4.3% ∼ +6.5%, respectively. Meanwhile sector-based Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for better understanding of the uncertainties. Unit-based simulation yielded narrowed estimates of uncertainties, possibly caused by the neglected diversity of emission characteristics in sector-based simulation. The large number of plants narrowed unit-based uncertainties as large uncertainties were found in provinces with a small number of power plants, such as Qinghai. However, sector-based uncertainty analysis well depends on detailed source classification, because small NOx uncertainties were found in Shandong due to the detailed classification of NOx emission factors. The main uncertainty sources are discussed in the sensitivity analysis, which identifies specific needs in data investigation and field measures to improve them. Though unit-based Monte Carlo greatly narrowed uncertainties, the possibility of underestimated uncertainties at unit level cannot be ignored as the correlation of emission factors between units in the same source category was neglected.

  3. The water implications of generating electricity: water use across the United States based on different electricity pathways through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Sattler, S.; Averyt, K.; Clemmer, S.; Rogers, J.

    2012-12-01

    The power sector withdraws more freshwater annually than any other sector in the US. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the US has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Water availability differs widely throughout the nation. As a result, assessments of water impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional, basin-level differences. The US electricity portfolio is expected to evolve in coming years, shaped by various policy and economic drivers on the international, national and regional level; that evolution will impact power sector water demands. Analysis of future electricity scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints can provide useful insights about water impacts related to changes to the technology mix. Utilizing outputs from the regional energy deployment system (ReEDS) model, a national electricity sector capacity expansion model with high geographical resolution, we explore potential changes in water use by the US electric sector over the next four decades under various low carbon energy scenarios, nationally and regionally.

  4. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  5. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Sun; M. Luke McCormack; Le Li; Zeqing Ma; Dali Guo

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1?2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome...

  6. Critical area planting in the United States of America | G | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of vegetation on disturbed or critical areas of the United States of America has long been evident. A wide range of climatic, soil and environmental conditions has resulted in a search for suitable grass species and methods for their establishment. Plant material centres have done considerable work in ...

  7. Risk maps for targeting exotic plant pest detection programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Magarey; D.M. Borchert; J.S. Engle; M Garcia-Colunga; Frank H. Koch; et al

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, pest risk maps are used by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey for spatial and temporal targeting of exotic plant pest detection programs. Methods are described to create standardized host distribution, climate and pathway risk maps for the top nationally ranked exotic pest targets. Two examples are provided to illustrate the risk mapping...

  8. Regional distribution of introduced plant species in the forests of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth Schulz; W. Keith Moser; Cassandra Olson; Katherine Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Many plant species have been introduced to the United States by humans since European settlement, sometimes deliberately and sometimes inadvertently, such as in contaminated crop seed or soil. Some species have successfully escaped cultivation and become invasive, spreading and establishing new populations distant from original population centers. Indeed, introduced...

  9. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  10. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  11. Selection of power plant elements for future reactor space electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Bennett, G.A.; Copper, K.

    1979-09-01

    Various types of reactor designs, electric power conversion equipment, and reject-heat systems to be used in nuclear reactor power plants for future space missions were studied. The designs included gas-cooled, liquid-cooled, and heat-pipe reactors. For the power converters, passive types such as thermoelectric and thermionic converters and dynamic types such as Brayton, potassium Rankine, and Stirling cycles were considered. For the radiators, heat pipes for transfer and radiating surface, pumped fluid for heat transfer with fins as the radiating surface, and pumped fluid for heat transfer with heat pipes as the radiating surface were considered. After careful consideration of weights, sizes, reliabilities, safety, and development cost and time, a heat-pipe reactor design, thermoelectric converters, and a heat-pipe radiator for an experimental program were selected.

  12. From dynamic measurements of photosynthesis in a living plant to sunlight transformation into electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Victoria; Mano, Nicolas

    2010-02-15

    We propose here a new method for the direct and continuous measurement of O(2) and glucose generated during photosynthesis. Our system is based on amperometric enzyme biosensors comprising immobilized redox enzymes (glucose oxidase (GOx) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD)) and redox hydrogels "wiring" the enzyme reaction centers to electrodes. We found that these electrodes, implanted into a living plant, responded in real time to visible light as an external stimulus triggering photosynthesis. They proved to be highly selective and fast enough and may be a valuable tool in understanding photosynthesis kinetics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that with our electrodes we could harvest glucose and O(2) produced during photosynthesis to produce energy, transforming sunlight into electricity in a simple, green, renewable, and sustainable way.

  13. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  14. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Bai; Shihong Miao; Xiaohong Ran; Chang Ye

    2015-01-01

    A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation mo...

  15. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  16. Instrumentation, control and automation for electric power plant. 4.; Control and automation of fossil power plant; Keisoku seigyo to jidoka. 4.; Kiryoku plant no seigyo to jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-15

    The automation of the steam plant has been advanced together with a progress of the computer technology, starting from the computer control in the States around 1960. The automation by the computer control in Japan has achieved the steady progress without experiencing the failures, because the experiences in the States have been made good use of, and in addition, the development has been made by adjusting with a progress of the computer technology. When following up the automation history by the computer control in the thermal (steam) power plant in Japan, a partial automation centering around the turbine main unit has been practically applied around 1970, and then making such experiences as a foothold the direct digital control (DDC) by the computer has been attemped to be expanded, and simultaneously the automation of the total domains including starting and stopping operation of the plant has been achieved around 1975. As the control was initially the analogue control time for the control technology, on the other hand, the digital control technology has made a great progress in the computer direct control. In this report, following up the historical course, the recent technologies are touched. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Effects of regional temperature on electric vehicle efficiency, range, and emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2015-03-17

    We characterize the effect of regional temperature differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, range, and use-phase power plant CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient temperature due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to temperature differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from BEVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix, which has three times the GHG intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient temperature variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV range: the average range of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.

  18. Exploratory Retrospective Analysis of Power Plant Emissions in Vulnerable Communities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declet-Barreto, J.; Pham, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon emissions trading has been implemented in parts of the United States (and elsewhere) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Data from one such program focused on power plant emissions in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), have shown that regionally, power sector carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced since the adoption of the program in 2009. However, it is not known what the spatial distributions of such reductions have been in individual plants, and if emissions reductions have ocurred in plants impacting low-income and ethnic minority communities, arguably the populations most overburdened by health threats from co-pollutants (e.g., fine particulates, nitrous oxides, and sulfurous oxides) emitted along greenhouse gases. In this research, we explore the trajectory of power plant emissions in the RGGI region in vulnerable communities. This is a first, exploratory step in understanding the environmental justice implications of market-based carbon reduction policies.

  19. A study of four medicinal plant complexes of Mexico and adjacent United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, E; Bye, R A

    1987-01-01

    A survey of medicinal herbs in markets of central and northern Mexico and southwestern United States revealed the existence of plant complexes of different species sharing common names, morphological and aromatic characteristics, and uses. Four complexes (with the "label" species listed first) discussed include: "cachani" with Roldana sessilifolia, Iostephane madrensis, Liatris punctata, Psacalium sp., and Potentilla sp.; "chuchupate" with Ligusticum porteri and Myroxylon balsamum; "hierba anís" with Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, T. micrantha, Artemisia dracunculus, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum; and "matarique" with Psacalium decompositum, P. peltatum, P. sinuatum, P. sp., and Acourtia thurberi. The distribution analysis of utilization and natural occurrence of plants in each complex indicated the presence of a dominant or "label" plant whose use extended beyond its natural range and which had substitutes derived from local plants that were not registered far beyond their respective natural ranges.

  20. Effects of an SWH Approach and Self-Evaluation on Sixth Grade Students' Learning and Retention of an Electricity Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Seven, Sabriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of guided, inquiry-based laboratory activities using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and self-evaluation on students' science achievement. The study involved three sixth grade classes studying an electricity unit taught by the same primary school teacher. Before the study began, one…

  1. 77 FR 24539 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

  2. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (invertebrates, but they do not provide evidence for adverse effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear

  3. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  4. Electric vehicles and public charging infrastructure : impediments and opportunities for success in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report seeks to reach conclusions over the role that electric vehicles (EVs) and public charging : infrastructure should play in the future U.S. transportation system As demonstrated in this report, electric : vehicles are neither new nor techno...

  5. 75 FR 70305 - NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Consideration... Beach, LLC (the licensee) for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP), Units 1 and 2, located...

  6. 75 FR 3945 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and... Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, the licensee), for operation of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN), Unit 1...

  7. 78 FR 29783 - Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to Facility Operating License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to Facility Operating License... amendment to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-80 and DPR-82 for the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1... conformance of the delayed access offsite power circuit (the 500-kV delayed access circuit) to the General...

  8. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  9. The electricity production capacity of photovoltaic power plants and the selection of solar energy sites in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, J. Aran; Espin Estrella, A.; Aznar Dols, F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Electrical Engineering, University of Granada (Spain); Ridao, A. Ramos [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Environmental Technology, E.T.S.I.C.C.P., Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The privileged climate and orographic setting of southern Spain give Andalusia an enormous potential for the installation of photovoltaic power plants connected to electricity grids and also for individual use. These circumstances as well as the present energy crisis, largely stemming from the world's dependence on fossil fuels, justify this research study. This article describes how the GIS was used to inventory the most suitable land sites for the location of solar power plants for the production of electrical energy in compliance with the legal, environmental, and operational requisites for grid-connected photovoltaic power plants (GPPPs). On the basis of this inventory and the calculation of the global irradiation on horizontal surface, it is estimated that the electrical production capacity of GPPPs in Andalusia doubles the Special Regime electricity demand. The resulting electricity production capacity is estimated at 38,693 GWh/yr for 164,495.37 ha of land, which has no legal and/or environmental impediments to solar power installations. (author)

  10. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  11. A multistage coordinative optimization for sitting and sizing P2G plants in an integrated electricity and natural gas system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Q.; Fang, J.; Chen, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Power-to-Gas (P2G) allows for the large scale energy storage which provides a big potential to accommodate the rapid growth of the renewables. In this paper, a long-term optimization model for the co-planning of the electricity and natural gas systems is presented. The P2G Plants are optimally...

  12. The operation of small cogeneration plants and short-term storage for district heating and public electric power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, J; Petersen, P.M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the economics of cogeneration supplemented by warm-water storage and subjected to a three-step price schedule for electricity, has been carried out. Some general guidelines can be derived, but no simple design rules, such as those for cogeneration plants operating...

  13. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  14. Potential of Concentrating Solar Power Plants for the Combined Production of Water and Electricity in MENA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Moser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widening gap between consumption and availability of water poses a serious threat to a sustainable socioeconomic development of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA countries and calls for an even larger augmentation of water supply using seawater desalination. However, these plants are affected by high specific energy consumption, while the uncertainty about fossil fuel prices in the future represents a severe problem. Within this study long-term scenarios for water and electricity demand based on potential assessment of renewable energies have been developed. The results provide baseline information for decision makers for the establishment of a favourable framework for the deployment of concentrated solar power and desalination plants. Finally, this paper points out the importance to start a paradigm change in water and electricity supply as soon as possible, in order to meet the requirements for low cost water and electricity and to avoid conflicts related to water scarcity.

  15. Plant poisonings from herbal medication admitted to a Tunisian toxicologic intensive care unit, 1983-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, C; Amamou, M; Thabet, H; Yacoub, M; Hedhili, A; Bescharnia, F; Ben Salah, N; Zhioua, M; Abdelmoumen, S; El Mekki Ben Brahim, N

    2000-06-01

    To collect data on Tunisian herbal toxicity we analysed 56 medical records of patients admitted to the toxicological intensive care unit from 1983 to 1998 following the ingestion of plants. The sex ratio of patients was 1:2, the mean age of patients was 26y (2 to 75y) and II species of plants were involved with Atractylis gummifera (32%), Datura stramonium (25%), Ricinus communis (9%), Nerium oleander (7%) and Peganum harmala (7%) most commonly infested. Poisonings involved neurological (91%), gastrointestinal (73%) and cardiovascular systems (18%). Treatment was mainly symptomatic. The only lethal cases of liver failure involved 16 Atractylis gummifera poisonings.

  16. Development of a protocol to optimize electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impacts for operation of wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon; Cho, Sunja; Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin

    2016-12-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the portion of operating costs related to electric power consumption is increasing. If the electric power consumption decreased, however, it would be difficult to comply with the effluent water quality requirements. A protocol was proposed to minimize the environmental impacts as well as to optimize the electric power consumption under the conditions needed to meet the effluent water quality standards in this study. This protocol was comprised of six phases of procedure and was tested using operating data from S-WWTP to prove its applicability. The 11 major operating variables were categorized into three groups using principal component analysis and K-mean cluster analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for each group to deduce the optimal operating conditions for each operating state. Then, employing mathematical modeling, six improvement plans to reduce electric power consumption were deduced. The electric power consumptions for suggested plans were estimated using an artificial neural network. This was followed by a second round of LCA conducted on the plans. As a result, a set of optimized improvement plans were derived for each group that were able to optimize the electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impact, at the same time. Based on these test results, the WWTP operating management protocol presented in this study is deemed able to suggest optimal operating conditions under which power consumption can be optimized with minimal life cycle environmental impact, while allowing the plant to meet water quality requirements.

  17. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental..., issued to Southern Nuclear Company (SNC, the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant... members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property. Therefore, no...

  18. 75 FR 69711 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption 1.0...: 1. RG 1.132, ``Site Investigations for Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants.'' 2. RG 1.138 ``Laboratory Investigations of Soils and Rocks for Engineering Analysis and Design of Nuclear Power Plants...

  19. Contaminación acústica por grupos electrógenos // Acoustic contamination by diesel driven electric plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanexy Cepero-Aguilera

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo tiene como tema el impacto ambiental por ruido de grupos electrógenos (GE). Semuestran diferentes definiciones y conceptos referidos a la explotación de los GE y lasconsecuencias que puede provocar a las personas que permanezcan cerca de ellos durante sufuncionamiento. Los grupos electrógenos son además de generadores de energía, generadores deruido y por tanto contribuyen a la contaminación acústica del lugar donde estén situados. En eldocumento se aborda la importancia del correc...

  20. Concurrent bio-electricity and biomass production in three Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells using Spartina anglica, Arundinella anomala and Arundo donax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Kuhn, A.J.; Blok, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    In a Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) three plants were tested for concurrent biomass and bio-electricity production and maximization of power output. Spartina anglica and Arundinella anomala concurrently produced biomass and bio-electricity for six months consecutively. Average power production of

  1. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  2. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  3. Electricity generating costs for thermal and nuclear plants to be commissioned in 2005 (evaluation made in 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, J.; Caruana, L.; Leydolf, E.; Lemmens, J.-P.; Lalumiere, J. [and others] [Electricite de France (EDF) (France)

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives results of a study of electricity generating costs carried out in 1996 by the UNIPEDE ad hoc group of correspondents of electricity generation costs for thermal and nuclear plants. Costs have been calculated according to the method developed by the working group (as described in the Europe Commission report EUR 5914) based on discounted cash flow. The report updates the traditional representation of base load generating costs for coal, oil - and natural gas-fired power plants and nuclear plants. Appendices show calculation methods used and give tables of average discounted generating costs at 5 ad 10% discount rate. The report also contains reports by the TARGEN group on cogeneration competitiveness, with some detail on the situation for cogeneration in Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Spain and Italy.

  4. Method for selecting parameters and assessing efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for autonomous electrical supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Masolov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an original technique for selecting parameters and evaluating the efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for isolated power supply systems. The initial data to perform energy calculations are simulation models of electric load and wind speed. The load is simulated using typical schedules of electric loads of a decentralized consumer, taking into account a random component for each hour of the day. To create a simulation model of the wind, a typical climatic series of wind speeds at a prospective site of the power plant has been constructed according to the data of long-term meteorological observations. The proposed technique was verified through the example of choosing a wind-diesel power plant for the village of Ust-Olenyok of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  5. Reduced Exergy Method for Heat-Electricity Cost Allocation in Combined Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-min Ye

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although the cost allocation method does not change the total benefits of CHP, the use of various cost allocation methods generally results in significant differences in costs allocated for CHP products. In order to overcome the inadequacy of existing cost allocating methods in theory and in practice, according to the different roles of anergy and exergy in heat supply process of CHP plant, the reduced exergy method for cost allocation is formulated by introducing the concepts of the available anergy and reduced exergy. The contribution of the available anergy is expressed with a user factor, which can reflect different utilization for different practical conditions. Some practical conditions for typical CHP units are computed and compared with existing methods. Calculations show that the cost allocation by using the reduced exergy model is more rational and practical than those by using existing models in terms of embodying the physical meaning.

  6. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  7. 1987 EEI (Edison Electric Institute) power directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    The 1987 version of the EEI Power Directory is similar to the 1988 directory except that the 1987 edition features information on power plant cooling systems, including primary and secondary cooling water sources, cooling system type, and full-load condenser flow rate for approximately 2500 steam-electric units in the United States. The directory also provides other basic state-by-state data on US steam-electric plants.

  8. The Issue of Unit Constraints and the Non-Confiscatory Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Rahmati, Iman; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Security constraint unit commitment is devised to drive the generation unit schedule in a deregulated environment. Generation bids, transmission system constraints and generation unit constraints are thoroughly considered in this optimization problem. It is acceptable that the transmission system...

  9. 77 FR 75674 - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, PPL Susquehanna, LLC, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... unplanned Unit 1 outage necessary due to fatigue cracking experienced on the Unit 1 turbine blades described... licensee subsequently reduced reactor power on Units 1 and 2 to minimize blade tip vibration and allow...

  10. Grid-Level Application of Electrical Energy Storage: Example Use Cases in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wang, Caixia; Lei, Xuejiao; Chou, Ella; Yang, Rui; Li, Qionghui; Jiang, Liping

    2017-09-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) systems are expected to play an increasing role in helping the United States and China-the world's largest economies with the two largest power systems-meet the challenges of integrating more variable renewable resources and enhancing the reliability of power systems by improving the operating capabilities of the electric grid. EES systems are becoming integral components of a resilient and efficient grid through a diverse set of applications that include energy management, load shifting, frequency regulation, grid stabilization, and voltage support.

  11. Efficiency of Traditional Water Treatment Plant and Compact Units in Removing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia A. Osman; Waled M. El-Senousy; Adel A. El-Morsi; Mohammed K. Rashed

    2015-01-01

    The fecal bacteria have been taken as the gold standard for water industry. However, the spread of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water have given a momentum to a recent push by microbiologists to consider viruses as important pollution indicator as fecal bacteria. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate the efficiency of two types of water purification systems: the traditional water treatment plant and two types compact units. Both systems produced drinking waters free of bacteria,...

  12. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  13. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škobalj Predrag D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for social influence on energy system. Considering to this, special focus will be on social indicators, their definition, forming, and impact on multi-criteria sustainability analysis. Analysis of quality of the selected options (energy systems in respect to sustainable development by compare of their general index of sustainability is presented. Methodology of multi-criteria analyse of thermal power plant unit can show decision makers how to find best available options when the social indicators impact is leading. The aim of this paper is to choose the criteria for the evaluation of the available options, determine the relative importance of specific criteria and present methodology of multi-criteria analysis in the decision-making process.

  14. RCGVS design improvement and depressurization capability tests for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Seong, Ho Je; Jeong, Won Sang; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Keun Hyo; Choi, Kwon Sik; Oh, Chul Sung [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System(RCGVS) design for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4) has been improved from the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) based on the evaluation results for depressurization capability tests performed at YGN 3 and 4. There has been a series of plant safety analyses for Natural Circulation Cooldown(NCC) event and thermo-dynamic analyses with RELAP5 code for the steam blowdown phenomena in order to optimize the orifice size of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS. Based on these analyses results, the RCGVS orifics size for UCN 3 and 4 has been reduced to 9/32 inch from the 11/32 inch for YGN 3 and 4. The depressurization capability tests, which were performed at UCN 3 in order to verify the FSAR NCC analysis results, show that the RCGVS depressurization rates are being within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it is concluded that the orificed flow path of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS is adequately designed, and can provide the safety-grade depressurization capability required for a safe plant operation. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples wer...

  16. Water Tanks, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Tanks dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer...

  17. Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Ma [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Fan, Zhang [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Menghua, Fan [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Jing, Li [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Haoyuan, Qu [State Grid Energy Research Institute

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the US electricity market has undergone several stages of reform, and gradually formed the market where the wholesale electricity price is determined by the supply and demand. The US electricity market also changes along with the rapid development of clean energy, forming a number of the market mechanisms that is specifically developed for clean energy power generation characteristics. On the basis of discussing the pricing mechanism of US electricity market, this paper analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch from the angle of market mechanism and dispatching decision, and puts forward the reference for clean energy dispatching in China.

  18. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  19. Horizontal Pendulum Performance Analysis with Multilevel Model Plate on Ocean Wave Electric Power Plant (PLTGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtasor Mukhtasor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - With the times and the industry, the energy sources such as fossil fuels dwindling. It encourages all parties to be more advanced and developed by creating solutions to renewable energy generation with the latest innovations, one of which is the sea wave power plant - pendulum system. Ponton who uses pendulum system is one tool used to convert from ocean wave energy into electrical energy. In this study using the test conditions without using ballast onshore and off-shore testing with the ballasts. Obtained from testing the many rounds that can be generated pendulum pie plate thickness and the angle of the pontoon. To test the largest on-shore power obtained on the test using arc angle 30 °, 3 mm thick, the angle of 60o power produced 0036 watts. For testing offshore in the ballasts 12 cm, 15 cm, 17.5 cm, the largest power generated at 15 cm ballasts with 0041 watts power on pie, thick, and a tilt angle equal to the on-shore testing. Number of rounds with time, the on-shore testing that produces the greatest value in the segment with an angle of 30 °, a thickness of 3 mm the angle of 60o value obtained 0.938 rad / s. In the off-shore pengjuain is greatest in the ballasts 15 with 0847 rad / s. 

  20. Expeditious Calculations of Electric Power Losses in 0.38–10 kV Electric Networks of Belarusian United Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithmized methodology for expedi­tious calculations of technical losses in 0.38–10 kV electric networks of the Belarusian United Energy Systems has been developed on the basis of performance information which is formed by modern intellectual devices for registration and accumulation of data. The methodology allows to increase the accuracy in calculation of losses using more exact distribution of loadings between consumers of transformer substations and analyze an incremental value of  losses due to their asymmetrical connection of consumers and circuit asymmetry.

  1. Characterization of suspended bacteria from processing units in an advanced drinking water treatment plant of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Weiying; Zhang, Junpeng; Qi, Wanqi; Zhou, Yanyan; Xiang, Yuan; Shi, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    For the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), the organic pollutant removal was the primary focus, while the suspended bacterial was always neglected. In this study, the suspended bacteria from each processing unit in a DWTP employing an ozone-biological activated carbon process was mainly characterized by using heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), a flow cytometer, and 454-pyrosequencing methods. The results showed that an adverse changing tendency of HPC and total cell counts was observed in the sand filtration tank (SFT), where the cultivability of suspended bacteria increased to 34%. However, the cultivability level of other units stayed below 3% except for ozone contact tank (OCT, 13.5%) and activated carbon filtration tank (ACFT, 34.39%). It meant that filtration processes promoted the increase in cultivability of suspended bacteria remarkably, which indicated biodegrading capability. In the unit of OCT, microbial diversity indexes declined drastically, and the dominant bacteria were affiliated to Proteobacteria phylum (99.9%) and Betaproteobacteria class (86.3%), which were also the dominant bacteria in the effluent of other units. Besides, the primary genus was Limnohabitans in the effluents of SFT (17.4%) as well as ACFT (25.6%), which was inferred to be the crucial contributors for the biodegradable function in the filtration units. Overall, this paper provided an overview of community composition of each processing units in a DWTP as well as reference for better developing microbial function for drinking water treatment in the future.

  2. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XI, INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE FOR OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE THE TRAINEE WITH THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM AS THEY RELATE TO DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, (2) ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, (3) MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CONDUCTOR, (4) ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, (5) OHM'S LAW, (6) METER…

  4. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle a...

  5. Improved electrical load match in California by combining solar thermal power plants with wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of wind and solar electrical energy generation to match the current utility electrical load in California was analyzed. We compared the renewable electrical generation and the utility load in California using actual hourly wind farm data at two different locations and predicted hourly p...

  6. Job insecurity, wellness and social support within a business unit of an electricity organisation / by Mamello Makhobotloane

    OpenAIRE

    Makhobotloane, Mamello Patience

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, wellness and social support of employees (N=209) within the business unit of an electricity organisation. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Constructs were measured by means of Job Insecurity Survey Questionnaire (JISQ), the Maslach Bumout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale W S), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Social Support Questionnaire (S...

  7. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  8. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  9. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    of the motor units, as noted in previous studies. In the brachial biceps muscle we have studied the firing intervals of 164 motor units in 14 controls, 140 motor units in 13 patients with myopathy and 86 motor units in 8 patients with neurogenic disorders, and related the findings to those of the turns...... analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients......The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force...

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  11. Design of 1000MW steam turbine of Matsuura No.2 unit( electric power development Co. Ltd.); Dengen Kaihatsu (kabu) Matsuura 2 go 1000 MW turbine no keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Magoshi, R.; Tashiro, H.; Takita, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-15

    In Japan, all the large capacity fossil-fuel power plants are hypercritical units and a steam condition of 246kg/cm{sup 2}G, 538/566{degree}C has been adopted. Through extensive development work, the design and material technologies for steam turbines with a 593{degree}C steam temperature have been established, and the steam condition of 246 kg/cm{sup 2}G, 538/593{degree}C was applied to the 700MW steam turbine of the Hekinan No.3 Unit, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. for the first time in Japan. This unit has been operating successfully since it began commercial operation in April 1993. We designed the 1000MW turbine with a steam temperature of 593{degree}C main and reheat steam temperature for the first time in Japan, and even possibly in the world, applying by the latest technologies developed for 593{degree}C a privation. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  13. Contaminación acústica por grupos electrógenos // Acoustic contamination by diesel driven electric plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanexy Cepero-Aguilera

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como tema el impacto ambiental por ruido de grupos electrógenos (GE. Semuestran diferentes definiciones y conceptos referidos a la explotación de los GE y lasconsecuencias que puede provocar a las personas que permanezcan cerca de ellos durante sufuncionamiento. Los grupos electrógenos son además de generadores de energía, generadores deruido y por tanto contribuyen a la contaminación acústica del lugar donde estén situados. En eldocumento se aborda la importancia del correcto uso y selección de los protectores auditivos paraaquellas personas que trabajen directamente en las baterías de grupos electrógenos, así comoalgunas formas de atenuar el ruido. También se caracteriza la emisión sonora de estos a partir deestudios realizados.Palabras claves: ruido, nivel sonoro, sonido.________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper concerns with the environmental damage due to noise emission introduced by EngineGenerator Sets. Definitions and concepts about Engine Generator operation are shown as well asthe consequences over the personnel who stand near the Engine Generators during theiroperation. Obviously, such kind of machines generates energy but they also generate noise whichcontaminates the environment around them. The paper states how important are the rightselection and use of noise protection devices for those whose main job is to operate enginegenerator sets. Some methods for noise damping are also shown. Finally, some case studies arepresented in order to describe the noise emission registered in the real world.Key words: noise, sound level, sound.

  14. Reconstructing the Fastest Chemical and Electrical Signalling Responses to Microgravity Stress in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Sergio; Pandolfi, Camilla; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Voigt, Boris; Baluska, Frantisek; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    Plants are particularly suited to study the response of a living organism to gravity as they are extremely sensitive to its changes. Gravity perception is a well-studied phenomenon, but the chain of events related to signal transduction and transmission still suffers lack of information. Preliminary results obtained in previous parabolic flight campaigns (PFCs) by our Lab show that microgravity (¡0.05g), but not hypergravity (1.8g), repeatedly induced immediate (less than 1.5 s) oxygen bursts when maize roots experienced loss of gravity forces. Interestingly, these changes were located exclusively in the apex, but not in the mature zone of the root. Ground experiments have also revealed the onset of strong and rapid electrical responses in maize root apices subjected to stress, which lead to the hypothesis of an intrinsic capacity of the root apex to generate functional networks. Experiments during the 49th and 51st ESA PFCs were aimed 1) to find out if the different consumption of oxygen at root level recorded in the previous PFCs can lead to a subsequent local emissions of ROS in living root apices; 2) to study the space-temporal pattern of the neuronal network generated by roots under gravity changing conditions; 3) to evaluate the onset of synchronization events during gravity changes conditions. Concerning oxygen bursts, results indicate that they probably implicate a strong generation of ROS (such as nitric oxide) matching exactly the microgravity events suggesting that the sensing mechanism is not only related to a general mechanical stress (i.e. tensegrity model, present also during hypergravity), but can be specific for the microgravity event. To further investigate this hypothesis we studied the distributed/synchronized electrical activity of cells by the use of a Multi-Electrode Array (MEA). The main results obtained are: root transition zone (TZ) showed a higher spike rate activity compared to the mature zone (MZ). Also, microgravity appeared to

  15. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  16. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ranjan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind ...

  17. A Three-Part Electricity Price Mechanism for Photovoltaic-Battery Energy Storage Power Plants Considering the Power Quality and Ancillary Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of solar abandoning, which is accompanied by the rapid development of photovoltaic (PV power generation, a demonstration of a photovoltaic-battery energy storage system (PV-BESS power plant has been constructed in Qinghai province in China. However, it is difficult for the PV-BESS power plant to survive and develop with the current electricity price mechanism and subsidy policy. In this paper, a three-part electricity price mechanism is proposed based on a deep analysis of the construction and operation costs and economic income. The on-grid electricity price is divided into three parts: the capacity price, graded electricity price, and ancillary service price. First, to ensure that the investment of the PV-BESS power plant would achieve the industry benchmark income, the capacity price and benchmark electricity price are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. Then, the graded electricity price is calculated according to the grade of the quality of grid-connected power. Finally, the ancillary service price is calculated based on the graded electricity price and ancillary service compensation. The case studies verify the validity of the three-part electricity price mechanism. The verification shows that the three-part electricity price mechanism can help PV-BESS power plants to obtain good economic returns, which can promote the development of PV-BESS power plants.

  18. Technologies for coal based hydrogen and electricity co-production power plants with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, C.G.; Tzimas, E.; Peteves, S.D.

    2009-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants allow the combination of the production of hydrogen and electricity because coal gasification process produces a syngas that can be used for the production of both commodities. A hydrogen and electricity power plant has been denominated as HYPOGEN. This report starts by reviewing the basics of the coal gasification process and continues by trying to map all the technological options currently available in the market as well as possible future trends that can be included in a HYPOGEN system. Besides, it offers an overview of the operating conditions and outputs of each process in order to provide the modeller with a useful information tool enabling an easier analysis of compatibilities and implementation of the model. 119 refs., 53 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. AERMOD performance evaluation for three coal-fired electrical generating units in Southwest Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Kali D

    2014-03-01

    An evaluation of the steady-state dispersion model AERMOD was conducted to determine its accuracy at predicting hourly ground-level concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by comparing model-predicted concentrations to a full year of monitored SO2 data. The two study sites are comprised of three coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs) located in southwest Indiana. The sites are characterized by tall, buoyant stacks,flat terrain, multiple SO2 monitors, and relatively isolated locations. AERMOD v12060 and AERMOD v12345 with BETA options were evaluated at each study site. For the six monitor-receptor pairs evaluated, AERMOD showed generally good agreement with monitor values for the hourly 99th percentile SO2 design value, with design value ratios that ranged from 0.92 to 1.99. AERMOD was within acceptable performance limits for the Robust Highest Concentration (RHC) statistic (RHC ratios ranged from 0.54 to 1.71) at all six monitors. Analysis of the top 5% of hourly concentrations at the six monitor-receptor sites, paired in time and space, indicated poor model performance in the upper concentration range. The amount of hourly model predicted data that was within a factor of 2 of observations at these higher concentrations ranged from 14 to 43% over the six sites. Analysis of subsets of data showed consistent overprediction during low wind speed and unstable meteorological conditions, and underprediction during stable, low wind conditions. Hourly paired comparisons represent a stringent measure of model performance; however given the potential for application of hourly model predictions to the SO2 NAAQS design value, this may be appropriate. At these two sites, AERMOD v12345 BETA options do not improve model performance. A regulatory evaluation of AERMOD utilizing quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots, the RHC statistic, and 99th percentile design value concentrations indicates that model performance is acceptable according to widely accepted regulatory performance

  20. Flexible NO(x) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Webster, Mort; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Thompson, Tammy; Prinn, Ronald; Ellerman, A Denny; Allen, David T

    2012-05-15

    Emission controls that provide incentives for maximizing reductions in emissions of ozone precursors on days when ozone concentrations are highest have the potential to be cost-effective ozone management strategies. Conventional prescriptive emissions controls or cap-and-trade programs consider all emissions similarly regardless of when they occur, despite the fact that contributions to ozone formation may vary. In contrast, a time-differentiated approach targets emissions reductions on forecasted high ozone days without imposition of additional costs on lower ozone days. This work examines simulations of such dynamic air quality management strategies for NO(x) emissions from electric generating units. Results from a model of day-specific NO(x) pricing applied to the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) portion of the northeastern U.S. electrical grid demonstrate (i) that sufficient flexibility in electricity generation is available to allow power production to be switched from high to low NO(x) emitting facilities, (ii) that the emission price required to induce EGUs to change their strategies for power generation are competitive with other control costs, (iii) that dispatching strategies, which can change the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions, lead to ozone concentration reductions comparable to other control technologies, and (iv) that air quality forecasting is sufficiently accurate to allow EGUs to adapt their power generation strategies.

  1. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...

  2. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Electric Vehicle Ownership Factors, Preferred Safety Technologies and Commuting Behavior in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions, potentially reduce the ground-level ozone experienced during summers over the Mid-Atlantic's I-95 Corridor, and possibly reduce dependence on fossil fuels. EVs ...

  4. Electrical engineering unit for the reactive power control of the load bus at the voltage instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenev, A. V.; Kotenev, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. V.; Elkin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the purpose of reactive power control error reduction and decrease of the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started the mathematical model of the load bus was developed. The model was built up of the sub-models of the following elements: a transformer, a transmission line, a synchronous and an asynchronous loads and a capacitor bank load, and represents the automatic reactive power control system taking into account electromagnetic processes of the asynchronous motors started and reactive power changing of the electric power system elements caused by the voltage fluctuation. The active power/time and reactive power/time characteristics based on the recommended procedure of the equivalent electric circuit parameters calculation were obtained. The derived automatic reactive power control system was shown to eliminate the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started.

  5. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate...... the grid voltage. The algorithms generating the local prices are dynamically adjusted according to the actual realised responses to the dynamic prices. Results are presented from an adapted version of the control principle implemented and tested in DTUs experimental research power system, SYSLAB, including...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  6. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  7. Model Thermoelectric Generator TEG Small Modular As Micro Electricity Plant At Indonesia Part 1 Design And Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisman M. Mahmud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectrically Generator TEG can generate electricity from the temperature difference between hot and cold at the junction thermoelectric module with two different semiconductor materials there will be a flow of current through the junction so as to produce a voltage. This principle uses the Seebeck effect thermoelectric generator as a base. By using these principles this study was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two Peltier modules which would be an alternative source for micro electricity plant using heat from methylated. The focus of this research is to design a model TEG Thermoelectric Generator Small Modular to produce the kind of material that is optimum for a TEG on the simulation Computer Aided Design CAD with a variety of four different materials that Bi2Te3 Bismuth Telluride PbTe-BiTe CMO-32 -62S Cascade and CMO-32-62S Calcium Manganese Oxide to its cold side using the heat sink fan and simulating heat aluminum plate attached to the hot side of the TEG modules with heat source of methylated. Model simulation results on TEG Small Modular micro electrical plant material obtained CMO-32-62S Cascade thermal material that has a value greater than 3 other material.

  8. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  9. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  10. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  11. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes account...... of the multivariable and load-de*pendent nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process, as a scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action is utilized. The LQG controller improves the control of critical pro*cess variables, making it possible to increase the load-following capability of a specific plant. Field...

  12. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes account...... of the multivariable and load-de*pendent nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process, as a scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action is utilized. The LQG controller improves the control of critical pro*cess variables, making it possible to increase the load-following capability of a specific plant. Field...

  13. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A11 to A14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Boejer, M.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with electrical efficiency by dividing the combustion products; release of potentially corrosive constituents from the grate; CFD modeling of grate with and without vertical divider. (Author)

  14. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  15. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...-1437, Supplement 23, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants...

  16. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering..., ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants [regarding Point Beach...

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  18. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM2.5 and O3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM2.5. More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM2.5- and O3-related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ Health

  19. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  20. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation models of interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations are specifically described in the paper. The virtual power plant applies an optimal dispatch strategy to earn the maximal expected profit under some fluctuating parameters, including market price, retail price and load demand. The presented model is a nonlinear mixed-integer programming with inter-temporal constraints and is solved by the fruit fly algorithm.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  3. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  4. 76 FR 68512 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ..., Framatome ANP demonstrated that the effectiveness of the ECCS will not be affected by a change from zircaloy..., ``Incorporation of M5 Properties in Framatome ANP Approved Methods,'' further addressed M5 material properties... oxidation, and hydrogen generation. In topical report BAW-10227(P)(A), Revision 1, Framatome ANP...

  5. 76 FR 28481 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... certain requirements of 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for duty programs.'' Specifically, the licensee... to public health and safety; (2) performing health physics or chemistry duties required as a member...

  6. 76 FR 34105 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Statement of Considerations in the 10 CFR Part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs'' Final Rule published in the... to public health and safety; (2) performing health physics or chemistry duties required as a member... personnel from operations, maintenance, health physics, chemistry and security and augmented by ERO...

  7. 75 FR 8753 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... significant adverse effect on the probability of an accident occurring. The proposed actions would not result... electronically from the ADAMS Public Electronic Reading Room on the Internet at the NRC Web site: http://www.nrc...

  8. 77 FR 66875 - Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... methods: Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2012... search, select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems... petitioners stated that ``because the probability of spent fuel pool water inventory or cooling loss is not so...

  9. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... documented in RUS's ROD is that RUS agrees to consider, subject to additional engineering and financial... Protection Specialist, RUS, Water and Environmental Programs, Engineering and Environmental Staff, 1400...

  10. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... and sizing of solar CSs using energy storage (ES) options is presented. Also, behavior of EVs in the presence of other loads, electricity price and solar power generation uncertainties are considered. The proposed optimization model maximizes the distribution company (DisCo) benefit by appropriate use of CSs...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  11. 77 FR 36996 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliff, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... combustion turbines. Heat recovery steam generators will convert excess heat from primary combustion to drive a steam turbine that will produce additional electrical power. The Project will demonstrate greater...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15035] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service South Mississippi Electric...

  12. Grid connection rules for electric cars integrated as virtual power plant in smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the situation of V2G and proposes a solution involving a consolidating fleet manager, and a decision making process for the individual V2G electric car owner. A grid connection routine for electric vehicles is proposed. The algorithm dealing with decisions to be taken in foreseen...

  13. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for testing of computer software...

  14. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  15. Plant Growth and Development in the ASTROCULTURE(trademark) Space-Based Growth Unit-Ground Based Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The ASTROCULTURE(trademark) plant growth unit flown as part on the STS-63 mission in February 1995, represented the first time plants were flown in microgravity in a enclosed controlled environment plant growth facility. In addition to control of the major environmental parameters, nutrients were provided to the plants with the ZEOPONICS system developed by NASA Johnson Space Center scientists. Two plant species were included in this space experiment, dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a unique mustard called "Wisconsin Fast Plants" (Brassica rapa). Extensive post-flight analyses have been performed on the plant material and it has been concluded that plant growth and development was normal during the period the plants were in the microgravity environment of space. However, adequate plant growth and development control data were not available for direct comparisons of plant responses to the microgravity environment with those of plants grown at 1 g. Such data would allow for a more complete interpretation of the extent that microgravity affects plant growth and development.

  16. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Ying [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a `seismic qualification` procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry`s use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  17. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force of the ...

  18. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  19. Design criteria for the plant-microbial fuel cell : electricity generation with living plants : from lab tot application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Om de processen die ten grondslag liggen aan de P-MBC (Plant-Microbiële Brandstofcel) en de factoren die zijn vermogen bepalen beter te begrijpen was het doel van dit proefschrift om design criteria voor de PMBC te bepalen. De eerste focus van de design criteria was om het vermogen van de P-MBC te

  20. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  1. Pediatric Oral Electrical Burns: Incidence of Emergency Department Visits in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd, Lauren A; Chang, C W David

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of emergency department visits for pediatric patients presenting with electrical burns to the mouth. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Database. The Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database was used to derive a national weighted estimate of emergency department visits for oral electrical burns and was queried for each patient's age, sex, race, local of incidence, disposition, and related consumer product. There were an estimated 1042 emergency department visits for pediatric oral electrical burns from 1997 to 2012, or an average of approximately 65.1 cases per year. A total of 59.6% of patients were male. Nearly half of emergency department visits involved patients pediatric oral electrical burns varied substantially within the literature and varied from small case reports to single-year studies. Our multiyear data analysis provides evidence of decreasing annual incidence when compared with historical estimates for a common but potentially morbid injury among the pediatric population. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  3. A control technique for integration of DG units to the electrical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Miguel-Espinar, Carlos; Massot-Campos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a multiobjective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid. The d...

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  5. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  6. Response of Power Plant Emissions to Ambient Temperature in the Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Kladar, Ryan M; Meier, Paul; Ahl, Doug; Harkey, Monica; Patz, Jonathan

    2017-05-16

    Past studies have established strong connections between meteorology and air quality, via chemistry, transport, and natural emissions. A less understood linkage between weather and air quality is the temperature-dependence of emissions from electricity generating units (EGUs), associated with high electricity demand to support building cooling on hot days. This study quantifies the relationship between ambient surface temperatures and EGU air emissions (CO2, SO2, and NOX) using historical data. We find that EGUs in the Eastern U.S. region from 2007 to 2012 exhibited a 3.87% ± 0.41% increase in electricity generation per °C increase during summer months. This is associated with a 3.35%/°C ± 0.50%/°C increase in SO2 emissions, a 3.60%/°C ± 0.49%/°C increase in NOX emissions, and a 3.32%/°C ± 0.36%/°C increase in CO2 emissions. Sensitivities vary by year and by pollutant, with SO2 both the highest sensitivity (5.04% in 2012) and lowest sensitivity (2.19% in 2007) in terms of a regional average. Texas displays 2007-2012 sensitivities of 2.34%/°C ± 0.28%/°C for generation, 0.91%/°C ± 0.25%/°C for SO2 emissions, 2.15%/°C ± 0.29%/°C for NOX emissions, and 1.78%/°C ± 0.22%/°C for CO2 emissions. These results suggest demand-side and supply side technological improvements and fuel choice could play an important role in cost-effective reduction of carbon emissions and air pollution.

  7. Fabric filter technology for utility coal-fired power plants. Part II. Application of baghouse technology in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.C.; Smith, W.B.

    1984-02-01

    This, the second in a series of papers, discusses the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The history of baghouse technology in the US is traced, and past and present research and development to build a data base for the technology in application in the electric utility industry is described.

  8. Radioactive fallout in the United States due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Ballard, S; Nelson, R

    2012-05-01

    The release of radioactivity into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine -131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific Ocean and reached the United States on 17-18 March 2011. Consequently, an elevated level of fission products (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in air, water, and milk samples collected across the United States between March 17 and April 4, 2011. The continuous monitoring of activities over a period of 25 days and spatial variations across more than 100 sampling locations in the United States made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. For the entire period, the highest detected activity values ranged from less than 1 m Bq m(-3) to 31 m Bq m(-3) for the particulate (131)I, and up to 96 m Bq m(-3) for the gaseous (131)I fraction.

  9. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Doria R; Gantz, Crysta A; Jerde, Christopher L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P; Champion, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  10. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R Gordon

    Full Text Available We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders, and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  11. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Quentin J; Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km(2) grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates.

  12. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln

  13. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A1 to A3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, I.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kloeft, H.; Boejer, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with incineration bottom ash leaching properties; design and construction of rotary kiln facility; manual to rotary kiln experiments. (Author)

  14. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  15. Modulation of motor unit activity in biceps brachii by neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the contralateral arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiridis, Ioannis G; Mani, Diba; Almuklass, Awad; Matkowski, Boris; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4-21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7-56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The high-energy consumption of plant factory is the biggest issue for its rapidly expanding, especially for the lighting electricity, which have been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED. However, remarkable potentiality in energy saving remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below LED was designed. The effects of the system on growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata were examined, and the performances of the optical improvement on energy saving were evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED. Seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment during the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while lower the temperature of Z-LED prominently. Influenced by this, the photosynthesis sharply decreased and further caused reduction in plant yield and nitrate content, while exhibited no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LED made this system a better approach of illumination in a plant factory with artificial lightings.

  17. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting.

  18. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching ...

  19. Hillslope characterization in terms of geophysical units based on the joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskova, Tatiana; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological conditions in a catchment depend on many factors such as climatic, geological, geomorphological, biological and human, which interact with each other and influence water balance in a catchment. This interaction leads to the subordination in the landscape structure, namely the weak elements subordinate to the powerful elements. Thereby, geological and geomorphological factors play an essential role in catchment development and organization. A hillslope consequently can be allocated to one class of the representative units because the important flow processes run at the hillslope. Moreover, a hillslope can be subdivided into stratigraphic subsurface units and significant hillslope areas based on the lithological change of contrasting interfaces. The knowledge of subsurface structures is necessary to understand and predicate complex hydrological processes in a catchment. Geophysical techniques provide a good opportunity to explore the subsurface. A complete geophysical investigation of subsurface in a catchment with difficult environmental conditions never will be achieved because of large time effort in the field, equipment logistic, and ambiguity in the data interpretation. The case study demonstrates how a catchment can be investigated using geophysical methods in an effective manner in terms of characterization of representative units with respect to a functional role in the catchment. This case study aims to develop combined resistivity and seismic velocity hillslope subsurface models for the distinction of representative functional units. In order to identify the contrasting interfaces of the hillslope, to localize significant hillslope areas, and to address the ambiguity in the geophysical data interpretation, the case study combined resistivity surveys (vertical electrical soundings and electrical resistivity tomography) with refraction seismic method, and conducted these measurements at one single profile along the hillslope transect and

  20. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Tomislav M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia. Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown that fixed PV solar plant power of 1 MW, solar modules of monocrystalline silicon yield 1130000 kWh power output, one-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1420000 kWh, and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1450000 kWh of electricity. Electricity generated by the fixed PV solar plant could satisfy 86% of the annual needs for the electricity of the „Zdravljak“ hotel and the special „Novi stacionar“ hospital in Soko banja.

  1. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Enhancement of electricity production by graphene oxide in soil microbial fuel cells and plant microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eGoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of graphene oxide (GO on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g•kg-1 was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g•kg-1 of GO was 40 ± 19 mW•m-2, which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW•m-2 generated from GO-free SMFCs (p -2 of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs.

  3. Potential of Electric Power Production from Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC in Evapotranspiration Reactor for Leachate Treatment Using Alocasia macrorrhiza Plant and Eleusine indica Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Badrus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell is one of attractive electric power generator from nature bacterial activity. While, Evapotranspiration is one of the waste water treatment system which developed to eliminate biological weakness that utilize the natural evaporation process and bacterial activity on plant roots and plant media. This study aims to determine the potential of electrical energy from leachate treatment using evapotranspiration reactor. The study was conducted using local plant, namely Alocasia macrorrhiza and local grass, namely Eleusine Indica. The system was using horizontal MFC by placing the cathodes and anodes at different chamber (i.e. in the leachate reactor and reactor with plant media. Carbon plates was used for chatode-anodes material with size of 40 cm x 10 cm x1 cm. Electrical power production was measure by a digital multimeter for 30 days reactor operation. The result shows electric power production was fluctuated during reactor operation from all reactors. The electric power generated from each reactor was fluctuated, but from the reactor using Alocasia macrorrhiza plant reach to 70 μwatt average. From the reactor using Eleusine Indica grass was reached 60 μwatt average. Electric power production fluctuation is related to the bacterial growth pattern in the soil media and on the plant roots which undergo the adaptation process until the middle of the operational period and then in stable growth condition until the end of the reactor operation. The results indicate that the evapotranspiration reactor using Alocasia macrorrhiza plant was 60-95% higher electric power potential than using Eleusine Indica grass in short-term (30-day operation. Although, MFC system in evapotranspiration reactor system was one of potential system for renewable electric power generation.

  4. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  5. Electricity generation by a plant microbial fuel cell with an integrated oxygen reducing biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.; Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that a chemical ferricyanide cathode can be replaced by a biological oxygen reducing cathode in a plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) with a new record power output. A biocathode was successfully integrated in a PMFC and operated for 151 days. Plants growth continued and the power

  6. Maintenance Tools applied to Electric Generators to Improve Energy Efficiency and Power Quality of Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Fonseca Junior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a specific method to improve the reliability of the equipment and the quality of power supplied to the electrical systems with the frequency and voltage control of a thermoelectric plant, to guarantee a more stable system. The method has the novelty of combining Total Productive Maintenance (TPM using only four pillars, with Electrical Predictive Maintenance based in failure analysis and diagnostic. It prevents voltage drops caused by excessive reactive consumption, thus guaranteeing the company a perfect functioning of its equipment and providing a longer life of them. The Maintenance Management Program (MMP seeks to prevent failures from causing the equipment to be shut down from the electrical system, which means large financial losses, either by reducing billing or by paying fines to the regulatory agency, in addition to prejudice the reliability of the system. Using management tools, but applying only four TPM pillars, it was possible to achieve innovation in power plants with internal combustion engines. This study aims to provide maintenance with a more reliable process, through the implantation of measurement, control and diagnostic devices, thus allowing the management to reduce breakdown of plant equipment. Some results have been achieved after the implementation, such as reduction of annual maintenance cost, reduction of corrective maintenance, increase of MTBF (Mean Time between Failures and reduction of MTTR (Mean Time to Repair in all areas. Probabilistic models able to describe real processes in a more realistic way, and facilitate the optimization at maximum reliability or minimum costs are presented. Such results are reflected in more reliable and continual power generation.

  7. 75 FR 15746 - Entergy Operations, Inc., Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... versions of the letters dated January 19 and February 17, 2010, are available for public review in the... the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 73, ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' Section 73.55, ``Requirements for ] physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors...

  8. ORC for electricity production in district heating plants. Experience of biomass fired boilers with electricity production based on ORC; ORC foer elproduktion i vaermeverk. Erfarenheter fraan biobraensleeldade pannor med ORC-baserad elproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2007-12-15

    The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) technology is an option for the production of electricity in heat production plants with steam boilers. Traditionally, the ORC technology has been used mainly in geothermal applications. However, during the last five years, it has become of interest also in bioenergy plants with electricity production in the 0,5-2 MW{sub e} range. Among others in Austria and Germany a number of plants have been installed during the first decade of the 2100th century. Today (2007), about 70 biomass based ORC plants are in operation in Europe. About 30 more plants are under installation and commissioning. In total, around 100 plants will be operating in the near future. In today's biomass fuelled ORC type CHP plants, the ORC circuit is driven by the energy in the flue gases from a biomass fuelled furnace. Via a thermal oil boiler, the energy is transferred to the ORC circuit. The ORC circuit is connected to the district heating net for cooling. Due to the fact that the ORC circuit is connected to 300 deg C flue gas, as compared to the 1990's waste water based ORC plants, an electrical yield of nearly 20% net is obtained in the ORC circuit. The overall electrical yield based on biomass is almost 16%. In the report, operational experience from a number of plants is reported. The economic advantage of the technology is discussed. In conclusion, the ORC technology is more economical than conventional steam turbine technology in the 0,5-2 MW{sub e} range. The calculated investment for a 2 MW{sub e} ORC based CHP plant is 40 kSEK/kW{sub e}, which is considerably lower than for a conventional steam turbine based CHP plant

  9. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  10. Mediation of rapid electrical, metabolic, transpirational, and photosynthetic changes by factors released from wounds. I. variation potentials and putative action potentials in intact plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Barres; T.J.Sambeek Perry; Barbara G. Pickard

    1976-01-01

    Damaging representative plants from five angiosperm families by heating or crushing a small portion of a single leaf results in an electrical change which may spread throughout the shoot. In Mimosa similar changes have previously been identified as variation potentials.Except in one of the five plants, a variation...

  11. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  12. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  13. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  14. Proposal for inclusion of topics of particle physics integrated electric charge through a potentially meaningful teaching units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Barcellos Calheiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of the analysis of free and concept maps produced are presented from the application and evaluation of a Potentially Meaningful Teaching Units – PMTU, which is a teaching sequence based on various learning theories and seeks to promote meaningful student learning. Presents, in this work, part of a research Masters in Science Education which deals with the inclusion of topics of particle physics integrated with traditional content of the third year of high school. It was implemented in a third grade high school class of a State School in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, and Brazil. The PMTU aimed to address in an integrated manner threads for Particle Physics and Electronics. A didactic sequence that integrated the topics of electric charge, atomic models, elementary particles, quantization and process electrification was applied. Such integration aimed at stimulating the interest on topics related to Modern and Contemporary Physics. It was developed using PMTU activities that aimed at promoting meaningful learning and knowledge construction in the classroom, Since the topics involved were quite complex, this made their integration a real challenge to the high school teachers, and resulted in changes in their teaching practices. Research showed that the inclusion of topics on physics of elementary particles the and electricity, through Potentially Meaningful Teaching Units, show satisfactory results in the students’ learning.

  15. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  16. Assessment of power step performances of variable speed pump-turbine unit by means of hydro-electrical system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, A.; Nicolet, C.; Hell, J.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper explores the improvement in ancillary services that variable speed technologies can provide for the case of an existing pumped storage power plant of 2x210 MVA which conversion from fixed speed to variable speed is investigated with a focus on the power step performances of the units. First two motor-generator variable speed technologies are introduced, namely the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and the Full Scale Frequency Converter (FSFC). Then a detailed numerical simulation model of the investigated power plant used to simulate power steps response and comprising the waterways, the pump-turbine unit, the motor-generator, the grid connection and the control systems is presented. Hydroelectric system time domain simulations are performed in order to determine the shortest response time achievable, taking into account the constraints from the maximum penstock pressure and from the rotational speed limits. It is shown that the maximum instantaneous power step response up and down depends on the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the pump-turbine unit and of the motor-generator speed limits. As a results, for the investigated test case, the FSFC solution offer the best power step response performances.

  17. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  19. Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitório, Daiana Martins; Masculo, Francisco Soares; Melo, Miguel O B C

    2012-01-01

    Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

  20. TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT: NATIONAL-SCALE MERCURY RISK ASSESSMENT SUPPORTING THE APPROPRIATE AND NECESSARY FINDING FOR COAL- AND OIL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA has completed a national-scale risk assessment for mercury to inform the appropriate and necessary determination for electric utility steam generating unites in the United States (U.S. EGU's), persuant to Section 112(n)(1)(A) of the Clean Air Act. This document describes...

  1. Conceptual design and cost study for a dual-purpose nuclear-electric reverse osmosis seawater conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 25 million gallon per day seawater reverse osmosis desalting plant operating at both Caribbean and Persian Gulf sites. The plant would operate in conjunction with a 1000 MW(e) nuclear power plant. Four seawater membrane manufacturers were supplied with feedwater analysis and a simplified cost estimating procedure in order to recommend membrane systems which would be applicable. For both sites a two-stage system was selected for development of a conceptual cost estimate. The product water cost was found to be (based upon 1978 United States construction costs) $3.17/1000 gallons for the Caribbean site and $3.75/1000 gallons for the Persian Gulf site.

  2. PFBC combined cycle plant outline and expectation of an ongoing project for the No. 3 unit of Tomatoh-Atsuma power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Toda, H. (Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Sapporo (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    As one of the efforts to secure a stable power supply and to attain energy cost reduction through diversifying power sources for the future, the Hokkaido Electric Power Company (HEPCO) determined to expand its generating capacity based on imported coal by installing the No. 3 unit of Tomatoh-Atsuma Power Station. At the same time, HEPCO has been trying to conserve the environment and realize an efficient use of resources. The recent rise of interest on global environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect by CO[sub 2] gas and the needs to reduce SO[sub x]NO[sub x] emission is further promoting an application of improved power systems with higher thermal efficiency and better environmental characteristics. In the light of these trends and needs, HEPCO decided to adopt the PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) Combined Cycle System as one of the advanced clean coal technologies. This is the first commercial unit utilizing this technology in Japan. It is expected that this unit with a 85MWe capacity will open the way to the realization of a larger capacity unit with 350MWe output in the near future. This paper presents and introduces the outline of and the expectation for this new generation plant project. 2 tabs.

  3. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  4. Onsite and Electric Backup Capabilities at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, Kelly E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kudo, Terence Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The following analysis, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Risk and Infrastructure Science Center (RISC), details an analysis of electric power backup of national critical infrastructure as captured through the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Program (ECIP) Initiative. Between January 1, 2011, and September 2014, 3,174 ECIP facility surveys have been conducted. This study focused first on backup capabilities by infrastructure type and then expanded to infrastructure type by census region.

  5. Enhancement of electricity production by graphene oxide in soil microbial fuel cells and plant microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko; Umeyama, Yuto; Yamada, Takeshi; Tero, Ryugo; Hiraishi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The effects of graphene oxide (GO) on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs) were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g⋅kg(-1) was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs) utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g⋅kg(-1) of GO was 40 ± 19 mW⋅m(-2), which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW⋅m(-2) generated from GO-free SMFCs (p < 0.05). The increase in catalytic current at the oxidative potential was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) for GO-SMFC, with the CV curve suggesting the enhancement of electron transfer from oxidation of organic substances in the soil by the reduced form of GO. The GO-containing PMFC also displayed a greater generation of electricity compared to the PMFC with no added GO, with GO-PMFC producing 49 mW⋅m(-2) of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs.

  6. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  7. Availability of own electricity generation in processing units of small wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Nogueira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The self power generation can be an alternative, to the industries, in view of the low quality of energy supply by conventional network, especially in industries that generate waste with energy potential. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, economically, self power generating using wood waste as fuel, with the receipt of electricity by conventional network in a small timber industry. It was determined the values of energy consumption by each equipment that is a part of industry and, based on encountered values, it was determined the actual cost of its generation, comparing its values with the prices of energy by conventional network. Based on these results can be noted that the purchase of electricity by conventional network is the most economically advantageous when compared with self power generation under the conditions studied in this work, however, even with the economic advantage of obtaining energy from the network, the generation itself becomes a sustainable alternative from the environmental and social standpoint.

  8. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  9. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  10. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  11. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  12. Thermal tests of the SGT5-4000F gas-turbine plant of the PGU-420T power-generating unit at Combined Heat And Power Plant 16 of Mosenergo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, B. D.; Radin, Yu. A.; Filin, A. A.; Rudenko, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    In December 2014, the PGU-420T power-generating unit was put into operation at the Combined Heat and Power Plant 16, an affiliated company of PAO Mosenergo. In 2014-2015, thermal tests of the SGT5- 4000F gas-turbine plant (GTP) integrated into the power-generating unit were carried out. In the article, the test conditions are described and the test results are presented and analyzed. During the tests, 92 operating modes within a wide range of electrical loads and ambient air temperatures and operating conditions of the GTP when fired with fuel oil were investigated. In the tests, an authorized automated measuring system was applied. The experimental data were processed according to ISO 2314:2009 "Gas turbines—Acceptance tests" standard. The available capacity and the GTP efficiency vary from 266 MW and 38.8% to 302 MW and 39.8%, respectively, within the ambient air temperature range from +24 to-12°C, while the turbine inlet temperature decreases from 1200 to 1250°C. The switch to firing fuel oil results in a reduction in the turbine inlet temperature and the capacity of the GTP. With the full load and a reduction in the ambient temperature from +24 to-12°C, the compressor efficiency decreases from 89.6 to 86.4%. The turbine efficiency is approximately 89-91%. Within the investigated range of power output, the emissions of nitrogen oxides do not exceed 35 ppm for the gas-fired plant and 65 ppm for the fuel-oil-fired plant. Within the range of the GTP power output from 50 to 100% of the rated output, the combustion chamber operates without underburning and with hardly any CO being formed. At low loads close to the no-load operation mode, the CO emissions drastically increase.

  13. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff.......The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff....

  14. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  15. Progress of research on waste energy management for electric power plants. IIT Waste Energy Management Project progress report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.W. (ed.)

    1978-02-01

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 deals with the final technical report of a study entitled ''Open Circulating-Water Cooling Systems for Large Electric Power Plants''. Emphasis was on thermal performance and environmental effects of atmospheric-spray cooling systems. Theoretical, laboratory, and field experimental studies were directed toward characterizing the controlling-fluidmechanic phenomena governing heat and mass transfer. Specifically, the following aspects are analyzed: flow of the atmospheric boundary layer over confining banks; local wet-bulb temperature interference; performance of spray modules as heat exchangers; and environmental effects of heat and moisture release. Part 2 concerns initial progress on ''Utilization of Rejected Heat from Electric Power Plants''. The particular methods of interest are such that the power cycle is not expected to be adversely affected by the beneficial use of waste heat, and a degree of independence of operation is anticipated. Considered are integrated wastewater treatment systems, and discharge into municipal water supplies, and spray irrigation systems. The research is directed towards a systems analysis for each application with supporting fluid mechanic studies. The wastewater and spray-irrigation studies include, in part, the use of atmospheric sprays, and the supporting fluidmechanic studies represent a continuation of Part 1.

  16. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  17. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig......-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching is shown to reduce total cost by up to 15 % for a particular 24-hour period. Furthermore, the need for generator...... startups is reduced by 1. Instances with limited switching, some of which are intractable for commercial solvers, are shown to solve to optimality in reasonable time....

  18. Exploring and Contextualizing Public Opposition to Renewable Electricity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sovacool,Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores public opposition to renewable power technologies in the United States. It begins by discussing the genesis of environmental ethics, or how some Americans have come to place importance on the protection of the environment and preservation of species, ecosystems, and the biosphere. As result, renewable power systems have become challenged on ethical and environmental grounds and are occasionally opposed by local communities and environmentalists. The article finds that, h...

  19. Essays on empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions: Impacts of financial transmission rights on the restructured electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hailing

    This dissertation uses recently developed empirical methodologies for the study of multi-unit auctions to test the impacts of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) on the competitiveness of restructured electricity markets. FTRs are a special type of financial option that hedge against volatility in the cost of transporting electricity over the grid. Policy makers seek to use the prices of FTRs as market signals to incentivize efficient investment and utilization of transmission capacity. However, prices will not send the correct signals if market participants strategically use FTRs. This dissertation uses data from the Texas electricity market to test whether the prices of FTRs are efficient to achieve such goals. The auctions studied are multi-unit, uniform-price, sealed-bid auctions. The first part of the dissertation studies the auctions on the spot market of the wholesale electricity industry. I derive structural empirical models to test theoretical predictions as to whether bidders fully internalize the effect of FTRs on profits into their bidding decisions. I find that bidders are learning as to how to optimally bid above marginal cost for their inframarginal capacities. The bidders also learn to bid to include FTRs into their profit maximization problem during the course of the first year. But starting from the second year, they deviated from optimal bidding that includes FTRs in the profit maximization problems. Counterfactual analysis show that the primary effect of FTRs on market outcomes is changing the level of prices rather than production efficiency. Finally, I find that in most months, the current allocations of FTRs are statistically equivalent to the optimal allocations. The second part of the dissertation studies the bidding behavior in the FTR auctions. I find that FTRs' strategic impact on the FTR purchasing behavior is significant for large bidders---firms exercising market power in the FTR auctions. Second, trader forecasts future FTR credit

  20. Electrical propulsion units based on TOPAZ-type thermionic nuclear power systems for information satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel V.; Galkin, Anatoly Ya.; Zhabotinsky, Evgeny E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zaritzky, Gennady A.

    1995-01-01

    In the report the principles of nuclear power and propulsion complex (NPPC) construction are presented. NPPC considered can ensure the time of spacecraft transfer to geostationary orbit (GSO) within 1 year under electric power level no less than 40 kW at prolonged nominal mode on GSO for spacecraft loads feeding. The main power and mass and dimension performances of such NPPC are summarized. Analysis of relationship between spacedraft mass, its mission payload and transfer time also and a number of main NPPC parameters is performed. The conclusion is made about considerable promises of the NPPC for creating future satellite multi-purpose systems by using PROTON- and TITAN-class launch vehicles.